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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4131-4138, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888072


Eleven condensed tannins were isolated from the roots of Indigofera stachyodes by various column chromatography techniques including silica gel, octadecyl silica(ODS), Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). These compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties, nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and mass spectrometry(MS) data as stachyotannin A(1), epicatechin-(2β→O→7,4β→8)-epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-catechin(2), cinnamtannin D1(3), cinnamtannin B1(4), epicatechin-(2β→O→7,4β→8)-epiafzelechin-(4α→8)-epicatechin(5), gambiriin C(6), proanthocyanidin A1(7), proanthocyanidin A2(8), aesculitannin B(9), proanthocyanidin A4(10), and procyanidin B5(11). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2-11 were isolated from Indigofera for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 1, 2, and 4-11 showed inhibitory effects on thrombin-induced ATP release in platelets.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Indigofera , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Extracts , Proanthocyanidins
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3213-3221, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887969


Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface film-forming method was used to prepare hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces with stable effect.The preparation process of modified Indigo Naturalis was optimized and its microscopic properties,hydrophilicity,antipyretic efficacy,and safety were systematically evaluated.With equilibrium contact angle as assessment index,the influence of modifier type,modifier dosage,dispersant dosage,and co-grinding time on water solubility of Indigo Naturalis was investigated by single factor test.The results showed that the optimal preparation process was as follows.The 6%PEG6000 is dissolved in 10%anhydrous ethanol solution by sonification and then the mixture is ground with Indigo Naturalis for 2 min.The resultant product is dried on a square tray in an oven at 60℃to remove ethanol and thereby the PEG-modified hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces are yielded.The morphological observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the modified Indigo Naturalis had smoother surface than Indigo Naturalis,and energy spectrometer measurement showed that the nitrogen (N),calcium(Ca),oxygen (O),and silicon (Si) on the surface of modified Indigo Naturalis powder were less than those of Indigo Naturalis powder.Modified Indigo Naturalis had the equilibrium contact angle 18.96°smaller,polar component 22.222 m J·m~(-2)more,and nonpolar component 7.277 m J·m~(-2)smaller than the Indigo Naturalis powder.Multiple light scattering technique was employed to evaluate the dispersion in water and the result demonstrated that the transmittance of Indigo Naturalis and modified Indigo Naturalis was about85%and 75%,respectively,suggesting the higher dispersity of modified Indigo Naturalis.The suspension rate of modified Indigo Naturalis in water was determined by reflux treatment.The result showed that 57%of Indigo Naturalis was not wetted after refluxing for1 h,while the modified Indigo Naturalis was all wetted and dispersed into water.The dissolution of indigo and indirubin of modified Indigo Naturalis increased and the process was more stable.Then,rats were randomized into the blank group,model group,acetaminophen group,Indigo Naturalis group,and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group.The temperature changes of rats were observed after administration and the concentration of IL-1βand TNF-αin serum and IL-1βand PGE_2in hypothalamus was measured.The results indicated that the temperature of Indigo Naturalis group and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group dropped and the IL-1βlevel of the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group decreased (P<0.05) as compared with those in the model group.Thus,both Indigo Naturalis and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis had antipyretic effect,particularly the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis.The acute toxicity test of hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis verified that it had no toxicity to rats.In this study,the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces were prepared with the PEG surface film-forming method,and the antipyretic efficacy and safety were evaluated,which expanded the technological means of powder modification for Chinese medicine and provided a method for clinical use of Chinese medicine.

Animals , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Polyethylene Glycols
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3205-3212, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887968


As an effective antipyretic medicine,Indigo Naturalis has a long history of application in the field of Chinese medicine.The content of organics,mainly indigo and indirubin,is about 10%. However,the active ingredients and mechanism of its antipyretic effect have not yet been fully elucidated. In view of this,they were investigated in this study with the rectal temperature change as an indicator and 2,4-dinitrophenol-induced fever rats as subjects. The content of PGE2 and c AMP in the hypothalamus and the serum levels of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. Moreover,the plasma samples of fever rats were analyzed by metabonomics in combination with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS for the exploration of potential biomarkers and the discussion on the antipyretic mechanism of Indigo Naturalis and its active ingredients. The results showed that the rising trend of rectal temperature in rats was suppressed 0. 5 h after the treatment with Indigo Naturalis,organic matter,indigo or indirubin as compared with the rats of model group( P < 0. 05),among which Indigo Naturalis and organic matter had better antipyretic effect. ELISA results showed that organic matter and indigo can inhibit the expression of PGE2 and c AMP( P<0. 01),while Indigo Naturalis and organic matter were effective in curbing the increase in TNF-α( P<0. 05). A total of 21 endogenous metabolites were identified from the plasma samples of the Indigo Naturalis,organic matter,indigo and indirubin groups,which were mainly involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism.

Animals , Rats , 2,4-Dinitrophenol , Antipyretics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3198-3204, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887967


Indigo Naturalis( IN) is mainly composed of 10% organic matter and 90% inorganic matter,with a poor wettability and strong hydrophobicity. Indigo,indirubin and effective ingredients are almost insoluble in water. And how it exerts its effect after oral administration still needs to be revealed. For this reason,this study put forward the hypothesis that " Indigo Naturalis forms a slightly soluble calcium carbonate carrier in a strong acid environment of gastric fluid,and organic substances are solubilized in the bile environment of intestinal fluid",and then verified the hypothesis. First,the dissolution apparatus was used to simulate the change process of IN in different digestive fluid,and the effects of low-dose and normal bile on the dissolution of inorganic substances and the release of organic substances were compared. After the surface morphology and element changes of IN in different digestive fluid were observed,it was found that bile is the key to promoting the dissolution of organic and inorganic substances in IN. Furthermore,the rat fever model induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol was used to study the antipyretic effect of IN in normal rats and bile duct ligation rats. It was found that the antipyretic effect of IN on normal rats was better than that of bile duct ligation rats. The above results indicated that after oral administration of IN,the calcium carbonate carrier was transformed into a slightly soluble state in acidic gastric fluid,and a small amount of organic matter was released. When IN entered the intestinal fluid mixed with bile,the carrier dissolved in a large amount,and indigo and indirubin were dissolved in a large amount,so as to absorb the blood and exert the effect. This study has a certain significance for guiding clinical application of IN. For patients with insufficient bile secretion( such as bile duct resection),oral administration with IN may not be effective and shall be paid attention.

Animals , Humans , Rats , Bile , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Plant Extracts
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3188-3197, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887966


Indigo Naturalis has a long history of medicinal use with particularity and complexity in its processing. Before the Ming dynasty,Indigo Naturalis was extracted from the top layer of zymotic fluid,called " purified Indigo Naturalis". In modern processing,the precipitate " crude Indigo Naturalis" is dried to produce Indigo Naturalis after impurity removal. The form of Indigo Naturalis slices has undergone significant changes in ancient and modern times. In view of this,the quality comparison between crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis was conducted in this study with modern analytical techniques. Firstly,chemical composition was analyzed with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS,and the chemical composition of scent with HS-SPME/GC-MS/MS. The content of indigo,indirubin,total ash,and water-soluble extract was determined as well as the inorganic composition in crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis. Then,their microscopic morphology was observed and the surface element composition was investigated. Finally,the antipyretic activities of crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis were compared in the fever rat model induced by lipopolysaccharide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results demonstrated that the purified Indigo Naturalis had a faster and more lasting antipyretic effect,while the crude Indigo Naturalis had almost no antipyretic effect. This study is of great significance to the research on processing technology of Indigo Naturalis and provides reference for the formulation of its quality standards,production specifications and calibration procedures.

Animals , Rats , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Plant Extracts , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3180-3187, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887965


The soaking and fermentation of Baphicacanthus cusia( Nees),the important intermediate link of Indigo Naturalis processing,facilitates the synthesis of indigo and indirubin precursors and the dissolution of endogenous enzymes and other effective components,while the role of microorganisms in the fermentation is ignored. The present study investigated the changes of microbial community structure in Indigo Naturalis processing based on 16 S amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics. Meanwhile,the contents of indigo,indirubin,isatin,tryptanthrin,indole glycoside,etc. were determined to explore the correlation between the microorganisms and the alterations of the main components. As demonstrated by the results,the microbial diversity decreased gradually with the fermentation,which bottomed out after the addition of lime. Proteobacteria,Bacteroidetes,and Firmicutes were the main dominant communities in the fermentation. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria declined gradually with the prolongation of fermentation time,and to the lowest level after the addition of lime. The relative abundance of Firmicutes increased,and that of Bacteroidetes decreased first and then increased. The contents of effective substances in Indigo Naturalis also showed different variation tendencies. As fermentation went on,indole glycoside decreased gradually; indigo first increased and then decreased; indirubin and isatin first decreased and then increased; tryptanthrin gradually increased. Those changes were presumedly related to the roles of microorganisms in the synthesis of different components. This study preliminarily clarified the important role of microorganisms in the soaking and fermentation and provided a scientific basis for the control of Indigo Naturalis processing and the preparation of high-quality Indigo Naturalis.

Fermentation , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Indoles , Microbiota
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3171-3179, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887964


Traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) processing is a traditional pharmaceutical technology unique to China,which is an important means to ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical medication. As China' s intangible cultural heritage,it contains a wealth of wisdom. With the evolution and optimization of processing methods,Indigo Naturalis,an ancient dye,has gradually become an effective medicine for the treatment of high fever in children,colitis,psoriasis,and leukemia. However,the quality of Indigo Naturalis pieces is difficult to be fundamentally improved due to the unique traditional processing method,complex technology,unclear principle,and outdated equipment. After spending 20 years in exploring the inheritance,innovation,and transformation of ancient lawtheory-principle-technology-equipment-quality control in Indigo Naturalis processing,our research group has basically expounded the processing principle and realized the modern expression and industrial transformation of traditional technology. As China enters a new era,the TCM industry has begun to undergo the high-quality transformation. It is urgent to carry out new excavations and improve the processing,quality,and clinical application of Indigo Naturalis pieces,to better inherit and innovate traditional processing technologies and meet people's demand for high-quality TCM health services.

Child , Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Psoriasis
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 333-338, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055177


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) is abundant in northeastern Brazil and popularly used in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory processes. Several biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antitumor, hepatoprotective and low toxicity, are reported for this plant. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated hepatoprotective activity and the antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of I. suffruticosa leaves (MEIS) on Swiss albino mice submitted to experimental models of acetaminophen-induced liver injury. METHODS: MEIS (50 mg/kg; p.o.) was standardized according to the LD50 and its hepatoprotective property on Swiss albino mice evaluated during a 7-day period. On the eighth day, the acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury was performed. Histomorphometric analysis of liver tissue, antioxidant activity and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin were measured. RESULTS: MEIS (50 mg/kg; p.o.) restored serum enzyme levels and results were close to those of positive control (silymarin) when compared to the negative control. Histopathological and histomorphometric analyzes confirmed MEIS hepatoprotective activity, showing reorganization of structural units of cells, nuclei and sinusoidal capillaries of hepatocytes, reducing the damage on liver tissue and increasing organ regeneration rate. MEIS showed high antioxidant potential at concentrations of 1000 and 500 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that MEIS has hepatoprotective activity and high antioxidant potential.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) é abundante no nordeste do Brasil e popularmente utilizada no tratamento de processos infecciosos e inflamatórios. Várias propriedades biológicas, como anti-inflamatório, anticâncer, antitumoral, hepatoprotetor e baixa toxicidade, são relatadas para esta planta. OBJETIVO: Este estudo investigou a atividade hepatoprotetora e o efeito antioxidante do extrato metanólico de folhas de I. suffruticosa (MEIS) em camundongos albinos suíços submetidos a modelos experimentais de lesão hepática induzida por paracetamol. MÉTODOS: O MEIS na dose de 50 mg/kg (via oral) foi padronizado de acordo com a LD50 e sua propriedade hepatoprotetora em camundongos albinos Swiss avaliados durante um período de sete dias. No oitavo dia, a lesão hepática foi induzida por paracetamol em todos grupos pre-tratados. Foram medidos os níveis sericos enzimaticos, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e bilirrubina, análise histomorfométrica do tecido hepático e atividade antioxidante. RESULTADOS: O MEIS restaurou os níveis séricos de enzimas e os resultados foram próximos aos do controle positivo (silimarina) quando comparados ao controle negativo. As análises histopatológicas e histomorfométricas confirmaram a atividade hepatoprotetora do MEIS, mostrando reorganização das unidades estruturais das células, núcleos e capilares sinusoidais dos hepatócitos, reduzindo os danos no tecido hepático e aumentando a taxa de regeneração de órgãos. O MEIS apresentou alto potencial antioxidante nas concentrações de 1000 e 500 µg/mL. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere que I. suffruticosa tem atividade hepatoprotetora e alto potencial antioxidante.

Animals , Male , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Indigofera/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 608-613, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777457


For the discussion of the source, preparation and quality problems of Indigo Naturalis, the historical tradition and reality were summarized by literature survey and producing area investigation. Besides some quality problems, potential safety hazards were found out in some samples from market tested. Because lime could not be dislodged enough from Indigo Naturalis in the process of purification, the samples of Indigo Naturalis contained too much lime and showed strong alkalinity. It was suggested that the quality standard of Indigo Naturalis should be revised and revised and some detection projects and methods should be added into the standard. In addition, we suggested that the production access of Indigo Naturalis should be further defined.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Indigofera , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(1): 113-123, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789076


ABSTRACT Indigofera linnaei Ali. (Tamil Name: Cheppu Nerinjil) belongs to the family Fabaceae, used for the treatment of various ailments in the traditional system of medicine. In the present study, the beneficial effects of methanol extract of whole plant of I. linnaei (MEIL) were evaluated on inflammation and nociception responses in rodent models. In vitro nitric oxide (NO), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygense (COX) inhibitory activities were also performed to understand the mode of action. MEIL at the dose of 200 & 400 mg/kg, p.o. significantly inhibited carrageenan induced rat paw volume and reduced the weight of granuloma in cotton pellet granuloma model. The results obtained were comparable with the standard drug aceclofenac. The anti-nociceptive effect of MEIL in mice was evaluated in hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing model. The plant extract significantly reduced the number of writhes and the analgesic effect was higher than that of the standard drug aspirin. However, the extract fails to increase the latency period in hot plate method suggesting that the extract produce nociception by peripheral activity. The extract produced inhibitory effect on NO, LOX and COX in concentration dependent manner. The extract exhibited pronounced and selective COX-2 inhibition. Altogether, these results suggested that the methanol extract of Indigofera linnaei could be considered as a potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent.

RESUMO Indigofera linnaei Ali pertence à família Leguminosae e é utilizada para o tratamento de várias doenças na medicina tradicional. No presente estudo, os efeitos benéficos do extrato metanólico da planta inteira de I. linnaei (MEIL) foram avaliados em respostas inflamatórias e nocicepção em modelos de roedores. Testes in vitro de atividade inibitória do óxido nítrico (NO), lipoxigenase (LOX) e ciclooxigenase (COX) também foram realizados para compreender o modo de ação. MEIL nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg, p.o. inibiu significativamente o volume da pata de rato induzido por carragenana e reduziu o peso do granuloma no modelo de pélete de algodão. Os resultados obtidos foram comparáveis ao do fármaco padrão, aceclofenaco. O efeito anti-nociceptivo de MEIL foi avaliado em camundongos no modelo de placa quente e de contorção induzida por ácido acético. O extrato da planta reduziu significativamente o número de contorções e o efeito analgésico foi maior do que o do fármaco padrão, ácido acetilsalicílico. Porém, o extrato não conseguiu aumentar o período de latência no método da placa quente, sugerindo que este produz nocicepção por atividade periférica. O extrato produziu efeito inibitório sobre o NO, LOX e COX dependente da concentração. O extrato exibiu inibição acentuada e seletiva da COX-2. No seu conjunto, estes resultados sugerem que o extrato metanólico de Indigofera linnaei poderia ser considerado como agente anti-inflamatório e analgésico potencial.

Rats , Rodentia , Indigofera/classification , Indigofera/drug effects , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Lipoxygenase/analysis , Analgesics/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/classification , Nitric Oxide/classification
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 269-278, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317077


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare and elucidate the antioxidant efficacy of ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (Fabaceae family).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Various in-vitro antioxidant assays and free radical-scavenging assays were done. Quantitative measurements of various phytoconstituents, reductive abilities and chelating potential were carried out along with standard compounds. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for ethanol and hydroethanol extracts were analyzed and compared with respective standards.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Hydroethanolic extracts showed considerably more potent antioxidant activity in comparison to ethanol extracts. Hydroethanolic extracts had lower IC50 values than ethanol extracts in the case of DPPH, metal chelation and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (829, 659 and 26.7 μg/mL) but had slightly higher values than ethanol in case of SO2- and NO2-scavenging activity (P<0.001 vs standard). Quantitative measurements also showed that the abundance of phenolic and flavonoid bioactive phytoconstituents were significantly (P<0.001) greater in hydroethanol extracts (212.920 and 149.770 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively) than in ethanol extracts (211.691 and 132.603 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively). Karl Pearson's correlation analysis (r2) between various antioxidant parameters and bioactive components also associated the antioxidant potential of I. tinctoria with various phytoconstituents, especially phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and tannins.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This study may be helpful to draw the attention of researchers towards the hydroethanol extracts of I. tinctoria, which has a high yield, and great prospects in herbal industries to produce inexpensive and powerful herbal products.</p>

Humans , Antioxidants , Free Radical Scavengers , Indigofera , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry
Int. j. morphol ; 32(4): 1228-1233, Dec. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734663


Indigofera suffruticosa is a plant generally used to treat infectious and inflammatory processes. This work aims to evaluate the histopathological changes in the liver tissue of mice with Sarcoma 180 after subchronic treatment with aqueous extract obtained by infusion and maceration of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves. Male mice were divided into four groups of six animals: G1, G2 and G3 patients with Sarcoma 180 and Sarcoma 180 G4 without sarcoma. G1 and G2 were treated with infusion mashing respectively (50 mg/kg ip); G3 and G4 controls received saline (15 ml/kg ip). The histopathological and morphometric analysis of liver tissue after subchronic treatment with aqueous extracts by infusion and maceration of the groups G1, G2 and G4 were similar and showed no degraded areas or leukocyte infiltration compared to G3, which shows a marked destruction of liver architecture. The results showed that after subchronic treatment with the aqueous extract of leaves Indigofera Suffruticosa obtained by infusion and maceration, the hepatic architecture was preserved, suggesting its use as an alternative hepatoprotective agent.

Indigofera suffruticosa es una planta utilizada para tratar procesos infecciosos e inflamatorios. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar los cambios histopatológicos en el tejido del hígado de ratones con sarcoma 180 después del tratamiento subcrónica con el extracto acuoso obtenido por infusión y maceración de las hojas de Indigofera suffruticosa. Los ratones machos fueron divididos en cuatro grupos de seis animales: pacientes G1 , G2 y G3 con Sarcoma 180 y G4 sin Sarcoma. G1 y G2 fueron tratados con infusión de maceración respectivamente (50mg/kg.ip); Controles G3 y G4 recibieron solución salina (15 ml/kg.ip). El análisis histopatológico y morfométrico de tejido hepático después de un tratamiento subcrónico con extractos acuosos por infusión y la maceración de los grupos G1, G2 y G4 fueron similares y no mostraron áreas degradadas o la infiltración de leucocitos en comparación a G3, que muestra una marcada destrucción de la arquitectura del hígado. Los resultados mostraron que después de un tratamiento subcrónico con el extracto acuoso de hojas de Indigofera suffruticosa obtenidos por infusión y la maceración, se conservó la arquitectura hepática, lo que sugiere su uso como una alternativa de agente hepatoprotector.

Animals , Male , Mice , Sarcoma 180/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Indigofera/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Sarcoma 180/pathology , Plant Leaves , Liver/pathology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(2): 126-130, Feb. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624096


Indigofera suffruticosa é uma planta invasora, ção. Em um caprino e um ovino foram realizados os testes que causa anemia hemolítica com hemoglobinúria em bo-de fragilidade osmótica, determinação de hemoglobina e vinos e, experimentalmente, anemia sem hemoglobinúria metemoglobina e pesquisa de corpúsculos de Heinz. Foi em cobaios. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a comprovado que em caprinos e ovinos, I. suffruticosa cautoxicidade de I. suffruticosa para caprinos e ovinos. Par-sa anemia hemolítica sem hemoglobinúria com formação tes aéreas da planta foram administradas a seis caprinos de corpúsculos de Heinz. Os animais recuperaram-se da e quatro ovinos em doses diárias de 10, 20 e 40g por kg anemia, total ou parcialmente, mesmo com a continuidade de peso vivo, durante períodos de 2 a 24 dias. Foram ava-da administração da planta. Oito a 12 horas após a coleliados os parâmetros hematológicos (hematócrito, níveis ta observa-se pigmento azulado na urina. Sugere-se que o de hemoglobina e contagem de hemácias) e foi coletada pigmento seja anilina ou algum metabolito dessa substânurina para urinálise e observação de variações na coloracia e que a anilina seja o princípio ativo responsável pela hemólise causada por I. suffruticosa.

Indigofera suffruticosa is a weed, which causes hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuriain cattle and, experimentally, anemia without hemoglobinuria in guinea pigs. With the objective to determinate the toxicity of I. suffruticosa to sheep and goats aerial parts of the plant were administrated to six goats and four sheep at daily doses of 10, 20 and 40g of fresh plant per kg body weight, during two to 24 days. Blood samples were collected daily for the determination of packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentrations, and red blood cells count. Urine was also collected daily for urine examination and observation of color changes. Osmotic fragility and blood concentrations of hemoglobin and methemoglobin were determined in one goat and one sheep. Anemia due to extravascular hemolysis, without hemoglobinuria, was observed in the experimental sheep and goats. Heinz bodies were observed in brilliant cresyl blue stained blood smears. There was total or partial recovery of the anemia in spite of the continued plant administration. Eight to 12 hours after collection a bluish pigment was observed in the urine. It is suggested that aniline is thetoxic compound of I. suffruticosa responsible for the hemolysis.

Animals , Blood Specimen Collection/veterinary , Indigofera/poisoning , Indigofera/toxicity , Sheep/immunology , Anemia/rehabilitation , Hemoglobinuria/veterinary
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine ; (12): 966-974, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312456


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To find out the anticancer effect of Indigofera aspalathoides (I. aspalathoides) on 20-methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fibrosarcoma was induced in Wistar strain male albino rats by 20-methylcholanthrene. Intraperitoneous (i.p.) administration of 250 mg/kg body weight/day of aqueous extract of I. aspalathoides for 30 d effectively suppressed chemically induced tumors. Parameters such as body weight, liver and kidney weight, tumor weight, mean survival time, behavioral changes, blood glucose, blood glycogen and marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and 5'-nucleiotidase (5'-NT) in serum, liver and kidney and lipid profiles such as total cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids in liver and kidney of control and experimental animals were studied.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Fibrosarcoma bearing animals were ferocious and anxious. The mean survival time was found to increase after the treatment. The body weights were significantly decreased (P<0.001) in group II fibrosarcoma animals which steadily increased after the treatment with I. aspalathoides. The liver and kidney weights were significantly increased whereas the tumor weights decreased as compared to the weights in untreated fibrosarcoma bearing rats. The blood glucose and the liver and kidney glycogen levels were found to decrease significantly (P<0.001) in group II animals. Elevated activities of marker enzymes were observed in serum, liver and kidney of fibrosarcoma bearing Group II animals which were normalize after I. aspalathoides treatment. In the liver and kidney of Group II animals the total cholesterol increased whereas the phospholipids and free fatty acid levels decreased (P<0.001) which were normalized after treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The treatment by I. aspalathoides on fibrosarcoma bearing rats has improved the levels of various parameters indicating its antiproliferative and anticancer activity.</p>

Animals , Male , Rats , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Chemoprevention , Fibrosarcoma , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Indigofera , Chemistry , Kidney , Pathology , Liver , Pathology , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental , Pathology , Methylcholanthrene , Phytotherapy , Methods , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Seeds , Chemistry
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 63(3): 275-277, sep.-dic. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-615560


Introducción: en Cuba se reportaron altas frecuencias de pediculosis capitis desde finales de los años noventa, particularmente en algunos grupos de escolares y sus convivientes. Estos últimos se involucran en la cadena de transmisión de esos insectos y pueden desempeñar, en la actualidad, una función importante como reservorios del parásito. Objetivo: reportar la eficacia del tratamiento con añil cimarrón en una paciente infestada de Pediculus capitis. Métodos: se describe un caso de infestación persistente con pediculosis capitis en una paciente de 55 años de edad, tratada con solución de permetrina 1 por ciento y posteriormente con tintura de añil cimarrón 5 por ciento. Resultados: la identificación microscópica de adultos y estadios pre-adultos del parásito confirmaron la presencia de Pediculus capitis. El tratamiento del cabello con permetrina 1 por ciento no fue eficaz en 2 aplicaciones realizadas. Como alternativa de tratamiento, se aplicó tintura de añil 5 por ciento, lo que permitió disminuir la población de ectoparásitos adultos y logró eliminar la infestación después de una segunda aplicación, con la constante extracción de las liendres realizada por el personal paramédico encargado del caso. Conclusión: la aplicación de este procedimiento inocuo podría servir como alternativa terapéutica para esta afección.

Introduction: pediculosis capitis was very frequently reported in Cuba since the end of the 90's, particularly in some groups of school children and their relatives. The latter are involved in a chain of transmission of these insects and may play an important role at present as parasite reservoirs. Objective: to report on the efficacy of the treatment of one female patient suffering from Pediculus capitis by using 5 percent Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (añil cimarrón) tincture. Methods: a case of persistent infestation with pediculosis capitis was described in which a 55 years-old patient was firstly treated with 1 percent permethrin solution and later with 5 percent Indigofera suffruticosa Mill tincture. Results: the microscopic identification of adult parasites and pre-adult stages of the parasite confirmed the presence of pediculus capitis. The hair treatment with 1 percent permethrin was not effective after two applications. As an alternative, 5 percent Indigofera suffruticosa Mill tincture was used and then the population of adult ectoparasites was reduced and the infestation was eliminated after the second application, with the paramedical staff continuously taking the nits out from the patient's hair. Conclusion: the use of this innocuous method may become a therapeutic alternative to treat this illness.

Animals , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Indigofera , Lice Infestations/drug therapy , Pediculus , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Scalp Dermatoses/drug therapy
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; (12): 379-385, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819502


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the antitumor, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides (MEIC) against transplantable tumors and human cancer cell lines.@*METHODS@#MEIC was investigated for its short term cytotoxicity on EAC and DLA cells by trypan blue dye exclusion method and in vitro cytotoxicity on HeLa, HEp-2, HEpG-2, MCF-7, HT-29, Vero and NIH 3T3 cells by MTT assay. In vivo antitumor activity was studied on EAC and DLA tumor bearing mice. Activity was assessed by monitoring the mean survival time, effect on hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels and solid tumor volume.@*RESULTS@#MEIC exhibit potent in vitro cytotoxicity against all the tested cancer cell lines, but it was found to be safe on normal cells. The extract significantly (P < 0.001) increase the mean survival time and also have a protective effect on the hemopoietic system at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg). The extract prevented lipid peroxidation and restored the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase in the liver of tumor control animals. It also significantly (P < 0.01) reduce the solid tumor volume.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results strongly support that MEIC shows potent antitumor and cytotoxic effects against EAC, DLA and human cancer cell lines. The extract prevents lipid peroxidation and promotes the enzymatic antioxidant defense system in tumor bearing animals which might be due to activities like scavenging of free radicals by the phytochemicals in MEIC.

Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Indigofera , Lipid Peroxidation , Neoplasms, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Vero Cells
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 30(11): 953-957, Nov. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-570705


Em uma propriedade do Município de Aparecida, no sertão da Paraíba, foi diagnosticada intoxicação por Indigofera suffruticosa em um rebanho de 25 vacas e um boi que foram colocados em um piquete que continha predominantemente I. suffruticosa onde permaneceram durante 10 dias. No quinto dia de pastejo o proprietário observou urina com coloração vermelho escura em uma vaca e ao final de dez dias de pastejo havia seis vacas doentes apresentando hemoglobinúria e diminuição na produção leiteira. No quinto dia após serem retiradas do pasto uma vaca apresentou agressividade e no sétimo dia foi encontrada morta pela manhã. Na necropsia o fígado apresentava coloração amarelada com pontos avermelhados e aumento do padrão lobular. A bexiga encontrava- se repleta com urina de cor vermelho escura. Os rins estavam escuros e com áreas hemorrágicas, de até 2mm, que se estendiam radialmente para dentro do córtex e parte da medula. Na histologia, os rins apresentavam áreas multifocais de necrose tubular isquêmica aguda com deposição de hemoglobina nas células epiteliais e cilindros de hemoglobina nos túbulos. No fígado havia necrose de coagulação difusa paracentral e ocasionalmente centrolobular. Os demais bovinos afetados se recuperaram espontaneamente 3-8 dias após serem retirados da pastagem. Conclui-se que a intoxicação por I. suffruticosa apesar de apresentar recuperação espontânea na maioria dos bovinos, mesmo se estes continuam ingerindo a planta, pode causar a morte de alguns animais por anemia aguda.

Poisoning by Indigofera suffruticosa was diagnosed on a farm in the state of Paraíba, in the Brazilian semiarid region, in a herd of 25 cows and one bull. The herd was grazing for ten days in a paddock severely invaded by I. suffruticosa. Five days after the introduction into the paddock some cows showed red urine, and in ten days, when the herd was removed from the pastures, six cows had decreased milk production and hemoglobinuria. Five days after being withdrawn from the pastures, one cow showed aggressiveness and two days later was found death. At necropsy, the liver was yellowish with petechial hemorrhages on the surface and had increased lobular pattern. The kidneys were dark and with red spots up to 2mm in diameter in the surface, which extended radially into the renal cortex. The urinary bladder was full of dark red urine. Upon histologic examination the kidneys had multifocal areas of ischemic tubular necrosis with hemoglobin deposition in the epithelial cells and hemoglobin casts in the tubules. The liver had diffuse paracentral and occasionally centrolobular coagulative necrosis. The other affected cows recovered spontaneously within 3-8 days after having been moved from the paddock. It is concluded that poisoning by I. suffruticosa, despite the spontaneous recovering of most cattle, can cause the death of some affected animals by acute hemolytic anemia.

Animals , Indigofera/adverse effects , Indigofera/toxicity , Plant Poisoning/diagnosis , Plant Poisoning/mortality , Plant Poisoning/pathology , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Plants, Toxic/adverse effects , Plants, Toxic/poisoning
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2551-2555, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279402


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To screen the factors that affect indirubin-generated significantly in the process of preparing indigo naturalis, optimize level combination and determine the optimum technology for indirubin-generated.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Using concentration of indirubin (mg x g(-1)) that generated by fresh leaf as an index, Plackett-Burman design, Box-Behnken design response surface analysis as the statistical method, we screened the significantly influencing factors and the optimal level combination.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The soaking and making indirubin process in preparing indigo naturalis was identified as the wax is not removed before immersion with immersion pH 7, solvent volume-leaf weight (mL: g)15, soaked not avoided light, soaking 48 h, temperature 60 degrees C, ventilation time of 180 min, and added ammonia water to adjust pH to 10.5.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The soaking and making indirubin process in preparing indigo naturalis is optimized systematically. It clarify the various factors on the impact of the active ingredient indirubin which controlled by industrialized production become reality in the process of preparing indigo naturalis, at the same time, it lay the foundation for processing principle of indigo naturalis.</p>

Control Groups , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Chemistry , Indoles , Chemistry , Metabolism , Myanmar , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2708-2711, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279369


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the chemical constituents in the roots of Indigofera pseudotinctoria.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Fourteen compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the plant and identified as maackiain (1), 3beta-hydroxy-olean-9 (11), 12-diene (2), 12-oleanen-3,11-dione (3), 3beta-acetoxy-12-oleanen-11 -one (4), formononetin (5), formononetin-7-O-beta-D- glucoside (6), 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxy isoflavone (7), afromosin (8), genistein (9), calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (10), vicenin-2 (11), isoliquiritigenin (12), beta-sitosterol (13), and daucosterol (14).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>All compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time, eleven compounds (except 1, 13 and 14) were isolated from the genus Indigofera for the first time.</p>

Indigofera , Chemistry , Plant Extracts
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 12(3)jul.-sept. 2007. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-499438


Se estudió el efecto genotóxico de un extracto de Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. mediante el ensayo Salmonella/microsomas con las líneas TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 y TA 100 que resultó positivo para el protocolo de incorporación en placas con las cepas TA 1535, TA 1537 con un rango de concentraciones de 50 a 5000 µg/placa (±S9). Mediante el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón el extracto exhibió un aumento estadísticamente significativo en la frecuencia de PCE micronucleados en las hembras tratadas y una relación dosis respuesta positiva, cuando se evaluaron dosis de 500, 1000 y 2000 mg/kg por vía oral con el ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón.

It was accomplished the study of the genotoxic effect of extract of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. using the Salmonella/microsoma assay in strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100 was positive in a plate incorporation protocol with concentrations ranging from 50 to 5000 mg/plate (¡À S9) for the strains TA 1535, TA 1537. The extract of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. exhibited the significantly increment in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in female mice and dose-dependent genotoxicity to mouse bone marrow micronucleus test at the doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg assayed.

Animals , Mice , Genotoxicity , Indigofera/toxicity , Salmonella