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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(2): 362-378, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254704

ABSTRACT

Realizou-se um estudo descritivo com os casos notificados de Sífilis Gestacional (SG) em São Luís (Maranhão) no período de 2006 a 2018. Foram analisadas as tendências de indicadores epidemiológicos pela regressão Joinpoint e as características do agravo com base nos dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan). Foram notificados 1.688 casos de SG no período estudado, com tendência significativa de aumento no número de casos novos, na prevalência e no coeficiente de detecção. O perfil das gestantes com SG mostrou que a infecção foi mais frequente em mulheres de 20 a 29 anos, com ensino médio e pardas. Além disso, houve predomínio da forma primária, frequentemente detectada no terceiro trimestre gestacional e tratada com penicilina. A persistência da infecção por sífilis na gestação demonstra uma falha na prevenção de infecções sexuais na população, especialmente na gestação, implicando riscos para e mãe e para o concepto.


A descriptive study was performed with the reported cases of Gestational Syphilis (GS) in São Luís (Maranhão) from 2006 to 2018. We analyzed the trends of epidemiological indicators by the Joinpoint regression and the characteristics of the disease based on the data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan). 1,688 cases of GS were reported in the period studied, with a significant tendency of increasing in the number of new cases, prevalence and detection coefficient. The profile of pregnant women with GS showed that the infection was more frequent in women aged 20 to 29 years, with high school and mixed race. Additionally, there was a predominance of the primary form, frequently detected in the third trimester of pregnancy and treated with penicillin. The persistence of syphilis infection during pregnancy demonstrates a failure to prevent sexual infections in the population, especially during pregnancy, implying risks for both the mother and the fetus.


Estudio descriptivo con los casos notificados de Sífilis Gestacional (SG) en São Luís (Maranhão) de 2006 a 2018. Se analizaron las tendencias de los indicadores epidemiológicos mediante regresión Joinpoint y las características de la enfermedad con base en datos del Sistema de Información de Quejas formales (Sinan). Se notificaron 1.688 casos de SG en el período estudiado, con una tendencia significativa al aumento en el número de nuevos casos, en la prevalencia y en el coeficiente de detección. El perfil de gestantes con SG mostró que la infección fue más frecuente en mujeres de 20 a 29 años, con estudios secundarios y mestizas. Además, predominó la forma primaria, frecuentemente detectada en el tercer trimestre del embarazo y tratada con penicilina. La persistencia de la infección por sífilis durante el embarazo demuestra la falta de prevención de las infecciones sexuales en la población, especialmente durante el embarazo, lo que implica riesgos tanto para la madre como para el feto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Information Systems , Syphilis , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Indicators and Reagents , Prenatal Care , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive
2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e945, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347455

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Desde marzo de 2020 Cuba está siendo afectada por el SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus altamente infeccioso y causante de la COVID-19. La COVID-19 presenta un conjunto de síntomas asociados y la evolución de los pacientes puede estar influenciada por la presencia de ciertos antecedentes patológicos personales en el hospedero. Objetivo: Identificar mediante componentes principales el agrupamiento de variables clínicas en los pacientes con COVID-19 en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. La población de estudio se conformó por los 49 casos confirmados con COVID-19 en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba desde el 20 de marzo hasta el 30 de abril del 2020. Se seleccionaron diez variables clínicas: nueve relacionadas con los síntomas y los antecedentes patológicos personales, y una con el estado fallecido. Se aplicó como técnica estadística el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se obtuvo la representación de las variables en el plano de los dos primeros componentes principales. El primer componente estuvo asociado a los síntomas y el segundo componente a los antecedentes patológicos personales no asociados al aparato respiratorio. Esta representación reveló que en el primer y cuarto cuadrantes del plano se ubicaron las variables que llevaron a una evolución desfavorable de los casos, siendo notable para los que se ubican en el cuarto cuadrante. El segundo y tercer cuadrantes fueron indicadores de la evolución favorable, marcada en el segundo cuadrante. Conclusiones: El análisis de componentes principales agrupa las variables clínicas y corrobora que los antecedentes patológicos personales tienen el rol esencial en la evolución desfavorable de los pacientes con COVID-19(AU)


Introduction: Since March 2020, Cuba has been affected by SARS-CoV-2, a highly infectious coronavirus that causes COVID-19. In COVID-19 a set of associated symptoms is presented and its evolution can be influenced by the presence of certain personal pathological antecedents in the host. Objective: To identify through principal components the grouping of clinical variables in cases with COVID-19 in Santiago de Cuba province, Cuba. Methods: We conducted an observational, descriptive and transversal study. The study population consisted of the 49 confirmed cases with COVID-19 in the province of Santiago de Cuba. Ten clinical variables were selected: nine related to symptoms and personal pathological history, and one to the state "deceased". Principal component analysis was applied as a statistical technique. Results: Variables were represented at the level of the first two principal components. The first component was associated to symptoms and the second component to personal pathological antecedents not associated to the respiratory system. This representation revealed that variables leading to an unfavorable evolution of cases were located in the first and fourth quadrants of the plane, being remarkable for those located in the fourth quadrant. The second and third quadrants were indicators of the favorable evolution, being marked in the second quadrant. Conclusions: The principal component analysis groups the clinical variables and corroborates that personal pathological antecedents have an essential role in the unfavorable evolution of patients with COVID-19(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Principal Component Analysis/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Indicators and Reagents , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Medical History Taking/methods
3.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 32(1): e1753, tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280194

ABSTRACT

El estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la viabilidad de la aplication de herramientas que ilustren el uso de la colección y de la institución, por parte la comunidad usuaria de la Biblioteca Provincial "Martí", y contribuyan a una mejor toma de decisiones. La investigación se basó en una combinación de métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos; entre ellos, los matemáticos y estadísticos y las herramientas de visualización de la información. La muestra comprendió 1 422 usuarios, representativa del 25 por ciento del total de la población de la Biblioteca Provincial "Martí", de Villa Clara. A partir de la información que se generó en el sistema de control estadístico de la institución, se recolectaron, se procesaron y se analizaron indicadores relativos al índice de captación, los servicios por usuarios, el uso de la biblioteca, el índice de circulación de la colección, el índice de rotación de la colección y el co-uso de los documentos por temáticas. Los datos revelaron aspectos esenciales de la gestión de la institución objeto de estudio y la necesidad de acometer acciones con respecto a su política de adquisición y de difusión, a fin de revertir los aspectos con incidencia negativa. El trabajo concluye con el reconocimiento de que la aplicación de esta novedosa forma de tratar los datos es una alternativa para la presentación de información en el proceso de la toma de decisiones de cualquier institución similar(AU)


The purpose of the study was to examine the viability of the application of tools that illustrate the use of the collection and the institution, by the user community of the Martí Provincial Library, which contributes to better decision-making.The research was based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, among them mathematical and statistical, and information visualization tools. The sample was composed of 1 422 users representing 25 percent of the total population of Martí Provincial Library in Villa Clara. Starting from the information generated by the statistical control system of the institution, indicators were collected, processed and analyzed which had to do with the following variables: recruitment rate, services per user, use of the library, collection circulation rate, collection turnover rate, and document co-use by subject. The data revealed essential aspects of management at the study institution, as well as the need to implement actions related to their acquisition and dissemination policy with a view to improving deficient areas. The paper recognizes that application of this novel way to treat data is an alternative for the presentation of information in the decision-making process at any similar institution(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diffusion , Information , Indicators and Reagents , Libraries
4.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 3 feb. 2021. 28 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1224546

ABSTRACT

En los antecedentes, brinda detalles técnicos de enfermedades previas al COVID-19 y sigue esta consigna internacional: "Sin embargo, a la luz de la posible introducción de un caso sospechoso relacionado con el 2019-nCoV en la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios Nacionales o de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio." Aborda las tres mutaciones del virus conocidas hasta la fecha del documento y las tres variantes conocidas: Reino Unido e Irlanda del Norte, República de Sudáfrica y Brasil, siendo la de mayor transmisibilidad, según el documento, la del Reino Unido. El primero de los objetivos del documento es: "Brindar los lineamientos generales para la toma de muestra, conservación, transporte y diagnóstico del SARS-Cov-2 en los laboratorios descentralizados bajo la técnica de Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR) en tiempo Real, en atención a pacientes que cumplen con la definición de caso y se tipifica como "sospechoso inusitado"." Incluye como anexo 2 el documento: "Lineamientos para el abordaje de casos positivos para SARS-COV-2 de viajeros que ingresan al país por el aeropuerto internacional "La Aurora" (AILA)"


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Guatemala , Indicators and Reagents/administration & dosage , Laboratories/standards
5.
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1255156

ABSTRACT

The gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 is the reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay, which searches for SARS­CoV-2 target genes in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) samples, and its performance depends on the quantity and quality of the RNA input. This study compared the performance and cost-effectiveness of three different kits/reagents for RNA extraction used in COVID-19 diagnosis in Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 300 NP/OP samples belonging to suspected cases of COVID-19 stored in a biorepository were randomly selected, and RNA was extracted using (i) automated extraction (Loccus, Extracta Kit FAST), (ii) manual extraction (BioGene Kit, Bioclin, Quibasa), and (iii) quick extraction methods (Lucigen, Quick DNA Extract Kit). Next, the samples were tested using RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 with the Allplex 2019-nCoV modified assay and the Charité-Berlin protocol. All assays/kits were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. For the Allplex kit, the sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 with previously extracted RNA by different procedures was 100.0% for Loccus, 100.0% for BioGene and 91.9% for Quick. Using the Charité-Berlin protocol, the sensitivities were 81.4% for Loccus, 81.2% for BioGene and 60.7% for Quick. The least sensitive target gene and the gene most affected by RNA extraction procedures was the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (Charité-Berlin protocol). No false-positive SARS-CoV-2 results were detected using RNA obtained from any of the different protocols. In conclusion, Loccus and BioGene RNA extractions were efficient for RT-qPCR assays, and although the BioGene procedure is less expensive, Loccus is the best choice because it allows the rapid handling of hundreds or thousands of samples, a desirable feature during pandemics. Although less sensitive, the Quick extraction is useful during outbreaks coupled with the Allplex amplification kit for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (κ = 0.925).


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Costs and Cost Analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Indicators and Reagents
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06749, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1287512

ABSTRACT

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), caused by an Alphaherpesvirus (Gallid herpesvirus-1; GaHV-1), has been noticed in the region of the Terras Altas da Mantiqueira, Minas Gerais. From 2010 to 2018, the "Serviço Veterinário Oficial" (SVO) of the "Instituto Mineiro Agropecuário" (IMA), implemented measures to prevent spread of the virus to other regions and control the disease in the area. Due to the close proximity and consequent epidemiological link among farms, the region was considered a unique epidemiological unit. To check the efficiency of the ILT control measures, we carried out: (1) a seroepidemiological survey, (2) questionnaires for evaluating biosecurity measures; and (3) an evaluation of the influence of farm population density on the occurrence of ILT. In 2016, 2017, and 2018, ILT was investigated using epidemiological and clinicopathological methods, along with GaHV-1 molecular detection. Serological survey was carried out on 24 farms in the quarantined region and on 13 farms from other regions of the state. In 2010 and 2018, questionnaires were applied to collect data and determine indicators of biosecurity practices in all farms of the quarantined area. The differences were then assessed (Wilcoxon's p<0.05). The results indicated positive serology throughout the region, although only on four farms (16.6%) the chickens have clinical signs, macroscopic and histological lesions of ILT. The prevalence of viral infection increased from 2016 (27%) to 2017 (50%) and was higher in farms with a high stock density (p=0.033). No disease, virus or antibodies were detected in the farms outside of the quarantined area. Although the biosecurity indicators had improved on all farms in the quarantined area (p<0.05), the virus was active and circulating in the region. The contingency measures have contained the outbreak, but biosecurity practices are paramount in the control of new outbreaks. Official control will be maintained in the region, including surveillance of new cases and biosecurity procedures to mitigate the risk of the virus reaching other regions.(AU)


Laringotraqueíte infecciosa (LTI), causada por um alfaherpesvírus (herpesvírus Gallid-1; GaHV-1), foi observada na região das Terras Altas da Mantiqueira, Minas Gerais. De 2010 a 2018, o Serviço Veterinário Oficial (SVO) do Instituto Mineiro Agropecuário (IMA) implementou medidas para impedir a disseminação do vírus para outras regiões do estado e controlar a doença na região interditada. Devido à proximidade e consequente vínculo epidemiológico entre as granjas, a região foi considerada uma unidade epidemiológica única. Para verificar a eficiência das medidas de controle de LTI, foram realizados: (1) pesquisa soroepidemiológica, (2) questionários para avaliar medidas de biosseguridade; e (3) avaliação da influência da densidade populacional da granja na ocorrência de LTI. Em 2016, 2017 e 2018, a LTI foi investigada usando métodos epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos, com a detecção molecular de GaHV-1. O levantamento sorológico foi realizado em 24 granjas da região interditada e em 13 granjas de outras regiões do estado. Em 2010 e 2018, foram aplicados questionários para coletar dados e determinar indicadores de medidas de biosseguridade em todas as granjas da área interditada. As diferenças foram avaliadas (p<0,05 de Wilcoxon). Os resultados indicaram sorologia positiva em toda a região, embora apenas em quatro granjas (16,6%) as galinhas apresentaram sinais clínicos, lesões macroscópicas e histológicas da LTI. A prevalência de infecção viral aumentou de 2016 (27%) para 2017 (50%) e foi maior em fazendas com alta densidade de alojamento (p=0,033). Presença da doença, vírus ou anticorpos foram detectados nas granjas fora da área interditada. Embora os indicadores de biosseguridade tenham melhorado em todas as fazendas da área interditada (p<0,05), o vírus está ativo e circulava na região. As medidas de contingência contiveram o surto, mas as práticas de biosseguridade são fundamentais para o controle de novos surtos. O controle oficial será mantido na região, incluindo a vigilância de novos casos e procedimentos de biosseguridade para mitigar o risco de transmissão do vírus para outras regiões.(AU)


Subject(s)
Serology , Chickens , Epidemiologic Methods , Veterinarians , Surveillance , Indicators and Reagents
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880478

ABSTRACT

The cut off value or reference interval is significant in clinical testing and diagnosis. If there is no scientific and reasonable cut off value or reference interval for


Subject(s)
Humans , Indicators and Reagents , Reference Values
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880477

ABSTRACT

Reference interval study and clinical evaluation are crucial supportive researches to demonstrate the intended use of quantitative


Subject(s)
Indicators and Reagents , Reference Values
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880454

ABSTRACT

In this paper, some significant problems, which were found frequently in the products of autoimmune


Subject(s)
Indicators and Reagents
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880433

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the IVD industry has developed rapidly based on the increasing market demand, and plays an important role in disease prevention, clinical diagnosis, health monitoring and guiding treatment. Therefore, followed quality and safety issues are highly concerned. The unique advantages of blockchain technology, decentralization, distrust and non-tampering, can write into trusted node data in every link covering production, circulation and usage of IVD reagents, and establish a distributed ledger with full backup, which makes the anti-conterfeiting and traceability for IVD reagents possible. We discuss whole process intelligent tracing system for IVD reagents based on blockchain technology. Through the strong mechanism of pre-supervision and post-punishment, the source of reagents can be traced, quality and responsibility can be investigated, and the medical inspection quality and diagnostic safety can be guarded.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Indicators and Reagents , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Technology
11.
Rev. colomb. enferm ; 19(3): 1-16, Dic 11, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1147749

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La calidad de los servicios de salud se mide con indicadores que permiten encontrar oportunidades de mejora, datos clínicos y no clínicos de relevancia, información epidemiológica y calidad percibida del servicio brindado. Los cuidados paliativos pueden ofrecerse en distintas modalidades, siendo los cuidados domiciliarios una ruta novedosa que permite el cuidado del paciente lejos del intervencionismo hospitalario; los indicadores que evalúan la calidad de esta modalidad varían respecto a los servicios intramurales. Objetivo: describir los indicadores de calidad en salud utilizados para evaluar los servicios de cuidados paliativos domiciliarios según la literatura consultada. Método: revisión sistemática de la literatura científica disponible sobre los indicadores de calidad en salud para los cuidados paliativos domiciliarios. Para valorar la calidad metodológica se usó la lista CASPe. Resultados:se encontraron 47 indicadores que evalúan la calidad de los servicios de atención domiciliaria paliativa, siendo los indicadores de resultados los que tuvieron mayor presencia. Dentro de los indicadores se midieron diversos aspectos de los cuidados paliativos como manejo de síntomas, visitas domiciliarias por personal especializado, lugar de muerte elegido, eventos relacionados con la seguridad del paciente y disponibilidad de medicamentos. Conclusiones: La medición del lugar de fallecimiento y la presencia de síntomas aun con un tratamiento farmacológico establecido fueron dos de los indicadores más encontrados. Se observó una medición al personal médico y enfermero superior al resto de profesionales que conforman el equipo multidisciplinario de cuidados paliativos, se encontraron algunos indicadores específicos para pacientes con patologías oncológicas


Introduction: Quality of health services is measured by indicators that make it possible to find improvement opportunities, relevant clinical and non-clinical data, epidemiological information, and perceived quality of the provided service. Palliative care can be offered in different forms; home-based care is a novel path that enables patients to be cared for far from hospital interventionism; the quality indicators that assess this form of care vary from those that assess intramural services. Objective: To describe quality indicators for health care used to assess home-based palliative care services, according to the literature consulted. Method: Systematic review of the available scientific literature on quality indicators for home-based palliative care. The CASPe list was used to assess methodological quality. Results: 47 indicators for quality assessment of home-based palliative care services were found; outcome indicators had the greatest presence. Among the indicators, different aspects of palliative care were measured, such as symptom management, home visits by specialized personnel, chosen place of death, events related to patient safety, and medication availability. Conclusions: Measurements for the place of death and presence of symptoms, even with a determined pharmacological treatment, were the two most frequently found indicators. A measurement of medical and nursing personnel higher than the rest of the professionals that make up the palliative multidisciplinary team was observed, some specific indicators were found for patients with oncological pathologies


Introdução: A qualidade dos serviços de saúde é medida com indicadores que permitem encontrar oportunidades de melhoria, dados clínicos e não clínicos de relevância, informação epidemiológica e qualidade percebida do serviço prestado. Os cuidados paliativos podem ser oferecidos em diferentes modalidades, sendo o atendimento domiciliar uma rota inovadora que permite o atendimento ao paciente longe do intervencionismo hospitalar; os indicadores que avaliam a qualidade dessa modalidade variam no que diz respeito aos serviços intramuros. Objetivo: descrever os indicadores de qualidade de saúde utilizados para avaliar os serviços de cuidados paliativos domiciliares segundo a literatura consultada. Método: revisão sistemática da literatura científica disponível sobre indicadores de qualidade em saúde em cuidados paliativos domiciliares. Para avaliar a qualidade metodológica foi utilizada a guia CASPe. Resultados: foram encontrados 47 indicadores que avaliam a qualidade dos serviços de atenção paliativa domiciliar, sendo os indicadores de resultado os que tiveram maior presença. Dentro dos indicadores mediram-se vários aspectos dos cuidados paliativos, como manejo dos sintomas, visitas domiciliares pelo pessoal especializado, local de preferência para o óbito, eventos relacionados com a segurança do paciente e disponibilidade de medicamentos. Conclusões: A medição do local do óbito e a presença de sintomas, mesmo com o tratamento farmacológico estabelecido, foram dois dos indicadores mais encontrados. Observou-se uma medição à equipe médica e de enfermagem superior ao restante dos profissionais que compõem a equipe multiprofissional de cuidados paliativos. Acharam-se alguns indicadores específicos para pacientes com patologias oncológicas


Subject(s)
Palliative Care , Attention , Quality Management , Indicators (Statistics) , Systematic Review , House Calls , Indicators and Reagents
12.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oct. 30, 2020. 27 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1141451

ABSTRACT

En el presente manual se establecen las directrices que garanticen el cumplimiento de las buenas prácticas para la recepción, almacenaje, distribución, registro y control de uso de los insumos y reactivos de laboratorio nacional de salud pública. (LNSP)


This manual establishes the guidelines that guarantee compliance with good practices for the reception, storage, distribution, registration and control of the use of supplies and reagents from the national public health laboratory (LNSP)


Subject(s)
Public Health Laboratory Services , Indicators and Reagents , Manuals as Topic
13.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e713, jul.-set. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144481

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hidrocloruro de amantadina (I) es conocido como un medicamento antiviral utilizado para prevenir y tratar las infecciones por influenza A. También se utiliza para aliviar los síntomas de la enfermedad de Parkinson en el período inicial. Se han informado varios métodos para la preparación de (I). Estos procedimientos comienzan con adamantano (II) en cuatro o tres pasos de reacción, para producir hidrocloruro de amantadina con rendimientos globales que van del 45 por ciento al 58 por ciento. Objetivo: Mejorar el método para la síntesis de hidrocloruro de amantadina, que puede introducirse a escala industrial. Métodos: La optimización paso a paso para reducir el uso de reactivos, disolventes, así como las condiciones de cada paso, se seleccionaron para ser menos agresivas y más amigables con el medio ambiente. Resultados: Todos los factores relacionados con el rendimiento de la reacción para sintetizar los compuestos intermedios y finales se seleccionaron para obtener el mayor rendimiento de cada etapa. Finalmente, se estableció un procedimiento de dos pasos para la síntesis de (I) a partir de (II), a través de N- (1-adamantil) formamida (III), con un rendimiento global mejorado del 78 por ciento y una pureza del 99,2 por ciento. Se confirmó la estructura del producto por 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR y MS. La síntesis de N- (1-adamantil) formamida (VI) a partir de (II) también se logró con éxito en un solo paso. Este método evita el uso de bromo líquido o ácido sulfúrico gaseoso como reactivos. La conversión posterior de (VI) a (I) se llevó a cabo bajo condiciones de reacción, más suaves sin usar solventes peligrosos. Conclusiones: Se logró la síntesis mejorada del clorhidrato de amantadina (I). Este resultado puede utilizarse en una producción industrialmente conveniente. Las materias primas y reactivos utilizados en esta investigación son baratas y están disponibles. El tiempo total de preparación se redujo significativamente, con ahorro de energía y mano de obra(AU)


Introduction: Amantadine hydrochloride (I) was well-known as an antiviral drug used to prevent and treat influenza A infections. Besides, it also was used to relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in the early period. Several methods for the preparation of I have been reported. These procedures started with adamantane (II) in four or three reaction steps to produce amantadine hydrochloride with overall yields ranging from 45 percent to 58 percent. Objectives: Improving method for synthesis of amantadine hydrochloride could introduce to industrial scale. Methods: Step-by-step optimization to reduce the use of reagents, solvents, as well as the conditions of each step were screened to be milder and more environment-friendly. Results: All factors related to the yield of reaction to synthesize the intermediate and final compounds were screened to give the highest yield of each step. Finally, a two-step procedure for the synthesis of (I) from (II) via N-(1-adamantyl) formamide (III) with improving overall yield of 78 percent and a purity of 99.2 percent was established, and the structure of the product was confirmed by 1H-NMR,13C-NMR, IR and MS. The synthesis of N-(1-adamantyl) formamide (VI) from (II) also was successfully accomplished within only one step. This method avoided the use of liquid bromine or fuming sulfuric acid as reactants. The subsequent conversion of (VI) to (I) was carried out under milder reaction conditions without using hazardous solvents. Conclusions: An improved synthesis for amantadine hydrochloride (I) have been provided. This research can be an industrially convenient production of amantadine hydrochloride. Because the raw materials and reagents used in this research are cheap and available which also were screened to save their use. Moreover, the total preparation time was significantly reduced to save energy as well as labor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Research , Adamantane , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Amantadine , Indicators and Reagents
15.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(4): 407-414, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149030

ABSTRACT

Resumen La identificación inequívoca del antígeno D en medicina transfusional es de vital importancia para evitar reacciones postransfusionales y la enfermedad hemolítica del recién nacido. Es común el uso de reactivos serológicos monoclonales o tarjetas de gel y su interpretación está definida por cruces, de acuerdo con la reacción serológica. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia del factor Rh y las variantes del antígeno D en una población afroecuatoriana. Se trató de un estudio descriptivo, transversal con muestreo aleatorio simple de 541 pobladores. Para la tipificación del factor Rh se utilizó la metodología en tubo con antisueros monoclonales y para la detección de las variantes de D se utilizaron tarjetas de gel IDCoombs Anti-IgG. Las lecturas se verificaron mediante el análisis del índice kappa. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y el análisis de Chi cuadrado para establecer la relación de las variables y su significación. Se identificó una frecuencia del 92% de individuos Rh(D) positivo y un 8% Rh(D) negativo. El 4,80% de los individuos presentaban la variante D débil y el 79% reacciones serológicas entre 2 y 3(+) indicativas de otras variantes del antígeno D. El fenotipo más común fue el R0/R0. Estos datos demuestran la necesidad de confirmar la existencia de variantes del antígeno D en esta población para un mejor manejo de la sangre. Una limitante constituye la disponibilidad de técnicas moleculares para la genotipificación de D; sin embargo, se podría implementar la fenotipificación RHCE como estrategia pretransfusional.


Abstract The unequivocal identification of D antigen in transfusion medicine is of vital importance to avoid post-transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn. The use of monoclonal serological reagents or gel cards is common and their interpretation is defined according to the serological reaction by crosses. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of Rh factor and D antigen variants in the Afro-Ecuadorian population. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study with simple random sampling of 541 residents. Tube typing with monoclonal antisera was used to typify Rh factor and ID-Coombs Anti-IgG gel cards were used to detect D variants, and the readings were verified by analysis of the kappa index. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square analysis were applied for the relationship of the variables and their significance. A frequency of 92% of Rh(D) positive individuals and 8% Rh(D) negative individuals were identified. Almost 5% (4.80%) of the individuals presented the weak D variant and 79% serological reactions between 2-3(+) indicative of other D antigen variants, the most common phenotype being R0/R0. These data demonstrate the need to confirm the existence of D antigen variants in this population for better management and availability of blood. A limitation is the availability of molecular techniques for D genotyping, however, RHCE phenotyping could be implemented as a pretransfusion strategy.


Resumo A identificação inequívoca do antígeno D na medicina transfusional é de vital importância para evitar reações pós-transfusionais e a doença hemolítica do recém-nascido. É comum o uso de reagentes sorológicos monoclonais ou cartões de gel e sua interpretação é definida por cruzamentos de acordo com a reação sorológica. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência do fator Rh e as variantes do antígeno D numa população afro-equatoriana. Foi um estudo descritivo, transversal, com amostragem aleatória simples de 541 residentes. Para a tipagem do fator Rh foi utilizada a metodologia em tubo com anti-soros monoclonais e para a detecção das variantes de D, os cartões de gel ID-Coombs Anti-IgG. As leituras foram verificadas por análise do índice kappa. Foi aplicada estatística descritiva e para estabelecer a relação das variáveis e sua significação se utilizou a análise do qui-quadrado. Identificando uma frequência de 92% dos indivíduos Rh (D) positivos e 8% Rh (D) negativos. 4,80% dos indivíduos apresentavam a variante D fraca e 79% reações sorológicas entre 2 e 3(+) indicativas de outras variantes do antígeno D, sendo o fenótipo mais comum o R0/R0. Esses dados demonstram a necessidade de confirmar a existência de variantes do antígeno D nessa população para melhor gerenciamento e disponibilidade de sangue. Uma limitação é a disponibilidade de técnicas moleculares para a genotipagem de D, no entanto, a fenotipagem de RHCE poderia ser implementada como uma estratégia de pré-transfusão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/analysis , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/blood , Antigens/analysis , Population , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Blood , Infant, Newborn , Cross-Sectional Studies , Transfusion Medicine , Indicators and Reagents , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/prevention & control , Antigens
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 664-672, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1128613

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a condição metabólica e estrutural das células espermáticas bovinas após congelação, com adição prévia de IGF-I e insulina no meio diluidor seminal. Os ejaculados de seis touros Nelore foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos: controle; insulina (100µUI/mL); IGF-I (150ng/mL) e insulina + IGF-I (50µUI/mL e 75ng/mL, respectivamente). Após a congelação, realizaram-se os testes de termorresistência rápida, coloração pelo corante azul de tripan e Giemsa, além da análise computadorizada da motilidade espermática, da integridade das membranas plasmática e acrossomal, e da peça intermediária por meio de sondas fluorescentes. O teste de termorresistência rápida apresentou efeito dentro do tempo de cada tratamento, mas não entre os tratamentos. Na análise computadorizada da motilidade espermática, foram observados movimento, motilidade e velocidade espermáticos; não houve efeitos dos tratamentos sobre qualquer uma dessas variáveis. Respostas iguais foram obtidas com as sondas fluorescentes e o corante azul de tripan/Giemsa. A adição de insulina e IGF-I, de forma isolada ou combinada, ao meio diluidor para congelação de sêmen não produziu efeitos sobre as condições metabólica e estrutural das células espermáticas.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic and structural condition of the spermatic bovine cells after the freezing, with addition, previously, of IGF-I and Insulin in the seminal thinner medium. The semen of 6 Nellore bulls were submitted to four treatments: Control, Insulin (100µUI/mL); IGF-I (150ng/mL) and Insulin + IGF-I (50µUI/mL and 75ng/mL, respectively). After freezing, rapid resistance tests, Tripan and Giemsa Blue staining, and computerized analysis of sperm motility and integrity of the plasma and acrosomal membranes and the intermediate part were performed by fluorescent probes. The term rapid resistance test had effect within the time of each treatment, but not between treatments. In the computer analysis of sperm motility, sperm movement, motility and velocity no effects of treatments were observed on any of these variables. The same results were obtained with the fluorescent probes and the Blue dye Trypan / Giemsa. The addition of Insulin and IGF-I, alone or in combination, to the semen freezing dilution medium had no effect on the metabolic and structural condition of sperm cells.(AU)


Subject(s)
Semen/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/administration & dosage , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Insulin/administration & dosage , Cattle , Indicators and Reagents
17.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 28(2): 16-22, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120229

ABSTRACT

O estudo tem por objetivo investigar alterações nas características de agrupamento de variáveis cardiometabólicas relacionados a resistência à insulina em resposta à um programa de intervenção interdisciplinar em adolescentes com excesso de peso. Estudo realizado em adolescentes co m excesso de peso, composto por grupo controle (n=19) e grupo intervenção (n=20), o qual p articipou de programa interdisciplinar de seis meses. Foi avaliado o índice de massa corporal, a circun ferência da cintura, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica; realizada coleta sanguínea para avaliação da glicose, insulina e ácido úrico e calculado o índice HOMA-IR, antes e após o programa. Foi realizada análise fatorial exploratória por meio de análise de componentes principais, tendo sido consideradas cargas fatoriais associadas os valores ≥ 0,50. No período pré intervenção, três componentes fatoriais explicavam a variabilidade das variáveis em ambos os grupos, sendo a composição dos componentes igual entre estes, em que variáveis antropométricas e de pressão arterial compunham o fator 1; o segundo componente dizia respeito as variáveis relacionadas à resistência à insulina, insulina e HOMA-IR; e o terceiro comp onente era composto da glicemia e ácido úrico. Pós intervenção, dois componentes explicavam em ambos grupos e a composição era distinta, sendo que no grupo intervenção insulina e HOMA-IR passaram a fazer p arte do fator 1; já no grupo controle, a glicemia correlacionou-se negativamente com os indicadores antropométricos e de pressão arterial no componente 1; e glicemia, insulina, HOMA -IR e ácido úrico associaram-se no fator 2. Conclui-se que o programa de intervenção promoveu modificação no agrupamento das variáveis cardiometabólicas de adolescentes obesos, em que as variáveis insulina e HOMA-IR passaram a pertencer ao fator 1. Não foi encontrado nenhum fator central que ex p licasse o agrupamento das variáveis em nenhuma das análises, confirmando assim, a complexa relação en tre as variáveis analisadas...(AU)


The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the characteristics of grouping of cardiometabolic variables related to insulin resistance in response to an interdisciplin ary in tervention program in overweight adolescents. This study was performed in overweight adolescents, composed o f a control group (n = 19) and an intervention group (n = 20), who participated in a six month interdisciplinary program. Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blo o d p ressure were evaluated; blood collection for glucose, insulin and uric acid assessment and HOMA-IR index, before and after the program. An exploratory factorial analysis was performed through analy sis o f m ain components, and factorial loads associated with values ≥ 0.50 were considered. In the p re -interv en tion period, three factorial components explained the variability of the variables in bo th gro ups, an d t he composition of the components was equal, where anthropometric and blood pressure variables comprised factor 1; the second component related to the variables related to insulin resistance, insulin an d HOMAIR; and the third component was composed of glycemia and uric acid. Post-intervention, two components explained in both groups and the composition was distinct, and in the interventio n gro up , in sulin an d HOMA-IR became part of factor 1; in the control group, glycemia was negatively co rrelated wit h t he anthropometric and blood pressure indicators in component 1; and glycemia, insulin, HOMA-IR and uric acid were associated with factor 2. It was concluded that the intervention program promoted modification in the grouping of the cardiometabolic variables of obese adolescents, in which the insulin and HOMA-IR variables belonged to the factor 1. No central factor was found to explain the grouping of variables in an y of the analyzes, thus confirming the complex relationship between the analyzed variables...(AU)


Subject(s)
Insulin Resistance , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Adolescent , Overweight , Obesity Management , Obesity , Uric Acid , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Obesity, Morbid , Body Mass Index , Control , Waist Circumference , Arterial Pressure , Glucose , Indicators and Reagents , Insulin
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 28(2): 123-128, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127621

ABSTRACT

A obesidade pode influenciar no baixo desempenho da aptidão cardiorrespiratória (APCR), bem como colaborar com alterações nos níveis de indicadores hematológicos. Objetivo: Verificar se existe associação entre indicadores antropométricos, APCR e perfil hematológico de adolescentes no sul do Brasil. Método: Estudo transversal, em que foram avaliados 1 6 98 ado lescentes (742 do sexo masculino) com idade entre 10 e 17 anos, de escolas da rede pública e particular de Santa Cruz do Sul-RS. A avaliação antropométrica foi realizada, utilizando-se os seguintes parâmetros: IMC e circunferência da cintura (CC). Para o teste de APCR, foi utilizado o test e de co rrida/cam inha do s 6 minutos. Para reconhecimento do perfil hematológico, foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: leucócitos (WBC), eritrócitos (RBC), hemoglobina (HBC), hematócrito (HCT) e amplitude de distribuição dos glóbulos vermelhos (RDW). A associação entre as variáveis contínuas foi testada por meio da correlação de Pearson. Foram considerados significativos os valores de p<0,05. Resultados: Nos meninos, identificou-se relação fraca entre IMC com RBC (r=0,293; p<0,001) e com HCT (r=0,271; p <0,001 ). A CC também demonstrou associação fraca com estas duas variáveis hematológicas (RBC: r=0,311; p<0,001; HCT: r=0,291; p<0,001). Os níveis de APCR estiveram associados, também de fo rma fraca e direta, com HBC (r=0,224; p<0,001) e HCT (r=0,258; p<0,001). Para o sexo feminino, os níveis de W BC associaram-se, de forma fraca, com IMC (r=0,208; p<0,001) e com CC (r=0,185; <0,001). Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo evidenciam correlação positiva, porém fraca, entre o perfil hematológico dos adolescentes com as variáveis antropométricas e APCR...(AU)


Obesity might cause cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to underperform, as well as collaborate with changes in hematological parameters. Aim: To investigate the asso ciation between anthropometric indicators, CRF, and the hematological profiles of adolescents in Southern Brazil. Method: A cross-sectional study of 1,698 adolescents (742 boys, 956 girls), aged between 10 and 17 from p ublic and private schools of Santa Cruz do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, was conducted. Furt h ermore, an anthropometric evaluation of the following parameters was performed: body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). CRF was evaluated using the 6-minute run/walk test. Hematolo gical p rofile was evaluated based on the following parameters: leucocytes (WBC), erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and red cell distribution width (RDW). The association of continuo us v ariables was tested through Pearson's correlation; p values lower than 0.05 were considered significant. Result s: The boys' BMI presented a weak correlation with RBC (r = 0.293; p < 0.001) and HCT (r = 0.271; p < 0.001). Their WC also presented a weak correlation with both hematological variables (RBC: r = 0.311; p < 0.001; HCT: r = 0.291; p < 0.001). Their CRF levels exhibited a direct but weak asso ciatio n wit h HGB (r = 0.224; p < 0.001) and HCT (r = 0.258; p < 0.001). The WBC levels of girls were fo un d t o be weak ly associated with BMI (r = 0.208; p < 0.001) and WC (r = 0.185; p < 0 .0 01 ). Co nclusio n: Th e result s highlight a positively weak correlation of the hematological profile of adolescents with an throp ometric variables and CRF...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Hemoglobins , Body Mass Index , Erythrocytes , Walk Test , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Hematocrit , Leukocytes , Obesity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Erythrocyte Indices , Reference Parameters , Waist Circumference , Indicators and Reagents
19.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e717, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138987

ABSTRACT

La situación generada por la pandemia de SARS-CoV2 (coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave) resulta nueva para la mayor parte de la humanidad. Se ha convertido en una situación particularmente amenazante y un reto para los sistemas de salud, desde su organización, hasta la materialización de los cuidados en la atención directa a los ciudadanos. Si a la "gripe española" le tomó un año para llegar a todo el mundo, la COVID-19 lo hizo en semanas.(1) Los enormes avances que directa o indirectamente forman parte de la cotidianeidad, no han impedido la progresión explosiva de esta pandemia. Nunca imaginamos que EE.UU., España, Italia, Francia, Alemania, Reino Unido y China, encabezaran un listado que no fuera por indicadores relacionados con su desarrollo(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Attention , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Indicators and Reagents , Coronavirus Infections
20.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [10], 01/01/2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128576

ABSTRACT

Formaldehyde is an active compound, irregularly used in hair products, that has the property of straighten and waterproofing the wires. However, it is highly toxic and can stimulate dermatological hypersensitivity and cancer. In this context it is of fundamental importance the inspection of these products that can be used in safe conditions for the consumer, without formaldehyde in concentrations higher than the allowed. Thus, the aim of this research was the qualitative and quantitative identification formaldehyde in samples of hair straighteners that was obtained by donation in the beauty salons of Araraquara-SP. In addition, the analysis of the packaging labels of the products tested were conducted, following the requirements of the national legislation - RDC 07/2015 which defines the mandatory labeling standards for cosmetic products. A qualitative analysis for formaldehyde identification is based on the formation of a purple colored complex. The quantitative analysis was performed by spectrophotometry. The qualitative and quantitative formaldehyde analysis methods were applied to 13 bottles of hair straighteners. When submitted to qualitative analysis, all samples showed formaldehyde presence. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that the samples identified as B, C, D, E, G, H, I, J and M presented formaldehyde concentration of 3.5 to 14.5%, which is above of the limit recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), of 0.2%. In the label analysis, in all samples were found irregularities.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Product Labeling/legislation & jurisprudence , Cosmetics/analysis , Formaldehyde/analysis , Hair , Spectrophotometry/methods , Indicators and Reagents/administration & dosage
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