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1.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 24: e220113, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529140

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of different pressures of an oral irrigation device (OID) and the irrigation solution type on the surface roughness of the giomer restorative material. Material and Methods: In this in vitro study, disk-shaped giomer samples were fabricated and assigned to 5 groups (n=23): Group 1, storage in distilled water (control); Group 2, OID #7 pressure/ water; Group 3, OID #10 pressure/ water; Group 4, OID #7 pressure/ 0.05% CHX; Group 5, OID #10 pressure/ 0.05% CHX. The samples' treatment simulated a one-year application of OID. Surface roughness (Ra) and topography of the giomer were evaluated using profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed with Paired t-test, Tukey, and ANOVA tests (α=0.05). Results: The Ra of the samples increased significantly after treatment with OID (p<0.001). The roughness increase in groups with a pressure of 10 was higher than those with a pressure of 7 (p<0.001). The effect of pressure on surface changes was significant (p<0.001). However, the solution type and the cumulative effect of these two factors were insignificant (p=0.08 and p=0.43, respectively). Conclusion: Oral irrigation device with both solutions significantly increased the surface roughness and topographic changes of the giomer. The severity of these changes was related to the device's pressure.


Subject(s)
Biguanides , Distilled Water , Chlorhexidine/adverse effects , Composite Resins , Surface Properties , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Analysis of Variance , Hardness Tests/methods
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 52 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437572

ABSTRACT

A obesidade está associada ao desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis como hipertensão, resistência insulínica, dislipidemia e esteatose hepática. O consumo de compostos bioativos impacta na manutenção da saúde e na prevenção de risco de desenvolvimento dessas doenças. Entre os compostos bioativos, os monoterpenos são pouco investigados, apesar da literatura demonstrar efeitos promissores desses compostos sobre o metabolismo. O D-limoneno, o principal monoterpeno encontrado na laranja, é caracterizado por possuir efeitos hipolipemiantes, anti-inflamatórios e anti-obesogênicos. Estudos in vitro e in vivo descrevem sua capacidade de promover a ß-oxidação de ácidos graxos em adipócitos e redução da inflamação. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito do D-limoneno no metabolismo e inflamação em um modelo de obesidade induzida por dieta. Para isso, quarenta camundongos machos (C57/Bl6) de 11 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em 4 grupos, sendo que um dos grupos recebeu ração normolipídica e os demais, ração hiperlipídica. O D-limoneno foi suplementado na ração de dois grupos que receberam dieta hiperlipídica nas concentrações de 0,1%, e 0,8%. Considerando-se a ingestão alimentar dos animais, a ração suplementada com 0,1% D-limoneno correspondeu à ingestão de 0,15 g/kg/dia e ração com 0,8% de D-limoneno correspondeu a 1,3 g/kg/dia. Os animais tiveram o peso e a ingestão alimentar monitorados ao longo da intervenção com duração de 7 semanas. Os camundongos que receberam D-limoneno a 0,1% apresentaram menor ganho de peso e de acúmulo de tecido adiposo, comparado com os animais sem suplementação alimentados com a dieta hiperlipídica. Além disso, o D-limoneno promoveu a diminuição da concentração plasmática de marcadores inflamatórios incluindo TNF-α, INF-γ e IL-6 nos animais dos grupos que foram suplementados com D-limoneno. Entretanto, não houve diferença nos marcadores bioquímicos e metabólicos. Uma limitação do estudo foi o fato das complicações metabólicas associadas ao modelo de obesidade não terem sido plenamente estabelecidas, dados o alojamento individual, à curta duração da exposição à ração hiperlipídica e idade dos animais no início da suplementação. Esse fato pode ter dificultado a observação dos efeitos do D-limoneno na reversão dos parâmetros que seriam normalmente deteriorados pelo desenvolvimento da obesidade. Concluímos que o D-limoneno pode interferir no metabolismo energético, com possível efeito anti-obesogênico e anti-inflamatório. Devido às limitações do modelo, são necessários mais estudos para confirmar esses resultados


Obesity is associated with the development of chronic non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. The intake of dietary bioactive compounds is associated with the maintenance of health and the prevention of chronic diseases. Among the group of bioactive compounds, monoterpenes are poorly investigated, in spite of several reports of their promising effects on metabolism. D-limonene is the main monoterpene found in oranges, known for its hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesogenic effects. in vitro and in vivo studies associate D-limonene to increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids in adipocytes and reduced inflammation. This study aimed at investigating the effects of D-limonene on metabolism and inflammation in a diet-induced obesity model. For this purpose, forty male mice (C57/Bl6) were distributed in 4 groups, with one group receiving a normolipidic diet and the others, a high-fat diet. D-limonene was supplemented in the diets of two groups that received high-fat diet at the concentrations of 0.1% and 0.8%. Considering the feed intake, mice receiving D-limonene supplementation at 0.1% ingested in average 0.15 g/kg/day, while the mice receiving the supplemmentation at 0.8%, ingested approximately 1.3 g of D-limonene /kg/day. The animals had their weight and food intake monitored throughout the intervention. Mice that received Dlimonene supplementation at 0.1% showed reduced weight gain and accumulation of adipose tissue compared to the non-supplemented mice fed the high-fat diet. In addition, D-limonene promoted a decrease in hepatic inflammatory markers including TNF-α, INF-γ, and IL-6. However, there was no difference in biochemical and metabolic markers. A limitation of the study was that the metabolic complications associated with the obesity model were not fully established, probably due to the age at the start of the protocol (11 weeks), individual housing and short duration of the exposure to the high-fat feed. This fact may have prevented the observation of the positive effects of D-limonene in reversing parameters that would normally be impaired by the development of obesity. We conclude that D-limonene may interfere in energy metabolism, with a possible anti-obesogenic and anti-inflammatory effect. Due to the limitations of the model, further studies are needed to confirm these findings


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Limonene/adverse effects , Obesity/chemically induced , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chronic Disease/classification , Citrus sinensis/metabolism , Monoterpenes/analysis , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Inflammation/complications , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 75 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437659

ABSTRACT

Envelhecer compreende um fenômeno complexo, natural e irreversível, que submete o organismo a inúmeras alterações nos processos biológicos, fisiológicos, ambientais, psicológicos, comportamentais e sociais. Esse processo é caracterizado por um declínio gradual dos mecanismos homeostáticos do organismo, intimamente relacionados com o estado senescente. A senescência, quando diz respeito ao sistema imunológico, é denominada de imunossenescência, que pode ser definida como uma parada estável do ciclo celular associada a mudanças, com uma resposta que limita a proliferação de células envelhecidas ou danificadas. A autofagia está diretamente relacionada com a manutenção do fenótipo senescente, em que a atividade autofágica exerce um papel essencial e ativo na influência da biossíntese de proteínas e organelas. Essa via é regulada naturalmente pela proteína mTOR e quimicamente pelo fármaco rapamicina. Assim, pretendemos investigar: (1) as alterações no perfil corporal e hematimêtrico dos animais ao longo do tratamento com rapamicina; (2) avaliar o perfil de citocinas; (3) observar as modificações histológicas em órgãos linfoides primários e secundário; (4) analisar as populações de células linfoides e mieloides; e (5) avaliar a capacidade proliferativa de linfócitos in vitro. Camundongos SAMP-8 e SAMR-1 foram tratados com rapamicina durante dois meses. A mensuração da massa corporal e análises hematológicas foram realizadas antes e durante o tratamento. Amostras de soro, medula óssea, timo e baço foram analisados em ensaios de ELISA, histologia, população e subpopulações de células. Alterações na massa corporal, parâmetros hematológicos e celularidade de células foram nítidas entre os dois modelos utilizados. Diferenças também foram percebidas na detecção de citocinas IL-1ß. IL-6 e TNF-α, com resultados significantes nas amostras de baço, timo e medula óssea. As citocinas IL-7 e IL-15 apresentaram diferenças de secreção entre os grupos, sendo a primeira maior detectada em camundongos com senescência acelerada tratados com rapamicina. Em nossa análise histológica observamos que os camundongos SAM-P8 apresentaram involução tímica. E nas subpopulações de linfócitos T do baço, células TCD4+ e TCD8+ estavam, respectivamente, em maior e menor quantidade nos camundongos SAM-P8 tratados com rapamicina. Dessa forma, o camundongo da linhagem SAM-P8 é um excelente modelo para se estudar as alterações da senescência, em que o mesmo apresenta características fisiológicas distintas dos camundongos utilizados como controle (SAM-R1). Além disso, verificamos que a dose de rapamicina empregada não desencadeou alterações que pudessem comprometer a resposta imunológica desses camundongos, bem como na possibilidade de atuar na resposta contra os efeitos complexos do envelhecimento


Aging comprises a complex, natural, and irreversible phenomenon, which subjects the organism to countless alterations in biological, physiological, environmental, psychological, behavioral, and social processes. This process is characterized by a gradual decline in the organism's homeostatic mechanisms, closely related to senescence effects. Senescence, when it concerns the immune system, is called immunosenescence, which can be defined as a stable cell cycle arrest associated with changes and is a response that limits the proliferation of aged or damaged cells. Autophagy is a genetically regulated, conserved cellular process and a metabolic pathway essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, which plays a constitutive and active role in controlling the biosynthesis of proteins and organelles. This pathway is regulated naturally by mTOR or chemically by the drug rapamycin, having a direct relationship with cellular homeostasis and maintenance of the senescent phenotype. Thus, we intend to investigate: (1) the changes in the body and hematimetic profile of the animals throughout the rapamycin treatment; (2) evaluate the cytokine profile; (3) observe histological changes in primary and secondary lymphoid organs; (4) analyze lymphoid and myeloid cell populations; and (5) evaluate the proliferative capacity of lymphocytes in vitro. SAMP-8 and SAMR-1 mice were treated with rapamycin for two months. Body mass measurement and hematological analyses were performed before and during treatment. Serum, bone marrow, thymus and spleen samples were analyzed in ELISA assays, histology, cell population and subpopulations. Changes in body mass, hematological parameters, and cellularity were clear between the two models used. Differences were also noticed in the detection of cytokines IL-1ß. IL-6 and TNF-α, with significant results in the spleen, thymus and bone marrow samples. The cytokines IL-7 and IL-15 showed differences in secretion between groups, the former being higher detected in mice with accelerated senescence treated with rapamycin. In our histological analysis we observed that SAM-P8 mice showed thymic involution. And in the spleen T-lymphocyte subpopulations, TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells were, respectively, in higher and lower quantities in SAM-P8 mice treated with rapamycin. Thus, the SAM-P8 mouse is an excellent model to study the changes of senescence, since it presents physiological characteristics different from the control mice (SAM-R1). Furthermore, we verified that the dose of rapamycin used did not trigger changes that could compromise the immune response of these mice, as well as the possibility of acting in the modulatory response against the complex effects of aging


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Aging , Sirolimus/adverse effects , Immunosenescence , Autophagy/immunology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , Homeostasis
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e19334, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439515

ABSTRACT

Abstract Present study analysed the therapeutic potential of traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb Nanorrhinum ramosissimum, using plant parts extracted with different solvents (10 mg/mL). Shoot extracts exhibited comparatively better antimicrobial properties, in comparison to root extracts. Total phenolic content was estimated, to ascertain its dependency on antioxidant properties of plant extracts. Antioxidant assay revealed promising results in comparison to IC50 value of standard ascorbic acid (52.2±0.07 µg/mL), for methanolic extracts of shoot (61.07±0.53 µg/mL and 64.33±0.33 µg/mL) and root (76.705±0.12 µg/mL and 89.73±0.28 µg/ mL) for in vivo and in vitro regenerants respectively. Correlation coefficient R2 values ranged between 0.90-0.95, indicating a positive correlation between phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Plant extracts were also able to inhibit DNA oxidative damage again indicating their antioxidative potential. Antidiabetic potential was confirmed by alpha amylase inhibition assay where shoot methanolic extracts (invivo, in vitro) exhibited the best IC50 values (54.42±0.16 µg/mL, 66.09±0.12 µg/mL) in comparison to standard metformin (41.92±0.08 µg/mL). Ethanolic extracts of roots (in vitro, invivo) exhibited the relative IC50 values (88.97±0.32µg/mL,96.63±0.44 µg/mL) indicating that shoot parts had a better alpha amylase inhibition property; thus proving the herb's bioactive potential and its prospective therapeutic source for curing various ailments.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/analysis , Scrophulariaceae/classification , Antioxidants/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Hypoglycemic Agents/agonists
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21343, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439516

ABSTRACT

Abstract Voriconazole increases tacrolimus blood concentration significantly when coadministrated. The recommendation of reducing tacrolimus to 1/3 in voriconazole package insert seems not to be satisfactory in clinical practice. In vitro studies demonstrated that the magnitude of inhibition depends on the concentration of voriconazole, while voriconazole exposure is determined by the genotype status of CYP2C19. CYP2C19 gene polymorphism challenges the management of drug-drug interactions(DDIs) between voriconazole and tacrolimus. This work aimed to predict the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the DDIs by using physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) models. The precision of the developed voriconazole and tacrolimus models was reasonable by evaluating the pharmacokinetic parameters fold error, such as AUC0-24, Cmax and tmax. Voriconazole increased tacrolimus concentration immediately in all population. The simulated duration of DDIs disappearance after voriconazole withdrawal were 146h, 90h and 66h in poor metabolizers (PMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and extensive metabolizers(EMs), respectively. The developed and optimized PBPK models in this study can be applied to assit the dose adjustment for tacrolimus with and without voriconazole.


Subject(s)
Tacrolimus/agonists , Impact Factor , Voriconazole/agonists , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Adaptation, Psychological/classification
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21308, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439523

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of ceftriaxone loaded nanostructured lipid carriers to increase permeability of ceftriaxone across uninflamed meninges after parenteral administration. Lipids were selected by theoretical and experimental techniques and optimization of NLCs done by response surface methodology using Box-Behnken design. The Δδt for glyceryl monostearate and Capryol90 were 4.39 and 2.92 respectively. The drug had maximum solubility of 0.175% (w/w) in glycerol monostearate and 2.56g of Capryol90 dissolved 10mg of drug. The binary mixture consisted of glyceryl monostearate and Capryol90 in a ratio of 70:30. The optimized NLCs particle size was 130.54nm, polydispersity index 0.28, % entrapment efficiency 44.32%, zeta potential -29.05mV, and % drug loading 8.10%. In vitro permeability of ceftriaxone loaded NLCs was 5.06x10-6 cm/s; evidently, the NLCs pervaded through uninflamed meninges, which, was further confirmed from in vivo biodistribution studies. The ratio of drug concentration between brain and plasma for ceftriaxone loaded NLCs was 0.29 and that for ceftriaxone solution was 0.02. With 44.32% entrapment of the drug in NLCs the biodistribution of ceftriaxone was enhanced 7.9 times compared with that of ceftriaxone solution. DSC and XRD studies revealed formation of imperfect crystalline NLCs. NLCs improved permeability of ceftriaxone through uninflamed meninges resulting in better management of CNS infections.


Subject(s)
Ceftriaxone/agonists , Triage/classification , Lipids/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Central Nervous System Infections/pathology
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22381, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439529

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth) are native species from the Amazon Forest that in folk medicine are used to treat several diseases due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This review brings together findings from different studies on the potential neuroprotective effects of acai and guarana, highlighting the importance of the conservation and sustainable exploitation of the Amazon Forest. A bibliographic survey in the PubMed database retrieved indexed articles written in English that focused on the effects of acai and guarana in in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases. In general, treatment with either acai or guarana decreased neuroinflammation, increased antioxidant responses, ameliorated depression, and protected cells from neurotoxicity mediated by aggregated proteins. The results from these studies suggest that flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids found in both acai and guarana have therapeutic potential not only for neurodegenerative diseases, but also for depressive disorders. In addition, acai and guarana show beneficial effects in slowing down the physiological aging process. However, toxicity and efficacy studies are still needed to guide the formulation of herbal medicines from acai and guarana.


Subject(s)
Amazonian Ecosystem , Paullinia/adverse effects , Euterpe/adverse effects , Fruit/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Neuroprotective Agents/classification , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21820, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439542

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Diabetes is a life-threatening disease, and currently available synthetic medicines for treating diabetes are associated with various side effects. Therefore, there is an unmet need to develop herbal remedies against diabetes as an alternative to synthetic medicines. Although local healers use the roots of Spermadicyton suaveolens (SS) to manage diabetes, there is negligible research to validate its antidiabetic properties. The present investigation aims to the assess the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of S. Suaveolen's roots (EESS) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The extract was screened for in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. The in vivo antidiabetic potential of EESS (at 200 and 400 mg/kg) was studied on STZ-induced diabetic rats for 20 days. The EESS displayed significant (p<0.05) antidiabetic and antioxidant properties. The administration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg EESS in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced hyperglycemia, and restored antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile-a high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased by the administration of a single dose of streptozotocin. Thus, EESS could be a promising herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Streptozocin/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Herbal Medicine/classification , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Synthetic Drugs/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/complications
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21265, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439543

ABSTRACT

Abstract Piper nigrum (black pepper) is used in Indian traditional medicine and its main alkaloid, Piperine (PIP), presents antioxidant, antitumor and neuroprotective pharmacological properties. This substance is insoluble in aqueous media and can irritate the gastrointestinal tract. Aiming to avoid these inconvenient characteristics and enable PIP oral administration, this study suggested the PIP microencapsulation through the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and the preparation of microparticulated tablets by direct compression. An UV-spectroscopy method was validated to quantify PIP. Microparticles and microparticulated tablets were successfully obtained and the microparticles exhibited excellent flow. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that PIP microparticles were intact after compression. The in vitro release showed a controlled release of PIP from microparticles and PIP microparticles from tablets in comparison to PIP and PIP tablets. The release profiles of PIP microparticles and the microparticulated tablets were similar. Therefore, tablets containing PIP microparticles are promising multiparticulated dosage forms because a tablet allows microparticles administration and the intact ones promote a controlled release, decreasing its irritating potential on the mucosa.


Subject(s)
Spectrum Analysis/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Piper nigrum/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/abnormalities , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Tablets/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Alkaloids/adverse effects , Medicine, Traditional/instrumentation , Antioxidants/adverse effects
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21088, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed at conducting phytochemical analysis and evaluating the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of J. oxycedrus L. Hydro-distillation was used to extract the essential oil from the fruits of Juniper oxycedrus. The essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was determined in vitro using varying concentrations of the essential oil and vitamin C as a standard antioxidant compound. A disc diffusion test was employed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oil against two test fungal strains, Penicillium citrinum, and Aspergillus niger. The results revealed that 49 constituents were identified in fruit oil, representing 91.56% of the total oil and the yield was 1.58%. Juniper fruit oil was characterized by having high contents of ß-pinene (42.04%), followed by limonene (15.45%), sabinene (9.52%), α-pinene (5.21%), (E)-caryophyllene (3.77%), ρ-cymene (1.56%), caryophyllene oxide (2.02%), and myrcene (1.02%). The radical scavenging activity (% inhibition) of the essential oil was highest (81.87± 2.83%) at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. The essential oil of J. oxycedrus exhibited antifungal activity against A. niger and P. citrinum with minimum inhibitory concentration values (MIC) ranging from 2.89 to 85.01 µl/mL. The findings of the study reveal that the antioxidant and antifungal properties of J. oxycedrus essential oil and their chemical composition are significantly correlated


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Juniperus/adverse effects , Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/classification , Morocco/ethnology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 23: e210162, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1431047

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the agreement of images in white light (WL), fluorescence (FL), and digital radiographs (DR), on the diagnosis and treatment decisions for occlusal caries lesions against a micro-CT gold standard. Material and Methods: Ten extracted third molars, with enamel and/or dentin caries (ICDAS 2-4), were included. Occlusal surface images were acquired with an intraoral camera (SoproLife®) in WL and FL modes. DR was obtained using an intraoral X-ray and a semi-direct digital system. A total of 780 images were needed, organized in a template, to be later examined by twenty-six dentists invited to compose the study. The Generalized Estimation Equations model was used to compare the proportions of the correct answers between the three methods and the gold standard. When significant, Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to identify differences (α=5%). Results: Most of the examiners were specialists (76.9%) with 14.5 years of experience. All diagnostic methods were similar and showed low agreement (DR 12.7%, WL 16.5%, and FL 16.5%) compared with gold standard caries diagnostic scores. Regarding treatment decisions, mean agreement for all diagnostic methods was higher (43.2%; p<0.001), and among all methods, WL (48.1%) and FL (51.2%) modes performed better than DR (30.4%, p<0.001). Conclusion: SoproLife® images could help clinicians to propose rational, minimally invasive treatments for occlusal caries lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Fluorescence , Clinical Decision-Making , Molar, Third/injuries , Effectiveness , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Radiography, Dental, Digital/methods
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22111, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas disease is a neglected parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, whose treatment has remained unsatisfactory for over 50 years, given that it is limited to two drugs. Benznidazole (BZN) is an efficient antichagasic drug used as the first choice, although its poor water-solubility, irregular oral absorption, low efficacy in the chronic phase, and various associated adverse effects are limiting factors for treatment. Incorporating drugs with such characteristics into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) is a promising alternative to overcome these limiting obstacles, enhancing drug efficacy and bioavailability while reducing toxicity. Therefore, this study proposed NLC-BZN formulations in different compositions prepared by hot-melt homogenization followed by ultrasound, and the optimized formulation was characterized by FTIR, DRX, DSC, and thermogravimetry. Biological activities included in vitro membrane toxicity (red blood cells), fibroblast cell cytotoxicity, and trypanocidal activity against epimastigotes of the Colombian strain of T. cruzi. The optimized NLC-BZN had a small size (110 nm), negative zeta potential (-18.0 mV), and high encapsulation (1.64% of drug loading), as shown by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis. The NLC-BZN also promoted lower in vitro membrane toxicity (<3% hemolysis), and 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) for NLC-BZN in L929 fibroblast cells (110.7 µg/mL) was twice the value as the free BZN (51.3 µg/mL). Our findings showed that the NLC-BZN had higher trypanocidal activity than free BZN against the epimastigotes of the resistant Colombian strain, and this novel NLC-BZN formulation proved to be a promising tool in treating Chagas disease and considered suitable for oral and parenteral administration


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Chagas Disease/pathology , Neglected Diseases/classification , Parasitic Diseases/pathology , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Sprains and Strains/classification , Thermogravimetry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20412, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Treatment with plant is considered an effective option against increased antibiotic resistance. In this study antibiofilm activity of methanol (CH3OH), chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water (H2O) extracts of Hypericum atomarium Boiss. which is member of Hypericum genus was evaluated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and antibacterial performance against Gram (+) and Gram (-) strains and also bioactive compounds of extract were analysed using by HPLC and GC-MS. According to antibacterial activity test results the extracts were effective all Gram (+) bacteria and Gram (-) Chromobacterium violaceum (MICs ranging from 0.42 µg/ml to 4.3 mg). Inhibition effect of biofilm formation was found to be different rate in extracts (methanol-63%, chloroform-52%). The major flavonoids were detected (−)-epicatechin (2388.93 µg/ml) and (+)-catechin (788.94 µg/ml). The main phenolic acids were appeared as caffeic acid 277.34 µg/ml and chlorogenic acid 261.79 µg/ml. And according to GC results α-pinene was found main compound for three solvent extracts methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate 67.05, 62.69, 49.28% rate respectively


Subject(s)
Plants/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Biofilms/classification , Hypericum/classification , Sprains and Strains/complications , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromobacterium/isolation & purification , Acetates/classification
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21384, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505843

ABSTRACT

Abstract Biological activity of boron-containing compounds (BCCs) has been well-known. Growing interest and numerous applications for BCCs have been reported. Boron and boron-containing acids show low acute toxicity in mammals but data on halogenated boroxine (HB) - dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate, K2(B3O3F4OH) acute toxicity have not been reported before. This compound, characterized as a potential therapeutic for skin changes, exhibits no observable genotoxicity in doses lower that 0.1 mg/ml in vitro and 55 mg/kg in vivo. It has also been confirmed as an antitumour agent both in vitro and in vivo as well as an inhibitor of enzymes involved in antioxidant mechanisms. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of HB and to determine the maximum tolerated dose as well as a dose free of any signs of toxicity in different test organisms. Acute toxicity of HB was tested in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats and BALB/c mice after single parenteral application of different doses. We determined doses free of any sign of toxicity and LD50 after single dose administration. LD50 of HB ranges from 63 to 75 mg/kg in different test models, meaning that HB shows moderate toxicity


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rats , Boron/agonists , Toxicity Tests, Acute/instrumentation , Drug Development/instrumentation , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Biological Products/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22330, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505846

ABSTRACT

Abstract Donepezil-HCl is a member of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has many side effects. In this study, to reduce the side effects of Donepezil-HCl and increase the penetration of the drug through the blood-brain barrier, we aimed to design a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulation. The effects of the different formulation parameters, such as homogenization speed, sonication time, lipid and drug concentration, surfactant type and concentration, and volume of the aqueous phase, were assessed for optimization. The particle size and PDI increased with increasing lipid concentration but decreased with increasing amounts of surfactant (Tween 80) and co-surfactant (lecithin). When the homogenization rate and sonication time increased, the particle size decreased and the encapsulation efficiency increased. The optimized formulation exhibited particle size, PDI, encapsulation efficiency, and zeta potential of 87.2±0.11 nm; 0.22±0.02; 93.84±0.01 %; -17.0±0.12 mV respectively. The in vitro release investigation revealed that approximately 70% of Donepezil-HCl was cumulatively released after 24 hours. TEM analysis proved that spherical and smooth particles were obtained and formulations had no toxic effect on cells. The final optimized formulation could be a candidate for Donepezil-HCl application in Alzheimer's treatment with reduced side effects and doses for patients


Subject(s)
Reference Standards , Research/instrumentation , Nanoparticles/analysis , Donepezil/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Alzheimer Disease/pathology
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23068, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505851

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bovine infectious mastitis is largely resistant to antibacterial treatment, mainly due to mechanisms of bacterial resistance in the biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus. Melaleuca (MEO) and citronella essential oils (CEO) are promising agents for reducing or eliminating biofilms. Free melaleuca oil presented a medium Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 0.625% and a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 1.250%, while free citronella oil showed medium MIC and MBC of 0.313%. Thus, free CEO and MEO demonstrate bacteriostatic and bactericidal potential. We generated polymeric nanocapsules containing MEO or CEO and evaluated their efficacy at reducing biofilms formed by S. aureus. Glass and polypropylene spheres were used as test surfaces. To compare the responses of free and encapsulated oils, strains were submitted to 10 different procedures, using free and nanoencapsulated essential oils (EOs) in vitro. We observed no biofilm reduction by MEO, free or nanoencapsulated. However, CEO nanocapsules reduced biofilm formation on glass (p=0.03) and showed a tendency to diminish biofilms on polypropylene (p=0.051). Despite nanoencapsulated CEO reducing biofilms in vitro, the formulation could be improved to modify the CEO component polarity and, including MEO, to obtain more interactions with surfaces and the biofilm matrix


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Biofilms/classification , Nanocapsules/adverse effects , Mastitis, Bovine/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Melaleuca/adverse effects , Cymbopogon/adverse effects
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23011, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505852

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oil-in-water photoprotective nanoemulsions (NEs) were developed using Babassu (BBS) lipophilic extract, nonionic surfactants, and low concentrations of organic sunscreens by ultrasonic processing. BBS extract was chosen due to its suitable physicochemical properties (acidity index, peroxide index, refraction index, and relative density) and predominance of saturated fatty acids, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which promote biological activities and high oxidative stability. NEs were characterized by mean droplet size, morphology, polydispersity index (PdI), pH, and organoleptic properties, and the physical stability of the NEs was evaluated for 120 days at room temperature. The sun protection factor (SPF) was determined, and the photostability and in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed for NEs. All NEs remained stable for 120 days, with a droplet size <150 nm and a monomodal distribution profile. The pH values were compatible with the skin's pH. NE3 showed a spherical morphology, with a mean droplet size of 125.15 ± 0.16 nm and PdI of 0.145 ± 0.032. NE3 containing BBS extract and sunscreens presented an SPF of 35.5 ± 3.0, was photostable after 6 h of radiation and was non-cytotoxic to fibroblast cells. Thus, NE3 could be considered a promising formulation for developing synergic plant-extract sunscreen photoprotective products for the market


Subject(s)
Plants/adverse effects , Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/agonists , Arecaceae/classification , Vegetable Fats , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Sun Protection Factor/classification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22725, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447572

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the dissolution properties of ibuprofen solid oral dosage forms commercially available in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to estimate the influence of dissolution medium composition on the drug release. Eight products (A-H) were subjected to in vitro dissolution test using experimental conditions described in USP42-NF37. Dissolution properties of one selected product were examined in the presence of alcohol (22.2% v/v) and fruit juice (22.2% v/v). Products marked B-H complied with the pharmacopeial criteria. Dissolution profile of product B was similar with dissolution profiles of products D, E, F and G and similarity was also found between products A-D, C-G, D-G and E-F. Drug release from most of the examined preparations fitted best to the Weibull kinetic model. In the presence of alcohol in the medium, higher amount of ibuprofen was dissolved. Contrary, ibuprofen dissolved in the presence of fruit juice was significantly lower. Differences in the dissolution profiles of investigated preparations suggest that their interchangeability should be additionally considered and demonstrated with in vivo bioequivalence studies. Presence of different substances in the medium can affect dissolution properties of ibuprofen, emphasizing the importance of the patient's compliance.


Subject(s)
Ibuprofen/analysis , Interchange of Drugs , Dissolution , Tablets , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Drug Liberation/drug effects
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e19978, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429949

ABSTRACT

Abstract Propolis is a resinous hive product collected by bees from the buds or other parts of plants. It is known for having various biological properties, including antifungal activity. Among the substances present in propolis, flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters are responsible for its antifungal properties. This means that propolis is ideal for use as an antifungal agent in alternative medicine to treat a number of both topical and systemic infections caused by Candida species and other yeast-like fungi, dermatophyte and nondermatophyte moulds, without the serious side effects typical of synthetic treatment. It is also active against strains of fungi that are resistant to polyenes and azoles, the classes of drugs most commonly used to treat fungal infections. In this article, we review current knowledge about the activity of propolis from different parts of the world and its components in vitro and in vivo against pathogenic fungi isolated from human infections. The article also indicates the possible mechanism of antifungal activity of propolis and its components.


Subject(s)
Propolis/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Complementary Therapies/classification , Candida/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Arthrodermataceae/classification
20.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1442250

ABSTRACT

The present work aims to establish a new alternative protocol to evaluate in vitro potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccine using Real Time PCR. Aqueous phases of seven inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccines batches of different manufacturers were extracted by isopropyl myristate. The Newcastle disease virus antigen of each vaccine sample was determined by a standard Real Time PCR assay. Vaccines were inoculated into separate groups of 3-week-old specific pathogen free chickens using the recommended dose of vaccine. The immunogenicity was assessed for each vaccine by the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers. Individual serum samples were collected 4 weeks post vaccination, then vaccine efficacy and protection rates were recorded after challenge test of birds vaccinated with the virulent Newcastle disease virus. There is the possibility of using the Real Time PCR as an in vitro assay for vaccine evaluation. The Cycle Threshold values were ranged between 21.17 and 25.23. On the other hand, the hemagglutination inhibition titers ranged between 7.1 log2 to 6.2. The comparison between the Cycle Threshold values of the antigen extracts and the corresponding results of challenge test and in vivo hemagglutination inhibition assays using sera of vaccinated birds proved a strong correspondence between the in vitro and in vivo results(AU)


El presente trabajo pretende establecer un nuevo protocolo alternativo para la evaluación in vitro de la potencia de la vacuna de virus inactivado contra la enfermedad de Newcastle mediante PCR en tiempo real. Las fases acuosas de siete lotes de vacunas inactivadas contra el virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle de distintos fabricantes se extrajeron mediante miristato de isopropilo. El antígeno del virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle de cada muestra de vacuna se determinó mediante un ensayo estándar de PCR en tiempo real. Las vacunas se inocularon en grupos separados de pollos libres de patógenos específicos de 3 semanas de edad utilizando la dosis recomendada de vacuna. La inmunogenicidad se evaluó para cada vacuna mediante los títulos de anticuerpos de inhibición de la hemaglutinación del virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle. Se recogieron muestras individuales de suero 4 semanas después de la vacunación y, a continuación, se registraron la eficacia de la vacuna y los índices de protección tras la prueba de reto de las aves vacunadas con el virus virulento de la enfermedad de Newcastle. Existe la posibilidad de utilizar la PCR en tiempo real como ensayo in vitro para la evaluación de vacunas. Los valores del umbral de ciclo oscilaron entre 21,17 y 25,23. Por otra parte, los títulos de anticuerpos inhibidores de la hemaglutinación oscilaron entre 7,1 log2 y 6,2. La comparación entre los valores del umbral de ciclo de los extractos de antígeno con los resultados correspondientes de la prueba de reto y los ensayos de inhibición de la hemaglutinación in vivo, utilizando sueros de aves vacunadas, demostró una fuerte correspondencia entre los resultados in vitro e in vivo(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Newcastle Disease/epidemiology
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