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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 59-66, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889203

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10) had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48). We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Trees/microbiology , Acacia/microbiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Trees/growth & development , Brazil , Acacia/growth & development , Wetlands , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 40-46, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974339

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacterial endophytes are considered to have a beneficial effect on host plants, improving their growth by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of four endophytic Bacillus strains to solubilize iron phosphate (Fe-P), produce siderophores and indole-acetic acid (IAA) in vitro, and to evaluate their plant growth promotion ability in greenhouse conditions by inoculation into pearl millet cultivated in a P-deficient soils without P fertilization, with Araxá rock phosphate or soluble triple superphosphate. All strains solubilized Fe-P and three of them produced carboxylate-type siderophores and high levels of IAA in the presence of tryptophan. Positive effect of inoculation of some of these strains on shoot and root dry weight and the N P K content of plants cultivated in soil with no P fertilization might result from the synergistic combination of multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. Specifically, while B1923 enhanced shoot and root dry weight and root N P content of plants cultivated with no P added, B2084 and B2088 strains showed positive performance on biomass production and accumulation of N P K in the shoot, indicating that they have higher potential to be microbial biofertilizer candidates for commercial applications in the absence of fertilization.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/metabolism , Food/metabolism , Pennisetum/growth & development , Pennisetum/microbiology , Endophytes/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphates/metabolism , Bacillus/genetics , Siderophores/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Pennisetum/metabolism , Endophytes/genetics , Iron/metabolism
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(3): 58-64, May 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-787009

ABSTRACT

Background: Endophytic bacteria are ubiquitous in all plant species contributing in host plant's nutrient uptake and helping the host to improve its growth. Moringa peregrina which is a medicinal plant, growing in arid region of Arabia, was assessed for the presence of endophytic bacterial strains. Results: PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA of bacterial endophytes revealed the 5 endophytic bacteria, in which 2 strains were from Sphingomonas sp.; 2 strains from Bacillus sp. and 1 from Methylobacterium genus. Among the endophytic bacterial strains, a strain of Bacillus subtilis LK14 has shown significant prospects in phosphate solubilization (clearing zone of 56.71 mm after 5 d), ACC deaminase (448.3 ± 2.91 nM α-ketobutyrate mg-1 h-1) and acid phosphatase activity (8.4 ± 1.2 nM mg-1 min-1). The endophytic bacteria were also assessed for their potential to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Among isolated strains, the initial spectrophotometry analysis showed significantly higher IAA production by Bacillus subtilis LK14. The diurnal production of IAA was quantified using multiple reactions monitoring method in UPLC/MS-MS. The analysis showed that LK14 produced the highest (8.7 uM) IAA on 14th d of growth. Looking at LK14 potentials, it was applied to Solanum lycopersicum, where it significantly increased the shoot and root biomass and chlorophyll (a and b) contents as compared to control plants. Conclusion: The study concludes that using endophytic bacterial strains can be bio-prospective for plant growth promotion, which might be an ideal strategy for improving growth of crops in marginal lands.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/physiology , Lycopersicon esculentum/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Bacillus subtilis/isolation & purification , Bacillus subtilis/enzymology , Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chromatography/methods , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiology , Endophytes , Indoleacetic Acids/analysis
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 977-989, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769669

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant Lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern China; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). The bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16S rRNA gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics, and by measuring wheat growth parameters after inoculation. Results showed that the number of endophytic bacteria in L. japonica varied among different tissues, but it remained relatively stable in the same tissues from four different plantation locations. Among the three endophytic strains, strains 122 and 124 both had high siderophore production, with the latter showing the highest phosphate solubilization activity (45.6 mg/L) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (47.3 nmol/mg/h). Strain 170 had the highest indoleacetic acid (IAA) production (49.2 mg/L) and cellulase and pectinase activities. After inoculation, most of the six selected isolates showed a strong capacity to promote wheat growth. Compared with the controls, the increase in the shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content was most remarkable in wheat seedlings inoculated with strain 130. The positive correlation between enzyme (cellulose and pectinase) activity and inhibition rate on Fusarium oxysporum, the IAA production, and the root length of wheat seedlings inoculated with each tested endophytic strain was significant in regression analysis. Deformity of pathogenic fungal mycelia was observed under a microscope after the interaction with the endophytic isolates. Such deformity may be directly related to the production of hydrolytic bacterial enzymes (cellulose and pectinase). The six endophytic bacterial strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus/microbiology , China/classification , China/genetics , China/growth & development , China/isolation & purification , China/metabolism , China/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Endophytes/microbiology , Indoleacetic Acids/classification , Indoleacetic Acids/genetics , Indoleacetic Acids/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/isolation & purification , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/microbiology , Lonicera/classification , Lonicera/genetics , Lonicera/growth & development , Lonicera/isolation & purification , Lonicera/metabolism , Lonicera/microbiology , Molecular Sequence Data/classification , Molecular Sequence Data/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data/growth & development , Molecular Sequence Data/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data/microbiology , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Paenibacillus/growth & development , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/microbiology , Phylogeny/classification , Phylogeny/genetics , Phylogeny/growth & development , Phylogeny/isolation & purification , Phylogeny/metabolism , Phylogeny/microbiology , Plant Roots/classification , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Siderophores/classification , Siderophores/genetics , Siderophores/growth & development , Siderophores/isolation & purification , Siderophores/metabolism , Siderophores/microbiology , Triticum/classification , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/isolation & purification , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology
5.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(1): 165-174, 01/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-733139

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste artigo é investigar relações entre renda e escolaridade com condições de saúde e nutrição em obesos graves. Estudo transversal ambulatorial com 79 pacientes de primeira consulta, com Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) ≥ 35 kg/m2 e idade ≥ 20 anos. Coletaram-se dados: sociodemográficos, antropométricos, estilo de vida, exames bioquímicos e consumo alimentar. O IMC médio foi 48,3 ± 6,9 kg/m2. Observou-se correlação negativa significante de escolaridade com variáveis peso (r = -0,234) e IMC (r = -0,364) e de renda familiar per capita com consumo diário de vegetal A (r = -0,263). Após análise multivariada maior renda familiar per capita se associou à ausência de cardiopatia (RP: 0,51, IC95%: 0,32-0,81), maior consumo diário de vegetal A (RP: 1,79, IC95%: 1,16-2,75) e doces (RP: 3,12, IC95%: 1,21-8,04). Em obesos graves a maior renda familiar per capita se associou à ausência de cardiopatia e maior consumo de vegetais folhosos e doces. Já a escolaridade não se manteve associada às condições de saúde e nutrição.


This article seeks to investigate the relationship between income and educational level and health and nutritional conditions among the morbidly obese. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 79 patients at first appointment, with Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2 and age ≥ 20 years. The following data was collected: demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, biochemical and food intake data. Average BMI was 48.3 ± 6.9 kg/m2. There was a significant negative correlation between education level and the variables of weight (r = -0.234) and BMI (r = -0.364) and per capita family income with daily consumption of leafy vegetables (r = -0.263). After multivariate analysis, higher per capita family income was associated with the absence of heart disease (PR: 0.51, CI95%: 0.32-0.81), higher daily consumption of leafy vegetables (PR: 1.79, CI95%: 1.16-2.75) and candy (PR: 3.12, CI95%: 1.21-8.04). In the morbidly obese, per capita household income was associated with absence of heart disease and higher consumption of leafy vegetables and candy. On the other hand, education level was not associated with health and nutrition conditions.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/enzymology , Arabidopsis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Phospholipases A/metabolism , /pharmacology , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Luciferases/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Phospholipases A/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Seedlings/drug effects , Seedlings/metabolism , Time Factors , /pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1229-1237, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741272

ABSTRACT

The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas putida Rs-198 was isolated from salinized soils from Xinjiang Province. We optimized the composition of the low-cost medium of P. putida Rs-198 based on its bacterial concentration, as well as its phosphate-dissolving and indole acetic acid (IAA)-producing capabilities using the response surface methodology (RSM), and a mathematical model was developed to show the effect of each medium component and its interactions on phosphate dissolution and IAA production. The model predicted a maximum phosphate concentration in medium containing 63.23 mg/L inorganic phosphate with 49.22 g/L corn flour, 14.63 g/L soybean meal, 2.03 g/L K2HPO4, 0.19 g/L MnSO4 and 5.00 g/L NaCl. The maximum IAA concentration (18.73 mg/L) was predicted in medium containing 52.41 g/L corn flour, 15.82 g/L soybean meal, 2.40 g/L K2HPO4, 0.17 g/L MnSO4 and 5.00 g/L NaCl. These predicted values were also verified through experiments, with a cell density of 10(13) cfu/mL, phosphate dissolution of 64.33 mg/L, and IAA concentration of 18.08 mg/L. The excellent correlation between predicted and measured values of each model justifies the validity of both the response models. The study aims to provide a basis for industrialized fermentation using P. putida Rs-198.


Subject(s)
Culture Media/chemistry , Pseudomonas putida/growth & development , Bacterial Load , Costs and Cost Analysis , Culture Media/economics , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Mass Screening , Models, Theoretical , Phosphates/metabolism , Pseudomonas putida/metabolism
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 621-625, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723126

ABSTRACT

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.


Subject(s)
Azospirillum brasilense/isolation & purification , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Hordeum/microbiology , Nitrogen Fixation , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Seeds/microbiology , Antibiosis , Azospirillum brasilense/classification , Azospirillum brasilense/genetics , Azospirillum brasilense/metabolism , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/metabolism , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Molecular Typing , Pseudomonas/classification , Pseudomonas/genetics , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1341-1348, Oct.-Dec. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705278

ABSTRACT

Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m-1 under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/microbiology , Fabaceae/physiology , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Osmotic Pressure , Pseudomonas/growth & development , Rhizobium/growth & development , Stress, Physiological , Soil Microbiology
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 629-637, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688594

ABSTRACT

The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4-60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0-11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (µg/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.1-0.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plantgrowth promoting agent.


Subject(s)
Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Sophora/microbiology , Antibiosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cluster Analysis , Carboxylic Acids/metabolism , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/growth & development , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Plant Development , Phosphates/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Pseudomonas/classification , Pseudomonas/genetics , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Siderophores/metabolism , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Sophora/growth & development , Temperature
10.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Jan; 29(1): 127-34
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113652

ABSTRACT

The total heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus were enumerated from the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of 50 selected locally available medicinal plants in and around Bharathiar University. In all the plants, population of microorganism were higher in the rhizosphere soil than in the non rhizosphere soil. Among the microorganisms, bacterial population was higher in number followed by fungus and actinomycetes. Of the medicinal plants, the maximum rhizosphere effect was observed in Annona squamosa and the minimum effect was seen in Eclipta alba and Cassia auriculata. Among the bacteria the dominant species was Bacillus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus and Serratia. The Streptomyces species was found to be dominant followed by Deuteromycetes and Frankia among the actinomycetes. Among the fungal isolates Rhizopus was found to be higher in number followed by Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor and Fusarium. About 70.96% of the bacterial isolates were found to be nitrate reducers and 90.60% of the bacteria solubilised phosphate. The rhizosphere bacterial isolates were also capable of hydrolyzing starch, cellulose, casein, urea and gelatin. The isolates of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus were also able to produce phytohormone Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The maximum IAA production was recorded by Fusarium sp (5.8 mg/l). The rhizosphere bacterial isolates showed resistance to 14 commercially used antibiotics. In an attempt to check the influence of these plant growth promoting microorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum against Escherichia coli MTCC-443 and Aeromonas hydrophila MTCC-646, the results observed was not encouraging since the inoculants did not influence the antibacterial property. However extensive and in depth study is required to find out the influence of rhizomicroorganisms on the antibacterial property of medicinal plants. The other results clearly indicated that the rhizosphere microorganisms could be exploited for its innumerable properties and active metabolites.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/classification , Coriandrum/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Mitosporic Fungi , Mucorales , Nitrates/chemistry , Phosphates/chemistry , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Solubility
11.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jan; 28(1): 15-20
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113303

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates were tested against charcoal rot of chickpea both in green house as well as in field conditions. Most of the isolates reduced charcoal rot disease and promoted plant growth in green house. A marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in P. fluorescens treated plants. Among all the P. fluorescens isolates Pf4-99, was found most effective in the improvement of chickpea crop in green house as well as in field. Pf4-99 effectively promoted plant growth and produced indole acetic acid in culture medium. This isolate also inhibited the mycelial growth of the M. phaseolina under in vitro conditions and reduced the disease severity Potential isolate (Pf4-99) also significantly increased the biomass of the chickpea plants, shoot length, root length and protein content of the chickpea seeds. A part from these, the total number of seeds per plant and their weight were also enhanced. The colonization of Pf4-99 reduced the incidence of seed mycoflora by which indirectly enhanced the seed germination and vigour index of seedlings. The observations revealed that isolate Pf4-99 is quite effective to reduce the charcoal rot disease both in field and greenhouse, and also increases seed yields significantly Therefore, this isolate appears to be an efficient biocontrol agent against charcoal rot disease as well as yield increasing rhizobacterium.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Cicer/growth & development , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolism
12.
J Biosci ; 2006 Dec; 31(5): 645-50
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110778

ABSTRACT

Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained. Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and mixed cultures with no such attachments. Acidity, as measured by pH in cultures with biofilms was higher than that of fungi alone, bacteria alone or the mixed cultures. Production of indoleacetic acid like substances (IAAS) of biofilms was higher than that of mixed cultures, fungi or bacteria. Bacteria and fungi produced higher quantities of IAAS than mixed cultures. In mixed cultures, the potential of IAAS production of resident microbes was reduced considerably. There was a negative relationship between IAAS and pH of the biofilms, indicating that IAAS was the main contributor to the acidity. However, such a relationship was not observed in mixed cultures. Microbial acid production is important for suppressing plant pathogens. Thus the biofilm formation in endophytic environment seems to be very important for healthy and improved plant growth. However, it is unlikely that an interaction among endophytes takes place naturally in the endophytic environment, due to physical barriers of plant tissues. Further, critical cell density dependant quorum sensing that leads to biofilm formation may not occur in the endophytic environment as there is a limited space. As such in vitro production and application of beneficial biofilmed inocula of endophytes are important for improved plant production in any agro-ecosystem. The conventional practice of plant inoculation with monocultures or mixed cultures of effective microbes may not give the highest microbial effect, which may only be achieved by biofilm formation.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/physiology , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Biofilms , Coculture Techniques , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Symbiosis
13.
J Environ Biol ; 2005 Oct; 26(4): 693-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113940

ABSTRACT

Plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains A3 and S32 have been shown to promote the growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress which has been related to the microbial production of siderophores and indole 3 acetic acid (IAA). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the importance of siderophores and IAA producing PGPR on the growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress. The production of IAA and siderophores were observed in the strains A3 and S32, respectively. Both PGPR strains promote the growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress. The maximum growth was observed in plants inoculated with siderophores producing strain 32. Both the bacterial inoculum did not influence the uptake of chromium by plants. The present observation showed that PGPR isolates A3 and S32 are capable of protecting the plants against the inhibitory effects of chromium by producing the siderophores and IAA.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/metabolism , Chromium/toxicity , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Mustard Plant/drug effects , Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Siderophores/metabolism , Soil Microbiology
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Jul; 42(7): 721-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56416

ABSTRACT

Glasshouse experiments were conducted to elicit biochemical substantiation for the observed difference in resistance to nematode infection in roots colonized by mycorrhiza, and susceptibility of the fresh flush of roots of the same plant that escaped mycorrhizal colonization. Tomato roots were assayed for their biochemical profiles with respect to total proteins, total phenols, indole acetic acid, activities of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and indole acetic acid oxidase. The roots of the same plant (one set) received Glomus fasciculatum and G. fasciculatum plus juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita separately; and half the roots of second set of plants received G. fasciculatum while the other half of roots did not receive any treatment. Roots colonized by G. fasciculatum recorded maximum contents of proteins and phenols followed by that of the roots that received G. fasciculatum plus M. incognita. However, IAA content was lowest in the roots that received mycorrhiza or mycorrhiza plus juveniles of root-knot nematode and correspondingly. Roots that received juveniles of root-knot nematode recorded maximum IAA content and per cent increase over healthy check and mycorrhiza-inoculated roots. The comparative assay on the activities of PPO, PAL and IAA oxidase enzymes in treated and healthy roots of tomato, indicated that PAL and IAA oxidase activities were maximum in G. fasciculatum colonized roots followed by the roots that received mycorrhiza plus juveniles of root-knot nematode, while the activity of PPO was minimum in these roots. The roots that received juveniles of root-knot nematode recorded minimum PAL and IAA oxidase activities and maximum PPO activity. Since the roots of same plant that received mycorrhiza and that did not receive mycorrhiza; and the plant that received nematode alone and mycorrhiza plus nematode recorded differential biochemical contents of proteins, total phenols and IAA, and differential activities of enzymes under study, it was evident that the biochemical defense response to mycorrhizal colonization against root-knot nematodes was localized and not systemic. This explained for the response of plant that differed in root galling due to nematode infection in presence of mycorrhizal colonization. The new or fresh roots which missed mycorrhizal colonization, got infected by nematodes and developed root galls.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catechol Oxidase/metabolism , Fungi/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzymology , Plant Roots/enzymology , Tylenchoidea/physiology
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Jan; 42(1): 106-10
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60094

ABSTRACT

Axillary buds obtained from field grown plants of D. hamiltonii were used to initiate multiple shoots on Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA) and 0.5 mg L(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Profuse rooting was achieved when the actively growing shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Regenerated plants were grown successfully in the plains, in contrast to wild growth in high altitudes and rocky crevices of hilly regions. Roots of different sizes from one-year-old tissue culture raised field grown plants had the same profile of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde as that of wild plants. A maximum of 0.14% and 0.12% 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde was produced in roots of one year old tissue culture derived plants and greenhouse grown plants respectively.


Subject(s)
Benzaldehydes/chemistry , Cell Division , Culture Techniques , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , India , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Models, Chemical , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Temperature
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2003 Apr; 41(4): 341-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61696

ABSTRACT

Diversity of the native diazotrophs associated with the rhizosphere of pearl millet (P. glaucumn), grown in nutritionally poor soils of semi-arid regions was studied with a view to isolate effective nitrogen fixing and plant growth stimulating bacteria with root associative characteristics. The native population varied from 10(3)-10(4) g(-1) of rhizosphere soil after 40 d growth and belonged to genera Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Klebsiella. Another non-diazotrophic root associative group was Pseudomonas sp., which also produced IAA and enhanced plant growth. Some of these rhizobacteria showed high in vitro acetylene reduction activity along with production of indole acetic acid. Out of 11 selected diazotrophs used as seed inoculants, M10B (Azospirillum sp.), M11E (Azotobacter sp.) and M12D4 (Klebsiella sp.) resulted in significant increase in total root and shoot nitrogen at 45 and 60 days of plant growth under pot culture conditions.


Subject(s)
Acetylene/metabolism , Bacteria/classification , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Nitrogen Fixation , Pennisetum/growth & development , Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Soil Microbiology
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Jul; 40(7): 796-801
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56768

ABSTRACT

The Rhizobium sp. isolated from healthy and mature root nodules of a leguminous tree, Dalbergia lanceolaria Linn. f., preferred mannitol and KNO3 for growth as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The bacterium produced a high amount (22.3 microg/ml) of indole acetic acid (IAA) from L-tryptophan supplemented basal medium. Growth and IAA production started simultaneously. IAA production was maximum at 20 hr when the bacteria reached the stationary phase of growth. Cultural requirements were optimized for maximum growth and IAA production. The IAA production by the Rhizobium sp. was increased by 270.8% over control when the medium was supplemented with mannitol (1%,w/v), SDS (1 microg/ml), L-asparagine (0.02%,w/v) and biotin (1 microg/ml) in addition to L-tryptophan (2.5 mg/ml). The possible role of IAA production in the symbiosis is discussed.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/microbiology , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Rhizobium/growth & development
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1992 Feb; 30(2): 142-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56336

ABSTRACT

Ability of 8 ectomycorrhizal fungi to synthesise indole 3-acetic acid from L-tryptophan and their growth rate were studied. Differences in the levels of IAA synthesis and biomass production among the 8 mycorrhizal fungi were observed. A positive correlation was recorded between IAA level and mycelial growth. The synthesis of IAA and mycelial biomass were maximum on 30th day after incubation. Pisolithus tinctorius and Laccaria laccata exhibited higher amounts of IAA production than other fungi, whereas Amanita muscaria and Rhizopogon luteolus showed least quantity of IAA.


Subject(s)
Fungi/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism
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