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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S77-S106, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1282794

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La prevalencia del vegetarianismo aumenta a nivel mundial y no hay consenso acerca de si este tipo de alimentación es adecuado durante el período de crecimiento. Objetivo. Se realizó una revisión descriptiva de la literatura con el objetivo de conocer si los niños e hijos de madres que siguen dietas vegetarianas crecen de manera diferente a los niños con dietas omnívoras. Métodos. Se incluyen 25 artículos publicados entre los años 1995-2020, que describen el crecimiento prenatal, postnatal y desarrollo puberal en niños vegetarianos e hijos de madres vegetarianas. Conclusión. La escasez de estudios longitudinales y resultados en el largo plazo, la heterogeneidad en la clasificación y el registro de las dietas, además de deficiencias metodológicas, no permiten concluir que el crecimiento de estos niños sea diferente al de los niños que siguen dietas omnívoras. Se requieren estudios longitudinales en el largo plazo para contribuir a dirimir esta controversia


The prevalence of vegetarianism is rising worldwide and there is no consensus about whether it is adequate during the growth period. The objective of this descriptive review is to find out if vegetarian children and children born from mothers who follow vegetarian diets, grow different from those who follow omnivorous diets. Results. 25 articles published between 1995 and 2020 were included describing prenatal and postnatal growth and pubertal development in vegetarian children and children of vegetarian mothers. Conclusion. The scarcity of longitudinal studies and long-term results, the heterogeneity in the classification and registration of the diets, in addition to methodological deficiencies, do not allow to conclude that the growth of these children is different from children on omnivorous diets. Long-term longitudinal studies are required to help to solve this controversy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Diet, Vegetarian , Child Development , Adolescent Development , Mothers , Infant Formula , Body Size , Prenatal Nutrition , Diet, Vegan
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e49-e53, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147262

ABSTRACT

El raquitismo afecta la diferenciación y mineralización del cartílago de crecimiento como consecuencia, en última instancia, de una alteración en los niveles de fósforo y/o calcio. El secundario a la deficiencia de vitamina D es la forma más frecuente (raquitismo carencial). Las manifestaciones clínicas durante los primeros años de vida suelen comprometer en forma más marcada las epífisis de los huesos.Se describe el caso de un lactante de 8 meses con diagnóstico de alergia a la proteína de la leche de vaca que presentó múltiples fracturas patológicas mientras se encontraba bajo tratamiento con fórmulas lácteas a base de aminoácidos. Se efectuó el diagnóstico de raquitismo hipofosfatémico por deficiencia de fósforo y, tras 3 meses de tratamiento con sales de fosfato, calcio, calcitriol, el abandono paulatino de la leche elemental y el descenso gradual de la medicación antiácida, el paciente evolucionó con curación clínico-radiológica del cuadro


The rickets is a disease that affects the differentiation and mineralization of the growth cartilage, as an ultimate consequence of a balance loss in calcium and phosphate levels. Vitamin D deficiency is the most common cause of the rickets (nutritional rickets). Its clinical manifestation during the first years of life involves long bones epiphysis in a more severe way.We report an 8-month-old infant who was diagnosed with cow ́s milk protein allergy and suffered from multiple fractures while receiving elemental formula as part of his treatment. The final etiology was hypophosphatemic rickets secondary to phosphate deficiency, and after 3 months of phosphate, calcium and calcitriol supplementation, in addition to the gradually reduction of the proportion of elemental formula intake and the decline of the antacid doses, clinical and radiological heal was achieved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Rickets, Hypophosphatemic/diagnostic imaging , Vitamin D Deficiency , Milk Hypersensitivity , Infant Formula , Rickets, Hypophosphatemic/therapy , Amino Acids
3.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 478-483, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126147

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar el posible efecto protector de la lactancia materna respecto a la obesidad infantil versus fórmulas lácteas. Se consultaron las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science y Scielo, considerándose los artículos más actualizados sobre el tema. La evidencia analizada señala que los menores alimentados con lactancia materna exclusiva reportan bajos niveles de sobrepeso y obesidad, a diferencia de los alimentados con fórmulas lácteas infantiles. Se concluye que la lactancia materna exclusiva, hasta el sexto mes de vida del lactante, y complementada con alimentación solida (no láctea) hasta los dos o más años, es recomendada y podría proteger contra la obesidad infantil y sus comorbilidades asociadas en la vida adulta.


The aim was to review the evidence supporting the possible health benefits for obesity of breastfeeding versus formula feeding in infants. The search for studies addressing this topic was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Scielo databases. "Breastfeeding", "formula feeding" and "obesity" were the keywords used in the search. Only studies with a full version of the manuscript were included. The evidence analyzed indicated that children fed exclusively through breastfeeding reported low levels of overweight and obesity in comparison to those fed by infant milk formulas. To conclude, exclusive breastfeeding until the sixth month of life, and supplementation with solid (non-dairy) food until two years and more, is the gold standard and could protect against childhood obesity and its associated comorbidities in adult life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Breast Feeding , Dairy Products , Infant Formula , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the clinical importance of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding has been emphasized for decades, their direct relationship with acute pyelonephritis (APN) is still not clear. Our goal was to determine whether breastfeeding truly provides protection against APNs, while investigating the effects of other factors such as sex, age, mode of delivery, and birth weight on APN.METHODS: A total of 62 infants under 6 months of age who had both microbiologically and radiologically-confirmed APN were enrolled in the case group. Healthy infants (n = 178) who visited the hospital for scheduled vaccinations were enrolled in the control group. The following participant characteristics were compared between the case and control groups: age, sex, birth order among siblings, feeding methods, weight percentile by month, birth weight percentile by gestational age, gestational age at birth, and mode of delivery.RESULTS: Babies exclusively fed with manufactured infant formulae before 6 months of age had significantly higher risk for APN than breastfed or mixed-fed infants (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.687–7.031; P = 0.001). Firstborn babies had lower risk for APN than 2nd- or 3rd-born babies (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.210–0.919). Other factors that increased the risk for APN were low birth weight percentiles (OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.300–30.166) and birth via caesarean section (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.097–4.887). There were more preterm births in the case group (10.9% vs. 1.7%; P = 0.002), but this did not increase the risk for APN (OR, 4.47; P = 0.063).CONCLUSION: Feeding exclusively with formula before 6 months of age was related to higher risk for APN, which demonstrates that breastfeeding has a protective effect against APN. The other risk factors for APN were birth order (≥ 2nd-born), low birth weight, and birth via caesarean section.


Subject(s)
Birth Order , Birth Weight , Breast Feeding , Cesarean Section , Feeding Methods , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant Formula , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Parturition , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Pyelonephritis , Reproductive History , Risk Factors , Siblings , Urinary Tract Infections , Vaccination
6.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 12, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058894

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To verify the compliance with Law No. 11,265/2006 in the promotion strategies for infant formula in Brazilian websites of manufacturers and drugstore networks. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2017. We analyzed the compliance to attributes of the Law No.11,265/2006 (Law for Marketing of Foods for Infants and Toddlers, Feeding Bottles, Teats and Pacifiers) in five websites of infant formula manufacturers and nine websites of drugstore networks. The main attributes assessed were: the presence of drawings or representations of children, the presence of warning statements displayed in conspicuous and prominent spaces informing if products are intended for infants aged under or over 6 months, the adequate display of infant formulas/similar products, and the presence of pop-ups with other infant formulas or links to websites for children's products. All compliances and non compliances verified were described in absolute and relative frequencies. RESULTS We verified that 80% of the websites of infant formula manufacturers displayed advertisements for other children's food products. The main non compliance in infant formula manufacturer's websites was the absence of warning statements about products intended for infants over 6 months of age. Only 33% of the drugstores' websites complied with Law No. 11,265/2006. The main non compliances in these websites were the absence of warning statements on products intended for infants over 6 months of age (100%), the presence of pop-up advertisements for other infant foods (77%) and the presence of advertisements for other children's food products (92%). CONCLUSION We identified non compliances with the Law No. 11,256/2006 in almost all websites of infant formula manufacturers and in all the websites of drugstore networks. Most promotion strategies were found at drugstore websites, which are the main channels for online sales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pharmacies , Breast Feeding , Infant Formula/legislation & jurisprudence , Drug Industry , Health Promotion/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Advertising , Guideline Adherence , Internet/statistics & numerical data
7.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058891

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess if the commercialization of infant formulas, baby bottles, bottle nipples, pacifiers and nipple protectors is performed in compliance with the Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância e de Produtos de Puericultura Correlatos (NBCAL - Brazilian Code of Marketing of Infant and Toddlers Food and Childcare-related products). The commercial promotion of these products is prohibited by the Law 11,265. METHOD Cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 through a census of all pharmacies, supermarkets and department stores that sold products covered by NBCAL in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Health professionals trained at NBCAL used structured electronic form for direct observation of establishments and for interviews with their managers. We created indicators to evaluate commercial practices and performed descriptive analyses. RESULTS A total of 352 commercial establishments were evaluated: 240 pharmacies, 88 supermarkets and 24 department stores, of which 88% sold products whose promotion is prohibited by NBCAL. Illegal commercial promotions were found in 20.3% of the establishments that sold the products we investigated: 52 pharmacies (21.9%), four supermarkets (7.5%) and seven department stores (33.3%). The most frequent commercial promotion strategies were discounts (13.2%) and special exposures (9.3%). The products with the highest prevalence of infractions of NBCAL were infant formulas (16.0%). We interviewed 309 managers of commercial establishments; 50.8% reported unfamiliarity with the law. More than three-quarters of the managers reported having been visited at the establishments by commercial representatives of companies that produce infant formulas. CONCLUSION More than a fifth of commercial establishments promoted infant formulas, baby bottles and nipples, although this practice has been banned in Brazil for thirty years. We think it is necessary to train those managers. Government agencies must monitor commercial establishments in order to inhibit strategies of persuasion and induction to sales of these products, ensuring mothers' autonomy in the decision on the feeding of their children.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se a comercialização de fórmulas infantis, mamadeiras, bicos, chupetas e protetores de mamilo é realizada em cumprimento com a Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância e de Produtos de Puericultura Correlatos (NBCAL). A promoção comercial desses produtos é proibida pela Lei 11.265. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal conduzido em 2017 por meio de um censo de todas as farmácias, supermercados e lojas de departamento que comercializavam produtos abrangidos pela NBCAL na Zona Sul do Rio de Janeiro. Profissionais de saúde capacitados na NBCAL utilizaram formulário eletrônico estruturado para observação direta dos estabelecimentos e para entrevista com seus responsáveis. Foram criados seis indicadores de avaliação das práticas comerciais e realizadas análises descritivas. RESULTADOS Foram avaliados 352 estabelecimentos comerciais: 240 farmácias, 88 supermercados e 24 lojas de departamento, dos quais 88% comercializavam produtos cuja promoção é proibida pela NBCAL. Foram encontradas promoções comerciais ilegais em 20,3% daqueles que comercializavam os produtos investigados: 52 farmácias (21,9%), quatro supermercados (7,5%) e sete lojas de departamento (33,3%). As estratégias de promoção comercial mais frequentes foram os descontos (13,2%) e as exposições especiais (9,3%). Os produtos com maior prevalência de infrações à NBCAL foram as fórmulas infantis (16,0%). Foram entrevistados 309 responsáveis por estabelecimentos comerciais, 50,8% relatando não conhecer a lei. Mais de três quartos dos responsáveis relataram receber visitas nos estabelecimentos de representantes comerciais de empresas fabricantes de fórmulas infantis. CONCLUSÃO Mais de um quinto dos estabelecimentos comerciais faziam promoção comercial de fórmulas infantis para lactentes, mamadeiras e bicos, apesar de essa prática ser proibida no Brasil há trinta anos. É necessária a capacitação dos seus responsáveis. Os órgãos governamentais devem realizar fiscalização dos estabelecimentos comerciais para coibir estratégias de persuasão e indução à vendas desses produtos, garantindo às mães autonomia na decisão sobre a alimentação de seus filhos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pacifiers , Marketing/legislation & jurisprudence , Infant Formula/legislation & jurisprudence , Milk Substitutes/legislation & jurisprudence , Direct-to-Consumer Advertising , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant Food , Legislation, Food
8.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(4): 999-1010, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057119

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the association between the sociodemographic and clinical aspects of the caregiver and the child, the family's ability to prepare and administer milk and complementary feeding of children exposed to HIV. Methods: cross-sectional study performed with 72 caregivers, in Brazil, through the tool of sociodemographic and clinical characterization of the caregiver and the Capability to Care for HIV-Exposed Children Assessment Scale. Results: there was a high capability to feed (76.6%), both for milk (85.0%) and comple-mentary (65%) feeding. For the milk feeding, accessing the health unit in any situation (p=0.003), having other child exposed to HIV (p=0.013), maintaining the follow-up in the health service (p=0.048) and not consuming alcohol (p=0.045) influenced on the higher probability of the caregiver to present high capability, while residing in the peri-urban area (p=0.002) indicated moderate capability. For the complementary feeding, the higher the schooling (p=0.025), the number of appointments scheduled for the child (p=0.045) and the child being followed up in the health service (p=0.035), the higher the probability of obtaining high capability. Conclusions: the exposure of social and clinical factors of caregivers influences the ability to feed. To ensure adequate nutrition, it is necessary for the health services to be able to consider the geo-socio-cultural characteristics of families in the elaboration of guidelines.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a associação entre os aspectos sociodemográficos e clínicos do cuidador e da criança, a capacidade familiar para preparar e administrar a alimentação láctea e complementar de crianças expostas ao HIV. Métodos: estudo transversal realizado com 72 cuidadores, entre fevereiro de 2016 a março de 2017, por meio de instrumento de caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica do cuidador e Escala de Avaliação da Capacidade para Cuidar de Crianças Expostas ao HIV. Resultados: evidenciou-se alta capacidade para alimentar (76,6%), tanto para alimen-tação láctea (85,0%) quanto complementar (65%). Para a láctea, acessar a unidade básica em qualquer situação (p=0,003), ter outros filhos expostos ao HIV (p=0,013), manter o acompanhamento no serviço de saúde (p=0,048) e não consumir álcool (p=0,045) influen-ciou na maior probabilidade de o cuidador apresentar alta capacidade, enquanto que residir em zona periurbana (p=0,002) indicou capacidade moderada. Para a alimentação comple-mentar, quanto maior a escolaridade (p=0,025), o número de consultas da criança (p=0,045) e a criança estar em acompanhamento no serviço de saúde (p=0,035), maior a probabilidade de obter capacidade alta. Conclusões: a exposição dos fatores sociais e clínicos das cuidadoras influencia na capacidade para alimentar. Para garantir a alimentação adequada, é necessário que os serviços de saúde estejam aptos a considerar as características geo-sócio-culturais das famílias na elaboração das orientações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child Care , Parenting , Caregivers , Infant Formula , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Infant Nutrition , Socioeconomic Factors , Bottle Feeding , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Seropositivity , HIV Seropositivity/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal Behavior
9.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(5): 1153-1160, Sep.-Oct. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042121

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To explore factors that interact and shape the meaning and experience of mothers of HIV-exposed children in relation to replacing breastfeeding by infant formula. Method: A qualitative study was carried out with 23 mothers living with HIV, whose children were up to 18 months of age and under follow-up in a specialized care service. Symbolic Interactionism, semi-structured interviews and content analysis were adopted as theoretical framework. Results: The social symbols of breastfeeding, the (un)availability of the milk formula and the (lack of)support of health professionals influenced the mothers' experience with formula feeding. Social, cultural and economic constraints have proved capable of undermining the conditions necessary for the replacement of breastfeeding. Final considerations: The availability of infant formula, access to lactation inhibitor and quality of health services still represent challenges to eradicate new HIV infections in children.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Explorar los factores que interactúan y moldean el significado y la experiencia de madres de niños expuestos al VIH en relación a la sustitución de la lactancia por una fórmula láctea infantil. Método: Estudio cualitativo, con 23 madres viviendo con VIH, cuyos hijos tenían hasta 18 meses de edad y estaban bajo seguimiento en servicio de asistencia especializada. Se adoptaron el Interaccionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico, entrevistas semiestructuradas y el análisis de contenido. Resultados: Los símbolos sociales de la lactancia, la (in) disponibilidad de la fórmula láctea y el (des) apoyo de los profesionales de la salud influenciaron a la experiencia de las madres con la alimentación por una fórmula láctea. Los cercos sociales, culturales y económicos se mostraron capaces de perjudicar las condiciones necesarias para la sustitución de la lactancia materna. Consideraciones finales: La disponibilidad de la fórmula láctea infantil, el acceso al inhibidor de la lactancia y la calidad de los servicios de salud todavía representan desafíos para eliminar nuevas infecciones por el VIH en niños.


RESUMO Objetivo: Explorar os fatores que interagem e moldam o significado e a experiência de mães de crianças expostas ao HIV em relação à substituição do aleitamento por fórmula láctea infantil. Método: Estudo qualitativo, com 23 mães vivendo com HIV, cujos filhos tinham até 18 meses de idade e estavam sob acompanhamento em serviço de assistência especializado. Foram adotados o Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico, entrevistas semiestruturadas e análise de conteúdo. Resultados: Os símbolos sociais da amamentação, a (in)disponibilidade da fórmula láctea e o (des)apoio dos profissionais de saúde influenciaram a experiência das mães com a alimentação por fórmula láctea. Cerceamentos sociais, culturais e econômicos mostraram-se capazes de prejudicar as condições necessárias para a substituição do aleitamento materno. Considerações finais: A disponibilidade da fórmula láctea infantil, o acesso ao inibidor de lactação e a qualidade dos serviços de saúde ainda representam desafios para eliminar novas infecções pelo HIV em crianças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Adult , Breast Feeding/psychology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/psychology , Infant Formula/standards , Mothers/psychology , Brazil , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Qualitative Research , Maternal Behavior/psychology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(5): 1821-1829, Mai. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001788

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar fatores relacionados com uma maior duração do aleitamento materno. Realizou-se um estudo caso-controle aninhado em uma coorte de mães que tiveram seus filhos nas duas maiores maternidades públicas de João Pessoa - PB quando eles tinham em torno de dois anos de idade. Os casos foram aquelas que amamentaram até o 15 mês (n = 55) e os controles as que amamentaram por mais de 15 meses (n = 48). As variáveis de exposição foram características socioeconômicas maternas, da gestação e parto e a introdução precoce de alimentação complementar. Aplicou-se o teste Qui-Quadrado para selecionar as variáveis independentes (p-valor <= 0,20) para ingressar em um modelo de regressão logística múltipla, permanecendo no modelo final somente aquelas com p-valor <= 0,05. A introdução precoce de fórmula infantil (OR = 4,71, IC95%: 1,76 - 12,63), de outros leites (OR = 3,25, IC95%: 1,27 - 8,31) e realizar menos de seis consultas pré-natal (OR = 2,73, IC95%: 1,04 - 7,07) foram fatores de risco para a menor duração do aleitamento materno. A introdução precoce de fórmulas infantis ou outros leites pode ser um indicador importante para a adoção de ações de promoção e apoio oportunas para o prolongamento da amamentação para atingir a meta da OMS de aleitamento materno por dois anos ou mais.


Abstract This article seeks to identify the factors associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding. A nested case-control study was carried out with a cohort of mothers for about two years after they gave birth to their children in the two largest public maternity hospitals in João Pessoa - PB. Mothers who breastfed up to 15 months were considered as cases (n = 55) and those who breastfed for more than 15 months (n = 48) were considered controls. The exposure variables were maternal socioeconomic characteristics, gestational characteristics, birth characteristics and early introduction of food. The Chi-Square test was applied to select the independent variables (p-value <= 0.20) to be entered into a multiple logistic regression model, with only those with a p-value <= 0.05 being kept in the final model. The early introduction of infant formula (OR = 4.71, CI95%: 1.76 - 12.63), other milks (OR = 3.25, CI95%: 1.27 - 8.31) and having less than six prenatal consultations (OR = 2.73, CI95%: 1.04 - 7.07) were risk factors for a shorter breastfeeding duration. The early introduction of infant formulas or other milks may be an important indicator for the adoption of appropriate breastfeeding promotion and support actions to achieve the WHO target of breastfeeding for two years or longer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Infant Formula/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors
11.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 7(1): 97-100, jan.-mar. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005506

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a fenilcetonúria (PKU) é uma doença do metabolismo da fanilalanina cujo tratamento se baseia na introdução precoce de uma fórmula com restrição de fenilalanina. Relato do caso: uma menina, com diagnóstico de PKU a partir da triagem neonatal, com 82 dias de vida, recebeu tratamento dietético com fórmula com restrição de fenilalanina associada à fórmula láctea e desenvolveu alergia à proteína do leite de vaca (APLV) com sintomas cutâneos e gastrointestinais. Conclusão: o manejo dietético da PKU pode precipitar a ocorrência da APLV.


Introduction: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disease of the metabolism of phanylalanine whose treatment is based on the early introduction of a phenylalanine-restricted formula. Case report: A girl with 82 days of life with PKU diagnosis from neonatal screening received dietary treatment with a phenylalanine-restricted formula associated with the milk formula. She developed allergy to cow's milk protein (APLV) with cutaneous symptoms and gastrointestinal disorders. Conclusion: Dietary management of PKU may precipitate the occurrence of APLV.


Subject(s)
Phenylketonurias , Milk Hypersensitivity , Diet Therapy , Infant Formula
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Lactogenesis II (LaII) failure can be prevented in at-risk mothers with simple proactive interventions. In a randomised trial, we investigated the efficacy of early and regular breast milk expression in establishing LaII, using an electric double-breast pump.@*METHODS@#Mothers with uncomplicated singleton deliveries were randomised to intervention (n = 31) or control (n = 29) groups. The former commenced breast milk expression with an electric pump within one hour of delivery and maintained regular expression with direct breastfeeding. Control mothers directly breastfed without regular pump expression. Expressed milk volumes were analysed for citrate, lactose, sodium and protein.@*RESULTS@#Median time of LaII was Day 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 1 day) with intervention and on Day 4 (IQR 1 day) among controls (p = 0.03). Biochemical steady-state concentrations were achieved around early Day 4 (sodium, total protein) and Days 4-5 (citrate, lactose). Sodium, protein and lactose levels were similar in both groups over seven days, at 5.80 mM, 0.68 mM and -13.38 mM, respectively. Mean daily milk volume with intervention was 73.9 mL on Day 3 and 225.2 mL on Day 7, greater than controls (25.4 mL on Day 3 and 69.2 mL on Day 7; p < 0.2). Mean infant weights were similar on Day 8 at 3,477 g with intervention and 3,479 g among controls.@*CONCLUSION@#LaII is established by postnatal Day 3 with early initiation of regular breast milk expression, a useful intervention for mothers at risk of early-onset breastfeeding failure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Breast Feeding , Methods , Breast Milk Expression , Methods , Citrates , Female , Humans , Infant Formula , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Physiology , Milk, Human , Chemistry , Physiology , Mothers , Proteins , Sodium , Young Adult
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776965

ABSTRACT

Infantile colic is a common self-limiting condition that causes significant distress to parents and caregivers. There is no clear cause, gold standard remedy or preventative action. The role of the family physician is to rule out sinister causes while providing counselling and reassurance for parents. The mainstay of management is parental support and reassurance while looking out for red flags in the baby such as fever, lethargy, distended abdomen and failure to thrive. This article provides a framework to approaching infantile colic and practical pointers to share with parents.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Colic , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Crying , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Infant , Infant Formula , Infant, Newborn , Muscle Hypertonia , Diagnosis , Parenting , Parents , Pediatrics , Methods , Physicians, Family , Primary Health Care , Methods , Professional-Patient Relations
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719606

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the minimally meaningful dosage of inulin leading to a prebiotic effect in Indonesian infants. METHODS: In a randomized controlled double-blinded, parallel, 3-arm intervention study, 164 healthy formula-fed infants aged 3 to 5 months first obtained formula-A (without inulin) during a 4-week adaptation period. Subsequently, 142 subjects were subjected to a 4-week feeding period by administering either formula-A (no inulin), formula-B (0.2 g/100 mL inulin) or formula-C (0.4 g/100 mL inulin). The primary outcome parameter was %-bifidobacteria in faecal samples determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Secondary outcome parameters were faecal %-lactobacilli, pH and stool frequency, and consistency. Growth and tolerance/adverse effects were recorded as safety parameters. RESULTS: Typical %-bifidobacteria and %-lactobacilli at the end of the adaptation period in the study population were 14% and 2%, respectively. For faecal pH, significant differences between formula groups A vs. C and A vs. B were found at the end of the intervention period. Testing for differences in faecal %-bifidobacteria and %-lactobacilli between groups was hampered by non-normal data set distributions; no statistically significant differences were obtained. Comparisons within groups revealed that only in formula group C, all the three relevant parameters exhibited a significant effect with an increase in faecal %-bifidobacteria and %-lactobacilli and a decrease in pH. CONCLUSION: A consistent prebiotic effect along with a decrease in pH and increase in %-bifidobacteria and %-lactobacilli was found only in the group administered 0.4 g inulin/100 mL.


Subject(s)
Dataset , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Infant Formula , Infant , Inulin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prebiotics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741838

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As the importance of breastfeeding has been reinforced, human milk is often stored for practical reasons. Therefore, we evaluated optimal storage and processing methods for human milk from a nutritional standpoint. METHODS: Human milk samples were collected between June 2017 and February 2018. Also, data about maternal information were collected. Human milk was analyzed for macronutrients and caloric content. The samples were subdivided into groups for nutrient analysis. The control group (fresh milk) was not stored or processed. The other groups (9 groups) consisted of samples analyzed based on different storage temperatures (room temperature, refrigerated, frozen), defrosting methods (bottle warmer, room temperature thawing, microwave oven), and storage period (1 week, 1 month, 2 months) and compared with the control group. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the nutrient content of human milk among the collected samples. A significant change in the content of macronutrients in milk samples was observed under storage condition at different temperatures for 1 week with subsequent thawing with bottle warmer compared to fresh milk. Under storage at −20°C for 1 week with subsequent thawing with different defrosting methods, a significant change in the content of macronutrients in milk samples was observed compared to fresh milk. After storage at −20°C for different periods and thawing with a bottle warmer, a significant change in macronutrient content in milk samples was observed compared to fresh milk regardless of the storage period. CONCLUSION: Unlike previous guidelines, changes in macronutrient content in milk samples were observed regardless of the method of storing and thawing. Apparently, it is proposed that mothers should feed fresh human milk to their babies without storing.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Humans , Infant Formula , Methods , Microwaves , Milk , Milk, Human , Mothers
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741837

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of the magnesium (Mg)-enriched formula vs. control formula in constipated infants. METHODS: An open-label, interventional, and the comparator-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mg-enriched formula in formula-fed infants ≤6 months old presenting with functional constipation according to modified Rome IV criteria. Infants were randomized 1:1 to intervention or control formula for 30 days. Parents recorded stool consistency (hard, normal, or watery) and frequency on days 1–7 and 23–29. Physicians recorded patient baseline characteristics and performed the clinical examination at the time of three patient visits (baseline, day 8, and 30). RESULTS: Of the 286 recruited infants, 143 received the Mg-rich formula and 142 received the control formula. After 7 days, significantly more infants had stools with normal consistency with the Mg-rich formula compared to the infants fed with the control formula (81.8% vs. 41.1%; p25% of infants responded completely to the Mg-rich formula compared to <5% of infants fed with the control formula (p<0.001). Parents of infants in the Mg-rich formula group were very satisfied with the treatment (80.8% vs. 10.2%), with the majority willing to continue treatment after 30 days (97.9% vs. 52.6%; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The Mg-rich formula significantly improved stool consistency and frequency compared to the control formula in constipated infants.


Subject(s)
Constipation , Defecation , Humans , Infant Formula , Infant , Magnesium , Nutrition Therapy , Parents
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760726

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust and is omnipresent in our environment, including our food. However, with normal renal function, oral and enteral ingestion of substances contaminated with Al, such as antacids and infant formulae, do not cause problems. The intestine, skin, and respiratory tract are barriers to Al entry into the blood. However, contamination of fluids given parenterally, such as parenteral nutrition solutions, or hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or even oral Al-containing substances to patients with impaired renal function could result in accumulation in bone, parathyroids, liver, spleen, and kidney. The toxic effects of Al to the skeleton include fractures accompanying a painful osteomalacia, hypoparathyroidism, microcytic anemia, cholestatic hepatotoxicity, and suppression of the renal enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase. The sources of Al include contamination of calcium and phosphate salts, albumin and heparin. Contamination occurs either from inability to remove the naturally accumulating Al or from leeching from glass columns used in compound purification processes. Awareness of this long-standing problem should allow physicians to choose pharmaceutical products with lower quantities of Al listed on the label as long as this practice is mandated by specific national drug regulatory agencies.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Anemia , Antacids , Calcium , Eating , Glass , Heparin , Humans , Hypoparathyroidism , Infant Formula , Intestines , Kidney , Leeching , Liver , Osteomalacia , Parathyroid Glands , Parenteral Nutrition Solutions , Peritoneal Dialysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Renal Dialysis , Respiratory System , Salts , Skeleton , Skin , Spleen
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760207

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life to provide optimal nutrition in this critical period of life. After this, infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods while breastfeeding continues for up to 2 years of age or beyond. For nonbreastfed infants, infant formula is an available option to provide the nutrition needed. Infant formula is usually prepared from industrially modified cow's milk and processed to adjust for the nutritional needs of infants. However, cow's milk is one of the most common causes of food allergy, affecting 2%–5% of all formula-fed infants during their first year of life. One strategy to prevent cow's milk allergy in nonbreastfed infants is the use of partially hydrolyzed formula (pHF) in high-risk infants, which are infants born in families with atopic disease. However, based on an epidemiological study, approximately half of the infants who develop allergy are not part of the at-risk group. This is because the non-at-risk group is significantly larger than the at-risk group and the non-at-risk infants have approximately 15% risk of developing allergies. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of partially hydrolyzed whey formula (pHF-W) in nonbreastfed infants and determine whether pHF-W can prevent atopic disease in high-risk infants and can be used as routine starter formula regardless of the allergy risk status.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Critical Period, Psychological , Epidemiologic Studies , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Infant Formula , Infant , Milk , Milk Hypersensitivity , Whey , World Health Organization
20.
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 23(3): 401-410, 2019. ilus., tab.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046690

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo teve por finalidade analisar os rótulos de fórmulas lácteas infantis comercializados em um município do Estado do Maranhão. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo exploratório de abordagem quantitativa. As amostras foram definidas com base na RDC nº. 222/02, incluindo três grupos de interesse: Fórmulas infantis para lactentes; Fórmulas infantis de seguimento para lactentes e crianças de primeira infância e Fórmula infantil para neces-sidades dietoterápicas específicas. Resultados: No final da coleta encontrou-se 44 produtos, onde nenhuma das fórmulas lácteas analisadas conseguiu 100% de adequação. De maneira geral, a rotulagem de alimentos embalados atendeu ao que é designado na legislação na maioria dos parâmetros avaliados, onde as informações contidas nos rótulos desses produtos estavam adequadas, no entanto, quanto a RDC nº. 222/01, 29,5% dos produtos, apresentaram irregularidades. Ocorreu grande inadequação quanto aos micronutrientes, onde a maior irregularidade foi referente ao ácido pantotênico (81,7%). Os re-sultados demonstram maior atenção das indústrias de alimentos destinados a lactentes e crianças de primeira infância, quanto aos requisitos exigidos pelas normas de rotulagem geral do que com relação às legislações específicas. Conclusão: Diante do exposto, conclui-se que os objetivos do presente estudo foram alcançados com êxito, onde todos os produtos apresentavam irregularidades frente a legislação. (AU)


Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze labels of infant formula sold in a municipality in the state of Maranhão. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional, exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach. Samples were defined on the basis of RDC No. 222/02, including three interest groups: infant formulas for infants; Infant follow-up formulas for infants and toddlers and Infant formula for specific dietary needs. Results: At the end of the collection, 44 products were found, where none of the analyzed milk formulas achieved 100% adequacy. In general, the labeling of packaged foods met what is designated in the legislation in most of the parameters evaluated, where the information contained in the labels of these products were adequate, however, for RDC nº 222/01, 29.5% of the products, presented irregularities. There was great inadequacy regarding micronutrients, where the greatest irregularity was related to pantothenic acid (81.7%). The results show greater attention from the food industries for infants and young children regarding the requirements of general labeling rules than specific legislation. Conclusion: In view of the above, it is concluded that the objectives of the present study were suc-cessfully achieved, where all products presented irregularities against the legislation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Infant , Dairy Products , Infant Formula , Bottle Feeding , Infant
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