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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05192020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155590

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dengue presents with a variable clinical course, ranging from mild illness to potentially fatal hemorrhage and shock. We aimed to evaluate the capabilities of various hematological parameters observed early in the course of illness for predicting the clinical outcomes of illness. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of children admitted in the pediatric inpatient services of the institute with dengue between 2017 and 2019. We determined the relationships between the hematological parameters observed during the first evaluation and the various clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We evaluated data from 613 patients (age range, 26 days to 17 years). Of these, 29.85% exhibited fever with warning signs, and 8.97% had severe dengue. Lower values of hemoglobin, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean platelet volume, and higher values of total leukocyte count (TLC), hematocrit, and red cell distribution width variably correlated with numerous clinical outcomes-duration of hospital stay, development of complications, requirement of blood component transfusion, inotropic support, and mortality. Among the parameters, TLC ≥20,000/mL and initial platelet count ≤20,000/mL significantly associated with mortality, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 11.81 (4.21-33.80) and 5.53 (1.90-16.09), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Hematological parameters observed early during dengue infection may predict its clinical outcomes in infected children. Initial high TLC and low platelet count are potential predictors of fatal outcomes in the course of disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Severe Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Hematocrit , India/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count
2.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(6): 500-510, dic. 31, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178947

ABSTRACT

Objetive: Home oral care practices in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy are often ineffective in maintaining optimal plaque control. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of periodontal maintenance program in subjects with established gingivitis undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance therapy for one year. Material and Methods: Forty patients undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance therapy with established chronic gingivitis were recruited for the study. As a part of a periodontal maintenance program, a pre-validated structured questionnaire evaluating oral hygiene and periodontal health was administered at the baseline as well as at the end of the study. At the baseline Gingival Bleeding Index, Gingival Index, and Bonded Bracket Plaque Index scores were recorded, Scaling and polishing procedure was performed followed by a customised Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA) session was conducted for all the study subjects. Clinical indices were assessed and OHA was conducted at the 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th months of orthodontic treatment visits. Results: There was significant improvement in the clinical indices and awareness regarding oral hygiene and periodontal health level in the patients at the end of the 12th month. Conclusion: The periodontal maintenance program appeared to be effective in improving the periodontal health and awareness health awareness level about oral hygiene among patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy at the end of 12 months in our study population.


Objetivo: Las prácticas de cuidado bucal en el hogar en pacientes sometidos a terapia de ortodoncia suelen ser ineficaces para mantener un control óptimo de la placa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la efectividad del programa de mantenimiento periodontal en sujetos con gingivitis establecida sometidos a terapia con aparatos de ortodoncia fijos durante un año. Material y Métodos: Se reclutó para el estudio a 40 pacientes sometidos a terapia con aparatos de ortodoncia fijos y con gingivitis crónica establecida. Como parte de un programa de mantenimiento periodontal, se administró un cuestionario estructurado pre-validado que evaluaba la higiene bucal y la salud periodontal al inicio y al final del estudio. En la línea de base, se registraron las puntuaciones del índice de sangrado gingival, el índice gingival y el índice de placa de soporte adherido, se realizó el procedimiento de raspado y pulido seguido de una sesión personalizada de consejos de higiene oral (CHO) para todos los sujetos del estudio. Se evaluaron los índices clínicos y se llevó a cabo la CHO a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses durante las visitas de tratamiento de ortodoncia. Resultados: Hubo una mejora significativa en los índices clínicos y la conciencia sobre la higiene oral y el nivel de salud periodontal en los pacientes al final del 12º mes. Conclusión: El programa de mantenimiento periodontal pareció ser eficaz para mejorar la salud periodontal y el nivel de conciencia de la salud sobre la higiene bucal entre los pacientes sometidos a terapia de ortodoncia fija al final de los 12 meses en nuestra población de estudio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Oral Hygiene/psychology , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , Gingivitis , Surveys and Questionnaires , India/epidemiology
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.2): 4225-4230, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133185

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is credible evidence that the 1984-Bhopal-methyl isocyanate (MIC)-gas-exposed long-term survivors and their offspring born post-exposure are susceptible to infectious/communicable and non-communicable diseases. Bhopal's COVID-19 fatality rate suggests that the MIC-gas tragedy survivors are at higher risk, owing to a weakened immune system and co-morbidities. This situation emboldened us to ponder over what we know, what we don't, and what we should know about their susceptibility to COVID-19. This article aims at answering these three questions that emerge in the minds of public health officials concerning prevention strategies against COVID-19 and health promotion in the Bhopal MIC-affected population (BMAP). Our views and opinions presented in this article will draw attention to prevent and reduce the consequences of COVID-19 in BMAP. From the perspective of COVID-19 prophylaxis, the high-risk individuals from BMAP with co-morbidities need to be identified through a door-to-door visit to the severely gas-affected regions and advised to maintain good respiratory hygiene, regular intake of immune-boosting diet, and follow healthy lifestyle practices.


Resumo Há evidências plausíveis de que os sobreviventes a longo prazo da exposição a gás de 1984 e isocianato de metila (CIM), em Bhopal, e seus filhos nascidos após esse fato estão suscetíveis a doenças infecciosas/transmissíveis e não transmissíveis. A taxa de fatalidade COVID-19 de Bhopal sugere que os sobreviventes da tragédia do gás MIC estão em maior risco, devido a um sistema imunológico enfraquecido e comorbidades. Essa situação nos encorajou a refletir sobre o que sabemos, o que não sabemos e o que devemos saber sobre a suscetibilidade deles ao COVID-19. Este artigo objetiva responder a essas três perguntas que surgem na mente dos funcionários de saúde pública sobre estratégias de prevenção contra o COVID-19 e promoção da saúde na população afetada pelo Bhopal MIC (BMAP). Nossas visões e opiniões apresentadas neste artigo chamam a atenção para prevenir e reduzir as consequências do COVID-19 no BMAP. Da perspectiva da profilaxia com COVID-19, os indivíduos de alto risco do BMAP com condições comórbidas precisam ser identificados por meio de uma visita de porta em porta nas regiões severamente afetadas por gases e aconselhados a manter uma boa higiene respiratória, ingestão regular de dieta que estimule o sistema imunológico e seguir práticas de estilo de vida saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Survivors , Isocyanates/toxicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Care , Communicable Disease Control , Immunocompromised Host , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Disasters , Betacoronavirus , India/epidemiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Tobacco consumption causes almost 638,000 premature deaths per year in India. This study sought to examine the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among men in India.@*METHODS@#We analyzed data from the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey in India. These nationally representative cross-sectional sample data were collected from January 20, 2015, to December 4, 2016. A total of 112,122 men aged 15-54 years were included in this study. Primary outcomes were tobacco use categorized into smoking, smokeless, any tobacco, and both smoked and smokeless tobacco use. Complex survey design and sampling weights were applied in both the descriptive analyses and logistic regression models. We present the findings using odds ratios.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of tobacco use among men in India for the studied period was 45.5% (95% CI 44.9-46.1), smoking was 24.6% (95% CI 24.1-25.1), smokeless tobacco use was 29.1% (95% CI 28.6-29.6), and both smoked and smokeless tobacco use was 8.4% (95% CI 8.1-8.7). The prevalence of tobacco use among men was higher among the elderly, separated/divorced/widowed individuals, those with lower education and wealth status, alcohol consumers, manual workers, and residents of the northeast region. Multivariate analysis showed that age, lower education, occupation, region, alcohol consumption, separated/divorced/widowed status, and economic status were substantially associated with tobacco use among Indian men.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Innovative and cost-effective strategies targeting high-risk groups are crucial to curbing the tobacco epidemic in India. Anti-smoking campaigns should also focus on mitigating alcohol abuse. Reducing tobacco marketing and implementing formal education about the dangers of tobacco use, progressive taxing, packaging, and labeling of tobacco products and price strategies should be harmonized in legal provisions.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the antibacterial and smear layer removal ability of Trigonella foenum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula seed extracts against E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Material and Methods: Agar well diffusion, micro broth dilution assay and time-kill curve assay were performed to determine the antibacterial activity. The ability of the herbal extracts to remove the smear layer on the root canal surface was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Antibacterial activity was observed for the extracts of S. cumini and T. chebula on E. faecalis dentinal biofilm and its planktonic counterparts. The smear layer was efficiently removed by the seed extracts of T. chebula alone. Seed extracts of T. foenum neither possessed antibacterial effect nor smear layer removal ability. Conclusion: The extracts of T. chebula seeds may replace conventional irrigant due to its antibacterial properties and smear layer removing the ability. The extracts of S. cumini may be used as an intracanal medicament as it exhibited a bactericidal effect against the E. faecalis dentinal biofilm following 18 hours of incubation.


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Syzygium/microbiology , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Endodontics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms , Agar , India/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056890

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the maximum bite force (MBF) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and to compare them with that of healthy subjects. Material and Methods: Twenty patients who were clinically confirmed, as OSMF and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and number of intact functional teeth were included in this study. For each subject, age, gender, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. The MBF registration was carried out by the two evaluators, who were previously calibrated. Bite force was measured in the first molar region using a force transducer occlusal force meter for each subject seated at the upright position, with Frankfort's plane nearly parallel to the floor, and no head support. The Student's independent t-test was used to determine the statistical significance in relation to mean height, weight, BMI and the presence of number of intact teeth and MBF between the healthy subjects and OSMF individuals. A comparison of grades of OSMF with all variables was carried out by one-way ANOVA test. Results: No significant difference was found in mean age, mean height, weight, BMI and the presence of the number of intact teeth between healthy individuals and OSMF patients. The mean MBF in healthy subjects was 628.23 ± 24.39 N and 635.47 ± 31.22 N in OSMF patients. Even though the healthy subjects reported a higher MBF than OSMF patients did, the difference was statistically non-significant. With regards to sides, no significant difference was observed in mean MBF in healthy subjects and OSMF patients on the right (p=0.7818) and left side (p=0.6154). Conclusion: The healthy subjects reported higher MBF values than OSMF patients did and the difference was statistically non-significant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Bite Force , Stomatognathic Diseases/pathology , Molar , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Analysis of Variance , India/epidemiology
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the total sugar content, endogenous pH, total soluble solids content (TSSC) and titratable acidity of the commonly prescribed long-term and short-term liquid oral medicines (LOM) for children and to compare the erosive potential with the total sugar content and total soluble solids of the LOM. Material and Methods: Twenty-three most commonly prescribed pediatric LOM were evaluated in-vitro for the cariogenic and erosive potential. Manufacturers' information on labels, endogenous pH, titratable acidity, TSSC, and the total sugar content was determined. Descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U test were applied. Results: Overall, 22 LOM contained sugar. Only 3 LOM revealed the sugar content of the formulation but did not disclose the quantity (Cheston, Ventorlin and Eptoin). None of the samples revealed the sugar content as well as endogenous pH in their labels. The overall mean total sugar content was 6.92 ± 3.49 g/100ml, ranging from 3.40 ± 0.00 (corticosteroids) to 9.67 ± 0.61 (antitussive/expectorant). The mean endogenous pH for the total sample of medicines was 5.91 ± 1.51 (range of 3.5 to 10.3). Eptoin (0.013%) presented the lowest titratable acidity and Imol (1.171%) presented the highest titratable acidity with an overall mean of 0.40 ± 0.73. Omnacortil and Epilex presented the highest TSS content (19.3%), and Ventorlin presented the lowest TSS content (18.7%) with an overall mean of 18.97 ± 0.19. Over twelve medicines were identified to have the potential to cause dental erosion. No significant differences were seen in the total sugar content, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and the endogenous pH between the short-term and long-term LOMs (p=0.145, p=0.263, p=0.067 and p=0.107), respectively. Conclusion: The pediatric LOMs showed the presence of the sugar, low endogenous pH, high titratable acidity and high total soluble solids.


Subject(s)
Sucrose , Tooth Erosion/diagnosis , Child , Dental Caries , Acidity , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , India/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135552

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite with Dycal® as indirect pulp capping material in primary molars. Material and Methods: A total of 32 carious primary molars from 22 children (6-10-years) were screened, of which 26 primary molars meeting inclusion criteria were selected and equally divided into two groups. At the first appointment, the infected dentin was excavated using a spoon excavator after treating the carious part with Carie-Care™ chemomechanical caries removal agent. After this, eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite in Group 1 and Dycal® in Group 2 were used as liners followed by restoration of the cavity with type IX glass ionomer cement. Clinical assessment for pain and radiographic assessment for measurement of the amount of reparative dentin thickness formation was performed at baseline, 8 weeks and 3 months. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Higher mean reparative dentin formation was found in eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite group than Dycal® group at the end of 8 weeks and 3 months and the difference was significant statistically (p<0.001). Conclusion: Eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite seems to be a suitable alternative to Dycal® (calcium hydroxide) that can be used as a liner for indirect pulp capping in primary molars.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tooth, Deciduous , Durapatite/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp Capping , Dentin, Secondary/anatomy & histology , Molar , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Efficacy , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Egg Shell , Glass Ionomer Cements , India/epidemiology
9.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135550

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of Ghana Shyam's TEFF space maintainer with band and loop space maintainer. Material and Methods: This split-mouth randomized clinical trial was conducted on 20 children (7-9 years), requiring bilateral/contralateral space maintenance therapy. After consent, all the selected children received both space maintainers and were followed up periodically every six months up to two years for clinical assessment according to the evaluation protocol. Instructions and motivation were given to the children. OHI (S) index was recorded before cementation of appliances. The following aspects were analyzed: 1) efficiency and function; 2) dislodgement due to cement loss; 3) breakage at soldered parts; 4) carious or gingival inflammation affecting abutment teeth; 5) distortion of band; 6) being embedded in gingival tissues / gingival slopping; and 7) initial and final S-OHIS scores. Statistical analysis was done using Fisher exact test for survival time and Chi-square test for chewing efficiency. Results: At 24th-month follow-up, 14 Ghana Shyam's TEFF space maintainers and 16 band and loop space maintainers were found to be intact. Conclusion: As both space maintainers demonstrated similar mean survival time Ghana Shyam's TEFF space maintainer with the added advantage of being functional can be recommended as an effective alternative to band and loop in premature loss of primary molar clinical situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Orthodontics, Preventive , Space Maintenance, Orthodontic , Tooth Movement Techniques , Survival Rate , Molar , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Clinical Protocols/standards , Tooth Loss/diagnosis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Efficiency , India/epidemiology
10.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135505

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency and characteristics of mesiodens in Indian school children. Material and Methods: 1232 radiographs of patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology of the age group of 4-15 years studied for the present retrospective study. The intraoral periapical radiographs and occlusal radiographs of the premaxilla were examined to determine the presence of mesiodens. The data regarding the presence of mesiodens, number, position, location on the arch, shape and associated complications were recorded. Results: Eleven patients had 14 mesiodens, with a frequency of 0.8%. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.2:1. Maximum mesiodens observed in the age group of 7-9 years. Most of the mesiodens were conical in shape and found on the palatal side. Fifty percent of the mesiodens were unerupted. The majority of patients (57.1%) had vertically positioned mesiodens. Midline diastema was the most common complication due to mesiodens (66.7%). Conclusion: Routine check-up during the primary dentition and mixed dentition stages helps for early detection of mesiodens and thus preventing complications. Early identification is useful for planning comprehensive management, initiating proper consultation and referral for evaluation and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tooth Abnormalities/epidemiology , Tooth, Supernumerary/epidemiology , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Retrospective Studies , India/epidemiology , Tooth, Deciduous/abnormalities , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 526-533, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056617

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Children with nephrotic syndrome are at increased risk of infections because of disease status itself and use of various immunosuppressive agents. In majority, infections trigger relapses requiring hospitalization with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the incidence, spectrum, and risk factors for major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome. Methods: All consecutive hospitalized children between 1-12 years of age with nephrotic syndrome were enrolled in the study. Children with acute nephritis, secondary nephrotic syndrome as well as those admitted for diagnostic renal biopsy and intravenous cyclophosphamide or rituximab infusion were excluded. Results: A total of 148 children with 162 admissions were enrolled. Incidence of major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome was 43.8%. Peritonitis was the commonest infection (24%), followed by pneumonia (18%), urinary tract infection (15%), and cellulitis (14%), contributing with two thirds of major infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9) was the predominant organism isolated in children with peritonitis and pneumonia. On logistic regression analysis, serum albumin < 1.5gm/dL was the only independent risk factor for all infections (OR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-6; p = 0.01), especially for peritonitis (OR 29; 95% CI, 3-270; p = 0.003). There were four deaths (2.5%) in our study, all due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children with nephrotic syndrome. As Pneumococcus was the most prevalent cause of infection in those children, attention should be paid to the pneumococcal immunization in children with nephrotic syndrome.


RESUMO Introdução: Crianças com síndrome nefrótica apresentam maior risco de infecções devido ao próprio status da doença e ao uso de vários agentes imunossupressores. Em grande parte, as infecções desencadeiam recidivas que exigem hospitalização, com risco aumentado de morbidade e mortalidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a incidência, o espectro e os fatores de risco para infecções graves em crianças hospitalizadas com síndrome nefrótica. Métodos: Todas as crianças hospitalizadas consecutivamente entre 1 e 12 anos de idade com síndrome nefrótica foram incluídas no estudo. Crianças com nefrite aguda, síndrome nefrótica secundária, bem como aquelas admitidas para biópsia renal diagnóstica e infusão intravenosa de ciclofosfamida ou rituximabe foram excluídas. Resultados: Foram cadastradas 148 crianças com 162 internações. A incidência de infecções graves em crianças hospitalizadas com síndrome nefrótica foi de 43,8%. A peritonite foi a infecção mais comum (24%), seguida por pneumonia (18%), infecção do trato urinário (15%) e celulite (14%), contribuindo com dois terços das principais infecções. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9) foi o organismo predominantemente isolado em crianças com peritonite e pneumonia. Na análise de regressão logística, a albumina sérica < 1,5gm / dL foi o único fator de risco independente para todas as infecções (OR 2,6; 95% CI, 1,2-6; p = 0,01), especialmente para peritonite (OR 29; IC95% 3 -270, p = 0,003). Houve quatro mortes (2,5%) em nosso estudo, todas devido a sepse e falência de múltiplos órgãos. Conclusões: A infecção continua sendo uma importante causa de morbimortalidade em crianças com síndrome nefrótica. Como o Pneumococo foi a causa mais prevalente de infecção nessas crianças, deve-se atentar para a imunização pneumocócica em crianças com síndrome nefrótica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infections/mortality , Infections/epidemiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Peritonitis/blood , Cellulitis/complications , Cellulitis/microbiology , Cellulitis/epidemiology , Incidence , Albumins/analysis , Hospitalization/trends , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , India/epidemiology , Infections/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056822

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of students and dental practitioners about dental and biomedical waste disposal and to impart emphasis on important aspects such as eco-friendly waste management. Material and Methods: This questionnaire-based study involved 186 participants which comprised of 5 domains, namely laws regarding biomedical waste, steps of waste management, categories of dental waste, general hazards of improper waste disposal and certain material/process specific questions Results: Assessment of the first domain showed that only 58.4% of participants were able to correctly identify the Pollution Control Board of India as the regulatory body for the transport of medical waste. The second domain assessment revealed that 55.9% of subjects were adequately aware of the knowledge handling hospital waste. Assessment of the third domain displayed that the majority of the respondents (91.9%) knew categories of dental waste generated. Evaluation of fourth domain exhibited that 89.8% students agreed that biomedical waste management (BWM) must be made a practical exercise in dental schools to reduce "Know-Do gap" between undergraduates and postgraduates and the last domain demonstrated that only 32.3% of the participants knew the environmentally friendly technique to convert organic waste into commercially useful byproducts Conclusion: It was found that postgraduates had a better awareness of the proper methods to dispose of healthcare waste when compared to students and interns. However, the overall level of awareness was less than adequate. The need for special training in BWM in the clinical set up was highlighted through this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Medical Waste Disposal , Dental Waste , Waste Management , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , India/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056834

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal mouthwash (Himalaya Hiora Regular) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumanni during ultrasonic scaling. Material and Methods: Group B (n=25) received herbal mouthwash and Group A (n=25) received 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash respectively as a preprocedural rinse. The aerosols produced by the ultrasonic unit were collected on MeReSa and Leeds Acinetobacter Agar plates. The experimental setting included eight different locations covering all areas of the operatory. The plates exposed to aerosols for a period of 30 minutes were incubated aerobically at 37ºC for 48hrs and the colony forming units (CFU) were statistically analyzed Results: Herbal mouthwash (Himalaya Hiora Regular) showed a significant reduction in mean CFU of MRSA compared to 0.12% chlorhexidine. While herbal mouthwash was on par with 0.12% chlorhexidine in the reduction of A. baumannii Conclusion: Herbal mouthwash was found to be more effective against MRSA than 0.12% Chlorhexidine mouthwash as a pre-procedural rinse. Both herbal mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash was found to be effective against A. baumannii. Herbal mouthwash may be a safe alternative to chlorhexidine against nosocomial pathogens like MRSA and A. baumannii.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Ultrasonics , Chlorhexidine , Aerosols , Acinetobacter baumannii , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Chi-Square Distribution , Analysis of Variance , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , India/epidemiology
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056867

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the hearing efficiency of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) patients using Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) and to correlate between the hearing efficiency and clinical stage of OSF. Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients clinically diagnosed as OSF were evaluated for hearing loss using 'PTA'. Patients were grouped as mild cases and severe cases. Mild cases comprised of Group A and B, and severe cases comprised of Group C and D. Patients suffering from the previous hearing were excluded from the study. The data were submitted to statistical evaluation using the Chi-square test. The level of significance was set at 5% Results: Out of the total patients, 52.4% were diagnosed as mild cases (Group M) OSF and 47.6% as severe cases (Group S). The analysis of the data of mild cases and severe cases revealed a significant association between advancing stages of OSF and hearing loss (p = 0.026). The cases in Group M after otoscopic evaluation demonstrated no visible ear defect. However, 30% of cases in Group S showed retraction of the tympanic membrane Conclusion: The results indicate an association between stages of OSF and hearing loss. With advancing stages of OSF, there may be involvement of muscles of soft palate namely the levator veli palatine or tensor veli palatine, which may lead to the narrowing of the Eustachian tube leading to a decrease in air conduction demonstrating it as hearing loss of varying degrees depending upon the involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/pathology , Audiometry/instrumentation , Hearing , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , India/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056830

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of Ultrasonography (USG) in diagnosing superficial facial fractures. Material and Methods: Patients visiting our facility with facial trauma and suspected fracture of the facial skeleton, those who had undergone CT scans, and conventional radiographic examinations and those who were conscious and cooperative were included in the study. All conventional radiographs, CT scans and ultrasound examinations were done during 0-20 days after trauma in all the patients Results: A total of 20 patients participated in our study, out of which 18 were male (90%) with a mean age of 34.4 years (range of 19-75 years). Eleven sites of the face were examined bilaterally in each patient, i.e., a total of 440 sites. Of these, 84 sites were found to be fractured according to the CT scan examination whereas conventional radiographs detected 59 and ultrasonography detected 74 fractures (of which 70 were true fractures, while 4 were false-positive results). The sensitivity and specificity of USG in all fracture sites were 83.33% and 98.88% respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.59% and 96.17% respectively Conclusion: Ultrasound examination had a better sensitivity when compared to conventional radiography in detecting superficial facial fractures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Wounds and Injuries , Ultrasonography/instrumentation , Sensitivity and Specificity , Facial Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , India/epidemiology
16.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(1): 8-14, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the prevalence of idiopathic musculoskeletal pain (IMSP) in school going children and its impact on daily life. Methods: One thousand eighteen apparently healthy school children aged 5–16 years were assessed and analysed for IMSP and its associated problems. Standard tests for significance were applied. Results: One hundred and sixty-five (16.2%) children mostly males (55.2%) reported IMSP. Lower limbs (52.1%) were the most common location of pain. More than 1 year of pain history was present in 15%. Thirty-seven percent children complained of discomfort during walking, 30.9%, had pain during physical exercise, 29.2% had difficulty attending lessons and 4.2% had interference in pursuing hobbies. The children were also further sub grouped into preadolescents and adolescents. There was significant difference in pain duration and duration of each pain episode in the two groups (p = 0.01). A significant number of children (21.2%) with IMSP reported school absenteeism (p < 0.001). A significant number of adolescents had history positive for contact sports (p = 0.001). Sleep disturbances were also reported to be higher in children with IMSP (29% vs. 5.7%, p = 0.001). Other associated problems in children with IMSP found were day time tiredness (51.1%), headache (47.3%) and abdominal pain (24.8%). Conclusions: Prevalence of IMSP in school children aged 5–16 yrs was found to be 16.2% and a significant percentage of these children experience interference with daily activities including school absenteeism.


RESUMO Objetivos: Estudar a prevalência de dor musculoesquelética idiopática (DMEI) em crianças em idade escolar e seu impacto nas atividades diárias. Métodos: Foram avaliadas e analisadas 1.018 crianças em idade escolar aparentemente saudáveis entre cinco e 16 anos quanto à presença de DMEI e seus problemas associados. Foram aplicados os testes de significância padrão. Resultados: Relataram DMEI 165 (16,2%) crianças, em sua maior parte do sexo masculino (55,2%). Os membros inferiores (52,1%) foram a localização mais comum da dor. A história de dor presente havia mais de um ano foi encontrada em 15% das crianças; 37% delas queixaram-se de desconforto durante a caminhada, 30,9%, tinham dor durante o exercício físico, 29,2% tinham dificuldade de frequentar as aulas e 4,2% sofriam interferência na participação em passatempos. As crianças foram ainda subagrupadas em pré-adolescentes e adolescentes. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na duração da dor e na duração de cada episódio de dor nos dois grupos (p = 0,01). Uma quantidade significativa de crianças com DMEI (21,2%) relatou absentismo escolar (p < 0,001). Uma quantidade significativa de adolescentes tinha história positiva de prática de esportes de contato (p = 0,001). Os distúrbios do sono também foram relatados como maiores em crianças com DMEI (29% vs. 5,7%, p = 0,001). Outros problemas associados encontrados em crianças com DMEI foram o cansaço durante o dia (51,1%), a cefaleia (47,3%) e a dor abdominal (24,8%). Conclusões: A prevalência de DMEI encontrada em crianças entre cinco e 16 anos foi de 16,2%. Uma percentagem significativa dessas crianças relata interferência nas atividades diárias, incluindo absentismo escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Musculoskeletal Pain/physiopathology , Musculoskeletal Pain/epidemiology , Joint Instability/physiopathology , Joint Instability/epidemiology , Pain Measurement , Exercise , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age of Onset , Musculoskeletal Pain/psychology , India/epidemiology , Joint Instability/psychology
17.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 57-62, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838086

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background. There are only few reports about travel-associated, imported tropical hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 1 infections within Western travellers. We describe the clinical course of a single outbreak of hepatitis E in a German travellers group returning from India and compare the results of two commercial HEV-seroassays. Material and methods. After identifying hepatitis E in an index patient returning from a journey to India all 24 members of this journey were tested for anti-HEV-IgG and IgM using two commercial seroassays (Wantai and Mikrogen), for HEV-RNA by PCR and HEV-Ag by an antigen-assay (Wantai). Results. 5/24 (21%) individuals were viraemic with viral loads between 580-4,800,000 IU/mL. Bilirubin and ALT levels in these patients ranged from 1.3-14.9 mg/dL (mean 7.3 mg/dL, SD 5.6 mg/dL) and 151-4,820 U/L (mean 1,832U/L, SD 1842U/L), respectively and showed significant correlations with viral loads (r = 0.863, p < 0.001; r = 0.890, p < 0.001). No risk factor for food-borne HEV-transmission was identified. All viraemic patients (5/5) tested positive for anti-HEV-IgG and IgM in the Wantai-assay but only 4/5 in the Mikrogen-assay. Wantai-HEV-antigen-assay was negative in all patients. Six months later all previously viraemic patients tested positive for anti-HEV-IgG and negative for IgM in both assays. However, two non-viremic individuals who initially tested Wantai-IgM-positive stayed positive indicating false positive results. Conclusions. Despite the exact number of exposed individuals could not be determined HEV genotype 1 infections have a high manifestation rate of more than 20%.The Wantai-antigen-test failed, the Wantai-IgMrapid-test and the Mikrogen-IgM-recomblot showed a better performance but still they cannot replace real-time PCR for diagnosing ongoing HEV-infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Travel , Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Hepatitis E/virology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , Serologic Tests , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E virus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Hepatitis E/transmission , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Viral Load , False Positive Reactions , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Germany/epidemiology , India/epidemiology
18.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(6): 643-649, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828238

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Tinnitus is a common disorder that occurs frequently across all strata of population and has an important health concern. Tinnitus is often associated with different forms of hearing loss of varying severity. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the association of tinnitus with hearing loss in various otological disorders of a South Indian population. Methods: A total of 3255 subjects referred to the MAA ENT Hospital, Hyderabad, from 2004 to 2014, affected with various otological diseases have been included in the present cross-sectional study. Diagnosis of the diseases was confirmed by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist using detailed medical and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ 2 test and binary logistic regression. Results: Tinnitus was observed in 29.3% (956) of the total study subjects that showed an increased prevalence in greater than 40 years of age. There was a significant increase in risk of tinnitus with middle (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.02-3.16) and inner (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.65-5.45) inner ear diseases. It was noted that 96.9% (n = 927) of the tinnitus subjects was associated with hearing loss. Otitis media (60.9%), presbycusis (16.6%) and otosclerosis (14.3%) are the very common otological disorders leading to tinnitus. Tinnitus was significantly associated with higher degree of hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) subjects. Conclusion: The present study could identify the most prevalent otological risk factors leading to development of tinnitus with hearing loss in a South Indian population.


Resumo Introdução: O zumbido é um distúrbio comum que ocorre com frequência em todos os estratos da população, constituindo um problema importante de saúde. O zumbido é frequentemente associado a diferentes formas de perda auditiva e sua gravidade é variada. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar a associação entre zumbido e perda auditiva em várias doenças otológicas na população do Sul da Índia. Método: No total, 3.255 indivíduos encaminhados ao Hospital MAA ENT em Hyderabad de 2004 a 2014, com diversas doenças otológicas, foram incluídos neste estudo transversal. O diagnóstico das doenças foi confirmado pelo otorrinolaringologista por meio de exames médico e clínico detalhados. A análise estatística foi realizada com o teste do χ2 e regressão logística binária. Resultados: Zumbido foi observado em 29,3% (956) do total de participantes do estudo, com maior prevalência em indivíduos com mais de 40 anos de idade. Houve um aumento significante do risco de zumbido em doenças da orelha média (OR = 1,79, IC 95% = 1,02-3,16) e interna (OR = 3,00, IC 95% = 1,65-5,45). Observamos que em 96,9% (n = 927) dos indivíduos com zumbido houve associação com perda auditiva. Conclusão: O presente estudo pôde identificar os fatores etiológicos mais prevalentes que levam ao desenvolvimento de zumbido associado à perda auditiva em uma população do Sul da Índia. Otite média (60,9%), presbiacusia (16,6%) e otosclerose (14,3%) são doenças otológicas frequentemente associadas ao zumbido. Em indivíduos com otite média crônica supurativa (OMCS), o zumbido foi significantemente associado ao maior grau de perda auditiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tinnitus/etiology , Ear Diseases/complications , Hearing Loss/etiology , Tinnitus/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ear Diseases/epidemiology , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , India/epidemiology
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 52(4): 321-324, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771923

ABSTRACT

Background - Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are among the principal causes of severe liver disease. There is limited data of epidemiology of Hepatitis B in community, more so in rural population. Objective - To find the prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in community and study the risk factors for their transmission. Methods - This was a community based cross sectional study. A total of 1833 randomly selected subjects from a rural area were interviewed for risk factors for transmission and tested for markers of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection. All the positive card tests were confirmed by ELISA. Results - Out of 2400 subjects, rate for participation was 76.38%. None of the subjects was positive for anti hepatitis C virus antibody. Point prevalence for HBsAg positivity was 0.92. Being healthcare worker and having tattoo were significantly associated with HBsAg positive results. Nose and ear piercing was reported by almost. History of blood or blood product transfusion, I/V drug abuse, multiple sexual partners, unsafe Injections, hemodialysis and any h/o surgery was not associated with HBsAg positivity. Conclusion - Health care workers are at high risk for transmission of hepatitis B. Educating common people regarding mode of transmission of Hepatitis B and C will help to reduce their transmission.


Contexto - O vírus da hepatite B e o vírus da hepatite C estão entre as principais causas de doença grave do fígado. Há dados limitados de epidemiologia da hepatite B na comunidade observada, mais ainda na população rural. Objetivo - Encontrar a prevalência de infecção de hepatite B e C em uma comunidade da India e pesquisar os fatores de risco para sua transmissão. Métodos - Feito estudo de corte transversal em uma comunidade. Um total de 1833 sujeitos selecionados aleatoriamente em uma área rural foram entrevistados para fatores de risco para transmissão e testados para marcadores da infecção por hepatite B e C. Todos os testes positivos de cartão foram confirmados por ELISA. Resultados - Dos 2400 pacientes objetivados houve uma taxa de participação de 76.38%. Nenhum dos indivíduos foi positivo para anticorpo anti vírus da hepatite C. A prevalência pontual para a positividade do HBsAg foi de 0,92. Ser trabalhador na área de saúde e ter tatuagem foram significativamente associados com resultados positivos de HBsAg. "Piercing" em nariz e orelha foram relatados por quase todos. História de transfusão de sangue ou uso de hemoderivados, abuso de drogas via endovenosa, múltiplos parceiros sexuais, injeções inseguras, hemodiálise e história prévia de cirurgia, não estiveram associadas à positividade do HBsAg. Conclusão - Os trabalhadores de saúde estão em alto risco para a transmissão de hepatite B. Educar pessoas comuns sobre o modo de transmissão de hepatite B e C ajudará a reduzir a sua transmissão.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , India/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1125-1133, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769665

ABSTRACT

In this study, we present antifungal susceptibility data of clinical and environmental isolates of Central Indian Cryptococcus neoformans (Serotype A, n = 8 and n = 50 respectively) and Cryptococcus gattii (Serotype B, n = 01 and n = 04 respectively). Susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined by using NCCLS broth micro-dilution methodology. The total number of resistant strains for fluconazole in case of C. neoformans and C. gattii showed a significant difference by using chi-square test (p < 0.05*), while considering fisher's exact p value was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). However, the total number of resistant strains for itraconazole and ketoconazole was not found statistically significant. A comparison of geometric means of clinical and environmental strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans was not found statistically significant using student ‘t’ test (p value > 0.05 NS). Though less, the antifungal data obtained in this study suggests that primary resistance among environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii against tested antifungal was present and C. gattii comparatively was less susceptible than C. neoformans var. grubii isolates to fluconazole than to itraconazole and ketoconazole. A continuous surveillance of antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii is desirable to monitor the emergence of any resistant strains for better management of cryptococcosis patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Environmental Microbiology , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fluconazole/pharmacology , India/epidemiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
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