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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468915

ABSTRACT

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence [...].


Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S [...].


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Klebsiella/isolation & purification , Animal Feed/analysis , Industrial Waste/analysis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.


Resumo O cromo (VI), metal altamente tóxico, é um dos principais constituintes dos resíduos industriais. É liberado no solo e na água, causa problemas ambientais e de saúde de crescente preocupação pública em países em desenvolvimento como o Paquistão. O objetivo básico deste estudo foi o isolamento e a triagem de bactérias resistentes ao cromo de resíduos industriais coletados em Korangi e Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46,0"N 66˚59'25,7"E e 24˚48'37,5"N 67˚06'52,6"E). Do total de 53 cepas isoladas, sete cepas bacterianas foram selecionadas por enriquecimento seletivo e identificadas com base em características morfológicas e bioquímicas. Essas cepas foram designadas como S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 e S48, apresentaram alta resistência aos metais contra concentrações variáveis (100-1500 mg / l) de cromo. Já as cepas S35 e S48 foram identificadas por meio da sequência 16S rRNA e apresentaram 99% de similaridade com Bacillus paranthracis e Bacillus paramycoides. Além disso, as condições de crescimento incluindo temperatura e pH foram otimizadas e ambas as cepas bacterianas apresentaram crescimento máximo na temperatura de 30 ºC, enquanto seu pH ótimo foi observado em 7,5 e 6,5, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o potencial de resistência dessas bactérias resistentes ao cromo pode ser efetivamente utilizado na remoção de cromo de efluentes industriais contaminados. Técnicas de base biológica usando bactérias ajudarão a fornecer métodos mais baratos e ecológicos de remoção, recuperação e desintoxicação de cromo.


Subject(s)
Chromium , Metals, Heavy , Bacillus , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Industrial Waste/analysis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus , Industrial Waste , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Plant Extracts , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

ABSTRACT

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Feathers , Fermentation , Fungi , Industrial Waste , Keratins/metabolism
5.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 116-122, jun, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381305

ABSTRACT

La presente nota científica plantea una propuesta para gestionar de manera integral el problema ocasionado por la mala disposición de los desechos sólidos en la zona industrial Lurigancho, Perú. Se basa en el modelo de operador, que considera la parte política, estratégica y regulador, de esta manera contar con indicadores, que sirvan de herramientas para la toma de decisiones en la en la gestión de residuos a las plantas industriales a partir de su control, vigilancia, información y clasificación. Esta propuesta se aplicó en doce lugares de disposición de los residuos industriales, puntos de monitoreo, con dos intervenciones, con la evaluación inicial se observó caos ambiental, con desbordamiento de los contenedores de basura, sin aprovechamiento de los residuos y proliferación de fauna nociva. Posterior a la inducción para ejecutar la propuesta, en la segunda intervención, posterior a 45 días, se precisó mejoras considerables, aplicándose recomendaciones objetivas basadas en los valores de los indicadores los que permitieron la planificación estratégica y operativa y de la programación y el control generales. Los resultados preliminares hacen suponer que esta propuesta atiende requerimientos medioambientales y de salubridad, a través de la reducción y procesamiento de los residuos, cuya inadecuada disposición puede llegar a afectar la salud humana(AU)


This scientific note presents a proposal to comprehensively manage the problem caused by poor disposal of solid waste in the Lurigancho industrial zone, Peru. It is based on the operator model, which considers the political, strategic and regulatory part, thus having indicators that serve as tools for decision-making in the management of waste at industrial plants based on its control. , surveillance, information and classification. This proposal was applied in twelve industrial waste disposal sites, monitoring points, with two interventions, with the initial evaluation environmental chaos was observed, with overflow of garbage containers, without use of waste and proliferation of harmful fauna. After the induction to execute the proposal, in the second intervention, after 45 days, considerable improvements were required, applying objective recommendations based on the values of the indicators, which allowed strategic and operational planning and general programming and control. . Preliminary results suggest that this proposal meets environmental and health requirements, through the reduction and processing of waste, whose inadequate disposal can affect human health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Solid Waste , Environmental Monitoring , Waste Management , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Industrial Waste , Peru , Operators , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities
6.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 9(2): 189-198, 2022. il^c27
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1415975

ABSTRACT

La contaminación por plásticos petroquímicos es una grave amenaza para el medio ambiente que requiere im-plementar alternativas como los bioplásticos para lograr un desarrollo sostenible. Los polihidroxialcanoatos (PHA) son polímeros utilizados para la producción de plásticos biodegradables y que han llamado la atención como sustitutos de los plásticos de base fósil. Sin embargo, el costo de producción de los PHA constituye una barrera para su producción industrial a gran escala. Las de bacterias de hábitats salinos son microorganismos prometedores para la síntesis de PHA debido a sus características tales como altos requisitos de salinidad que previenen la contaminación microbiana, la alta presión osmótica intracelular que permite una fácil lisis celular para purificar los PHA y la capacidad para usar un amplio espectro de sustratos. La presente investigación planteó determinar las cepas nativas de bacterias halófilas y halotolerantes de la Laguna de Ayarza capaces de producir PHA, establecer la capacidad que tienen de utilizar residuos agrícolas para la producción de PHA y determinar su eficiencia. Esto se logró a través de la inoculación de las cepas productoras de PHA en medios de fermentación con pulpa de café, cáscaras de plátanos y salvado de trigo lo que permitió determinar las cepas más eficientes. Se encontró que las bacterias productoras de PHA pertenecen a las especies: Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus idriensis, Bacillus megaterium, Exiguobacterium acetylicum, E. aurantiacum, Pseudomonas cuatrocienegasensis y Sta-phylococcus capitis y que las cepas AP21-14, AP21-10 y AP21-03 mostraron los mejores resultados que podrían ser prometedores para la producción a nivel industrial.


Pollution by petrochemical plastics is a serious threat to the environment that requires the implementation of al-ternatives such as bioplastics to achieve sustainable development. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers used for the production of biodegradable plastics and have drawn attention as substitutes for fossil-based plastics. However, the cost of producing PHAs constitutes a barrier to their large-scale industrial production. Bacteria from saline environments bacteria are promising microorganisms for PHA synthesis due to their characteristics such as high salinity requirements that prevent microbial contamination, high intracellular osmotic pressure that allows easy cell lysis to purify PHAs, and the ability to use a broad spectrum of substrates. This research project aimed to determine the native strains of halophilic and halotolerant bacteria from Laguna de Ayarza capable of producing PHA, establish their ability to use agricultural residues for the production of PHA, and determine their efficiency. This was achieved through the inoculation of the PHA-producing strains in fermentation media with coffee pulp, banana peels and wheat bran, which allowed determining the most efficient strains. It was found that the PHA-producing bacteria belong to the species: Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus idriensis, Bacillus mega-terium, Exiguobacterium acetylicum, E. aurantiacum, Pseudomonas cuatrocienegasensis and Staphylococcus capitis and that the strains AP21-14, AP21-10 and AP21-03 showed the best results that could be promising for production at an industrial level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Halomonas , Polyhydroxyalkanoates/analysis , Biodegradable Plastics/chemistry , Pseudomonas/chemistry , Bacillus megaterium/chemistry , Coastal Lagoon , Alcaligenes faecalis/chemistry , Fermentation , Staphylococcus capitis , Exiguobacterium/chemistry , Guatemala , Industrial Waste/adverse effects
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 543-549, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248918

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o balanço de nitrogênio e a concentração de ureia no plasma em cabritos alimentados com dietas contendo farinha de pupunha em substituição ao milho (0, 10, 40, 60 e 85% MS). Trinta cabritos Boer × SRD, com 90 dias de idade e peso corporal inicial de 16,7 ± 3,5kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis repetições. As dietas foram fornecidas diariamente ad libitum para permitir 10% das sobras. Três coletas foram realizadas a cada 28 dias. As dietas foram constituídas por milho, farelo de soja, farinha de pupunha, suplemento mineral e feno de Tifton-85, com a relação volumoso: concentrado de 30:70. O consumo de nitrogênio (N) diminuiu linearmente à medida que a farinha de pupunha substituiu o milho no concentrado. Com relação ao N digerido, os animais alimentados com níveis de farinha de pupunha apresentaram valores inferiores aos alimentados com o milho como única fonte de energia, com médias de 14,9 e 17,1g dia-1, respectivamente. A excreção urinária de N diminuiu à medida que a farinha de pupunha substituiu o milho no concentrado. O nível de 39% de farinha de pupunha reduziu a excreção urinária de ureia. Houve retenção máxima de N em 7,83g dia-1 para o nível de substituição de milho de 28,9% em farinha de pupunha.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Ruminants/metabolism , Arecaceae , Industrial Waste , Animal Feed/analysis
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 223-230, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153065

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate increasing levels of fish waste oil in diets for laying hens on serum biochemistry profile. 192 Hisex White laying hens at 29 weeks of age were used, with water and food ad libitum. The experimental design was completely randomized consisting of eight treatments corresponding to the inclusion levels of fish waste oil (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5%) in the diets, with four replicates of six birds each. Data collected were subjected to polynomial regression at 5% of significance. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, and uric acid. These parameters presented a decrease when hens fed diets with higher level of fish waste oil. The results of the present study indicated that the inclusion of fish waste oil caused a significant effect in the serum biochemical profile of laying hens, especially in glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and uric acid concentrations. The inclusion level of 3.5% of fish waste oil caused larger disequilibrium in the serum biochemical profile of laying hens.(AU)


O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os níveis crescentes de óleo de resíduo de pescado em dietas para poedeiras leves sobre o perfil bioquímico sérico. Foram utilizadas poedeiras Hisex White com 29 semanas, com água e ração ad libitum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, consistindo de oito tratamentos correspondentes aos níveis de inclusão de óleo de resíduo de pescado (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 e 3,5%) nas dietas, com quatro repetições de seis aves cada. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à regressão polinomial a 5% de significância. Diferenças significativas (P<0,05) foram observadas nas concentrações de triglicerídeos, glicose, colesterol total e ácido úrico. Esses parâmetros apresentaram uma diminuição quando as aves se alimentaram com rações contendo maior nível de óleo do resíduo de pescado. Os resultados do presente estudo indicaram que a inclusão de óleo do resíduo de pescado acarretou um efeito significativo no perfil bioquímico sérico de poedeiras, principalmente nas concentrações de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total e ácido úrico. O nível de inclusão de 3,5% do óleo do resíduo de pescado acarretou maior desequilíbrio no perfil bioquímico sérico das poedeiras.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Fish Oils/administration & dosage , Chickens/blood , Industrial Waste/analysis , Animal Feed/analysis , Triglycerides/blood , Serum Albumin , Cholesterol/blood
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 13-22, nov. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a large amount of industrial wastewater produced by the mushroom industry during the canning processing each year, which could provide abundant carbon, nitrogen and inorganic salts for microbial growth. The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions for Bacillus licheniformis cultured in the Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater to produce the agricultural microbial fertilizer. RESULTS: In this work, the maximal biomass of B. licheniformis could be obtained under the following culture conditions: 33.7°C, pH 7.0, 221 rpm shaking speed, 0.5% wastewater, 2 (v:v, %) inoculum dose, loading liquid of 60 mL/250 mL and a culture time of 24 h, and the average experimental value obtained was 1.35 ± 0.04 × 109 Obj/mL, which was within the 95% confidence interval of the predicted model (1.29­1.38 × 109 Obj/mL), and met the national microbial fertilizers' standard in China. Furthermore, the field experiment results showed that the fermentation broth of B. licheniformis could significantly improve the yield of Anoectochilus roxburghii. CONCLUSIONS: Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater can be used to produce agricultural microbial fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Orchidaceae/physiology , Fertilizers/microbiology , Bacillus licheniformis/physiology , Agaricus , Fermentation , Wastewater , Flow Cytometry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Industrial Waste
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 615-620, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132401

ABSTRACT

Abstract Synthetic dyes, particularly reactive and acid dyes, are commonly used in the textile industry because of their advantages as excellent color fastness and brightness. Also, surfactants are used for an increment of coloring success in the textile industry. One of the major problems concerning textile wastewater is the treatment of the effluents containing both dyes and surfactants. Biological treatment systems are recommended as useful, economic and eco-friendly methods for treatment of industrial wastewater. The purpose of this study was to investigate the binary removal of a textile dye and a surfactant by growing Aspergillus versicolor culture in molasses medium. The effect of dye and surfactant concentration on the removal of dye and surfactant was determined. This study resulted that 100% of the surfactant and dye molecules removed together with the formation of a dye-surfactant complex by fungus. It is concluded that binary removal systems are very efficient for industrial wastewater treatment.


Resumo Os corantes sintéticos, particularmente corantes reativos e ácidos, são comumente usados ​​na indústria têxtil devido às suas vantagens como excelente solidez da cor e brilho. Além disso, os surfactantes são usados ​​para incrementar o sucesso da coloração na indústria têxtil. Um dos principais problemas relativos às águas residuais têxteis são o tratamento dos efluentes contendo corantes e surfactantes. Os sistemas de tratamento biológico são recomendados como métodos úteis, econômicos e ecológicos para o tratamento de efluentes industriais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a remoção binária de um corante têxtil e um surfactante, cultivando a cultura Aspergillus versicolor em meio de melaço. O efeito das concentrações de corante e surfactante nas remoções de corante e surfactante foi determinado. Este estudo resultou na remoção de 100% das moléculas de surfactante e corante juntamente com a formação de um complexo corante-surfactante por fungos. Conclui-se que os sistemas de remoção binária são muito eficientes no tratamento de efluentes industriais.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Wastewater , Surface-Active Agents , Textile Industry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Color , Coloring Agents , Industrial Waste
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18467, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249175

ABSTRACT

The processing of grapes for the manufacture of juices and wines, generates large quantities of by-products rich in metabolites with antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. The high homology between human enzymes and snake venoms makes the latter valuable laboratory tools for the study of pathophysiological processes. Proteases and phospholipases A2 act in processes related to hemostasis and inflammatory response. Thus, in this work, dried pomace obtained from grape (Isabel, Niagara, Bordô, BRS Violeta and Blend cultivars) processing were evaluated on phospholipase, proteolytic, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities induced by snakes venoms and the content of phenolic compounds and minerals was evaluated. The dried pomace exerted inhibitory and potentiating actions in all analyzed activities. The enzymatic modulators present in the evaluated dried pomace have potential for therapeutic use, although their broad characterization is still necessary, in order to define adequate amounts and formulations to obtain efficacy and safety in their use.


Subject(s)
Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Wine/classification , Enzymes/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phospholipases A2/analysis , Vitis/classification , Industrial Waste/analysis
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190515, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132218

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present study was to develop a cost-effective medium, using agro-industrial wastes for the production of a polygalacturonase by Wickerhanomyces anomalus of interest in cassava starch industries. The effect of several raw agro-industrial wastes and others nutrients on polygalacturonase production by W. anomalus, were evaluated, in a reference fermentation medium, using statistical designs, by batch culture. The ability of the cell-free supernatant to extract cassava starch was evaluated. Lemon peel was the best inducer for the production of PGase. Statistical analysis of the data showed that lemon peel, Mg+2 and PO4HK2 had significant effect on PGase production, and the others variables (yeast extract, Ca+2, Fe+2, amino acid and trace element solution) were no significant. PGase synthesis reached ~31 EUmL-1, in the OFM (glucose, lemon peel, urea, vitamins, KH2PO4 and MgSO4), after 12 h of culture, at a lab scale bioreactor. PGase of W. anomalus, was able to disintegrate cassava tuber tissue, and the starch granules contained within the cells were released into the reaction medium. Lemon peel can be used as inducer for PGase production by W. anomalus, in a low cost culture medium, appropriate for the production of the enzyme at large scale.


Subject(s)
Polygalacturonase/biosynthesis , Bioreactors , Starch and Fecula , Industrial Waste , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Agriculture , Fermentation
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2093-2102, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055115

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade e o desempenho de ovinos, arraçoados com dietas isoproteicas, contendo 75% de resíduos da agroindústria frutífera (abacaxi, acerola, maracujá e cupuaçu), uma dieta com feno de tifton e 25% de concentrado, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. A participação do resíduo de maracujá na dieta proporcionou os maiores níveis de consumo de matéria seca (1170,6g d-1) em relação aos resíduos de abacaxi (693,8g d-1), acerola (644,2g d-1), cupuaçu (452,9g d-1) e feno de tifton (962,7g d-1), o que se relaciona aos seus níveis de digestibilidade (77,8; 63,1; 59,1; 61,7 e 71,8%, respectivamente). Tal resultado gerou diferenças significativas, destacando-se o resíduo de maracujá quanto à conversão alimentar (8,3), e o ganho médio diário de peso (141,5g d-1). Apesar de ter tido a mesma conversão observada para o feno de tifton (13,2), apresentou maior ganho médio diário (75,6g d-1). Os demais resíduos apresentaram efeitos sobrepostos, contudo o resíduo de acerola ficou com a pior conversão (51,4) e o menor ganho médio diário (15,6g d-1), sendo esse sem diferença em relação ao cupuaçu (23,0g d-1). Os resíduos podem ser utilizados como alternativa para a alimentação de ovinos.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate the consumption, digestibility and performance of the sheep with iso protein diets, with 75% of residues from fruit agro-industries (pineapple, acerola, passion fruit, and cupuassu) and a diet with tifton hay, and 25% of concentrate, in a totally randomized design. The participation of passion fruit residue on the diet provided the highest consumption levels of dry matter (1170.6g d -1 ) compared with the residues of pineapple (693.8g d -1 ), acerola (644.2g d -1 ), cupuassu (452.9g d -1 ) and tifton hay (962.7g d -1 ), which is related to their levels of digestibility (77.85, 63.14, 59.07, 61.68 and 71.83%, respectively). Such a result generated significant differences with emphasis on passion fruit residue regarding food inversion (8.30) and average daily weight gain (141.50g d -1 ), in spite of having the same conversion detected for tifton hay (13.2), it showed a higher average daily gain (75.6g d -1 ). The other residues showed overlapping effects, however, acerola residue showed the worst conversion level (51.4) and the lowest average daily gain (15.6g d -1 ), and this one showed no difference compared with cupuassu (23.0g d -1 ). The residues can be used as an alternative for sheep feeding.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/metabolism , Malvaceae , Malpighiaceae , Passiflora , Ananas , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Animal Feed , Industrial Waste
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1719-1726, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1038674

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com resíduo de cervejaria desidratado (RCD). Foram utilizados 35 cordeiros, machos, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 16,00±1,69kg e, aproximadamente, 70 dias de idade. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e sete repetições, consistindo os tratamentos em: 0; 20; 40; 60 e 80% de inclusão de RCD na porção concentrada da ração. A inclusão de RCD na ração não influenciou o tempo de alimentação (TAL; h/dia) e a eficiência de alimentação (gFDN/h; P>0,05). O TAL obtido neste estudo apresentou valor médio de 4,90h/dia. Observou-se efeito linear decrescente (P<0,05) com a inclusão do RCD, para as eficiências de alimentação (gMS/h) e ruminação (gMS/h e gFDN/h). Contudo, efeito linear crescente (P<0,05) foi constatado para tempo de ruminação e mastigação total, bem como para o número de mastigações merícicas por dia para os animais alimentados com o subproduto. A inclusão de resíduo de cervejaria desidratado influencia o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros Santa Inês, diminuindo a eficiência de alimentação, quando relacionada ao consumo de matéria seca por hora, e aumentando o tempo de ruminação, podendo ser adicionado em até 20% na porção concentrada da ração.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of Santa Ines lambs fed dehydrated brewer's residue (DBR). Thirty-five male lambs were used, with an initial mean weight of 16.00±1.69kg and, approximately, 70 days of age. A completely randomized design was used, with five treatments and seven replicates, the treatments being: 0; 20; 40; 60 and 80% of inclusion of DBR in the concentrated portion of the ration. The inclusion of DBR in the ration did not influence feeding time (FT; h/day) and feeding efficiency (gNDF/h; P> 0.05). The FT obtained in this study had an average value of 4.90h/day. There was a decreasing linear effect (P< 0.05) for feed efficiency (gDM/h) and rumination efficiency (gDM/h and gNDF/h). However, linear increasing effect (P< 0.05) was observed for rumination and total chewing time, as well as for the number of chews per day for animals fed with the byproduct. The inclusion of dehydrated brewer's residue in the concentrate can influence the ingestive behavior of Santa Ines lambs, reducing feed efficiency, when related to the dry matter intake per hour, and increasing the total rumination time in Santa Ines lambs, it can be added up to 20% in the concentrated portion of the ration.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Sheep/growth & development , Brewery , Industrial Waste , Animal Feed/analysis
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 423-431, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001462

ABSTRACT

Abstract The usage of aquatic plants represents an alternative in the treatment of residues originating from swine. In these systems, one of the N removal methods is the ammonium (NH4 +) uptake and volatilization of ammonia (NH3). In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the volatilization rates of NH3 in waste treatment systems swine fluids (SSF) with aquatic macrophytes, as well as the concentration of NH 4+ present in the swine fluids. The experiment was carried out at Campus II/UNOESTE. The treatment systems were composed of 16 boxes of PVC and characterized as: T1 = Control sample 50% of SSF/50% of water; T2 = 50% SSF/50% water + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% SSF/50% water + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% SSF/50% water + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. The design was randomized blocks, with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The hydrogen potential (pH) and the NH4 + content of the effluent were analyzed weekly, and the volatilization of NH 3 by means of collectors installed in each treatment unit. The presence of aquatic macrophytes promoted the reduction of NH4+ concentration and of the pH values ​​of swine fluids, and this resulted in the reduction of NH3 volatilization rates to the environment, with emphasis on the system with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, which presented the lowest rate of volatilization.


Resumo A utilização de plantas aquáticas representa uma alternativa no tratamento de resíduos oriundos da suinocultura. Nestes sistemas, uma das formas de remoção de nitrogênio (N) é a absorção de amônio (NH4+) pelas plantas, entretanto, também ocorre a volatilização de amônia (NH3). Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as taxas de volatilização de NH3 em sistemas de tratamentos de dejetos líquidos de suínos (DLS) com macrófitas aquáticas, bem como a concentração de NH4+ presente nos dejetos. O experimento foi realizado em área de ambiente aberto no Campus II/UNOESTE. Os sistemas de tratamento foram constituídos de 16 caixas de PVC e caracterizados como: T1 = Testemunha 50% de DLS/50% de água; T2 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. O delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com 4 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Foram analisados o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) e o teor de NH4 + do efluente semanalmente, e a volatilização de NH3 por meio de coletores instalados em cada unidade de tratamento. A presença das macrófitas aquáticas proporcionou a redução da concentração de NH4+ e dos valores de pH dos dejetos líquidos de suínos, e isto resultou na redução das taxas de volatilização de NH 3 ao meio ambiente, com destaque ao sistema com Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, que apresentou a menor taxa de volatilização.


Subject(s)
Animals , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Araceae/metabolism , Eichhornia/metabolism , Ammonia , Manure/analysis , Swine , Volatilization , Biodegradation, Environmental , Random Allocation , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Industrial Waste/analysis , Animal Husbandry
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 38: 40-48, Mar. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of agro-industrial wastes to produce high value-added biomolecules such as biosurfactants is a promising approach for lowering the total costs of production. This study aimed to produce biosurfactants using Rhizopus arrhizus UCP 1607, with crude glycerol (CG) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates. In addition, the biomolecule was characterized, and its efficiency in removing petroderivatives from marine soil was investigated. RESULTS: A 22 factorial design was applied, and the best condition for producing the biosurfactant was determined in assay 4 (3% CG and 5% CSL). The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 28.8 mN/m and produced a yield of 1.74 g/L. The preliminary biochemical characterization showed that the biosurfactant consisted of proteins (38.0%), carbohydrates (35.4%), and lipids (5.5%). The compounds presented an anionic character, nontoxicity, and great stability for all conditions tested. The biomolecule displayed great ability in dispersing hydrophobic substrates in water, thereby resulting in 53.4 cm2 ODA. The best efficiency of the biosurfactant in removing the pollutant diesel oil from marine soil was 79.4%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the ability of R. arrhizus UCP1607 to produce a low-cost biosurfactant characterized as a glycoprotein and its potential use in the bioremediation of the hydrophobic diesel oil pollutant in marine soil


Subject(s)
Rhizopus/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Gasoline , Soil , Surface-Active Agents/toxicity , Surface Tension , Biodegradation, Environmental , Marine Environment , Zea mays , Agribusiness , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Glycerol , Industrial Waste , Micelles , Mucorales/metabolism
17.
Rev. luna azul ; 48: 90-108, Enero 01, 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119445

ABSTRACT

Este artículo presenta los resultados de la caracterización de los residuos sólidos en las empresas más importantes del sector metalmecánico de la ciudad de Manizales. Inicialmente, se estableció la conceptualización normativa y teórica que fundamenta los aspectos relacionados con los residuos industriales, luego se hizo énfasis en los residuos sólidos del sector metalmecánico. Se planteó, como parte de la metodología, un instrumento para la recolección de la información basado en el Catálogo Europeo de Residuos. El instrumento permitió el registro de la información de acuerdo a la estructura básica de una empresa metalmecánica y los posibles residuos que se pueden generar a lo largo de la secuencia del proceso productivo, además de su manejo y disposición. Se encontró que los residuos con mayor volumen de generación son los metálicos, cartón, papel y madera que, en conjunto, representan aproximadamente el 84% del total. El 67% de los residuos generados se están aprovechando directamente por las empresas, donde la donación corresponde al 12%. Finalmente, aunque se conoce la disposición de los residuos, no se sabe con exactitud el impacto, en términos del grado de aprovechamiento.


This paper presents the results of the characterization of solid waste in the most important companies in the metallurgical industry in the city of Manizales. Initially, the normative and theoretical conceptualization that substantiate the aspects related to industrial waste was established and then, emphasis was placed on solid waste in the metallurgical sector. An instrument for the collection of information based on the European Waste Catalog was proposed as part of the methodology. The instrument allowed the registration of the information according to the basic structure of a metallurgic industry and the possible waste that can be generated throughout the sequence of the production process, in addition to its management and disposal. It was found that the waste with the highest volume of generation are metal, cardboard, paper, and wood, which together represent approximately 84% of the total. The 67% of the waste generated is being used directly by the companies and the donation corresponds to 12%. Finally, although the disposal of the waste is known, the impact in terms of the degree of use is not known exactly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sustainable Development , Solid Waste , Pulp and Paper Industry , Industrial Waste
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180450, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011530

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the capacity of adsorbent biochar derived from pequi husks to remove glyphosate (commercial formulation) in aqueous medium under three pH conditions (5.5, 7.0 and 8.0). This biochar presented a mean yield of 33.1% ± 2.66% and a high amount of surface particles of small dimensions endowing it with high surface area. The results showed that removal is proportional to pH increase in the range of 5.5 to 8.0. Adsorption assays performed at pH 7 and 8 fitted better to the Langmuir pseudo-first order kinetics model with fast adsorption in the first 15 to 30 minutes. The results for the acidic pH range fit none of the adopted models satisfactorily. The results obtained suggest that adsorbent can be used as an efficient and inexpensive alternative for the adsorption of glyphosate present in commercial formulations from aqueous matrices.


Subject(s)
Malpighiales , Herbicides , Industrial Waste , Adsorption/physiology
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(4): 417-425, Dec. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977265

ABSTRACT

In the present work, a yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii was identified on the basis of 18S rDNA, showing maximum growth at 30°C and pH 7.0. Among all the complex polysaccharides used, wheat bran proved to be the best substrate as indicated by the maximum growth of the yeast strain. The yeast isolate was capable of producing xylanase both intra-and extra-cellularly, the dominant form being extracellular. The maximum enzyme activity was determined at pH 5.0 and at 50°C. Na+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ presence caused a substantial increase in enzyme activity while a slight decrease (4.5%) was observed in the presence of Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were assayed to confirm the presence of the ethanol pathway and PDC activity was much more pronounced (73%) compared to ADH activity (51%). The yeast strain can be employed to utilize hemicellulose containing agroindustrial residues for ethanol production.


En el presente estudio se identificó en aguas residuales de una zona industrial de Pakistán una cepa de la levadura Pichia kudriavzevii sobre la base del 18S ADNr, dicha cepa mostró un crecimiento máximo a 30 °C y a pH 7. Entre todos los sustratos de crecimiento evaluados para esta cepa, que incluyeron residuos industriales y medios definidos, el salvado de trigo demostró ser el mejor en función del crecimiento máximo alcanzado. Este aislado de levadura fue capaz de producir xilanasa intracelular y extracelular, esta última fue la forma predominante. Dicha capacidad enzimàtica mostró ser óptima a un pH de 5 y a 50°C. La presencia de Na+, Mg2+ y Fe2+ causó un incremento sustancial de la actividad enzimática, y hubo un ligero descenso (4,5%) en presencia de Mn2+, Zn2+ y Cu2+. Se evaluaron también las actividades de piruvato descarboxilasa y alcohol deshidrogenasa para confirmar la presencia de la vía del etanol. La actividad de la piruvato descarboxilasa fue mucho más pronunciada (73%) en comparación con la de alcohol deshidrogenasa (51%). Esta cepa de levadura puede emplearse para aprovechar los materiales hemicelulósicos de los residuos agroindustriales en la producción de etanol.


Subject(s)
Pichia/physiology , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Pichia/isolation & purification , Industrial Waste
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 35: 10-17, sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047827

ABSTRACT

Alanine mother liquor, a type of industrial waste from alanine fermentation, was used as a nitrogen source to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Schizochytrium sp. B4D1. The results indicated that yeast extract could trigger the utilization of the alanine mother liquor. Additionally, the alanine can be quenched during the culture, which aids in DHA accumulation. The medium components were optimized via response surface methodology as follows: 99.98-g/L glucose, 0.05-g/L yeast extract and a 183.17 dilution factor of the alanine mother liquid (v/v, with an alanine content of 0.72 g/L) and 17.98% inoculum concentration (v/v). Finally, in a 50-mL shake-flask fermentation, the DHA yield was 2.29 g/L.


Subject(s)
Docosahexaenoic Acids/biosynthesis , Alanine/metabolism , Stramenopiles/metabolism , Yeasts , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/isolation & purification , Alanine/analysis , Fermentation , Glucose , Industrial Waste
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