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Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(9): 784-790, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757393


Inflammation and oxidative stress have important roles in memory impairment. The effect of 7-nitroindazole (7NI) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment was investigated. Rats were used, divided into four groups that were treated as follows: (1) control (saline); (2) LPS; (3) 7NI-LPS; and (4) 7NI before passive avoidance (PA). In the LPS group, the latency for entering the dark compartment was shorter than in the controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001); while in the 7NI-LPS group, it was longer than in the LPS group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolite concentrations in the brain tissues of the LPS group were higher than in the controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05); while in the 7NI-LPS group, they were lower than in the LPS group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The thiol content in the brain of the LPS group was lower than in the controls (p < 0.001); while in the 7NI-LPS group, it was higher than in the LPS group (p < 0.001). It is suggested that brain tissue oxidative damage and NO elevation have a role in the deleterious effects of LPS on memory retention that are preventable using 7NI.

Inflamação e estresse oxidativo tem importante papel no déficit de memória. O efeito do 7-nitroindazol (7NI) no déficit de memória induzido por lipossacarídeos (LPS) foi investigado. Foram utilizados ratos que foram divididos em quatro grupos e tratados da seguinte maneira: (1) controles (solução salina); (2) LPS; (3) 7NI-LPS; e (4) 7NI antes da esquiva passiva (PA). No grupo LPS, a latência para entrar no compartimento escuro foi mais curta que nos controles (p < 0,01 e p < 0,001); enquanto no grupo 7NI-LPS, a latência foi maior que aquela do grupo LPS (p < 0,01 e p < 0,001). Concentrações de malondialdeído (MDA) e metabólitos do ácido nítrico (NO) no tecido cerebral do grupo LPS foram maiores que aquelas dos controles (p < 0,001 e p < 0,05); enquanto no grupo 7NI-LPS, as concentrações foram menores do que no grupo LPS (p < 0,001 e p < 0,05, respectivamente). O conteúdo cerebral de tiol no grupo LPS foi menos do que nos controles (p < 0,001); enquanto no grupo 7NI-LPS, este conteúdo foi maior que no grupo LPS (p < 0,001). Sugere-se que o dano oxidativo cerebral e o aumento de NO tenham um papel nos efeitos deteriorativos dos LPS na memória de retenção, e que isto possa ser prevenido com o uso de 7NI.

Animals , Male , Rats , Indazoles/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Memory Disorders/prevention & control , Memory/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Brain Chemistry , Memory Disorders/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(10): 876-885, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722165


The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the relaxant effect of adrenomedullin (AM) in rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) and the expression of AM system components in this tissue. Functional assays using standard muscle bath procedures were performed in CSM isolated from male Wistar rats. Protein and mRNA levels of pre-pro-AM, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and Subtypes 1, 2 and 3 of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) family were assessed by Western immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Nitrate and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α; a stable product of prostacyclin) levels were determined using commercially available kits. Protein and mRNA of AM, CRLR, and RAMP 1, -2, and -3 were detected in rat CSM. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that AM and CRLR were expressed in rat CSM. AM relaxed CSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. AM22-52, a selective antagonist for AM receptors, reduced the relaxation induced by AM. Conversely, CGRP8-37, a selective antagonist for calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, did not affect AM-induced relaxation. Preincubation of CSM strips with NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, quanylyl cyclase inhibitor), Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor), SC560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethyl pyrazole, selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor], and 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker) reduced AM-induced relaxation. On the other hand, 7-nitroindazole (selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), SQ22536 [9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine, adenylate cyclase inhibitor], glibenclamide (selective blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels), and apamin (Ca2+-activated channel blocker) did not affect AM-induced relaxation. AM increased nitrate levels and 6-keto-PGF1α in rat CSM. The major new contribution of this research is that it demonstrated expression of AM and its receptor in rat CSM. Moreover, we provided evidence that AM-induced relaxation in this tissue is mediated by AM receptors by a mechanism that involves the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, a vasodilator prostanoid, and the opening of voltage-dependent K+ channels.

Animals , Male , Adrenomedullin/pharmacology , Calcitonin Receptor-Like Protein/analysis , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Parasympatholytics/pharmacology , Penis/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , /pharmacology , /analysis , Adrenomedullin/genetics , Adrenomedullin/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Calcitonin Receptor-Like Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Indazoles/pharmacology , Muscle Relaxation , Muscle, Smooth/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analogs & derivatives , Penis/metabolism , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1/genetics , Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1/metabolism , /metabolism , /genetics , /metabolism , Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-17089


BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Temozolomide (TMZ), a second generation alkylating drug, an effective cytotoxic agent as well as radiosensitizer for malignant brain tumours, has side effects like myelosuppression. Lonidamine (LND) increases the effectiveness of several experimental multiple chemotherapy protocols, without increasing bone marrow toxicities and is effective in brain tumour patients. The objective of the present studies was to investigate whether combining clinically relevant doses of LND and TMZ could increase the proliferation and radiation response of malignant human brain tumour cells in vitro. METHODS: A malignant human glioma (U373MG) cell line was used in these studies. TMZ (20, 40 or 60 microM) or LND (100, 150 or 200 microM), or the combination of both (20 and 100 microM, respectively) in 0.1 per cent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were added three days after setting up cultures, in six well plates (5 x 10(4) cells/ well). The effects of continuous treatment for two days on proliferation response and cytotoxicity were studied after trypsinization; by cell counts and the uptake of trypan blue dye (0.5%). For the study of radiation (60Co-Gamma-rays, 2 Gy) response, drugs were removed 4 h after irradiation and cultures were grown further in drug free, normal growth medium for another 20 h or 44 h. RESULTS: Continuous presence of TMZ or LND for two days significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. The frequencies of non viable cells increased significantly only at higher concentrations of LND. Combination of 20 microM TMZ with 100 microM LND had additive effects on proliferation response, without affecting cell viability. Short-term drug treatments without irradiation did not induce micronuclei formation. Cell proliferation and viability were also not affected. However, post-irradiation presence of either of these drugs for 4 h significantly reduced the proliferation response, 24 and 48 h after treatments. It was further inhibited by the combination treatment. On the contrary, radiation induced micronuclei formation was enhanced by either of the drugs; which was significantly increased by the combined treatment, 24 h as well as 48 h after irradiation. No effects on cell viability were observed, immediately after these treatments as well as at later time points. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that combination of TMZ and LND at clinically achievable, low plasma concentrations could inhibit tumour growth, and lonidamine could reduce the dose of temozolomide required for radiosensitization of brain tumours.

Acridine Orange , Analysis of Variance , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/pharmacology , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dacarbazine/analogs & derivatives , Gamma Rays , Humans , Indazoles/pharmacology , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Radiotherapy/methods
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 68(1): 13-22, ene.-feb. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633509


Lonidamina (1-[ 2,4-diclorofenil metil]-1H indazol-3-ácido carboxílico), (lnd), es una droga antineoplásica cuyo mecanismo de acción se ejerce sobre el metabolismo intermedio de la glucosa. Los efectos de la lnd sobre el crecimiento celular y el metabolismo celular se investigaron en las células HT- 29, línea celular de carcinoma colónico humano, que requiere altas concentraciones de glucosa para su crecimiento indiferenciado en cultivo. La lnd en dosis de 0.2 mM disminuyó significativamente el crecimiento celular y la formación de colonias en agar; con la interrupción del tratamiento se observó el restablecimiento del crecimiento celular en 24 horas. El tratamiento con lnd produce la redistribución de los glicoconjugados y el receptor de la manosa, sin afectar en forma drástica la síntesis de glucógeno ni la de proteínas. Estas posiblemente sean las causas de la rápida reversibilidad del tratamiento.

Lonidamine (1-[ 2,4-dichlorophenyl methyl]-1H indazole-3-carboxylic acid), lnd, is an antitumoral drug acting on mitochondria and glucose metabolism. Cell growth and metabolic effects of lnd and drug post-treatment effect were investigated in undifferentiated HT-29 human colonic carcinoma cell line which requires high glucose medium concentration for growth. 0.2 mM lnd significantly decreased cell spreading and growth in monolayer or agar cell culture. After drug treatment cell growth was reestablished to control value within 24 h. Ind modified glycoconjugates and mannose-receptor distribution (analyzed by confocal microscopy), while glucose-glycogen and protein synthesis were not affected, these being the possible reasons for the fast reversible effect.

Humans , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indazoles/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , /drug effects , Hexokinase/metabolism , Indazoles/pharmacology , Mitochondria/enzymology
J Biosci ; 2001 Jun; 26(2): 271-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110895


Trans-imidazolium (bis imidazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuIm) and trans-indazolium (bis indazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuInd) are ruthenium coordination complexes, which were first synthesized and exploited for their anticancer activity. These molecules constitute two of the few most effective anticancer ruthenium compounds. The clinical use of these compounds however was hindered due to toxic side effects on the human body. Our present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these compounds shows that they effectively poison the activity of topoisomerase II by forming a ternary cleavage complex of DNA, drug and topoisomerase II. The thymidine incorporation assays show that the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation correlates with topoisomerase II poisoning. The present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these two compounds opens a new avenue for renewing further research on these compounds. This is because they could be effective lead candidates for the development of more potent and less toxic ruthenium containing topoisomerase II poisons. Specificity of action on this molecular target may reduce the toxic effects of these ruthenium-containing molecules and thus improve their therapeutic index.

Adenosine Triphosphatases/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , DNA/chemistry , DNA Topoisomerases, Type II/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Indazoles/pharmacology , Molecular Structure , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology , Rats , Ruthenium Compounds/pharmacology , Thymidine/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 32(11): 1381-7, Nov. 1999. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-248432


It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) has a thermoregulatory action, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved. In the present study we determined the effect of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibition on thermoregulation. We used 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, 1, 10 and 30 mg/kg body weight), a selective nNOS inhibitor, injected intraperitoneally into normothermic Wistar rats (200-250 g) and rats with fever induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 µg/kg body weight) administration. It has been demonstrated that the effects of 30 mg/kg of 7-NI given intraperitoneally may inhibit 60 per cent of nNOS activity in rats. In all experiments the colonic temperature of awake unrestrained rats was measured over a period of 5 h at 15-min intervals after intraperitoneal injection of 7-NI. We observed that the injection of 30 mg/kg of 7-NI induced a 1.5oC drop in body temperature, which was statistically significant 1 h after injection (P<0.02). The coinjection of LPS and 7-NI was followed by a significant (P<0.02) hypothermia about 0.5oC below baseline. These findings show that an nNOS isoform is required for thermoregulation and participates in the production of fever in rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Body Temperature Regulation/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Fever/chemically induced , Fever/drug therapy , Indazoles/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Neurons/enzymology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoenzymes , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar