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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Deer , Cattle , Sheep , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Indian Ocean , Horses
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Seaweeds are a major marine resource that can be explored to develop novel pharmaceutical molecules. The present study showed the presence of unique bioactive components in the petroleum ether extract (PEE) and methanolic extract (ME) of Sargassum tenerrimum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the PEE of S. tenerrimum contained antibacterial biomolecules: hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 17-pentatriacontene, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, and acetate (ester). However, the ME of S. tenerrimum exhibited better antibacterial effect than the PEE due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, tetratetracontane, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzenediol, and benzoic acid. Thus, promising antibacterial molecules can be isolated from S. tenerrimum for better therapeutic use.


Resumo As algas marinhas são um importante recurso marinho que pode ser explorado para desenvolver novas moléculas farmacêuticas. O presente estudo mostrou a presença de componentes bioativos únicos no extrato etéreo de petróleo (PEE) e no extrato metanólico (ME) de Sargassum tenerrimum. A análise por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massa sugeriu que o PEE de S. tenerrimum continha biomoléculas antibacterianas: ácido hexadecanoico, éster metílico, 17-pentatriaconteno, dasycarpidan-1-metanol e acetato (éster). Entretanto, o ME de S. tenerrimum exibiu melhor efeito antibacteriano do que o PEE devido à presença dos compostos bioativos ácido 1,2-benzenodicarboxílico, éster diisooctil, tetratetracontano, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzoenodiol e ácido benzoico. Assim, moléculas antibacterianas promissoras podem ser isoladas de S. tenerrimum para melhor uso terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Sargassum , Saudi Arabia , Plant Extracts , Indian Ocean , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244703, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278506

ABSTRACT

In this study, oil degrading bacteria discovered from fish living near the oil ports at Karachi in Pakistan were characterized. The bacteria isolated from skin, gills, and gut in fish could consume crude oil as a source of carbon and energy. Total 36 isolates were tested using Nutrient Agar (NA) and MSA media with different crude oil concentrations (0.2%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 1%, 2%, and 5%) and 4 out of 36 isolates (two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria) were selected for further identification. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates are related to Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus flexus, Pseudomonas brenneri and Pseudomonas azotoforman. Oil degrading potential of these bacteria was characterized by GC-MS analysis of degradation of oil components in crude oil as well as engine oil. We found that one (2, 6, 10, 14-Tetramethylpentadecane) out of 42 components in the crude oil was fully eliminated and the other oil components were reduced. In addition, 26 out of 42 oil components in the engine oil, were fully eliminated and the rest were amended. Taken together, these studies identify that B. velezensis, B. flexus, P. brenneri and P. azotoforman have high oil degrading potential, which may be useful for degradation of oil pollutants and other commercial applications.


Neste estudo, bactérias degradadoras de óleo descobertas em peixes que vivem perto dos portos de petróleo em Karachi, no Paquistão, foram caracterizadas. As bactérias isoladas da pele, guelras e intestinos dos peixes podem consumir petróleo bruto como fonte de carbono e energia. No total, 36 isolados foram testados usando Agar Nutriente (NA) e meio MSA com diferentes concentrações de óleo bruto (0,2%, 0,5%, 0,7%, 1%, 2% e 5%) e 4 de 36 isolados (dois Gram positivos e duas bactérias Gram negativas) foram selecionadas para posterior identificação. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA revelou que os isolados estão relacionados a Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus flexus, Pseudomonas brenneri e Pseudomonas azotoforman. O potencial de degradação do óleo dessas bactérias foi caracterizado pela análise de GC-MS da degradação dos componentes do óleo no óleo cru, bem como no óleo do motor. Descobrimos que um (2, 6, 10, 14-tetrametilpentadecano) de 42 componentes do óleo cru foi totalmente eliminado e os outros componentes do óleo foram reduzidos. Além disso, 26 dos 42 componentes do óleo do motor foram totalmente eliminados e o restante corrigido. Juntos, esses estudos identificam que B. velezensis, B. flexus, P. brenneri e P. azotoforman têm alto potencial de degradação de óleo, o que pode ser útil para a degradação de poluentes de óleo e outras aplicações comerciais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Petroleum , Pakistan , Pseudomonas , Bacillus , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Indian Ocean , Fishes
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246309, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278504

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the biochemical composition of some Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt was investigated. The results showed that the highest percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was in Holothuria nobilis and the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria scabra. The highest percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was recorded in Pearsonothuria graeffei while the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. The highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was recorded in Holothuria nobilis and the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. The highest percentage of omega-3 fatty acids was recorded in Stichopus hermanni however, the lowest percentage was recorded in Diadema setosum. The highest percentage of omega-6 fatty acids was recorded in Bohadschia vitiensis where, the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. In addition, nonessential amino acid (NEAA) glycine were the highest in all species and serine was the lowest while Essential amino acid (EAA) arginine was the highest and cysteine was the lowest. All of the NEAA recorded highest concentrations in S. hermanni except proline. The recorded essential amino acids were histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and leucine. The latter was high in Pearsonothuria graeffei. Tyrosine, valine, threonine, and arginine were high in Stichopus hermanni. The present study proved that sea cucumbers has great nutritional value.


No presente estudo, investigou-se a composição bioquímica de algumas espécies Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) do Mar Vermelho no Egito. Os resultados mostraram que a maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos saturados (SFA) foi na espécie Holothuria nobilis e a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria scabra. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (MUFA) foi registrada na espécie Pearsonothuria graeffei, enquanto a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria atra. O maior percentual de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (PUFA) foi registrado em Holothuria nobilis e o menor percentual foi registrado em Holothuria atra. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos ômega-3 foi registrada na espécie Stichopus hermanni, entretanto, a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Diadema setosum. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos ômega-6 foi registrada em Bohadschia vitiensis e a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria atra. Além disso, o nível de aminoácido não-essencial (NEAA) glicina foi o mais alto em todas as espécies e o de serina foi o mais baixo, enquanto o nível de aminoácido essencial (EAA) arginina foi o mais alto e a cisteína foi o mais baixo. Todos os NEAA registraram concentrações mais altas em S. hermanni, exceto prolina. Os aminoácidos essenciais registrados foram histidina, isoleucina, fenilalanina e leucina. A leucina apresentou alto nível na espécie Pearsonothuria graeffei. Tirosina, valina, treonina e arginina apresentaram níveis elevados em Stichopus hermanni. Assim, o presente estudo comprovou que o pepino-do-mar possui grande valor nutricional.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sea Cucumbers , Sea Urchins , Indian Ocean , Echinodermata , Egypt
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 169-178, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153044

ABSTRACT

Foodborne viruses including hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NoV), rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are easily transmitted through contaminated seafoods. The current research was done to assess the incidence of RoV, NoV GI and GII,hAV and hEV in fish and shrimp samples caught from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Three-hundred and twenty fish and shrimp samples were collected. The presence of foodborne viruses were assessed by the real-time PCR. Forty-nine out of 320 (15.31%) fish and shrimp samples were positive for foodborne viruses. Distribution of hAV, NoV GI and NoV GII amongst all studied samples were 0.93%, 5.93% and 8.43%, respectively. hEV and RoV viruses were not found in studied samples. Parastromateus niger and Scomberomorus commerson fish and Penaeus monodon shrimp were the most frequently contaminated samples. Simultaneous incidence of hAV and NoV GI and hAV and NoV GII were 0.31% and 0.93%, respectively. Distribution of foodborne viruses in samples collected through spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons were 14.28%, 9.33%, 11.76% and 24.44%, respectively. Findings revealed that the incidence of foodborne viruses was significantly associated with seafood species and also season of sampling.(AU)


Vírus transmitidos por alimentos, incluindo hepatite A (HAV), norovírus (NoV), rotavírus (RoV) e hepatite E (HEV) são facilmente transmitidos através de frutos do mar contaminados. Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a incidência de RoV, NoV GI e GII, hAV e hEV em amostras de peixes e camarões capturadas no Golfo Pérsico, Irã. Foram coletadas 300 amostras de peixes e camarões. A presença de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi avaliada por PCR em tempo real. Quarenta e nove das 320 amostras de peixes e camarões (15,31%) foram positivas para vírus transmitidos por alimentos. A distribuição de hAV, NoV GI e NoV GII entre as amostras estudadas foi 0,93%, 5,93% e 8,43%, respectivamente. Os vírus hEV e RoV não foram encontrados nas amostras estudadas. Os peixes Parastromateus niger e Scomberomorus commerson e o camarão Penaeus monodon foram as amostras mais frequentemente contaminadas. A incidência simultânea de hAV e NoV GI, e hAV e NoV GII foi de 0,31% e 0,93%, respectivamente. A distribuição dos vírus transmitidos por alimentos nas amostras coletadas na primavera, verão, outono e inverno foi de 14,28%, 9,33%, 11,76% e 24,44%, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a incidência de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi significativamente associada às espécies de frutos do mar e também à época da amostragem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decapoda/virology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fishes/virology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Shellfish/virology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Indian Ocean/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Iran/epidemiology
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 625-631, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057969

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current parasitological study was carried out to investigate helminth parasites infecting the Red spot emperor Lethrinus lentjan inhabiting Hurghada City at the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Egypt. Third-stage larvae of nematode parasite was isolated from the intestine as well as body cavity of the examined fish. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that this parasite belonged to Anisakidae family within the genus Pseudoterranova. The present species is named Pseudoterranova decipiens based on the presence of triangular mouth aperture with prominent boring teeth and soft swellings of the cuticle, long muscular esophagus, ventrally excretory pore, and narrow transverse slit of anal opening followed by a short mucron. The morphological characteristics of this species were confirmed by molecular analysis of 18S rDNA gene region of the present parasite. It demonstrated a close identity ≥89% with taxa under family Anisakidae, 85% with Raphidascarididae, and 79-84% with Toxocaridae. A preliminary genetic comparison between gene sequence of the present parasite and other oxyurid species placeed it as a putative sister taxon to other Pseudoterranova decipiens described previously. This study demonstrated that the 18S rDNA gene region of Pseudoterranova decipiens yielded a unique sequence that confirmed its taxonomic position in Anisakidae.


Resumo O presente estudo parasitológico foi realizado para investigar os helmintos parasitos que infectam o peixe imperador Lethrinus lentjan, que habita a cidade de Hurghada no Golfo de Suez, Mar Vermelho, no Egito. Larvas de terceiro estágio de parasitos nematoides foram isoladas do intestino e da cavidade do corpo do peixe examinado. Microscopia eletrônica de luz e de varredura revelou que este parasita pertence à família Anisakidae dentro do gênero Pseudoterranova. A espécie atual é denominada Pseudoterranova decipiens baseada na presença de abertura triangular da boca com dentes proeminentes chatos e inchaços moles da cutícula, esôfago muscular longo, poro ventralmente excretor e fenda transversal estreita da abertura anal seguida por um mucron curto. As características morfológicas desta espécie foram confirmadas pela análise molecular da região do gene 18S rDNA do presente parasito. Demonstrou uma identidade próxima ≥89% com taxa sob família Anisakidae, 85% com Raphidascarididae, e 79-84% com Toxocaridae. Uma comparação genética preliminar entre a sequência genética do presente parasito e outras espécies de oxiurídeos coloca-o como um taxon irmão putativo para outros Pseudoterranova descritos anteriormente. Este estudo demonstra que a região do gene 18S rDNA de Pseudoterranova decipiens produz uma sequência única que confirma sua posição taxonômica em Anisakidae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes/parasitology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Indian Ocean , Egypt , Fishes/classification , Nematoda/classification , Nematoda/genetics , Nematoda/ultrastructure
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 92-98, feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003657

ABSTRACT

Resumen Hemos denominado bacterias del siglo XXI a dos tipos de extrañas y maravillosas criaturas del Reino Protista, descubiertas entre los últimos años del siglo pasado y los días que hoy vivimos: las bacterias gigantes y las de un posible origen marciano. En su búsqueda, audaces investigadores han viajado a tierras distantes y peligrosas, acampando en lugares desolados y descendiendo a las profundidades marinas, actividades que llamamos investigación aventura. Presentamos como ejemplos una expedición al Mar Rojo, buscando el gigantesco Epulopiscium; una temporada en el lago Mono, California, en pos de una bacteria con arsénico en su ADN; un patrullaje en el Ártico, para encontrar bacterias petrificadas en un meteorito marciano; sin olvidar que el tranquilo laboratorio también puede ser un lugar peligroso, porque toda investigación es una aventura.


We denominate "21st century bacteria" two types of strange and amazing creatures from the kingdom Protista, discovered between the last years of the twentieth and the present days: the giant bacteria and those with a possible Martian origin. Searching for them, bold investigators have travelled to distant and hostile lands, desolate places and deep waters, performing a kind of investigation that we only can describe as "investigation-adventure". This paper presents expeditions to the Red Sea, fishing the Epulopiscium; to Lake Mono, searching a bacteria able to growth with arsenic; to the Antarctic Circle, finding a meteorite with petrified alien microorganisms; and… to the quiet laboratory, a not less dangerous place.


Subject(s)
History, 21st Century , Bacteria , Mars , Sulfides , Indian Ocean , Namibia
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180198, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011520

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melanogenesis is a biological process which led to the synthesis of melanin pigment. Abnormal melanin production results in melasma, solar lentigo, post inflammatory melanoderma, etc. In this study, we examined the potential inhibitory effects of 17 brown macroalgae from Persian Gulf on melanogenesis. The effects of various concentrations (100, 250 and 500 µg/mL) of methanolic extracts of macroalgae belonging to four genera (including: Padina, Colpomonia, Cystoseira and Sargassum) were studied on oxidation of L-Dopa by mushroom tyrosinase. Subsequently, the activity of macroalgae with high inhibitory effect on monophenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase and zebrafish was investigated using L-tyrosine as a substrate. Anti-melanogenesis effects of algae extracts were studied on zebrafish as an alternative in vivo model. Kojic acid was used as a positive control. All the tested macroalgae showed inhibitory effect on activities of diphenolase and monophenolase (of mushroom tyrosinase). P. boergesinii exhibited the most in vivo anti-tyrosinase activity compared with other samples. P. boergesenii inhibited zebrafish tyrosinase more potent than kojic acid (83% vs 50% inhibition for kojic acid). Moreover, it reduced melanin synthesis in zebrafish 42% (kojic acid: 50%).


Subject(s)
Monophenol Monooxygenase/analysis , Microalgae/chemistry , Zebrafish , Indian Ocean
9.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 200-206, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758800

ABSTRACT

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, febrile zoonotic disease that is caused by the RVF virus (RVFV). RVF is mainly prevalent on the Arabian Peninsula, the African continent, and several islands in the Indian Ocean near southeast Africa. RVFV has been classified by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as a category A pathogen. To avoid biological safety concerns associated with use of the pathogen in RVFV neutralization assays, the present study investigated and established an RVFV pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. This study used the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) lentiviral packaging system and RVFV structural proteins to successfully construct RVFV pseudoviruses. Electron microscopy observation and western blotting indicated that the size, structure, and shape of the packaged pseudoviruses were notably similar to those of HIV lentiviral vectors. Infection inhibition assay results showed that an antibody against RVFV inhibited the infective ability of the RVFV pseudoviruses, and an antibody neutralization assay for RVFV detection was then established. This study has successfully established a neutralization assay based on RVFV pseudoviruses and demonstrated that this method can be used to effectively evaluate antibody neutralization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Africa , Blotting, Western , HIV , Indian Ocean , Islands , Methods , Microscopy, Electron , Product Packaging , Rift Valley fever virus , Rift Valley Fever , Zoonoses
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17811, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001564

ABSTRACT

Seaweeds constitutes an abundant marine reserve that can be harnessed as source of new pharmaceutical agents. Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh is a brown seaweed that is predominantly available from December to March in the Red Sea, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). In this study, three extracts were isolated using three different techniques, and were subjected to antibacterial assay. The petroleum ether extract of Sargassum binderi was more effective against selected human pathogenic bacteria than the other extracts. Therefore, further studies were focused on developing oleic acid vesicles entrapped with the petroleum ether extract of Sargassum binderi, with the aim of enhancing its penetration property. Oleic acid vesicles were prepared by entrapping petroleum ether extract of Sargassum binderi using film hydration technique. The formulated vesicles were in nanoscale, and so were termed phyto-nanovesicles (PNVs). The spectrum of antibacterial activity of PNVs showed that it is a promising formulation against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, B. subtilis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The microbial sensitivities to the PNVs was in the order E.coli > B. subtilis > S. aureus > S. pyogenes > K. pneumoniae > P. aeruginosa. Thus, the PNV formulation possesses promising and effective antimicrobial potential against human pathogenic bacteria


Subject(s)
Indian Ocean/ethnology , Sargassum/metabolism , Seaweed/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents
11.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (3): 339-348
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138290

ABSTRACT

Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis,and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography [TLC]-bioautography, agar disc diffusion [ADD] and nutrient-broth micro-dilution [NBMD] bioassays. The water extracts were found to have the most antioxidant activity.The antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC] of the active extracts were determined for the susceptible organisms, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis, using NBMD bioassays.The active substances were identified as free fatty acids [FFA] using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS] and after derivatization to their methyl esters, their concentrations were measured using GC- flame ionization detection [GC-FID]. In addition to the fatty acids, fucosterol, cholesterol and 22-dehydroxychlosterol were detected as the major sterols in S. boveanum extract using GC-MS analyses


Subject(s)
Phaeophyceae/chemistry , Biological Assay , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Indian Ocean , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
12.
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2013; 7 (4): 841-850
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138317

ABSTRACT

This study presents an empirical relationship of suspended sediment concentrations [SSCs] in the coastal waters, which is derived from the conventional methods, to radiometer remote sensing reflectance values [R[rs]] and satellite data in coastal waters of Kerala. An algorithm is then developed to utilize both in situ SSCs measured from conventional methods and R[rs] values. This algorithm is validated with the SSCs retrieved from Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor [OCM] data. A significant coefficient of determination [R[2]=0.62] is observed between the SSCs measured in situ and satellite derived SSCs. Reflectance values from more than two spectral wavelength bands are also employed to test the accuracy of results. Satellite derived SSCs range from 1- 40 mg/L in the coastal waters off Cochin, southwest India. The regional algorithm developed for the study area gives better results than Tassan's algorithm, and this algorithm can be used in estimation of SSC for coastal waters of western India


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Remote Sensing Technology , Geologic Sediments/analysis , Models, Theoretical , Linear Models , Particulate Matter , Indian Ocean
13.
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2012; 6 (3): 645-652
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144234

ABSTRACT

One of the difficulties in using absolute altitudes is the separation between the mean open sea level and geoid. Theoretically, geoid is the base level in absolute altitudes, but practically, the mean open sea level is used as a base level for absolute altitudes. The difference between these two levels is called as the sea surface topography. In this research, it is dealt the mean sea level modeling by using the observations of three altimeter satellites [i.e. Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and GFO] in Persian Gulf and then it is dealt with the evaluation of existing models of the sea surface topography based on the altimeter satellites data and the global geopotential geoid models [i.e. European Improved Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques, Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer, Earth Gravitational Model 2008. The results of this research indicate that the sea surface topographical model resulting from the EIGEN06C geoid is the most precise model with changes range between -2.482 m and -1.511 m and mean -0.23 m


Subject(s)
Moire Topography , Satellite Communications , Indian Ocean
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(3): 747-760, Sept. 2010. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556809

ABSTRACT

The Eocene-Pliocene deep sea ostracodes from the ODP site 744A (Kerguelen Plateau) are herein studied under the taxonomic and paleoecologic aspects. 28 species are identified, being the genera Krithe, Cytherella and Dutoitella the most diversified. A faunal threshold was recorded in the Early Oligocene, which is tentatively explained under the knowledge of the paleoceanographical studies carried out not only in the Kerguelen Plateau but also in adjacent areas. The faunal turnover and variations in both richness and abundance possibly reflect the inception of psychrosphere and the influence of hydrological changes in the preservation of carapaces. Moreover, the influence of those changes on carbonate preservation is discussed as the cause of faunal impoverishment in the upper portion of the core.


Ostracodes do intervalo Eoceno-Plioceno do sítio 744A do ODP (Platô Kerguelen) são aqui estudados sob o aspecto taxonômico e paleoecológico. 28 espécies são identificadas, sendo os gêneros Krithe, Cytherella e Dutoitella os mais diversificados. Uma transição faunística registrada no Eoligoceno é investigada com base em estudos paleoceanográficos realizados no Platô Kerguelen e em áreas adjacentes. A transição e as variações de riqueza e abundância possivelmente refletem o estabelecimento da psicrosfera e mudanças hidrológicas associadas, na composição da fauna. Além disso, a influência destas mudanças na preservação do carbonato é discutida comopossível causa do empobrecimento da fauna na porção superior do testemunho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Crustacea/classification , Indian Ocean , Paleontology , Phylogeography , Population Density
15.
University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 2010; 14 (2): 302-293
in Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-122782

ABSTRACT

The Recent marine Ostracoda from the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean were studied by analyzing three sediment samples, two of them were collected from the shallow marine environment in Aden city, and the third sample was collected from the deep marine environment in the Indian Ocean. In this study, 38 species belonging to 29 genera were recorded. The aim of the current paper is to identify the recent marine Ostracoda in this region and to review the application uses of this animal in the environmental and palaeoenvironmental studies. The distribution of Ostracoda assemblages obviously shows the difference in the environmental conditions which are related to water depth. The application of statistical data on Ostracoda, such as speciation and individuality, closed and open valves and smooth or ornamented forms, were made to interpret the environmental conditions such as salinity, substrate and rate of sedimentation. The present study also reveals that there are different environmental conditions in particular coasts in Aden


Subject(s)
Environment , Indian Ocean , Marine Biology
16.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2010; 65 (1): 37-41
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-123613

ABSTRACT

Because of limits in applicable karyological techniques and also the presence of a large number of small chromosomes in Penaidae family, the study on the number, structure, and the formula of the chromosomes in these shrimps in difficult. The present cytogenetic study was conducted on Penaeus [Fenneropenaeus] merguiensis native to Persian Gulf and Oman Sea by preparing spreads from various early stages of this species including embryos, nauplii, protozoa, myses, postlarvae as well as adult tissues such as gill, hepatopancreas, testis and ovary. For this purpose, two methods of splashing of cell suspension and squashing of tissues on warm and cold slides were used. Different doses of colchicines and incubation periods on obtaining and the quality of chromosomes were examined as well. It was only possible to obtain acceptable quality metaphase chromosomes using adult testis. The testicular tissue contained both mitotic and meiotic cells, so diploid and haploid chromosome numbers could be counted, respectively. The modal diploid number of this species was found to be 2n=88 which was confirmed by the modal haploid chromosome number of n=44 in the adult testes. Tentative karyotype of Penaeus [Fenneropenaeus] merguiensis contained 21 pairs of meta- and submetacentric chromosomes and 23 pairs of acro- and telocentric chromosomes. The chromosome arm number was calculated NF=130


Subject(s)
Animals , Karyotyping , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes , Indian Ocean
19.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2010; 7 (2): 327-336
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-99056

ABSTRACT

Flocculation can be considered as an effective mechanism in self-purification of metals during estuarine mixing. In the present investigation, flocculation of metals during mixing of Minab River water with the Strait of Hormuz [The Persian Gulf] water is studied for the first time. Flocculation behavior of metals [except for Pb] is governed by dissolved organic carbon. The source of dissolved organic carbon is terrigenous in the estuarine waters of study area. The general pattern of flocculation of studied metals is manganese [180 micro g/L] > zinc [88 micro g/L]> nickle [73 micro g/L]> copper [30 micro g/L]> lead [19 micro g/L]. The results of present study show that metal species are a very important factor in overall flocculation rate. It is found that solids and oxides have the highest and lowest flocculation levels, respectively. Eh-pH diagram indicated that lead is present as lead oxide in Minab River water and the least flocculation rate is attributed to this element. The results also showed that flocculation rate of metal species could be as solids > free ions = hydroxides > oxides. The amount of metal flocculation is about 30.5, 6.6, 25.3, 10.4 and 62.5 ton/y for zinc, Pb, Ni, Cu and Mn, respectively


Subject(s)
Metals , Rivers , Water , Water Pollution , Indian Ocean
20.
Journal of Environmental Studies. 2010; 35 (52): 43-54
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-99089
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