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1.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431253

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to verify the prevalence of breastfeeding and the children's nutritional status of indigenous origin up to two years of age in the triple frontier region: Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Methods: data from the Sistema de Vigilância Nutricional e Alimentar Indígena (Indigenous Food and Nutrition Surveillance System) were analyzed, being a cross-sectional and descriptive study. The survey was carried out in 2018, with data referring to 2017. Registrations of indigenous children of both sexes,aged zero to two years old were included. Data were extracted from the indigenous children's follow-up map. The prevalence of breastfeeding and complementary feeding was evaluated. Results: the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in children under six months of age was 93.4% and complementary breastfeeding was 6.5%. The prevalence of complementary breastfeeding after six months was 71.6% and exclusive breastfeeding after six months was 28.3%. Regarding social benefits, 30.3% of the families accumulated two types of social benefits. Conclusions: the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was high and surpassed the national prevalence in the first semester of life, there was no early weaning.


Resumo Objetivos: verificar a prevalência do aleitamento materno e estado nutricional de crianças de origem indígena até dois anos de idade na região de tríplice fronteira: Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai. Métodos: foram analisados dados do Sistema de Vigilância Nutricional e Alimentar Indígena, sendo um estudo transversal e descritivo. A pesquisa foi realizada em 2018, com dados referentes à 2017. Foram incluídos registros de crianças indígenas de zero a dois anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. Os dados foram extraídos do mapa de acompanhamento de crianças indígenas. Foi avaliada a prevalência do aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar. Resultados: a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo em menores de seis meses foi de 93,4% e do aleitamento materno complementado foi de 6,5%. A prevalência do aleitamento materno complementado após seis meses foi de 71,6% e do aleitamento materno exclusivo após seis meses foi de 28,3%. Com relação à classificação de peso para a idade, 80,5% dos registros mostraram crianças com peso adequado para a idade. Em relação aos benefícios sociais, 30,3% das famílias acumulavam dois tipos de benefícios sociais. Conclusões: a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo foi alta e superam prevalência nacional no primeiro semestre de vida, não houve desmame precoce.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Nutritional Status , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Infant Nutrition , Indigenous Peoples , Paraguay/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Weaning , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
2.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(4): 903-912, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422684

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to verify the adequacy of recommendations on food and nutrition for infants available on popular websites in relation to the "Twelve Steps for a Healthy Diet" from the Dietary guidelines for Brazilian children under 2 years of age. Methods: popular websites were searched via the Google platform to collect data about food recommendations for children under 2 years of age. The data was categorized according to criteria developed with the Guide: totally agree, partially agree, disagree, contradictory and absent. The websites were described according to the frequency of each step and the distribution in the categories. Results: 82 websites were included. Most frequent steps: 1 (84.1%), 2 (82.9%) and 4 (63.4%); least present: 8 (23.2%), 10 (19.5%), 11 (3.7%) and 12 (1.2%). The highest percentages of adequacy in relation to the Guide were steps 1 and 4 with 46.4% and 53.8%, respectively. Steps 3 (37.9%) and 7 (75.0%) had the highest percentages of disagreement or contradiction. Conclusions: there is proper information on the internet, however, these are mixed with missing, in disagreement, partially in agreement or contradictory information, which reinforces the importance of disseminating the recommendations of the Guide


Resumo Objetivos: analisar a adequação das recomendações sobre alimentação e nutrição de lactentes disponíveis em websites populares em relação aos "Doze passos para uma alimentação saudável" descritos no Guia alimentar para crianças brasileiras menores de dois anos. Métodos: websites populares foram buscados via plataforma Google para coleta de dados relativos às recomendações sobre alimentação de lactentes. As informações foram categorizadas segundo critérios desenvolvidos em relação à consonância com o Guia em: totalmente de acordo, parcialmente de acordo, em desacordo, contraditórias e ausentes. Os websites foram descritos e apresentados segundo frequência de cada passo e a distribuição segundo as categorias. Resultados: foram incluídos 82 websites. Passos mais presentes: 1 (84,1%), 2 (82,9%) e 4 (63,4%); passos menos presentes: 8 (23,2%), 10 (19,5%), 11 (3,7%) e 12 (1,2%). Os maiores percentuais de adequação em relação ao Guia foram os passos 1 e 4 com 46,4% e 53,8%, respectivamente. Os passos 3 (37,9%) e 7 (75,0%) apresentaram os maiores percentuais de desacordo ou contradição. Conclusões: identificou-se a presença de informações adequadas na internet, entretanto, estas se misturam com informações ausentes, em desacordo, parcialmente de acordo ou contraditórias, reforçando a importância da disseminação das recomendações do Guia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Internet , Food Guide , Infant Nutrition/education , Diet, Healthy , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Milk, Human
4.
Atlanta; JOURNAL OF NUTRITION; 20220400. 9 p. tab, graf.. (PCI-270).
Non-conventional in English | LILACS, REPincaP | ID: biblio-1397268

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of mental health concerns is growing worldwide, along with lack of access to and receipt of needed treatment. Current gaps in treatment provision have led to exploring alternative methods of prevention, with research linking nutrition and mental health, of particular relevance in low- and middle-income countries, with a high prevalence of undernutrition. To examine whether exposure to a protein-energy nutritional supplement during the first 1000 d of life decreased odds of mental distress in adulthood among men and women in Guatemala compared with receiving a low energy-no protein supplement or supplementation outside the 1000-d window. Data from participants (n = 1249) in a longitudinal cohort protein-energy supplementation trial (early-life, supplementation data from 1969 to 1977, ages 0­7 y; life course, outcome data from 2017­2018 follow-up, ages 40­57 y) were analyzed for associations between nutrition in the first 1000 d and mental distress in adulthood (WHO Self- Reporting Questionnaire 20 [SRQ-20]), controlling for early-life variables and current life stress; life course variables (e.g. education) were examined as potential mediators of this relation. Generalized linear mixed models and zero-inflated Poisson generalized linear mixed models were utilized. Both partial and full supplementation with Atole during the first 1000 d were associated with 63% (95% CI: 0.16, 0.87) and 56% (95% CI: 0.19, 1.03) lower odds, respectively, of experiencing mental distress in adulthood. Did not differ by sex. These inverse relations remained relatively unchanged (partial OR = 0.34 [95% CI: 0.14, 0.83]; full OR = 0.38 [95% CI: 0.16, 0.92]) after controlling for early-life and life course variables, including life stress. Protein-energy supplementation during the first 1000 d of life in Guatemala, where undernutrition is prevalent, may reduce the prevalence of later mental distress in adulthood. This effect appears to occur directly, rather than indirectly, through pathways of life course variables such as education, wealth, and marital status. Keywords: early childhood nutrition, protein-energy


Subject(s)
Malnutrition , Stress, Psychological , Dietary Supplements , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(2): e26022, mar. 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1368183

ABSTRACT

Introdução:Os dois primeiros anos de vida da criança são de grande importância para a formação dos seus hábitos alimentares, predispondo ao desenvolvimento adequado e favorecendo a saúde a curto e longo prazo. Assim, a introdução de uma alimentação complementar adequada constitui-se como um fator fundamental para favorecer as escolhas alimentares apropriadas no futuro.Objetivo:Analisar os marcadores do consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados em crianças de 06 a 23meses no Brasil entre 2015 e 2018.Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo ecológico de caráter descritivo. A coleta de dados foi proveniente de base de dados secundários do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional, cuja população-alvo foram crianças com faixa etária entre 06 e 23meses de idade, abrangendo ambos os sexos e sem distinção de raça/cor. A análise de dados ocorreupor meiode estatística descritiva. Resultados:A região Sul se destacou com as maiores médias de consumo de biscoito recheado, doces ou guloseimas (34%), macarrão instantâneo, salgadinhos de pacote ou biscoitos salgados (21%) ehambúrguer e/ou embutidos (15%). Enquanto que a regiãoNorte apresentou a maior média de consumo de bebidas adoçadas (39%) e a região Nordeste se destacou com as menores médias de consumo desses alimentos. No Brasil, notou-se um consumo maior que 50% de alimentos ultraprocessados em quase todos os anos analisados no presente estudo e em quase todas as regiões e a classe mais consumida foi bebidas adoçadas.Conclusões:Conclui-se que há uma introdução precoce de alimentos ultraprocessados na alimentação de crianças na faixa etária estudada (AU).


Introduction:The first two years of a child's life are of great importance for the formation of their eating habits, predisposing the appropriate development and favoring health in the short and long term. Thus, the introduction of an adequate complementary feeding constitutes a fundamental factor for the person to favor appropriate food in the future. Objective:The authors seek to analyze the ultra-processed food consumption numbers in children aged 06 to 23months in Brazil between 2015 and 2018.Methodology:This paper is a descriptive ecological study. Data collection was taken from secondary databases of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System and its target population was children aged between 06 and 23months of age, covering both sexes and without distinction of race or color. Data analysis was done through descriptive statistics.Results:The South region stood out with the highest average consumption of sandwich cookies, sweets or treats (34%), instant noodles, packaged snacks or savory cookies (21%) and hamburgers and/or sausages (15%). While. the North region had the highest average consumption of sugary drinks (39%) and the Northeast region stood out with the lowest average consumption of these foods. In Brazil, consumption of more than 50% of ultra-processed foods was observed in almost all years analyzed by the authors, and in almost all regions and the most consumed class was sweetened drinks. Conclusions: The authors observed that there is an early introduction of ultra-processed foods in the diet of children in the studied age group (AU).


Introducción:Los dos primeros años de vida de unniño son de gran importancia para la formación de sus hábitos alimentarios, predisponiéndolo a unadecuado desarrollo y favorecendo la salud a corto y largo plazo. Así, la correcta introducción de la alimentación complementaria es un factor fundamental para favorecer la elección de alimentos en el futuro. Objetivo: Analizar los marcadores de consumo de alimentos ultra procesado en niños de 06 a 23meses en Brasil entre 2015 y 2018. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio ecológico de carácter descriptivo de base de datos secundaria de la Alimentación y Sistema de Vigilancia Nutricional cuya población objetivo fueron los niños de entre 06 y 23meses de edad, abarcando ambos sexos y sin distinción de raza/color. Ocurrieron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: La región Sur se destacó con el promedio más alto consumo de galletas rellenas, dulces o golosinas (34%), fideos instatáneos, botanas envasadas o galletas saladas (21%) y hamburguesas y/o embutidos (15%). Mientras, la región Norte tuvo el mayor consumo promedio de bebidas endulzadas (39%) y la región Nordeste se destacó con el menor consumo promedio de estos alimentos. Todos los años analizados en este estudio y en casi todas las regiones y la clase más consumida fue la de bebidas endulzadas.Conclusiones: Se concluye que existe una introducción temprana de alimentos ultra procesados en la dieta de los niños del grupo de edad estudiado (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Brazil/epidemiology , Eating , Industrialized Foods , Feeding Behavior , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nutrition Programs and Policies , Ecological Studies , Food-Processing Industry
6.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 21(1): 1-13, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437117

ABSTRACT

Este estudio analizó las rutinas y los hábitos de alimentación de niños portugueses de entre 4 y 18 meses, los métodos de introducción de alimentos más utilizados y las percepciones de los padres acerca de la importancia de la introducción de alimentos en el desarrollo del habla, Se aplicó un cuestionario online a una muestra de 297 padres. El cuestionario mostró una alta fiabilidad (α = 0.86). La mayoría de las madres portuguesas respondió que amamantan a sus hijos o que lo hacen en combinación con mamadera. Además, que les presentan nuevos alimentos a sus hijos en forma de sopas o purés y que varían los sabores, texturas y consistencias con frecuencia. Aunque hubo resultados razonables con respecto al conocimiento sobre los métodos tradicionales y Baby Led Weaning (BLW), en esta muestra se observó una mayor frecuencia de uso del método tradicional en comparación con BLW. Por otro lado, no hubo una correlación significativa entre la edad de los padres y su percepción sobre la importancia de la alimentación para el habla. Sin embargo, los padres con estudios superiores mostraron una mayor percepción sobre la importancia de la alimentación en el habla. Los padres con un mayor número de hijos mostraron una menor consciencia sobre la importancia de la relación entre la alimentación y el habla.


This study analyzedthe eating routines and habits of Portuguese children aged 4 to 18 months, the methods of food introduction most frequently used, and the parents' perceptions regarding the importance of food introduction for speech development. A sample of 297 parents filled out an online self-report questionnaire about their perceptions, knowledge, and routines regarding food introduction methods, and their relationship with speech development. This questionnaire showed high reliability (α=0.86). The majority of the Portuguese mothers that filled out the survey answered either that they breastfed their children or breastfed them in combination with bottle feeding. They also stated that they introduce new food to their children in the form of soups or purees and that they vary the flavors, textures, and consistencies frequently. Although the results showed a reasonable level of knowledge regarding the traditional and Baby Led Weaning (BLW) methods, there was a higher frequency of use of the traditional method in this samplewhen compared to BLW. There was not a significant correlation between the age of the parents and their perception of the importance of feeding for speech. In turn, parents with a higher level of education showed a greater awareness of the relevance of feeding in the development of speech. Parents with a higher number of children showed less awareness of the relationship between feeding and speech development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adult , Speech/physiology , Feeding Methods/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Perception , Portugal , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Self Report , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
7.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e220054, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406915

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the influence of Kangaroo Mother Care on breastfeeding rates in preterm neonates, both at hospital discharge and throughout the first year of life, as well as its relation with the time of introduction of early complementary feeding and diet quality. Methods Observational, prospective and analytical longitudinal study conducted in a public hospital in southern Brazil. The study included 46 preterm neonates, who were admitted to a Kangaroo Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit or Conventional Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit. Results The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge was higher in preterm neonates of Kangaroo Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit (p<0.001), and at four months of corrected age, 35% of them continued on exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.029), as compared to infants in Conventional Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit. However, at six and 12 months, no difference was found in breastfeeding rates between the participating groups. At four months of corrected age, approximately 45% of the breastfeeding infants in both groups were already on complementary feeding. At 12 months of corrected age, consumption of ultra-processed foods was 38.9% in infants from the Kangaroo Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit and 70% in infants from the Conventional Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit (p=0.054), and no significant differences were found. Conclusion The Kangaroo Mother Care fostered exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge and at 4 months of corrected age. On the other hand, with regard to the early introduction of complementary feeding, Kangaroo Mother Care was not protective, and a high rate of consumption of processed foods by infants was found.


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a influência do Método Canguru sobre as taxas de aleitamento materno em recém-nascidos pré-termo, tanto na alta hospitalar, como ao longo do primeiro ano de vida, assim como sua relação com o momento de introdução da alimentação complementar e a qualidade da dieta. Métodos Estudo longitudinal do tipo observacional, prospectivo e analítico em um hospital público no Sul do Brasil. Participaram do estudo 46 recém-nascidos pré-termo, que foram internados em Unidade de Cuidado Intermediário Neonatal Canguru ou Unidade de Cuidado Intermediário Neonatal Convencional. Resultados A frequência de aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta hospitalar foi mais elevada nos recém-nascidos pré-termo da Unidade de Cuidado Intermediário Neonatal Canguru (p<0,001), sendo certo que, aos quatro meses de idade corrigida, 35% deles continuavam em aleitamento materno exclusivo (p=0,029), em comparação com os bebês da Unidade de Cuidado Intermediário Neonatal Convencional. Já aos seis e 12 meses, não foram encontradas diferenças nas taxas de aleitamento materno entre os grupos participantes. Aos quatro meses de idade corrigida, aproximadamente 45% dos lactentes de ambos os grupos já haviam iniciado a alimentação complementar. Aos 12 meses de idade corrigida, o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados foi de 38,9% nos lactentes da Unidade de Cuidado Intermediário Neonatal Canguru e de 70% nos da Unidade de Cuidado Intermediário Neonatal Convencional (p=0,054), não sendo encontradas diferenças significativas. Conclusão O Método Canguru favoreceu o aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta hospitalar e aos quatro meses de idade corrigida. Já para a introdução precoce da alimentação complementar, o Método Canguru não se mostrou protetor, sendo encontrado um elevado percentual de consumo de alimentos processados pelos lactentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding/methods , Kangaroo-Mother Care Method , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
8.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e210097, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study aims to evaluate the behaviors and attitudes of mothers with 0-24-month-old babies towards infant feeding, depending on their sociodemographic characteristics. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, which was carried out with 300 mothers. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale were collected. As for the statistical evaluation, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 statistical package program was used. For the statistical analysis; percentages, mean values, Independent T-Test, One-Way ANOVA, Chi-Square test, and multinomial regression models analysis were used. Results 79.7% of the mothers gave human milk to their infants as the first food after delivery, 36.9% gave only human milk for the first 6 months, 52.0% started complementary feeding at 4-6 months. Of the mothers with a mean The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale score of 64.38±8.43, 54.0% were positive towards breastfeeding. A significant relationship was found between education and income levels and Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale scores level of the mothers, respectively (χ2=10.001, χ2=10.421, p<0.05). The mothers with a postgraduate degree as educational status (AOR=1.27, 95%CI:1.06-1.53) and mothers who had more income than expenditures (AOR=1.19, 95%CI:1.03-1.63) were associated with a higher positive towards of breastfeeding. Conclusion Although most of the mothers say that they have a positive attitude towards breastfeeding, the rate of those who only breastfeed for the first 6 months is low. As the education and income level of mothers increase, their positive attitude towards breastfeeding increases. Mothers should be informed to initiate and maintain successful breastfeeding.


RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os comportamentos e atitudes de mães com bebês de 0 a 24 meses em relação à alimentação infantil, em função de suas características sociodemográficas. Métodos Este estudo é um estudo transversal, realizado com 300 mães. Foram coletadas características demográficas das mães, práticas de amamentação e alimentação complementar e a Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. Quanto à avaliação estatística, foi utilizado o programa de pacote estatístico Statistical Package for the Social Sciences versão 22. Para a análise estatística; percentagens, valores médios, Teste T independente, Anova de uma via, teste do qui-quadrado e análise de modelos de regressão multinominal. Resultados 79,7% das mães deram leite materno como primeiro alimento após o parto, 36,9% deram apenas leite materno durante os primeiros 6 meses, 52,0% iniciaram a alimentação complementar aos 4-6 meses. Das mães com escore médio Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale de 64,38±8,43, 54,0% eram positivas para amamentação. Encontrou-se relação significativa entre os níveis de escolaridade e renda e o nível dos Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale escores das mães, respectivamente (χ2=10,001, χ2=10,421, p<0,05). Mães com pós-graduação (AOR=1,27, IC 95%: 1,06-1,53) e mães que tinham mais renda do que despesas (AOR=1,19, IC 95%: 1,03 -1,63) foram associadas a maior positividade para amamentação. Conclusão Embora a maioria das mães diga que têm uma atitude positiva em relação à amamentação, a taxa das que amamentam apenas nos primeiros 6 meses é baixa. À medida que aumenta a escolaridade e o nível de renda das mães, sua atitude positiva em relação à amamentação aumenta. As mães devem ser informadas para iniciar e manter a amamentação com sucesso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Breast Feeding/ethnology , Attitude/ethnology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/ethnology , Maternal Behavior/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant , Milk, Human
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 619-630, Fev. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356063

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o papel das desigualdades sociais nos padrões de alimentação complementar nos países da América Latina e do Caribe. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico que utilizou dados agregados de inquéritos de base populacional. A unidade de análise da pesquisa foram 16 países da América Latina e do Caribe com informações disponíveis. Foram selecionados como desfechos a prevalência dos seguintes indicadores de alimentação complementar: introdução alimentar de alimentos sólidos, semissólidos e pastosos" (IASSP), "diversidade alimentar mínima" (DAM), "frequência alimentar mínima" (FAM) e "alimentação mínima aceitável" (AMA). As diferenças da prevalência dos indicadores entre os quintis de riqueza mais ricos e mais pobres foram calculadas de forma absoluta e relativa. Comparando os quatro indicadores de alimentação complementar, o IASSP teve o melhor desempenho, com 10 países, entre os 11 avaliados, apresentando prevalência acima de 80%. O indicador com pior desempenho foi o AMA, com apenas um país, entre os oito avaliados, com prevalências acima de 60%. Na quase totalidade dos países, a população mais pobre possuía prevalências de indicadores de alimentação complementar menores que os mais ricos.


Abstract This study evaluated the role of social inequalities in complementary feeding patterns between and within countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. This ecological study employed aggregate data from population-based surveys. The units of analysis were all 16 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean for which information was available in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) databases. The outcomes selected were the prevalences indicated by the "introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods" (ISSSF), "minimum dietary diversity" (MDD), "minimum meal frequency" (MMF) and "minimum acceptable diet" (MAD) standardised complementary feeding indicators recommended by the WHO and available in UNICEF databases. The differences in prevalences between the wealthiest and poorest income quintiles were calculated in absolute and relative terms. Comparing the four indicators of complementary feeding, the ISSSF showed best performance, returning prevalence above 80% in 10 of the 11 countries evaluated. The indicator showing worst performance was the MAD, with prevalence above 60% in only one of the eight countries evaluated. In almost all countries, by all indicators, prevalences of complementary feeding were lower in the poorest population groups than in the wealthiest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Diet , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Socioeconomic Factors , Breast Feeding , Caribbean Region , Feeding Behavior , Latin America/epidemiology
11.
S. Afr. j. clin. nutr. (Online) ; 35(3): 100-107, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398066

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to ascertain whether the nutrient requirements of 6­11-month-old infants can be met with a food-based approach, and to identify the nutrients of which it is difficult to achieve adequate intakes.Design, setting and subjects: A cross-sectional survey and interviews with mothers and caregivers from the KwaMashu Community Health Centre were conducted. One hundred and thirty-four interviews were completed. This information provided the food consumption input for the model using Optifood software. Results: The results revealed that with the current food pattern of infants from the study group in KwaMashu, iron, zinc and calcium are nutrients whose requirements are likely not to be met in the diet. The percentage RNI (recommended nutrient intake) for iron was 25.2%, zinc 51.3% and calcium 77%. Nutrient intakes for these nutrients of concern improved in the 'No pattern' diet but iron and zinc intakes remained below the RNI. According to the best diets modelled by Optifood, it appears that infants in KwaMashu would be able to achieve the recommended intakes of energy, protein, and 8 of the 11micronutrients, as long as breastfeeding on demand continues during the complementary feeding phase. Conclusions: This study calls into question the continued food-based focus to ensure nutrient adequacy in infants. In conjunction with efforts to improve household food security and continued support and promotion of breastfeeding for the first 2 years of life, targeted micronutrient supplementation may be needed to ensure the optimal growth and development of infants in South Africa.


Subject(s)
Infant , Programming, Linear , Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nutrients , Infant Nutrition
12.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 32(2): e320215, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386851

ABSTRACT

Resumo O aleitamento materno (AM) e a introdução adequada da alimentação complementar (AC) são estratégias que comprovadamente melhoram a saúde bucal e previnem doenças. Por isso, atividades de promoção dessas práticas devem ser realizadas por todos os profissionais de saúde. Buscou-se, através da metodologia quantitativa, analisar o resultado de um inquérito realizado com dentistas cadastrados no Conselho Regional de Odontologia de São Paulo sobre sua formação acadêmica e profissional nestes temas. Os conteúdos mais recebidos na graduação foram sobre os benefícios do AM para a prevenção da saúde geral (74,6%). Entre os profissionais que receberam capacitação em serviço, foram 27,8% (AM) e 21,5% (AC), sendo que mais de 80% conseguiram aplicar o conhecimento no dia a dia. Quando solicitados a dar orientação sobre AM, apenas 15% responderam se sentir preparados. Sobre se consideram ser atribuição do dentista o apoio ao AM e AC, 92,3% responderam que sim e 85% reconhecem precisar de atualização. Conclui-se que há uma lacuna a ser preenchida com a formação acadêmica e capacitações/atualizações para que o dentista possa efetivamente atuar na promoção e apoio ao AM e AC.


Abstract Breastfeeding (BF) and the adequate introduction of complementary feeding (CF) are strategies that have been shown to improve oral health and prevent diseases. Therefore, activities to promote these practices must be carried out by all health professionals. This article addresses the opinion of the dentist about his or her education, knowledge and role in supporting and encouraging BF and CF. It was sought, through quantitative methodology, to analyze the result of a survey carried out with dentists registered with the Regional Dentistry Council of São Paulo about their academic and professional training in these themes. The major academic contents received at college were about the benefits of breastfeeding for the prevention of general health (74.6%). Among the professionals, 27.8% of them received in-service training on BF and 21.5% on CF, with more than 80% being able to apply their knowledge on a daily basis. When asked about providing guidance on BF, only 15% responded feeling prepared to do so. Regarding whether they consider it to be the dentist's responsibility to support BF and BF, 92.3% answered yes and 85% said they needed updating. It is concluded that there is a gap to be filled with academic training and training / updates so that the dentist can effectively act in the promotion and support of BF and CF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Feeding , Dental Health Services , Dentists , Professional Training , Health Promotion , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Health Education , Health Personnel , Diet, Healthy , Health Policy
13.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(4): 1109-1118, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate feeding practices in the first year of life and their association with the development of overweight and obesity in children in Mexico. Methods: the association between overweight and obesity with different feeding practices were evaluated. The data was processed using the statistical package Stata version 14 using logistic regression models. Results: 396 children were evaluated; the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6% and 7.7% presented a possible risk of overweight. 6.9% had exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and 71.7% were fed infant formula. The variables significantly associated with the development of overweight and obesity in the first year of life were the age of the child (p =0.043, RR=0.57), the introduction of fluids in the first three days of life (p=0.02, RR=2.90), consumption of foods with a high sugar content (p =0.01, RR=0.25), consumption of milk other than breast (p =0.02, RR3.25) and egg consumption (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusions: our results show that it is essential to attend complementary feeding practices and reinforce exclusive breastfeeding in the first year of life, as measures to prevent overweight and obesity to improve health in childhood.


Resumen Objetivos: evaluar las prácticas de lactancia y alimentación en el primer año de vida y su asociación con desarrollo del sobrepeso y obesidad de niños en México. Métodos: estudio transversal, analítico, y explicativo, se evaluó la asociación entre sobrepeso y obesidad con las distintas prácticas de alimentación en menores de un año de edad. Resultados: se evaluaron 396 menores, la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 6% y 7.7% presentaba posible riesgo de sobrepeso. El 6.9% tuvo lactancia materna exclusiva en los primeros 6 meses de vida; 71.7% fueron alimentados con fórmula infantil. Las variables asociadas significativamente con el desarrollo de sobrepeso y obesidad en el primer año de vida fueron: la edad del menor (p =0.043; RR=0.57), introducción de líquidos en los tres primeros días de vida (p=0.02; RR=2.90), consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de azúcar (p = 0.01; RR=0.25), consumo de leches distintas al pecho (p = 0.02; RR=3.25) y consumo de huevo (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que es fundamental atender las prácticas de alimentación complementaria y reforzar la lactancia materna exclusiva en el primer año de vida, como medidas de prevención del sobrepeso y obesidad para mejorar la salud en la infancia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Breast Feeding , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Maternal Behavior , Mexico/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): e582-e588, dic. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1343020

ABSTRACT

La leche humana es el alimento ideal para los lactantes y sus beneficios se manifiestan en el corto y el largo plazo. En situaciones de crisis es cuando más se debe enfatizar en la lactancia materna, considerada una de las intervenciones más costo-efectivas para reducir la morbimortalidad infantil. Más allá de las múltiples ventajas que la leche humana tiene en relación con el vínculo madre-hijo y las capacidades biológicas e inmunológicas, lo más importante es que la leche materna cubre todas las necesidades nutricionales. Cuando la lactancia materna no es posible, la Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda, como primera opción, las fórmulas infantiles. La segunda opción es leche de vaca (LV) diluida, que conlleva riesgos de deficiencias nutricionales en el lactante que deben ser monitoreadas en forma estrecha y oportunamente subsanadas. Los principales riesgos de deficiencias en el lactante que recibe LV diluida son las de hierro, cinc, vitaminas A, D, C y E, aminoácidos y ácidos grasos esenciales


Breast milk is the ideal food for infants and its benefits can be observed in the short and long term. In crisis situations, breastfeeding should be promoted the most because it is one of the most cost-effective interventions aimed at reducing infant morbidity and mortality. In addition to the multiple advantages of breast milk in the mother-child bond and biological and immune properties, the most relevant characteristic of breast milk is that it covers all nutritional needs. When breastfeeding is not possible, the World Health Organization recommends infant formula as the first option. The second option is diluted cow's milk, which entails the risk for nutritional deficiency that should be strictly monitored and timely resolved. When infants are fed with diluted cow's milk, they are mainly at risk for iron, zinc, vitamin A, D, C, and E, amino acid, and essential fatty acid deficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Breast Feeding , Milk Hypersensitivity , Infant Formula , Milk , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Milk, Human
15.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(6): 1132-1138, dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1368879

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Compreender a experiencia de mães e profissionais de saúde sobre a amamentação e alimentação complementar de crianças em uma região de fronteira. Método: Pesquisa exploratório-descritiva com abordagem qualitativa, realizada com doze mães e doze profissionais de saúde do município de Foz do Iguaçu no âmbito da Atenção Primária em Saúde. Os dados foram coletados entre os meses de abril a outubro de 2019 por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, audiogravada, transcrita com auxílio de editor de texto e analisada a partir da Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: Foram contempladas as seguintes categorias: A prática da amamentação e alimentação complementar na atenção primária à saúde em região de Fronteira; Significados da amamentação e alimentação complementar: expectativas, emoções e dificuldades; Atenção à criança de zero a dois anos e o contexto da fronteira: peculiaridades existentes. Conclusões: O suporte familiar e profissional à mãe, a importância da educação permanente do profissional quanto ao tema e as falhas no fluxo de atendimento à criança estrangeira e brasiguaia somado à frágil continuidade do cuidado desse público são alguns pontos destacados na pesquisa. (AU)


Objective: To understand the experience of mothers and healthcare professionals on breastfeeding and complementary feeding for children in a border region. Methods: Exploratory-descriptive research with a qualitative approach, carried out with mothers and healthcare professionals in the municipality of Foz do Iguaçu within the scope of Primary Health Care. Data were collected between April to October 2019 through semi-structured, audio-recorded, transcribed interviews with the aid of a text editor and analyzed from Content Analysis. Results: The following categories were contemplated: The practice of breastfeeding and complementary feeding in primary health care in a border region; Meanings of breastfeeding and complementary feeding: expectations, emotions and difficulties; Attention to children from zero to two years and the border context: existing peculiarities. Conclusion: The family and professional support to the mother, the importance of the professional's permanent education on the topic and the flaws in the flow of care to foreign and "brasiguaios" children, added to the fragile continuity of care for this public, are some points highlighted in the search. (AU)


Objetivo: Comprender la experiencia de madres y profesionales de la salud sobre lactancia materna y alimentación complementaria para niños en una región fronteriza. Métodos: Investigación exploratoria descriptiva con enfoque cualitativo, realizada con madres y profesionales de la salud en el municipio de Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, en el ámbito de la Atención Primaria de Salud. Los datos fueron recolectados entre abril y octubre de 2019 a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, grabadas en audio y transcritas. con la ayuda de un editor de texto y analizado desde Content Analysis. Resultados: Se contemplaron las siguientes categorías: La práctica de la lactancia materna y la alimentación complementaria en la atención primaria de salud en una región fronteriza; Significados de la lactancia materna y la alimentación complementaria: expectativas, emociones y dificultades; Atención a niños de cero a dos años y el contexto fronterizo: peculiaridades existentes. Conclusión: El apoyo familiar y profesional a la madre, la importancia de la educación permanente del profesional sobre el tema y las fallas en el flujo de atención a los niños extranjeros y brasileños, sumado a la frágil continuidad de la atención para este público, son algunos puntos destacados en el investigación. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Adult , Primary Health Care , Breast Feeding , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Border Areas , Child Development , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Qualitative Research , Child Nutrition/education
16.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(3): 869-878, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346998

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to identify the prevalence and determining factors of the complements in offering food to newborns. Methods: across-sectional study nested to a cohort study that assessed newborn care in four public maternity hospitals in Natal/Brazil. Sample was composed by 415 mothers and full-term newborns, with appropriate weight for gestational age and Apgar scores in 1st and 5th minutes ≥ 7. In order to analyze the determining factors, we used Poisson's regression. Results: from 415 newborns, 51.3% received feeding complements (57.6% in the first hour of life), of which 92% was infant formula. Only 50.7% of those complement in offering food were prescribed by physicians. Colostrum deficiency was the main reason to be indicated (33.8%). Maternal age ≤ 20 years old (PR=0.64; CI95%=0.47-0.86) and between 2030 years old (PR=0.70; CI95%=0.57-0.87)comparing to women older than 30 were shown as protective factors, while being primiparous (PR=1.37; CI95%=1.11-1.60) and had cesarean section (PR=1.2; CI95%=1.00-1.45) as risk factors. Conclusion: maternal characteristics are associated with the complement in offering food to the newborn in the first hours of life. The high prevalence shows the need for interventions that minimize the inadequate offer of infant formula and promote exclusive breastfeeding before hospital discharge.


Resumo Objetivos: identificar a prevalência e os fatores determinantes da oferta do complemento alimentar para o recém-nascido. Métodos: estudo transversal, aninhado a um estudo de coorte que avaliou a assistência ao neonato em quatro maternidades públicas de Natal/Brasil. Amostra composta de 415 mães, e recém-nascidos à termo, com peso adequado para idade gestacional e Apgar no 1º e 5º minuto ≥ 7. Para analisar os fatores determinantes, foi utilizado a regressão de Poisson. Resultados: dos 415 recém-nascidos, 51,3% receberam complemento (57,6% na primeira hora de vida), dos quais 92% com fórmula infantil. Destes, apenas 50,7% foi prescrito pelo médico. A deficiência de colostro foi o principal motivo de indicação (33,8%). A idade materna ≤ 20 anos (RP=0,64; IC95%=0,47-0,86) e entre 20-30 anos (RP=0,70; IC95%=0,57-0,87, em comparação com mulheres acima de 30 anos, mostrou-se como fator de proteção, enquanto ser primípara (RP=1,37; IC95%=1,11-1,60) e o parto cesárea (RP=1,2; IC95%=1,00-1,45) como fatores de risco. Conclusão: as características maternas e assistenciais estão associadas à oferta de complemento alimentar ao recém-nascido nas primeiras horas de vida. A alta prevalência mostra a necessidade de intervenções que minimizem a oferta inadequada de fórmula infantil, e promovam o aleitamento materno exclusivo antes da alta hospitalar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Weaning , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Infant Formula/statistics & numerical data , Infant Nutrition , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Milk Banks , Term Birth , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Milk, Human
17.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(2): 127-134, jun./dez. 2021. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292795

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar a presença de compostos bioactivos em papas principais, recomendadas para alimentação complementar. Métodos: a amostra foi constituída por seis preparações de papas principais, escolhidas aleatoriamente, cujas receitas são encontradas em dois manuais de orientação alimentar infantil, veiculados no Brasil. Análise dos compostos bioactivos, com base nos compostos fenólicos totais, ácido ascórbico, carotenoides e a concentração de vitamina A pré-formada de cada papa, foi realizada. Resultados: os teores de compostos fenólicos variaram entre 25,8 mg e 33,8 mg/100 g. Os níveis de ácido ascórbico apresentaram valores entre 10,8 mg/100 g e 87,8 mg/100 g. Em relação ao conteúdo total de carotenoides, encontrou-se valores entre 7,4 µg/100 g a 177,8 µg/100 g. Quanto à presença de vitamina A, os valores obtidos variaram de 266 e 322 µg/100 g. Conclusão: as papas principais propostas nesses manuais apresentam quantidade significativa de compostos bioactivos.


Objective: to verify the presence of bioactive compounds in baby foods recommended for complementary feeding. Methods: the sample consisted of six baby foods preparations, chosen at random, whose recipes are found in two manuals for infant food guidance, published in Brazil. Analysis of bioactive compounds, based on total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and the preformed vitamin A concentration of each baby foods were also evaluated. Results: the contents of phenolic compounds ranged from 25.8 mg to 33.8 mg/100 g. The levels of ascorbic acid showed values between 10.8 mg/100 g and 87.8 mg/100 g. Regarding the total carotenoid content, values were found between 7.4 µg/100 g to 177.8 µg/100 g. Regarding the presence of vitamin A, the values obtained ranged from 266 and 322 µg/100 g. Conclusion: the baby foods proposed in these manuals, present a significant amount of bioactive compounds


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Antioxidants
18.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e1681, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289572

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La introducción de la alimentación complementaria es un importante momento en el crecimiento de un niño. Las guías alimentarias constituyen la traducción de los objetivos nutricionales en consejos prácticos y cobran un valor fundamental en las primeras etapas de la vida. Objetivos: Estimar el consumo de alimentos en menores de dos años de edad de la provincia Las Tunas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, con muestreo aleatorio bietápico, en niños con edades entre 6 y 23 meses. El tamaño muestral fue de 495 niños. Se aplicó una encuesta de consumo de alimentos por recordatorio de 24 horas y se estimó la adecuación de las porciones de alimentos ingeridas según las recomendaciones de las guías alimentarias del menor de 2 años. Se calculó el índice de diversidad alimentaria. Resultados: La lactancia materna continuada al año de edad fue de un 34,5 por ciento en el grupo menor de un año y de un 10,6 por ciento en el grupo de 1 a 2 años. Se observó un bajo cumplimiento de consumo de las porciones de vegetales, frutas, grasas y huevo recomendadas en las guías alimentarias. El 84,5 por ciento de los menores de un año y el 42,1 por ciento de los de 1 a 2 años excedían el consumo diario recomendado de energía. Conclusiones: No se cumplen las porciones de alimentos recomendadas en las guías alimentarias para el logro de una alimentación saludable en menores de dos años. El alto porcentaje de niños con ingestas excesivas de energía constituye un factor predisponente a la obesidad desde las etapas tempranas de la vida(AU)


Introduction: The introduction of complementary feeding is an important moment in a child's growth. Food guides are the translation of nutritional goals into practical advice and take on fundamental value in the early stages of life. Objectives: Estimate food consumption in children under two years old in Las Tunas province. Methods: A cross-sectional study, with two-stage random sampling, was conducted in children aged from 6 to 23 months. The sample size was of 495 children. A food consumption by 24-hours reminder´s survey was applied and the adequacy of food portions ingested was estimated according to the recommendations of the children under 2 years´ food guides. The food diversity index was calculated. Results: Continued breastfeeding at 1 year of age was 34.5 percent in the group under one year and 10.6 percent in the 1 to 2 years group. Low consumption compliance with the portions of vegetables, fruits, fats and eggs recommended in food guides was observed. 84.5 percent of children under one-year-old and 42.1 percent of those in 1 to 2 years old exceeded the recommended daily energy consumption. Conclusions: The food portions recommended in the food guides for healthy eating in children under two years old are not met. The high percentage of children with excessive energy intakes is a factor that predispose to obesity in early stages of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Eating , Food Guide , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 3-9, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279066

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Durante los primeros 1000 días de vida se establece la base para la salud futura de un niño. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de una intervención educativa prenatal en mujeres embarazadas sobre el estado nutricional del hijo desde el nacimiento hasta los cuatro meses de edad. Métodos: Diseño cuasiexperimental de intervención con mujeres a partir de la semana 12 de gestación, asignadas aleatoriamente a un grupo de intervención (GI) para recibir cinco sesiones grupales y tres individuales sobre prácticas de alimentación y percepción materna del peso del hijo y de señales de hambre-saciedad; el grupo control (GC) recibió atención de rutina que incluía al menos tres consultas prenatales. Resultados: 30 mujeres conformaron cada grupo. Después de la intervención, las mujeres del GC practicaron menos lactancia materna exclusiva, fueron propensas a subestimar o sobrestimar el peso del hijo y percibieron con menor intensidad las señales de hambre-saciedad (p < 0.05). El 80 % de los lactantes del GI presentaron peso normal y 63 % de los niños del GC, una combinación de sobrepeso y obesidad (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: El programa de educación prenatal en mujeres embarazadas mostró un efecto significativo en el estado nutricional de los lactantes después de cuatro meses del nacimiento.


Abstract Introduction: During the first 1000 days of life is the basis for a child‘s future health established. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a prenatal educational intervention in pregnant women on the nutritional status of the child from birth to 4 months of age. Methods: Quasi-experimental intervention design in women with at least 12 weeks of gestation, who were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) to participate in five group and three individual sessions on feeding practices and maternal perception of the child’s weight and signals of hunger-satiety; the control group (CG) received routine care that included at least three prenatal consultations. Results: Thirty women were included in each group. After the intervention, women in the CG practiced less exclusive breastfeeding, were more likely to underestimate and overestimate the children’s weight, and perceived hunger-satiety signals with less intensity (p < 0.05). 80 % of the infants in the IG had normal weight, whereas 63 % of those in the CG had a combination of overweight and obesity (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The prenatal education program in pregnant women showed a significant effect on postnatal nutritional status of infants four months after birth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adult , Prenatal Care , Nutritional Status , Pregnant Women/education , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Satiety Response/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Weight , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Hunger/physiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 56-61, feb. 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147089

ABSTRACT

La leche materna provee microorganismos que colonizan el intestino y programan el sistema inmunológico para desarrollar tolerancia oral. Entre los 6 meses de lactancia materna exclusiva y los 2 años de lactancia prolongada recomendada, la alimentación complementaria conlleva una reducción progresiva en el ingreso de microorganismos vivos al ecosistema intestinal. Esto se debe a que los alimentos en general -a diferencia de la leche materna- o se encuentran desprovistos de microorganismos o, si los poseen, suelen inactivarse durante la cocción. Los alimentos fermentados y los probióticos podrían constituir una estrategia nutricional valiosa, dado que garantizarían la provisión de microorganismos vivos ante la reducción o interrupción anticipada de la lactancia. Los términos "alimentos fermentados" y "probióticos" no son sinónimos. La identidad microbiológica, la inocuidad y la existencia de estudios clínicos de eficacia para unos y otros son claves para entender sus diferencias y decidir una eventual recomendación alimentaria


Breast milk provides microorganisms that colonize the gut and program the immune system to develop oral tolerance. Between the 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding and the recommended 2 years of prolonged breastfeeding, complementary feeding leads to a progressive reduction in the entry of live microorganisms into the gut ecosystem. This is because foods in general -unlike breast milk- are devoid of microorganisms or, if present, they are often inactivated during cooking. Fermented foods and probiotics could be a valuable nutritional strategy, as they would ensure the supply of live microorganisms in the face of a reduction or early cessation of breastfeeding. The terms "fermented foods" and "probiotics" are not synonymous. Microbiological identity, safety, and the existence of clinical efficacy studies supporting both are key to understand their differences and decide on an eventual dietary recommendation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Fermented Foods , Yogurt , Probiotics , Microbiota , Immunity , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
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