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Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 21(1): 1-14, ene.-abr. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427747


The psychosocial risks faced by workers can influence their health as well as job performance and satisfaction. However, this phenomenon among Mexican workers in the oil industry has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of stress and job-related burnout with mental disorders among oil workers in the southeastern region of Mexico. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional and analytical study included 501 workers from the onshore oil industry in the southeastern region of Mexico. The Work Burnout Inventory, the Symptoms of Stress Inventory, and the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (ghq 28) were applied between October and November, 2016. Chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between variables and the odds ratio was determined to establish the level of risk for mental disorders. Results: Moderate levels of stress (21.4l %), efficacy (41.5 %), cynicism (30.6 %), and exhaustion (39.7 %) were observed. Mental disorders were noted in 11.8 % of workers. Stress and burnout were associated with mental disorders (p < 0.05). Finally, workers who experienced stress and job burnout were more likely to have mental disorders (or = 12.96; 95 % ci [7.03­23.94]; p = 0.00). Conclusions:Stress and job burnout are risk factors for mental disorders among Mexican oil workers.

los riesgos psicosociales en los trabajadores tienen influencia en la salud, rendimiento del trabajo y satisfacción laboral; sin embargo, poco se ha estudiado este fenómeno en los trabajadores mexicanos de la industria petrolera. El objetivo fue analizar la asociación entre estrés y desgaste laboral y trastornos en los trabajadores de la industria petrolera terrestre de la región sureste de México. Materiales y métodos: diseño transversal y analítico. La muestra estuvo integrada por 501 trabajadores. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Inventario de Desgaste Laboral, el Inventario de Síntomas de Estrés y el Cuestionario de Salud General de Goldberg (ghq 28). Se aplicaron los instrumentos entre octu-bre y noviembre de 2016. Se utilizó la prueba de chi cuadrado para analizar la relación entre las variables, y se determinaron odds ratio para establecer el nivel de riesgo a trastornos mentales. Resultados: se encontraron niveles moderados de estrés (21.4l %), eficacia (41.5 %), cinismo (30.6 %) y agotamiento (39.7 %). Se encontró presencia de trastornos mentales en el 11.8 % de los trabajadores. El estrés y las dimensiones del desgaste laboral se asociaron con los trastornos mentales (p < 0.05). Finalmente, los tra-bajadores que presentaron estrés y desgaste laboral tuvieron mayor probabilidad de sufrir trastornos mentales (or= 12.96; ic 95 % [7.03-23.94]; p = 0.00). Conclusiones: el estrés y el desgaste laboral representan factores de riesgo para presentar trastornos mentales en los trabajadores petroleros mexicanos.

os riscos psicossociais nos trabalhadores influenciam a saúde, o desempenho no trabalho e a satisfação no trabalho, no entanto, esse fenômeno tem sido pouco estudado em trabalhadores mexi-canos da indústria petrolífera. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a associação do estresse e desgaste no trabalho com transtornos em trabalhadores da indústria petrolífera terrestre da região sudeste do México. Materiais e métodos: desenho transversal e analítico. A amostra foi composta por 501 trabalha-dores. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Inventário de Desgaste Laboral, o Inventário de Sintomas de Estresse e o Questionário de Saúde Geral de Goldberg (ghq 28). Os instrumentos foram aplicados entre outubro e novembro de 2016. O teste qui-quadrado foi utilizado para analisar a relação entre as variáveis e o odds ratio foi determinado para estabelecer o nível de risco para transtornos mentais. Resultados: foram encontrados níveis moderados de estresse (21,4l %), eficácia (41,5 %), cinismo (30,6 %) e exaustão (39,7 %). A presença de transtornos mentais foi encontrada em 11,8 % dos trabalhadores. O estresse e as dimensões de desgaste laboral foram associadas aos transtornos mentais (p < 0,05). Por fim, os trabalhadores que apresentavam estresse e desgaste laboral apresentaram maior probabilidade de apresentar transtornos mentais (or = 12,96; ic 95 % [7,03-23,94]; p = 0,00). Conclusões: o estresse e desgaste laboral representam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de transtornos mentais em trabalhadores petrolíferos mexicanos.

Humans , Burnout, Professional , Health , Risk Factors , Oil and Gas Industry , Burnout, Psychological , Industry , Job Satisfaction
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986020


Hexane is a widely used organic solvent in industry, and chronic hexane poisoning is the main occupational toxic lesion in China. In particular, axonal and myelin lesions in the distal thick fibers of the peripheral nervous system may be caused by 2, 5-hexanedione (2, 5-HD), an intermediate metabolite of n-hexane in humans. Hexane has toxic effects not only on the nervous system but also on the liver, kidneys, and reproductive organs. In this paper, we review the progress of research on the mechanism of n-hexane toxic neuropathy.

Humans , Hexanes/toxicity , Hexanones , Industry , Solvents
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986018


Objective: To explore the sound insulation, sound absorption and other noise reduction transformation methods in a noise workshop handover control room. Methods: In December 2021, through the occupational health investigation and on-site testing of the handover control room of a noise workshop, the causes of excessive noise were analyzed, and the transformation design scheme to reduce noise was proposed and the effect was analyzed. Results: Before the transformation, the peak frequency band noise intensity of the noise workshop handover control room was 112.8 dB (A), and the peak frequency was 1000 Hz. After noise reduction, the theoretical calculated control value was 61.0 dB (A), and the measured noise intensity was 59.8 dB (A) . Conclusion: The noise intensity of the handover control room is reduced after noise reduction, which is in line with the contact limit requirements of the control room in GBZ 1-2010 "Hygienic Standards for the Design of Industrial Enterprises", and has reference significance for noise control engineering.

Noise/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Industry , Reference Standards , Hygiene , Noise, Occupational/prevention & control
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970529


This paper introduced the overview of the "eight trends" of Chinese medicinal materials(CMM) industry in 2021, analyzed the problems of CMM production, and put forward development suggestions. Specifically, "eight trends" could be summarized as follows.(1) The growing area of CMM tended to be stable, and some provinces began to release the local catalog of Dao-di herbs.(2) The protection process of new varieties accelerated, and a number of excellent varieties were bred.(3) The theory of ecological cultivation was further enriched, and the demonstration effect of ecological cultivation technology was prominent.(4) Some CMM realized complete mechanization and formed typical model cases.(5) The number of cultivation bases using the traceability platform increased, and provincial internet trading platforms were set up.(6) The construction of CMM industrial clusters accelerated, and the number of provincial-level regional brands increased rapidly.(7) Many new agricultural business entities were founded nationwide, and a variety of methods were used to drive the intensified development of CMM.(8) A number of local TCM laws were promulgated, and the management regulation of food and medicine homology substances catalogs was issued. On this basis, four suggestions for CMM production were proposed.(1) It is suggested to speed up the formulation of the national catalog of Dao-di herbs and carry out the certification of Dao-di herbs production bases.(2) Ecological planting of forest and grassland medicine should be further strengthened in terms of technical research and promotion based on the principle of ecological priority.(3) The basic work of disaster prevention should be paid more attention and technical measures for disaster mitigation should be developed.(4) The planted area of commonly used CMM should be incorporated into the national regular statistical system.

Agriculture , Certification , Commerce , Industry , China
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 993-1008, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970418


The development of synthetic biology has greatly promoted the construction of microbial cell factories, providing an important strategy for green and efficient chemical production. However, the bottleneck of poor tolerance to harsh industrial environments has become the key factor hampering the productivity of microbial cells. Adaptive evolution is an important method to domesticate microorganisms for a certain period by applying targeted selection pressure to obtain desired phenotypic or physiological properties that are adapted to a specific environment. Recently, with the development of technologies such as microfluidics, biosensors, and omics analysis, adaptive evolution has laid the foundation for efficient productivity of microbial cell factories. Herein, we discuss the key technologies of adaptive evolution and their important applications in improvement of environmental tolerance and production efficiency of microbial cell factories. Moreover, we looked forward to the prospects of adaptive evolution to realize industrial production by microbial cell factories.

Metabolic Engineering , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Synthetic Biology , Environment , Industry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982261


OBJECTIVE@#To improve the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) quality of medical devices, improve the efficiency of EMC testing, and promote the speed of market approval.@*METHODS@#The unqualified cases of EMC test items of medical devices in recent years were statistically analyzed, and the reasons of low EMC quality of medical devices were analyzed from the perspective of test.@*RESULTS@#Based on the analysis of the reasons, the suggestions were given from the perspectives of medical device manufacturers and testing organizations.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In order to ensure the quality of EMC of medical devices, medical device manufacturers, regulatory authorities and inspection and testing institutions should strengthen the monitoring and evaluation of medical device electromagnetic compatibility, to ensure the safety of products work together to promote the development of the medical device industry healthily and orderly.

Electromagnetic Phenomena , Industry , Electromagnetic Fields
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982259


Standard drafting is an important part in the process of standard formulation and revision. By analyzing the status of the medical device industry standards drafting, thoughts and suggestions were proposed to further promote all relevant parties to actively participate in the standard drafting, effectively improve the quality of the standards, strengthen the technical support and promote the high-quality development of the industry. The statistical data of the participation of social organizations in the drafting and as the first unit drafting medical devices standards from 2017 to 2021 was researched, and the problems in the drafting of standards at this stage were analyzed. Based on the research and analyses, some thoughts and suggestions were proposed to strengthen the management of standard drafting units and promote the participation of all relevant parties in standard drafting. It is necessary to expand and enhance social participation in standard drafting further by innovating incentives, refining and strengthening normative requirements, and creating a positive social atmosphere.

Reference Standards , China , Industry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982236


From the point of the technical evaluation of the registration of medical devices, the technical evaluation focus of the disposable endoscopic injection needle registration are briefly described in the chapters of the application overview documents, risk management data, product technical requirements, research data, toxic substance residues, biocompatibility evaluation, clinical evaluation data, et al. The common terms of technical requirements are specified, risk management and research materials list the project requirements for product characteristics. So as to accurately judge the product quality, improve the review efficiency, promote the development of the industry.

Needles , Endoscopy , Injections , Risk Management , Industry
Univ. salud ; 24(3): 235-247, sep.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1410291


Introducción: Los ftalatos son disruptores endocrinos usados en la fabricación de múltiples productos de la industria, principalmente plásticos. El periodo fetal representa la principal ventana de vulnerabilidad, y la exposición a ftalatos en esta etapa de vida genera efectos adversos fetales y postnatales. El biomarcador más fiable para medición de ftalatos es la orina. Objetivo: Caracterizar las diferentes fuentes de exposición a disruptores endocrinos y cuantificar la concentración urinaria de ftalatos en gestantes. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal, observacional y descriptivo que incluye 400 gestantes que asistieron a control prenatal en las instituciones de salud Génesis y Metrosalud (Medellín-Colombia). Se caracterizaron fuentes de exposición, se recolectó muestras de orina de todas las gestantes, y cuantificó la concentración de ftalatos de 38 mujeres. Resultados: Las medias geométricas de ftalato Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DEHP), Mono-n-butyl phthalate(MnBP), Mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate(MEHHP) y Mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate(MEOHP) fueron 162,72µg/L, 58,5 µg/L, 33,93µg/L y 31,63µg/L respectivamente. Conclusiones: La mayoría de las gestantes evaluadas han estado expuestas a lo largo de su vida a fuentes potenciales de disruptores endocrinos, presentes en químicos domésticos, tabaco y uso frecuente de cosméticos faciales y corporales. Las concentraciones de MnBP, MEHHP y MEOHP en orina de las participantes, fueron superiores a los hallazgos a nivel mundial.

Introduction: Phthalates are endocrine disruptors used in the manufacture of various industrial products, mainly plastics. The fetal period represents the principal window of vulnerability, and the exposure to Phthalates in this stage of life generates adverse fetal and post-natal effects. The most reliable biomarker for the assessment of Phthalates is urine. Objective: To characterize the different exposure sources of endocrine disruptors and quantify the urinary concentration of Phthalates in pregnant women. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study which included 400 pregnant women who received prenatal care in the Genesis and Metrosalud health institutions (Medellín-Colombia). Exposure sources were characterized and urine samples were collected from all pregnant women and the Phthalate concentration was quantified in 38 women. Results: The geometric measures of Phthalate Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DEHP), Mono-n-butyl phthalate(MnBP), Mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate(MEHHP) and Mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate(MEOHP) were 162.72µg/L, 58.5 µg/L, 33.93µg/L and 31.63µg/L respectively. Conclusions: The majority of pregnant women that were evaluated were exposed to potential sources of endocrine disruptors throughout their life, which are present in household chemicals, tobacco, and frequent use of facial and body cosmetics. The concentrations of MnBP, MEHHP y MEOHP in urine of participants were higher than those found worldwide.

Humans , Female , Chemical Compounds , Pregnant Women , Women , Endocrine Disruptors , Industry
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246116, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249222


The organization of the roots, ganglia and the peripheral distribution of the cranial nerves of the fully formed embryos of Oreochromis niloticus are examined in the transverse serial sections. These nerves carry fibers, which were also analyzed. The results of this study demonstrated that the glossopharyngeal nerve originates by means of only one root, which leaves the cranium through the glossopharyngeal foramen. This nerve gives fibers (visceromotor) to the first internal and external levator arcus branchialis muscles. There is a single epibranchial (petrosal) ganglion located extracranially. Nervus glossopharyngeus has three rami; pharyngeus, pretramticus and posttrematicus. The ramus pharyngeus carries only viscerosensory fibers; general for the pharyngeal epithelium and special ones for the pseudobranch. General viscerosensory fibers are also carried by rami pretrematicus and posttrematicus for the pharyngeal epithelial lining. The special sensory fibers are carried by the ramus pretrematicus for the taste buds and by ramus posttrematicus for the gill filaments. The ramus pretrematicus also carries visceromotor fibers for the first adductor arcus branchialis and to the first obliquus ventralis muscles.

A organização das raízes, gânglios e a distribuição periférica dos nervos cranianos dos embriões totalmente formados de Oreochromis niloticus são examinados nas seções transversais seriais. Esses nervos carregam fibras, que também foram analisadas. Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que o nervo glossofaríngeo se origina por meio de apenas uma raiz, que sai do crânio pelo forame glossofaríngeo. Este nervo fornece fibras (visceromotoras) para os primeiros músculos levantadores do arco branquial interno e externo. Existe um único gânglio epibranquial (petroso) localizado extracranialmente. Nervus glossopharyngeus tem três ramos; faríngeo, pretramticus e póstrematicus. O ramo faríngeo contém apenas fibras viscerossensoriais ­ gerais para o epitélio faríngeo e especiais para o pseudobrânquio. Fibras viscerossensoriais gerais também são transportadas por ramos pretrematicus e posttrematicus para o revestimento epitelial da faringe. As fibras sensoriais especiais são transportadas pelo ramus pretrematicus para as papilas gustativas e pelo ramus posttrematicus para os filamentos branquiais. O ramo pretrematicus também carrega fibras visceromotoras para o primeiro adutor arcus branchialis e para o primeiro músculo oblíquo ventral.

Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Nematoda , Sewage , Tunisia , Environmental Monitoring , Geologic Sediments , Industry
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20153, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403758


Abstract To evaluate the prevalence of self-reported drug adherence and factors associated, as well as clinical health outcomes, for industry workers with hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM). This was a cross-sectional study of 137 Brazilian industry workers with HTN and/ or DM. Self-reported adherence was assessed, and the disease control was defined through blood pressure and capillary glycemia values. Data were descriptively analyzed and the factors associated with adherence were evaluated using the Poisson model with robust variance to calculate prevalence ratios. The prevalence of self-reported drug adherence was 79.6% and the prevalence of disease control was 53.8%. There was no statistically significant association between the two variables. In the controlled disease group, non-adherence was associated with being under 40 years of age, not having a partner, and having a risky alcohol consumption habit. In the uncontrolled disease group, adherence was highest for participants aged 40 years and older. The prevalence of self-reported drug adherence was high, but the prevalence of disease control was low and not associated with adherence, indicating that the self-reported adherence measure may be inaccurate. Our findings identify some factors that explain non-adherent behavior in the workforce.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/drug therapy , Industry , Brazil , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self Report
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19724, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384025


Abstract Innovation is the driving force that is able to create and transform products, processes, and organization in the health system. Innovation in the field of pharmaceutical assistance covers a wide spectrum of aspects, from drug discovery to pharmaceutical care, contributing to the improvement in treatments through novel drugs or methods. This work will present the major characteristics of innovation with special emphasis on aspects pertaining to pharmaceutical assistance. The types and models of innovation, as well as the interaction between academia and industry, will be presented with examples of successful products and methods. In addition, the challenges and perspectives for innovation in pharmaceutical assistance will be discussed with a focus on drug discovery.

Pharmaceutical Services/classification , Creativity , Health Systems , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Reference Drugs , Drug Discovery/trends , Industry/trends , Methods
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 116 p. tab, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396694


A fim de atender à demanda do público que atualmente busca por alimentos mais saudáveis, as indústrias têm procurado alternativas que possibilitem a aplicação de ingredientes que agreguem valor nutricional aos produtos. A redução de gorduras saturadas e trans em produtos alimentícios, bem como a inserção de cereais ou farinhas nutricionais, vem sendo aplicadas em produtos de panificação. Biscoitos recheados possuem como bases geralmente biscoitos à base de farinha de trigo. O objetivo foi desenvolver formulação de biscoitos recheados com substituição de gordura vegetal por organogel no recheio e de farinha de trigo por farinha de sorgo no biscoito, a fim de agregar valor nutricional ao produto. Foram desenvolvidos biscoitos recheados: 1) recheio controle e com substituição da gordura vegetal dos recheios por organogel elaborado com sistema emulsionado (colágeno + óleo vegetal + água), a fim de diminuir concentrações de gorduras saturadas e trans. 2) para a base elaborouse biscoitos controle (farinha de trigo) e com substituição parcial e total de farinha de trigo por farinha de sorgo em 50% (50FS) e 100% (100FS). Foram conduzidas nos recheios e das bases dos biscoitos análises físicas e físico-químicas (textura, atividade de água, cor, composição centesimal e reologia) para avaliação e para análise de estabilidade de 6 semanas. Os resultados apresentaram que o biscoito 50FS obteve melhor valor de textura (Controle: 16,09 ± 1,28 N; 50FS: 19,63 ± 5,68 N e 100FS: 10,09 ± 0,65 N) e menor teor de atividade de água (Semana 01: 0,327±0,01 e Semana 06: 0,389 ± 0,00) do que o biscoito controle, durante análise de estabilidade. O biscoito 100FS apresentou coloração mais avermelhada. Os biscoitos 50FS e 100FS apresentaram maior teor proteico do que o controle (Controle: 5,37 ± 0,23 %; 50FS: 5,64 ± 0,49 % e 100FS: 5,75 ± 0,49 %). O recheio com organogel apresentou maior dureza (N) durante análise de estabilidade do que o recheio controle (Semana 6 Organogel: 6,81±1,48; Controle: 4,29±0,38). Os parâmetros de adesividade, coesividade e gomosidade do recheio com organogel não apresentaram diferenças significativas (p > 0,05). Os valores de atividade de água da formulação com organogel foram mais altos do que o recheio controle (Semana 6 Organogel: 0,730±0,00; Controle: 0,555±0,01). O valor de L* foi maior para o recheio controle, apresentando coloração mais amarelada do que a formulação com organogel. O recheio com organogel apresentou redução de 65 % do teor lipídico e aumento do teor proteico. Os recheios controle, com organogel e de mercado apresentaram comportamento tixotrópico durante a avaliação reológica, sendo que o produto de mercado teve comportamento próximo à formulação controle, com recuperação quase total da estrutura. Foram desenvolvidos cinco produtos, sendo três inovadores com valor nutricional agregado, atendendo às legislações vigentes, vida útil mínima de 6 semanas e ao apelo do mercado atual, podendo ser comercializados como biscoito recheado

In order to satisfy the demand of the public that is currently looking for healthier foods industries have been looking for alternatives that allow the application of ingredients that add nutritional value to the products. The reduction of saturated and trans fats in food products, as well as the insertion of cereals or nutritional flours, has been applied in bakery products. Filled cookies are usually based on wheat flour. The objective was to develop a formulation of filled cookies with replacement of vegetable fat for organogel in the filling and wheat flour for sorghum flour in the biscuit, in order to add nutritional value to the product. In this study, cookies filled with vegetable fat and wheat flour were used as a control where: 1) filling was replaced by organogel elaborated with an emulsified system (collagen + vegetable oil + water); and 2) base was prepared with partial and total replacer of wheat flour for sorghum flour in 50% (50FS) and 100% (100FS). Physical and physicochemical analyzes (texture, water activity, color, proximate composition and rheology) were carried out on the fillings and bases of the biscuits for evaluation and for the stability analysis of 6 weeks. The results showed that the 50FS cookies had a better texture value (Control: 16,09±1,28 N; 50FS: 19,63±5,68N and 10,09±0,65 N) and lower content of water activity (Week 1: 0,327±0,01 and Week 6: 0,389±0,00) than the control cookie during stability analysis. The 100FS had a more reddish color. The 50FS and 100FS cookies had a higher protein content than the control (Control: 5,37±0,23 %; 50FS 5,64±0,49 %). The fillings with organogel showed a higher hardness (N) than the control during stability analysis (Week 6 Organogel: 6,81±1,48; Control: 4,29±0,38). The parameters of adhesiveness, cohesiveness and guminess of the filling with organogel showed no significant differences (p> 0.05). The water activity values of the organogel formulation were higher than the control filling (Week 6 Organogel: 0,730±0,00; Control: 0,555±0,01). The value of L * was higher for the control filling, showing a more yellowish color than the formulation with organogel. The filling with organogel showed a 65% reduction in lipid content and an increase in protein content. The control, organogel and market fillings showed a thixotropic behavior in the rheological evaluation, and the market product had a behavior close to the control formulation, with almost total recovery of the structure. Five products were developed, three of which were innovative with added nutritional value, in compliance with current legislation, a minimum shelf life of 6 weeks, which can be sold as a stuffed cookies.

Plant Oils , Food Production , Cookies , Fats/administration & dosage , Rheology/instrumentation , Staining and Labeling/instrumentation , Edible Grain/adverse effects , Collagen/adverse effects , Sorghum/classification , Date of Validity of Products , Flour/analysis , Hardness , Industry/classification , Nutritive Value
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 479-488, 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397124


La leptospirosis es una enfermedad clasificada como zoonótica, y también es una de las más olvidadas. Como enfermedad endémica zoonótica, permanece en los lugares menos favorecidos afectando la salud humana y tambien de los ciertos animales domésticos. Tal afectación ocasiona pérdidas sustanciales económicas y sanitarias en las poblaciones vulnerables. La incidencia, se estima que afecta a un millón de seres humanos ocasionando la muerte a casi 59.000 de ellas. La transmisión de la leptospirosis humana es debida a la exposición directa o indirecta de las fuentes de infección primaria como animales infectados (orina o tejidos), y también por el contacto con alimentos o aguas contaminadas. En este trabajo se estudió la prevalencia y los factores de riesgos de leptospirosos en la industria porcícola en diferentes regiones del Estado Peruano. Los resultados mostraron que los trabajadores, en su mayoría, masculinos, con edades comprendidas entre 20 y 50 años fueron los más vulnerables a estos serovares de Leptospira, lo cual se relaciona con el contacto directo con porcinos y sus derivados. Por otra parte, las condiciones de vida de los trabajadores influyen en la mayor prevalencia de este servar. Condiciones rurales, falta de higiene, el contacto con mascotas sin tratamiento son factores de riego para la propagación de la leptospirosis(AU)

Leptospirosis is a disease classified as zoonotic, and it is also one of the most neglected. As an endemic zoonotic disease, it remains in the least favored places, affecting human health and also that of certain domestic animals. Such damage causes substantial economic and health losses in vulnerable populations. The incidence is estimated to affect one million human beings, causing the death of almost 59,000 of them. Transmission of human leptospirosis is due to direct or indirect exposure to primary infection sources such as infected animals (urine or tissues), and also by contact with contaminated food or water. In this work, the prevalence and risk factors of leptospirosis in the pig industry in different regions of the Peruvian State were studied. The results showed that workers, mostly male, aged between 20 and 50 years were the most vulnerable to these Leptospira serovars, which is related to direct contact with pigs and their derivatives. On the other hand, the living conditions of the workers influence the higher prevalence of this servar. Rural conditions, lack of hygiene, contact with untreated pets are risk factors for the spread of leptospirosis(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Zoonoses , Risk Factors , Vulnerable Populations , Industry , Animals, Domestic , Endemic Diseases , Pets , Infections , Leptospirosis/complications
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939762


This paper studies the necessity of the current legislation on the supervision of medical devices in China from the perspectives of strengthening administration according to law, protecting public health, perfecting the legal system of medicine and promoting the development of the medical device industry. This study analyzes and summarizes the legislative experiences and forms in the field of medical device regulation in the United States, the European Union, Japan and other countries and regions, at present, the conditions of carrying out the legislation of medical device supervision in China are quite mature, and some policy suggestions are put forward for the enactment of the law of medical device management in China.

Equipment and Supplies , European Union , Feasibility Studies , Industry , Medical Device Legislation , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935793


Objective: To investigate the detection of suspected occupational diseases and occupational contraindications for benzene workers in Tianjin. Methods: In June 2020, the occupational health inspection data of 16113 benzene workers in 514 enterprises with benzene hazards in 16 municipal districts in Tianjin from January to December 2019 were included in the analysis. Enterprise information included the employer's region, economic type, industry classification and enterprise scale. Occupational health inspection data for benzene workers during their on-the-job period included routine inspection indicators and benzene special inspection indicators. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between personal general information, occupational history, enterprise information and suspected benzene poisoning and occupational contraindications of benzene workers. Results: There were 16073 benzene workers in the normal group and 24 in the suspected benzene poisoning group. The detection rate of suspected benzene poisoning in females was higher than that in males (χ(2)=8.26, P=0.004) . There was no significant difference in the detection rates of suspected benzene poisoning among different dimensions such as age, length of service, occupational health inspection institution location, employer location, industry classification, economic type, and enterprise scale (P>0.05) . There were 16073 benzene workers in the normal group and 16 in the benzene contraindication group. The detection rate of benzene contraindications for workers in suburban areas where occupational health inspection institutions were located was higher than that in urban areas (χ(2)=9.71, P=0.002) , and there was no significant difference in the detection rates of contraindications for benzene in other dimensions (P>0.05) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female benzene workers were more likely to detect suspected benzene poisoning (OR=3.53, 95%CI: 1.57-7.94, P=0.002) ; benzene workers who received physical examination in suburban occupational health inspection institutions (OR=5.81, 95%CI: 1.94-17.42, P=0.002) , the employer's area was in the suburbs (OR=9.68, 95%CI: 1.23-76.07, P=0.031) , and female workers (OR=3.07, 95%CI: 1.13-8.37, P=0.028) , it was easier to detect occupational contraindications. Conclusion: Female benzene workers with employers located in the suburbs have a higher risk of detecting occupational contraindications, and women are more likely to detect suspected benzene poisoning. The management of benzene operations in the production environment of enterprises in the suburbs of Tianjin and the occupational health monitoring of female workers should be strengthened.

Female , Humans , Male , Benzene/analysis , Industry , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Health
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935760


Objective: To analyze the pattern and characteristics of occupational diseases in Weihai City from 2009 to 2020, and to provide scientific basis for the formulation of occupational disease prevention. Methods: In February 2021, retrospective analysis was performed on the cases of occupational diseases diagnosed from 2009 to 2020 in Weihai City. The relevant information and data were collected to analyze the types of occupational diseases, onset age, working age, diagnosis time, industry distribution, economic type and enterprise size distribution. Results: From 2009 to 2020, a total of 453 cases of new occupational diseases were reported in Weihai City. There were 431 males (95.14%) and 22 females (4.86%) . The average onset age was (49.16±8.51) years, and the average working age was (17.89±9.30) years. The incidence of pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases (322 cases, 71.08%) , occupational otolaryngology and oral diseases (71 cases, 15.67%) and occupational chemical poisoning (36 cases, 7.95%) were the top 3 cases, of which 313 cases were pneumoconiosis and 69 cases were noise deafness. The cases were mainly concentrated in the 40-59 years age group (357 cases, 78.81%) and the 10-19 years working age group (175 cases, 38.63%) . There were significant differences in the incidence of occupational diseases in different ages and different working ages (χ(2)=97.64, 80.74, P<0.001) . The new cases were mainly in mining industry (134 cases, 29.58%) , shipbuilding or maintenance industry (97 cases, 21.41%) , and private enterprises (350 cases, 77.26%) . Conclusion: Pneumoconiosis and noise deafness are the main emerging occupational diseases in Weihai City. Occupational disease prevention and control in private enterprises such as mining and shipbuilding or maintenance industry should be strengthened.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Industry , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928036


This study steps through the future perspectives and gives the development suggestions of Chinese medicinal materials(CMM) industry by presenting the characteristics and open problems during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period. The development of CMM industry presents the following trends:(1)the development of Dao-di herbs speeds up with the increasing demand for high-quality CMM;(2)the mismatch between supply and demand is aggravating, which presses for supply-side structural reform;(3)ecological planting will become the core mode of production and bolster rural revitalization;(4)the demand for CMM with both medical and edible values keeps growing, and the antibiotic-free feed policy brings significant opportunities;(5)the "Internet Plus CMM" wave emerges, which promotes the construction of traceability system. Finally, we put forward the following suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM industry:(1)optimizing the layout for the production of Dao-di herbs according to local conditions;(2)strengthening the commercialization of the seeds and the breeding, multiplication, and extension of CMM to accelerate the realization of specialized seed production, mechanized seed processing, localized variety layout, and county-based unified seed supply;(3)ensuring the safety of pesticide use and accelerating the registration of special pesticides;(4)promoting both theoretical and practical research on ecological production of CMM;(5)publicizing the demonstration and popularization of CMM traceability system. Overall, significant progress has been achieved in the CMM industry during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, and this industry is in a critical stage of high-quality development, facing both challenges and opportunities.

China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Industry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Breeding
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 105(6): 402-408, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1373044


While the regulatory framework for medical education in Egypt has rapidly evolved, the progress of developing a system for continuing professional development has been slow. In 2018 the government approved legislation establishing a regulatory authority for continuing professional development and added expectations for continuing professional development as a condition of relicensure for physicians in Egypt. The new authority has deployed a provider-accreditation model that sets criteria for educational quality, learning outcomes, independence from industry, and tracking of learners. Only accredited providers can submit continuing professional development accredited activities. Despite regulatory and administrative support there have been several barriers to the implementation of the system including limited availability of funding, lack of suitable training venues and equipment for hands-on training, and resistance from the profession. As of March 2022, 112 continuing professional development providers have achieved accreditation, and deployed 154 accredited continuing professional development activities. The majority of accredited providers were medical associations (64%) and higher education institutions (18%), followed by medical foundations and nongovernmental organizations (13%) and health-care facilities (5%). One electronic learning platform has been accredited. Any entity with commercial interests cannot be accredited as a continuing professional development provider. Funding of continuing professional development activities can be derived from provider budgets, programme registration fees or appropriate sponsors. Funding from industry is limited to unrestricted educational grants. The foundations for an effective continuing professional development system have been established in Egypt with the aim of achieving international recognition.

Education, Medical, Continuing , Accreditation , Industry , Learning
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371997


Este trabalho tem como objetivo discutir as peculiaridades do processo de organização do Bangu Athletic Club e o seu progressivo e dependente relacionamento com a Companhia Progresso Industrial do Brasil, entre os anos de 1904 a 1929. Quanto ao recorte temporal (1904-1929), levamos em conta as transformações ocorridas em Bangu ao longo desse período, em 1904 a fundação do Bangu Athletic Club, e em 1929 a fábrica passou por um retalhamento de suas terras, em que, consequentemente, emergiu o bairro Bangu, agora sem ligação direta com a fábrica. Como fontes, foram utilizados revistas e jornais consultados na Hemeroteca Digital da Biblioteca Nacional, além de pedidos de licenciamento e estatutos (AU)

This paper aims to discuss the peculiarities about the organi-zation process of Bangu Athletic Club and its progressive and dependent relationship with Companhia Progresso Industrial do Brasil, between the years 1904 to 1929. Regarding the time frame (1904-1929 ), we take into account the transformations that took place in Bangu throughout that , in 1904, the foundation of the Bangu Athletic club, and 1929, the year in which the factory underwent a shredding of its lands, in which consequently the Bangu neighborhood, now emerged, without direct connection with the factory. As sources were used magazines and news-papers consulted in the Digital Library of the National Library, licensing requests and statutes (AU)

Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir las peculiaridades del proceso de organización del Bangu Athletic Club y su relación pro-gresiva y dependiente con la Companhia Progresso Industrial do Brasil, entre los años 1904 a 1929. En cuanto al marco temporal (1904-1929 ), tenemos en cuenta las transformaciones que se produjeron en Bangu durante ese período, en 1904, fundación del club Bangu Athletic, y 1929, año en el que la fábrica sufrió un desmembramiento de sus tierras, en el que surgió como consecuencia el barrio de Bangu, ahora sin conexión directa con la fábrica. Como fuentes se utilizaron revistas y periódicos consultados en la Biblioteca Digital de la Biblioteca Nacional, solicitudes de licencias y estatutos (AU).

Humans , Soccer , Industrial Development , Industry , Sports , Residence Characteristics , Libraries