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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 223-230, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1153065

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate increasing levels of fish waste oil in diets for laying hens on serum biochemistry profile. 192 Hisex White laying hens at 29 weeks of age were used, with water and food ad libitum. The experimental design was completely randomized consisting of eight treatments corresponding to the inclusion levels of fish waste oil (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5%) in the diets, with four replicates of six birds each. Data collected were subjected to polynomial regression at 5% of significance. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, and uric acid. These parameters presented a decrease when hens fed diets with higher level of fish waste oil. The results of the present study indicated that the inclusion of fish waste oil caused a significant effect in the serum biochemical profile of laying hens, especially in glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and uric acid concentrations. The inclusion level of 3.5% of fish waste oil caused larger disequilibrium in the serum biochemical profile of laying hens.(AU)


O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os níveis crescentes de óleo de resíduo de pescado em dietas para poedeiras leves sobre o perfil bioquímico sérico. Foram utilizadas poedeiras Hisex White com 29 semanas, com água e ração ad libitum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, consistindo de oito tratamentos correspondentes aos níveis de inclusão de óleo de resíduo de pescado (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 e 3,5%) nas dietas, com quatro repetições de seis aves cada. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à regressão polinomial a 5% de significância. Diferenças significativas (P<0,05) foram observadas nas concentrações de triglicerídeos, glicose, colesterol total e ácido úrico. Esses parâmetros apresentaram uma diminuição quando as aves se alimentaram com rações contendo maior nível de óleo do resíduo de pescado. Os resultados do presente estudo indicaram que a inclusão de óleo do resíduo de pescado acarretou um efeito significativo no perfil bioquímico sérico de poedeiras, principalmente nas concentrações de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total e ácido úrico. O nível de inclusão de 3,5% do óleo do resíduo de pescado acarretou maior desequilíbrio no perfil bioquímico sérico das poedeiras.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Fish Oils/administration & dosage , Chickens/blood , Industrial Waste/analysis , Animal Feed/analysis , Triglycerides/blood , Serum Albumin , Cholesterol/blood
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18467, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249175

ABSTRACT

The processing of grapes for the manufacture of juices and wines, generates large quantities of by-products rich in metabolites with antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. The high homology between human enzymes and snake venoms makes the latter valuable laboratory tools for the study of pathophysiological processes. Proteases and phospholipases A2 act in processes related to hemostasis and inflammatory response. Thus, in this work, dried pomace obtained from grape (Isabel, Niagara, Bordô, BRS Violeta and Blend cultivars) processing were evaluated on phospholipase, proteolytic, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities induced by snakes venoms and the content of phenolic compounds and minerals was evaluated. The dried pomace exerted inhibitory and potentiating actions in all analyzed activities. The enzymatic modulators present in the evaluated dried pomace have potential for therapeutic use, although their broad characterization is still necessary, in order to define adequate amounts and formulations to obtain efficacy and safety in their use.


Subject(s)
Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Wine/classification , Enzymes/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phospholipases A2/analysis , Vitis/classification , Industrial Waste/analysis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 423-431, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001462

ABSTRACT

Abstract The usage of aquatic plants represents an alternative in the treatment of residues originating from swine. In these systems, one of the N removal methods is the ammonium (NH4 +) uptake and volatilization of ammonia (NH3). In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the volatilization rates of NH3 in waste treatment systems swine fluids (SSF) with aquatic macrophytes, as well as the concentration of NH 4+ present in the swine fluids. The experiment was carried out at Campus II/UNOESTE. The treatment systems were composed of 16 boxes of PVC and characterized as: T1 = Control sample 50% of SSF/50% of water; T2 = 50% SSF/50% water + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% SSF/50% water + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% SSF/50% water + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. The design was randomized blocks, with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The hydrogen potential (pH) and the NH4 + content of the effluent were analyzed weekly, and the volatilization of NH 3 by means of collectors installed in each treatment unit. The presence of aquatic macrophytes promoted the reduction of NH4+ concentration and of the pH values ​​of swine fluids, and this resulted in the reduction of NH3 volatilization rates to the environment, with emphasis on the system with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, which presented the lowest rate of volatilization.


Resumo A utilização de plantas aquáticas representa uma alternativa no tratamento de resíduos oriundos da suinocultura. Nestes sistemas, uma das formas de remoção de nitrogênio (N) é a absorção de amônio (NH4+) pelas plantas, entretanto, também ocorre a volatilização de amônia (NH3). Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as taxas de volatilização de NH3 em sistemas de tratamentos de dejetos líquidos de suínos (DLS) com macrófitas aquáticas, bem como a concentração de NH4+ presente nos dejetos. O experimento foi realizado em área de ambiente aberto no Campus II/UNOESTE. Os sistemas de tratamento foram constituídos de 16 caixas de PVC e caracterizados como: T1 = Testemunha 50% de DLS/50% de água; T2 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. O delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com 4 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Foram analisados o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) e o teor de NH4 + do efluente semanalmente, e a volatilização de NH3 por meio de coletores instalados em cada unidade de tratamento. A presença das macrófitas aquáticas proporcionou a redução da concentração de NH4+ e dos valores de pH dos dejetos líquidos de suínos, e isto resultou na redução das taxas de volatilização de NH 3 ao meio ambiente, com destaque ao sistema com Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, que apresentou a menor taxa de volatilização.


Subject(s)
Animals , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Araceae/metabolism , Eichhornia/metabolism , Ammonia , Manure/analysis , Swine , Volatilization , Biodegradation, Environmental , Random Allocation , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Industrial Waste/analysis , Animal Husbandry
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 38-44, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889215

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Discharge of coke-oven wastewater to the environment may cause severe contamination to it and also threaten the flora and fauna, including human beings. Hence before dumping it is necessary to treat this dangerous effluent in order to minimize the damage to the environment. Conventional technologies have inherent drawbacks however, biological treatment is an advantageous alternative method. In the present study, bacteria were isolated from the soil collected from the sites contaminated by coke-oven effluent rich in phenol and cyanide. Nucleotides sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed the identity of the selected phenol and cyanide degrading isolates NAUN-16 and NAUN-1B as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri, respectively. These two isolates tolerated phenol up to 1800 mg L-1 and cyanide up to 340 mg L-1 concentrations. The isolates were immobilized on activated charcoal, saw dust and fly ash. The effluent was passed through the column packed with immobilized cells with a flow rate of 5 mL min-1. The isolates showed degradation of phenol up to 80.5% and cyanide up to 80.6% and also had the ability to reduce biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and lower the pH of effluent from alkaline to near neutral. The study suggests the utilization of such potential bacterial strains in treating industrial effluent containing phenol and cyanide, before being thrown in any ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Cyanides/metabolism , Phenol/metabolism , Pseudomonas putida/metabolism , Pseudomonas stutzeri/metabolism , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Waste Water/microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cells, Immobilized/classification , Cells, Immobilized/metabolism , Coke/analysis , Cyanides/analysis , Industrial Waste/analysis , Phenol/analysis , Phylogeny , Pseudomonas putida/classification , Pseudomonas putida/genetics , Pseudomonas putida/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas stutzeri/classification , Pseudomonas stutzeri/genetics , Pseudomonas stutzeri/isolation & purification , Waste Water/analysis
5.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; ene. 2018. 62 p. ^c28 cm.ilus., tab., graf..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1223211

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo de desarrollo experimental, la Escuela de Ingeniería Química de ITCA-FEPADE se propuso comprobar la efectividad de las cáscaras y pseudotallo de guineo y el endocarpo de coco, previamente tratados, para remover la contaminación por metales pesados en una muestra de agua. Para tal objeto, se procesaron dichas biomasas para ser utilizadas como medios filtrantes, los cuales se caracterizaron por medio de pruebas físicas: densidad y tamaño de partícula. Se evaluó su efectividad para remover metales, filtrando agua contaminada con cantidades conocidas de metales pesados tales como hierro, cromo y níquel (Fe3+Cr6+ y Ni2+), variando el tiempo de contacto y el tipo de medio filtrante. La cuantificación de los metales en el agua tratada se llevó a cabo por espectrofotometria de absorción atómica: para el níquel (λ = 232.0 nm); hierro (λ = 24830 nm) y cromo hexavalente (λ = 357.9 nm). Además, se determinó el color en los filtrados por el método de platino-cobalto. Se llegó a la conclusión que las biomasas utilizadas en este estudio resultaron efectivas para la disminución de metales pesados y color en la muestra de agua sintética elaborada en el laboratorio.


In this experimental development work, the Escuela de Ingeniería Química ITCA-FEPADE set out to verify the effectiveness of previously treated banana peels and pseudostem and endocarp to remove heavy metal contamination in a water sample. For this purpose, said biomasses were processed to be used as filter media, which were characterized by means of physical tests: density and particle size. Its effectiveness to remove metals was evaluated, filtering water contaminated with known amounts of heavy metals such as iron, chromium and nickel (Fe3 + Cr6 + and Ni2 +), varying the contact time and the type of filter medium. The quantification of the metals in the treated water was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry: for nickel (λ = 232.0 nm); iron (λ = 24830 nm) and hexavalent chromium (λ = 357.9 nm). In addition, the color in the filtrates was determined by the platinum-cobalt method. It was concluded that the biomasses used in this study were effective in reducing heavy metals and color in the synthetic water sample prepared in the laboratory.


Subject(s)
Filtration Media , Metals, Heavy , Ion Exchange Resins , Water Pollution , Cations , Charcoal , Industrial Waste/analysis
6.
Rev. téc. (ITCA-FEPADE. En línea) ; 11(11): 41-48, 2018. ^c28 cm.ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1151070

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo de desarrollo experimental, la Escuela de Ingeniería Química de ITCA-FEPADE se propuso comprobar la efectividad de las cáscaras y pseudotallo de guineo y el endocarpo de coco, previamente tratados, para remover la contaminación por metales pesados en una muestra de agua. Para tal objeto, se procesaron dichas biomasas para ser utilizadas como medios filtrantes, los cuales se caracterizaron por medio de pruebas físicas: densidad y tamaño de partícula. Se evaluó su efectividad para remover metales, filtrando agua contaminada con cantidades conocidas de metales pesados tales como hierro, cromo y níquel (Fe3+Cr6+ y Ni2+), variando el tiempo de contacto y el tipo de medio filtrante. La cuantificación de los metales en el agua tratada se llevó a cabo por espectrofotometria de absorción atómica: para el níquel (λ = 232.0 nm); hierro (λ = 24830 nm) y cromo hexavalente (λ = 357.9 nm). Además, se determinó el color en los filtrados por el método de platino-cobalto. Se llegó a la conclusión que las biomasas utilizadas en este estudio resultaron efectivas para la disminución de metales pesados y color en la muestra de agua sintética elaborada en el laboratorio.


In this experimental development work, the Escuela de Ingeniería Química at ITCA-FEPADE set out to verify the effectiveness from the banana peels and pseudostem and also the coconut endocarp, previously treated, to remove heavy metals contamination from a water sample. For this purpose, said biomasses were processed to be used as filtering media, which were characterized through diverse physical tests: density and particle size. Its effectiveness to remove metals was evaluated by filtering water contaminated with known quantities of heavy metals such as iron, chromium and nickel (Fe3+, Cr6+ y Ni2+), varying the contact period of time and the filtering medium type. The quantification of the metals in the treated water was carried out with atomic absorption spectrophotometry: for nickel (λ = 232.0 nm); iron, (λ = 248.3 nm) and hexavalent chromium, (λ =357.9 nm). In addition, the color of the filtered was determined through the platinum-cobalt method. It was concluded that the biomasses used in this study resulted to be effective to reduce heavy metals and color from the synthetic water sample made in the laboratory.


Subject(s)
Cocos/chemistry , Musa/chemistry , Ion Exchange Resins , Water Pollution , Charcoal , Metals, Heavy , Environmental Pollution , Industrial Waste/analysis
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(3): 742-750, jun. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-846957

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes de substituição da silagem de sorgo por resíduo úmido de cervejaria sobre as características da carcaça e dos componentes não carcaça de cordeiros terminados em confinamento. Foram utilizados 24 cordeiros machos, não castrados, oriundos de parto simples e mantidos em baias individuais. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro níveis de substituição de silagem de sorgo por resíduo úmido de cervejaria, sendo: 0%; 33,5%; 66,5% e 100% de substituição. Utilizou-se uma relação volumoso:concentrado de 50:50, com base na matéria seca. O concentrado era constituído por milho desintegrado, farelo de soja e mistura mineral. As dietas eram isoproteicas, contendo 18,81% de proteína bruta. Os cordeiros foram abatidos quando atingiram o escore de condição corporal estabelecido em 3 (escala de 1 a 5). As características de carcaça analisadas não foram influenciadas significativamente (P>0,05) pela substituição de silagem de sorgo por resíduo úmido de cervejaria, sendo obtidos valores médios de 18,92kg para peso de carcaça quente, 18,22 kg para peso de carcaça fria, 47,03% para rendimento de carcaça quente, 45,29% para rendimento de carcaça fria e 3,41% para índice de quebra ao resfriamento. Quanto às proporções dos diferentes cortes comerciais avaliados, em relação ao peso de carcaça fria, foram verificados valores médios de 31,86% para perna, 18,12% para paleta, 39,46% para costilhar e 9,08% para pescoço. As proporções de diafragma, omaso cheio e omaso vazio, em relação ao peso vivo ao abate dos cordeiros, diminuíram linearmente (P≤0,05). As demais variáveis dos componentes não carcaça avaliadas não foram influenciadas (P>0,05) pelos níveis de resíduo úmido de cervejaria das dietas. Pode-se recomendar o uso de resíduo úmido de cervejaria como fonte exclusiva de alimento volumoso quando se utiliza uma relação volumoso:concentrado de 50:50, em base de matéria seca, para terminação de cordeiros em sistema de confinamento.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of substitution of sorghum silage by wet brewery residue as forage food on carcass characteristics and non-carcass components of lambs finished in feedlot. Twenty four non castrated male lambs, Suffolk breed, single birth were maintained in individual stalls. The treatments consisted of four substitution levels of sorghum silage by wet brewery residue (0%; 33.5%; 66.5% or 100% of substitution). Roughage and concentrate were used at a 50:50 ratio, based on dry matter. The concentrate was composed of ground corn, soybean meal and mineral mixture. The diets were isoproteic containing 18.81% crude protein. The lambs were slaughtered when they reached the body condition score of 3 (ranging from 1 to 5). The carcass traits were not affected significantly (P>0,05) by substitution of sorghum silage by wet brewery residue. The average values of hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield and cooling weight losses were 18.92 kg, 18.22 kg, 47.03%, 45.29%, 3.41%, respectively. The proportion of commercial cuts in relation to the cold carcass weight, was 31.86% for leg, 18.12% for shoulder, 39.46% for ribs and 9.08% for neck. The proportion of diaphragm, omasum full and empty omasum in relation to body weight at slaughter decreased linearly (P≤0.05). The remaining variables of non-carcass components were not affected (P>0.05) by wet brewery residue inclusion. We recommend the use of wet brewery residue as exclusive source of roughage food when using roughage:concentrate at 50:50 ratio on a dry matter basis, for finishing feedlot lambs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet/veterinary , Industrial Waste/analysis , Meat/analysis , Brewery , Sheep
8.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): 238-246, 2017. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-879460

ABSTRACT

Large quantities of waste are generated throughout the seafood supply chain. Although this material has a great potential for use (e.g. pharmaceutical industry, animal feed production), if not managed properly it represents an environmental risk. In order to meet the volume, destination, and method of storage of waste of Brazilian seafood supply chain, we got information from 29 companies that have Official Veterinary Inspection (SIF). After the industrialization of seafood only 44% on average of the total raw material is used for human consumption and 59.2% of the unused portion is discarded in landfill.(AU)


Grandes quantidades de resíduo são geradas ao longo da cadeia produtiva do pescado. Embora este material apresente um grande potencial de aproveitamento (e.g. indústria farmacêutica, produção de ração), se não for corretamente destinado, representa risco ambiental. A fim de conhecer o volume, a destinação e o método de armazenamento do resíduo produzido pela indústria do pescado no Brasil, 29 empresas de processamento de pescado, sob Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF), foram estudadas em todo o país. Identificou-se que cerca de 44% do total produzido é matériaprima utilizada para consumo humano, e 59,2% representa resíduo sem finalidade útil, descartado em lixões.(AU)


Subject(s)
Fishing Industry , Industrial Waste/analysis , Product Storage , Brazil
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(6): 1673-1680, nov.-dez. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827920

ABSTRACT

Foi conduzido um ensaio de digestibilidade para determinar o valor nutritivo do resíduo desidratado de cervejaria (RDC) e outro para verificar o desempenho de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de RDC e a viabilidade econômica da utilização do RDC. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 20 coelhos, de ambos os sexos, da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, com idade média de 45 dias, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com dois tratamentos, sendo uma dieta referência e outra dieta teste, na qual o RDC substituiu a ração referência em nível de 30%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da matéria seca (MS), da energia bruta (EB), da proteína bruta (PB) do RDC foram de 49,97%, 49,34%, e 71,06%, respectivamente, com valores de energia digestível (ED) e proteína digestível (PD) do RDC, com base na matéria seca, de 2330,60kcal/kg e 15,75%. No experimento de desempenho, foram avaliadas rações com níveis de inclusão de RDC de 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 25%. Foram utilizados 120 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, 60 machos e 60 fêmeas, com 32 dias de idade, em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e 10 repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por dois animais. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho dos coelhos alimentados com ração contendo níveis crescentes de RDC, exceto para a conversão alimentar aos 70 dias, que apresentou efeito quadrático no período dos 32 aos 70 dias de idade, com a pior conversão alimentar ao nível de 16,95% de RDC. No entanto, houve redução linear nos custos com alimentação, por quilo de ganho de peso dos animais. Conclui-se que o resíduo desidratado de cervejaria apresenta CDA equivalente aos ingredientes convencionais, podendo ser incluído até o nível máximo estudado de 25% nas rações de coelhos em crescimento, sem prejudicar o desempenho.(AU)


Two experiments were conducted, being a digestibility assay in order to determine the nutritive value of dehydrated diets containing different levels of DBR, and the economic viability of the use of DRC brewer residue (DBR) and other assays to verify the performance of growing rabbits fed. In the digestibility experiment, twenty White New Zealand rabbits were used, with an average age of 45 days, of both genders, distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments, one reference diet and other test diets, in which the DBR replaced the basal diet at 30% level. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP) of DBR were, respectively, 49.97%, 49.34% and 71.06%. The values of digestible energy (DE) and digestible protein (DP) of the DBR, based on dry matter, were 2330.60kcal/kg and 15.75%. In the performance experiment, diets with levels of DBR inclusion of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% were evaluated. One hundred and twenty 32 days old New Zealand White rabbits were used, being 60 males and 60 females, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and ten replicates, and the experimental unit consisted of two animals. No differences (P>0.05) were observed in the performance of rabbits fed diets containing increasing levels of dehydrated brewer residue, except for feed conversion at 70 days which presented a quadratic effect, with the worst results at the level of 16.95% of the DBR inclusion in the diet. It is concluded that the dehydrated brewer residue has good nutritional value and can be included up to the maximum level studied of 25% in the diets of growing rabbits, with no damage to its performance.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Animal Feed/analysis , Brewery , Industrial Waste/analysis , Nutritive Value , Growth and Development
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.2): 53-61, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769601

ABSTRACT

The advanced oxidation process (AOP) is used to increase the treatment efficiency of effluents however, it is necessary to compare the toxicity of treated and untreated effluents to evaluate if the decontamination process does not cause any biological harm. Cultured cells have been previously used to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of various compounds. Hence, the aim of this work was to assess the applicability of cytotoxicity assays to evaluate the toxicity related to the AOP treatment. Samples of an industrial effluent were collected after their treatment by a conventional method. Cytotoxicity of standard and AOP treated effluents was assessed in CRIB and HEp-2 cell line using the MTT and neutral red assays. We observed decrease at cell viability in the both assays (50% MTT and 13% NRU) when cells were exposed to the AOP treatment in the highest concentration. Thus, cytotoxic assays in cultured cells can be explored as an useful method to evaluate toxicity as well as to optimize effluents treatment process.


Resumo O processo de oxidação avançada (POA) tem sido usado para aumentar a eficiência do tratamento de efluentes; no entanto, é necessário comparar a toxicidade de efluentes tratados e não tratados para avaliar se o processo de descontaminação não é capaz de causar algum risco biológico. Cultivos celulares têm sido utilizados para avaliar o potencial genotóxico e citotóxico de vários compostos. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade de ensaios de citotoxicidade para avaliar a toxicidade relacionada ao tratamento com POA. As amostras de um efluente industrial foram recolhidas após o tratamento por um método convencional. A citotoxicidade dos efluentes padrão e tratado com POA foi avaliada nas linhagens celulares CRIB e HEp-2 usando os ensaios do MTT e do vermelho neutro. Observou-se diminuição da viabilidade celular em ambos os ensaios (50% MTT e 13% VN) quando as células foram expostas à concentração mais elevada do efluente tratado com POA. Assim, os ensaios de citotoxicidade em cultivos celulares podem ser explorados como um método útil para avaliar a toxicidade, bem como para otimizar os processos de tratamento de efluentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Cytotoxins/toxicity , Photolysis , Waste Water/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Electrochemical Techniques , Industrial Waste/analysis , Oxidation-Reduction , Tanning , Toxicity Tests
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jun; 53(6): 388-394
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158519

ABSTRACT

The present work deals with optimization of culture conditions and process parameters for bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst collected from a petroleum refinery. The efficacy of Ni bioleaching from spent petroleum catalyst was determined using pure culture of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM-11478. The culture conditions of pH, temperature and headspace volume to media volume ratio were optimized. EDX analysis was done to confirm the presence of Ni in the spent catalyst after roasting it to decoke its surface. The optimum temperature for A. thiooxidans DSM-11478 growth was found to be 32 °C. The enhanced recovery of nickel at very low pH was attributed to the higher acidic strength of sulfuric acid produced in the culture medium by the bacterium. During the bioleaching process, 89% of the Ni present in the catalyst waste could be successfully recovered in optimized conditions. This environment friendly bioleaching process proved efficient than the chemical method. Taking leads from the lab scale results, bioleaching in larger volumes (1, 5 and 10 L) was also performed to provide guidelines for taking up this technology for in situ industrial waste management.


Subject(s)
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans/metabolism , Industrial Waste/analysis , Nickel/isolation & purification , Petroleum , Proteobacteria/classification , Trace Elements/isolation & purification , Trace Elements/metabolism
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 138-141, 03/02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741607

ABSTRACT

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Cocos/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Fruit/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pelargonium/growth & development , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/economics , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Iran , Industrial Waste/analysis , Industrial Waste/economics , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/economics , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Pelargonium/chemistry , Pelargonium/metabolism , Perfume/chemistry , Perfume/economics , Perfume/isolation & purification , Perfume/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Silicates/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/metabolism
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 125-133, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741616

ABSTRACT

The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Hibiscus/chemistry , Industrial Waste/analysis , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/economics , Beverages/analysis , Beverages/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Dietary Carbohydrates/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/economics , Food, Fortified/economics , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Industrial Waste/economics , Mexico , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/economics , Polysaccharides/analysis , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/economics , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Solubility
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 86-94, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741617

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Discovery , Industrial Waste/analysis , Nootropic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Shoots/chemistry , Stilbenes/isolation & purification , Vitis/chemistry , Agriculture/economics , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Benzofurans/analysis , Benzofurans/chemistry , Benzofurans/economics , Benzofurans/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , France , Industrial Waste/economics , Molecular Structure , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/economics , Neuroprotective Agents/isolation & purification , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Nootropic Agents/chemistry , Nootropic Agents/economics , Nootropic Agents/pharmacology , Protein Aggregation, Pathological , Peptide Fragments/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/economics , Plant Extracts/economics , Protein Aggregates/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Stereoisomerism , Stilbenes/analysis , Stilbenes/chemistry , Stilbenes/economics , Stilbenes/pharmacology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 75-85, 03/02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741624

ABSTRACT

In our previous study, we have found that 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272), a guanylate cyclase agonist, activates human monocytes and the THP-1 cell line to produce the superoxide anion, increasing in vitro microbicidal activity, suggesting that this drug can be used to modulate immune functioning in primary immunodeficiency patients. In the present work, we investigated the potential of the in vivo administration of BAY 41-2272 for the treatment of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus infections introduced via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous inoculation. We found that intraperitoneal treatment with BAY 41-2272 markedly increased macrophage-dependent cell influx to the peritoneum in addition to macrophage functions, such as spreading, zymosan particle phagocytosis and nitric oxide and phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production. Treatment with BAY 41-2272 was highly effective in reducing the death rate due to intraperitoneal inoculation of C. albicans, but not S. aureus. However, we found that in vitro stimulation of peritoneal macrophages with BAY 41-2272 markedly increased microbicidal activities against both pathogens. Our results show that the prevention of death by the treatment of C. albicans-infected mice with BAY 41-2272 might occur primarily by the modulation of the host immune response through macrophage activation. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipocytes, White/metabolism , Ananas/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Fruit/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Industrial Waste/analysis , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Adipogenesis , Adipocytes, White/cytology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/economics , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/economics , Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Glycosylation , Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/economics , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/economics , India , Industrial Waste/economics , Lipotropic Agents/chemistry , Lipotropic Agents/economics , Lipotropic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/economics , Solvents/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors , alpha-Amylases/metabolism
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 1-22, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741625

ABSTRACT

An increasingly asked question is 'can we confidently link bats with emerging viruses?'. No, or not yet, is the qualified answer based on the evidence available. Although more than 200 viruses - some of them deadly zoonotic viruses - have been isolated from or otherwise detected in bats, the supposed connections between bats, bat viruses and human diseases have been raised more on speculation than on evidence supporting their direct or indirect roles in the epidemiology of diseases (except for rabies). However, we are convinced that the evidence points in that direction and that at some point it will be proved that bats are competent hosts for at least a few zoonotic viruses. In this review, we cover aspects of bat biology, ecology and evolution that might be relevant in medical investigations and we provide a historical synthesis of some disease outbreaks causally linked to bats. We provide evolutionary-based hypotheses to tentatively explain the viral transmission route through mammalian intermediate hosts and to explain the geographic concentration of most outbreaks, but both are no more than speculations that still require formal assessment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Fatty Acids/analysis , Industrial Waste/analysis , Malus/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Seeds/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/economics , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Antioxidants/economics , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemical Phenomena , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements/economics , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/analysis , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/economics , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/economics , Food Preservatives/adverse effects , Food Preservatives/economics , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/economics , India , Industrial Waste/economics , Linoleic Acid/adverse effects , Linoleic Acid/analysis , Linoleic Acid/economics , Oleic Acid/adverse effects , Oleic Acid/analysis , Oleic Acid/economics , Plant Oils/chemistry , Plant Oils/economics , Plant Oils/pharmacology
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1071-1081
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153790

ABSTRACT

Most of the phenol compounds are toxic and have been considered as hazardous pollutants. Several physicochemical and biological methods are available to detect and monitor the phenol pollutants in water and soil. In the present study, phenol constituents of winery, paper and plastic industrial effluents were successfully detected employing tyrosinase-gold nanoparticles bioconjugate. The synthesis of extracellular tyrosinase and gold nanoparticles was achieved by a single isolate of Streptomyces sp. DBZ-39. Enhanced production (369.41 IU) of tyrosinase was produced in submerged bioprocess employing response surface method with central composite design. Extracellular gold nanoparticles synthesized (12-18 nm) by Streptomyces sp. DBZ-39 were characterized with TEM, EDAX and FTIR analysis. A rapid detection (within 10 min) of phenol constituents from winery effluents was achieved by bioconjugate, when compared to tyrosinases and gold nanoparticles independently. Streptomyces tyrosinase could exhibit relatively a better performance than commercially available mushroom tyrosinase in the detection of phenol constituents. Winery effluent has shown much higher content (0.98 O.D) of phenol constituents than paper and plastic effluents based on the intensity of color and U.V absorption spectra.


Subject(s)
Agaricales/enzymology , Biosensing Techniques , Colorimetry/methods , Culture Media/pharmacology , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Ferrocyanides , Fungal Proteins/isolation & purification , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Gold , Industrial Waste/analysis , Monophenol Monooxygenase/isolation & purification , Monophenol Monooxygenase/metabolism , Mycology/methods , Nanoparticles , Paper , Phenols/analysis , Plastics , Soil Microbiology , Species Specificity , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet/methods , /enzymology , /growth & development , /isolation & purification , Tyrosine/metabolism , Wine
18.
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2013; 7 (4): 979-988
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138333

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the efficacy of a full-scale combined biophysicochemical system for treating molasses-based bioethanol wastewater in terms of organic substances, nutrient, and dark brown color removal. The main organic removal unit, i.e., the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB] reactor, achieved 80.7% removal and 4.3 Nm3 methane production per cubic meter of wastewater with a hydraulic retention time of 16.7 h. Downflow hanging sponge [DHS] reactors were important in reducing the biochemical oxygen demand [BOD], and the lowest possible organic waste intake prevented excessive biomass formation. The BOD removal efficiency was 71.2-97.9%. The denitrification upflow anaerobic fixed bed [UFB] reactor achieved 99.2% total nitrogen removal. Post-physicochemical membrane treatment reduced the total phosphate, color, and remaining organic matter by 90.4%, 99.1%, and 99.8%, respectively. We analyzed the microbial diversity of the sludge from the UASB reactors. Methanosaeta was the dominant archaeal genus in the system, followed by Methanolinea, Methanomicrospillum, Caldiserica, Bacteroidetes, and Deltaproteobacteria


Subject(s)
Molasses/microbiology , Anaerobiosis , Aerobiosis , Water Purification/methods , Industrial Waste/analysis , Molasses/microbiology , Coloring Agents/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1545-1552, Oct.-Dec. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665842

ABSTRACT

Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4(0.1), (NH4)2SO4(0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4(0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Amylases/analysis , Amylases/isolation & purification , Base Sequence , Enzyme Activation , Industrial Waste/analysis , Streptomyces/isolation & purification , Xylans/analysis , Xylans/isolation & purification , Industrial Microbiology , Methods
20.
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2011; 8 (4): 295-306
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-124812

ABSTRACT

Nowadays formaldehyde is used as raw material in many industries. It has also disinfection applications in some public places. Due to its toxicity for microorganisms, chemical or anaerobic biological methods are applied for treating wastewater containing formaldehyde.In this research, formaldehyde removal efficiencies of aerobic biological treatment systems including moving bed biofilm [MMBR] and sequencing batch reactors [SBR] were investigated. During all experiments, the efficiency of SBR was more than MBBR, but the difference was not significant statistically. According to the results, the best efficiencies were obtained for influent formaldehyde COD of 200 mg/L in MBBR and SBR which were 93% and 99.4%, respectively. The systems were also capable to treat higher formaldehyde concentrations [up to 2500 mg/L] with lower removal efficiency. The reaction kinetics followed the Stover-Kincannon second order model. The gram-positive and gram-negative bacillus and coccus as well as the gram-positive binary bacillus were found to be the most dominant species. The results of [13]C-NMR analysis have shown that formaldehyde and urea were converted into N-[[[aminocarbonyl] amino] methyl]urea and the residual formaldehyde was polymerized at room temperature


Subject(s)
Bioreactors , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Formaldehyde , Industrial Waste/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental
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