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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 22-28, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013244

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the current status and trends in the outcomes and care practices of extremely preterm infants at 22-25 weeks' gestation age from the Chinese Neonatal Network (CHNN) from 2019 to 2021. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the CHNN cohort of very preterm infants. All 963 extremely preterm infants with gestational age between 22-25 weeks who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of the CHNN from 2019 to 2021 were included. Infants admitted after 24 hours of life or transferred to non-CHNN hospitals were excluded. Perinatal care practices, survival rates, incidences of major morbidities, and NICU treatments were described according to different gestational age groups and admission years. Comparison among gestational age groups was conducted using χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Trends by year were evaluated by Cochran-Armitage and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests for trend. Results: Of the 963 extremely preterm infants enrolled, 588 extremely preterm infants (61.1%) were male. The gestational age was 25.0 (24.4, 25.6) weeks, with 29 extremely preterm infants (3.0%), 88 extremely preterm infants (9.1%), 264 extremely preterm infants (27.4%), and 582 extremely preterm infants (60.4%) at 22, 23, 24, and 25 weeks of gestation age, respectively. The birth weight was 770 (680, 840) g. From 2019 to 2021, the number of extremely preterm infants increased each year (285, 312, and 366 extremely preterm infants, respectively). Antenatal steroids and magnesium sulfate were administered to 67.7% (615/908) and 51.1% (453/886) mothers of extremely preterm infants. In the delivery room, 20.8% (200/963) and 69.5% (669/963) extremely preterm infants received noninvasive positive end-expiratory pressure support and endotracheal intubation. Delayed cord clamping and cord milking were performed in 19.0% (149/784) and 30.4% (241/794) extremely preterm infants. From 2019 to 2021, there were significant increases in the usage of antenatal steroids, antenatal magnesium sulfate, and delivery room noninvasive positive-end expiratory pressure support (all P<0.05). Overall, 349 extremely preterm infants (36.2%) did not receive complete care, 392 extremely preterm infants (40.7%) received complete care and survived to discharge, and 222 extremely preterm infants (23.1%) received complete care but died in hospital. The survival rates for extremely preterm infants at 22, 23, 24 and 25 weeks of gestation age were 10.3% (3/29), 23.9% (21/88), 33.0% (87/264) and 48.3% (281/582), respectively. From 2019 to 2021, there were no statistically significant trends in complete care, survival, and mortality rates (all P>0.05). Only 11.5% (45/392) extremely preterm infants survived without major morbidities. Moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (67.3% (264/392)) and severe retinopathy of prematurity (61.5% (241/392)) were the most common morbidities among survivors. The incidences of severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis were 15.3% (60/392), 5.9% (23/392) and 19.1% (75/392), respectively. Overall, 83.7% (328/392) survivors received invasive ventilation during hospitalization, with a duration of 22 (10, 42) days. The hospital stay for survivors was 97 (86, 116) days. Conclusions: With the increasing number of extremely preterm infants at 22-25 weeks' gestation admitted to CHNN NICU, the survival rate remained low, especially the rate of survival without major morbidities. Further quality improvement initiatives are needed to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based care practices.


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Extremely Premature , Gestational Age , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Steroids , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , China/epidemiology
2.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(1): 40-47, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388708

ABSTRACT

Resumen El parto prematuro es la principal causa de morbimortalidad neonatal en Chile. Los prematuros tardíos, definidos como nacimientos entre 34 semanas con 0 días (34+0) y 36 semanas con 6 días (36+6) de gestación, representan el 70-80% de los prematuros y se asocian a baja morbilidad y excepcional mortalidad si se comparan con partos bajo 34 semanas, pero significativamente mayor al compararlos con partos de término. Los prematuros tardíos son el resultado de diversas condiciones obstétricas, tales como síndromes hipertensivos del embarazo, rotura prematura de membranas, colestasia intrahepática del embarazo y comorbilidad médica. El propósito de esta revisión es actualizar la información asociada a los prematuros tardíos y dar una visión de las tendencias en el uso de corticoides y el manejo expectante de la rotura prematura de membranas con el objetivo de disminuir las complicaciones en este grupo de prematuros.


Abstract Preterm delivery is the most important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in Chile. Late preterm, defined as deliveries between 34 +0 and 36+6-weeks accounts for 70-80% of preterm and is associated with non-severe morbidity and extremely low mortality when compared with deliveries below 34 weeks but significantly high when compared with full term babies. Late preterm deliveries are a result of several obstetric conditions, such a hypertensive disorder, premature rupture of membranes, intrahepatic cholestasis, and maternal medical comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to update the information associated with the risks of late preterm and to guide in the new trends in the application of steroid and expectant management for premature rupture of membranes in order to reduce the frequency of late preterm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Premature Birth/physiopathology , Premature Birth/therapy , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology
3.
São Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 251-258, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Peri/intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) is a frequent cause of death and morbidity among preterm infants. Few studies have addressed the use of bundles for preventing PIVH. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a bundle of interventions designed to decrease the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage at hospital discharge among preterm infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pre-post interventional study with retrospective and prospective data collection performed before and after bundle implementation in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital. METHODS: Infants with gestational age < 32 weeks without malformations, who survived > 6 days were included. The bundle consisted of the following actions during the first 72 hours of life: maintenance of head in neutral position with the body in supine position, minimal handling, including delay of lumbar puncture until after 72 hours and absence of respiratory therapy maneuvers. Cranial ultrasound was performed on days 3, 7 and 28, or later if needed. The effect of the bundle was analyzed through logistic regression and results were adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS: 167 infants met the inclusion criteria; 146 (87%) were analyzed. Bundle implementation was associated with decreased chances of PIVH at hospital discharge (odds ratio 0.29; 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.65). Cerebrospinal fluid collection within the first 72 hours increased the odds of PIVH of any grade during the hospital stay fourfold, after adjustment for all variables included in the model. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a bundle of interventions to avoid intraventricular hemorrhage was effective for decreasing the incidence of all grades of PIVH in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases/prevention & control , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
4.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(2): 229-238, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127156

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar el riesgo de daño cerebral en prematuros menores de 34 semanas expuestos a corioamnionitis histológica (CAH). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohortes en el Hospital Cayetano Heredia, durante el 2015. Fueron incluidos prematuros menores de 34 semanas que tuvieran examen histopatológico de la placenta. Los tipos de CAH evaluados fueron subcorionitis, corionitis, corioamnionitis, con o sin funisitis. El daño cerebral se evaluó en tres periodos de edad, entre 0 y 7 días, entre 7 y 30 días y a las 40 semanas gestacionales corregidas. Se realizó un seguimiento neurológico y controles con ecografía cerebral. Resultados: Se estudiaron 85 prematuros, 47,1% eran mujeres y la media de la edad gestacional fue de 30,9 semanas. El 42% (36/85) nacieron expuestos a CAH. La ruptura prematura de membrana fue la principal generatriz de sepsis, y la sepsis se relacionó con daño neurológico. La CAH estuvo asociada con hemorragia intraventricular (HIV) durante la primera semana y con lesiones de la sustancia blanca entre los 7 y 30 días de edad (p = 0,035). El tipo corioamnionitis de CAH se asoció al daño neurológico durante la primera semana (RR = 2,11; IC 95%: 1,09-4,11) y entre los 7 y 30 días de vida (RR = 2,72; IC 95%: 1,07-6,88). Conclusiones: La corioamnionitis fue un factor de riesgo para desarrollar lesiones cerebrales en prematuros menores de 34 semanas, para HIV durante los primeros 7 días y lesiones de sustancia blanca entre los 7 y los 30 días de edad. A las 40 semanas de edad corregida, los prematuros extremos con CAH tuvieron lesiones cerebrales más extensas.


ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the risk of brain damage in premature infants under 34 weeks of gestational age exposed to histological chorioamnionitis (HCA). Materials and methods: A cohort study was conducted at the Hospital Cayetano Heredia, during 2015. Premature infants under 34 weeks of gestational age, who had histopathological examination of the placenta, were included. The types of HCA evaluated were sub-chorionitis, chorionitis, chorioamnionitis, with or without funisitis. Brain damage was evaluated in three age periods, between 0 and 7 days, between 7 and 30 days and at 40 weeks of corrected gestational age. A neurological follow-up and regular controls were performed with brain ultrasound. Results: A total of 85 premature infants were included, 47.1% were women and the mean gestational age was 30.9 weeks. From the total, 42% (36/85) were born exposed to HCA. Premature rupture of membranes was the main cause of sepsis, which was related to neurological damage. HCA was associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) during the first week and with white matter lesions between 7 and 30 days of age (p = 0.035). The chorioamnionitis type of HCA was associated with neurological damage during the first week (RR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.09-4.11) and between 7 and 30 days of age (RR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.07-6.88). Conclusions: Chorioamnionitis was a risk factor for developing brain injuries in premature infants under 34 weeks of gestational age. It was also a risk factor for HIV during the first 7 days and for white matter injuries between 7 and 30 days of age. At 40 weeks of corrected gestational age, extreme premature infants with HCA had more extensive brain damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Brain Injuries , Infant, Premature , Chorioamnionitis , Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease , Infant, Premature, Diseases , Neonatology , Neurology , Peru/epidemiology , Leukomalacia, Periventricular , Brain Injuries/epidemiology , Risk , Cohort Studies , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Gestational Age , Cerebral Intraventricular Hemorrhage , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology
5.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(2): 76-82, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124272

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los potenciales evocados auditivos (PEA) son la prueba neurofisiológica más utilizada para evaluar el desarrollo funcional del tronco encefálico auditivo en lactantes; además, permiten evaluar la audición para las frecuencias altas. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo. Se evaluaron los resultados de PEA de 186 lactantes (372 oídos) con antecedente de prematuridad. Se compararon la respuesta bioeléctrica, la morfología, la amplitud, las latencias I, III y V, los intervalos I-III, III-V y I-V y los umbrales auditivos en dos grupos de prematuros < 32 y ≥ 32 semanas de edad gestacional (SEG). Resultados: La respuesta bioeléctrica, las latencias I, III y V y los intervalos I-III y III-V fueron similares en los dos grupos de prematuros de acuerdo con su edad corregida; al compararse, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p > 0.05) para estas variables. La amplitud, la morfología y el intervalo I-V estuvieron más afectados en el grupo de prematuros < 32 SEG (p < 0.05). De los 372 oídos evaluados, se encontraron 275 con audición normal y 97 con algún grado de hipoacusia para las frecuencias altas, más frecuente en los pacientes < 32 SEG (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: El desarrollo funcional del tronco cerebral auditivo fue similar entre los grupos de prematuros y dentro del rango normal para la edad corregida respectiva. La prematuridad produjo un incremento directamente proporcional y estadísticamente significativo en la frecuencia de hipoacusia para las frecuencias altas.


Abstract Background: Auditory evoked potentials (AEPS) constitutes the most commonly used neurophysiological test to assess the functional development of the auditory brainstem in infants and allows the evaluation of hearing for high frequencies. Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted. The AEPS results for 186 infants (372 ears) with a history of prematurity were examined. The bioelectrical response, morphology, amplitude, latencies I, III and V, and intervals I-III, III-V and I-V were compared, as well as auditory thresholds between two groups of premature infants < 32 and ≥ 32 weeks of gestational age (WGA). Results: The bioelectrical response, latencies I, III and V, and intervals I-III and III-V were similar between the two groups of premature infants according to their corrected age; no statistically significant differences were found (p > 0.05) for these variables. The amplitude, morphology, and the I-V interval were more affected in the group of premature infants < 32 WGA (p < 0.05). Of the 372 ears evaluated, 275 showed normal hearing and 97 showed some degree of hearing loss for high frequencies, which was more frequent in patients < 32 WGA (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The functional development of the auditory brainstem was similar between the groups of premature infants and within the normal range for the respective corrected age. Prematurity produced a directly proportional and statistically significant increase in the frequency of hearing loss for high frequencies.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Hearing/physiology , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Infant, Premature , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology
6.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057228

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine maternal and fetal risk factors associated with the birth of late preterm infants in comparison to those born at term. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in a tertiary center for high-risk pregnancies. For the cases, the study enrolled post-partum mothers and their respective newborns with gestational ages equal or greater than 34 weeks and less than 37 weeks. As controls, the post-partum mothers and their newborns with gestational ages of 37 weeks or greater were selected. The sample was calculated with a ratio of two controls for each case, resulting in 423 patients. Association studies were performed using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The variables associated with late prematurity were inadequate prenatal (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.23; confidence interval of 95% [95%CI] 1.12-1.34; p≤0.001), premature rupture of membranes (OR 4.98; 95%CI 2.66-9.31; p≤0.001), length of hospital stay ≥24 hours until birth (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.06-0.52; p≤0.001), cesarean section (OR 2.74; 95%CI 1.69-4.44; p≤0.001) and small for gestational age newborn (OR 3.02; 95%CI 1.80-5.05; p≤0.001). Conclusions: Inadequate prenatal care and membranes' premature rupture were found as factors associated with the late preterm birth. It is important to identify the factors that allow intervention with adequate prenatal care in order to reduce poor outcomes due to late prematurity.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar fatores maternos e fetais associados ao nascimento de recém-nascidos prematuros tardios, quando comparados aos nascidos a termo. Métodos: Estudo caso-controle em um hospital terciário de referência para atendimento de gestações de alto risco. Foram considerados casos as puérperas e seus respectivos recém-nascidos com idade gestacional maior ou igual a 34 semanas e menor de 37 semanas. Para os controles foram selecionadas as puérperas e seus recém-nascidos com idade gestacional de 37 semanas completas ou mais. A amostra foi calculada com razão de dois controles para cada caso, resultando em um total de 423 pacientes. Estudos de associação foram efetuados utilizando-se o teste do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher e posterior regressão logística. Resultados: As variáveis associadas à prematuridade tardia foram a realização de pré-natal inadequado (Odds Ratio - OR 1,23; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 1,12-1,34; p≤0,001), a rotura prematura de membranas amnióticas (OR 4,98; IC95% 2,66-9,31; p≤0,001), o tempo de internação ≥24 horas até o nascimento (OR 0,18; IC95% 0,06-0,52; p≤0,001), o parto operatório (OR 2,74; IC95% 1,69-4,44; p≤0,001) e o recém-nascido pequeno para a idade gestacional (OR 3,02; IC95% 1,80-5,05; p≤0,001). Conclusões: Assistência pré-natal inadequada e rotura prematura de membranas destacaram-se como fatores associados ao nascimento de prematuros tardios. Ressalta-se a relevância da identificação de fatores passíveis de intervenção por meio de adequada assistência pré-natal, a fim de reduzir os desfechos desfavoráveis decorrentes da prematuridade tardia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/methods , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/trends , Infant, Premature , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/etiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Length of Stay/trends
7.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(1): 35-45, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043356

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Desarrollar y pilotar indicadores de calidad de la atención a neonatos con padecimientos relevantes en México (prematuridad, sepsis neonatal, asfixia perinatal e hipoxia intrauterina). Material y métodos: Se construyeron indicadores propios a partir de recomendaciones clave de las guías de práctica clínica nacionales e indicadores encontrados en repositorios internacionales. Previa búsqueda, selección y priorización, los indicadores fueron pilotados en dos hospitales. Se analizó la factibilidad de medición, fiabilidad (índice kappa) y utilidad para detectar problemas de calidad. Resultados: Se seleccionaron y pilotaron 23 indicadores; 12 eran compuestos. Del total, nueve fueron factibles y fiables. La calidad de la información en los hospitales fue diversa y frecuentemente deficiente, limitando tanto la factibilidad como la fiabilidad de los indicadores. Los niveles de cumplimiento identificaron oportunidades de mejora. Conclusiones: Se propone un set de nueve indicadores válidos, factibles, fiables y útiles para la monitorización de la calidad en la atención a neonatos patológicos.


Abstract Objective: Develop and pilot indicators of quality of care to neonates with relevant conditions in Mexico (prematurity, neonatal sepsis, perinatal asphyxia, and intrauterine hypoxia). Materials and methods: Own indicators were built based on key recommendations of national clinical practice guidelines and indicators found in international repositories. With previous search, selection and prioritization, the indicators were piloted within two hospitals. The feasibility of measuring, (kappa index) reliability and usefulness was analyzed to detect quality problems. Results: 23 indicators were selected and piloted, 12 are compounds, of the total, nine were feasible and reliable. The quality of the hospital's information was diverse and often poor, limiting both the feasibility and the reliability of the indicators. Improvement opportunities were identified thorough the compliance levels. Conclusions: A set of nine indicators valid, reliable, feasible and useful indicators is proposed in order to monitor the quality of care of pathological neonates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Asphyxia Neonatorum/epidemiology , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Fetal Hypoxia/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care , Infant, Premature , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Quality Improvement , Data Accuracy , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(4): 471-476, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959548

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El seguimiento de niños nacidos prematuros extremos de edad escolar revela menor desarrollo de funciones neuropsicológicas, en comparación con sus pares nacidos de término. OBJETIVO: Comparar las funciones neuropsicológicas de escolares con antecedente de prematuridad y niños de término alrededor de los 8 años de edad. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Investigación no experimental, cuantitativa, de diseño correlacional. Se incluyeron 43 niños nacidos con menos de 1500 grs. de peso y/o menos 32 semanas de gestación, y un grupo control constituído por 40 niños de término, compañeros de curso del grupo muestra. Ambos grupos sin diagnóstico de discapacidad neurológica, sensorial ni cognitiva. Los padres firmaron documento de consentimiento informado y se recopila ron datos por medio de la Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil-ENI 2, que evalúa las características neuropsicológicas de niños y jóvenes entre 5 y 16 años a través de 14 procesos neuropsicológicos: habilidades construccionales, memoria, habilidades perceptuales, lenguaje, habilidades metalingüísticas, lectura, escritura, aritmética, habilidades espaciales, atención, habilidades conceptuales, fluidez, flexibilidad cognoscitiva y planeación. Datos obtenidos se analizaron con prueba Kruskal Wallis, estableciéndose nivel de significación en p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Los hallazgos de la investigación coinciden parcialmente con problemas globales referidos por la literatura. En general se observa menor puntaje estándar a menor edad gestacional. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en sub pruebas de habilidades gráficas, percepción auditiva, atención auditiva y flexibilidad cognoscitiva. CONCLUSIONES: Los niños con antecedente de prematuridad extrema que participaron en la investigación evidencian una variedad de déficits en funciones neuropsicológicas, aunque su rendimiento, al igual que el del grupo control, es disarmónico, con puntajes altos en algunos ítems y bajos en otros.


INTRODUCTION: Monitoring of extremely preterm infants of school age reveals poor development of neuropsychological functions, compared to their full term peers. OBJECTIVE: To compare the neurop sychological functions of schoolchildren with history of extreme prematurity and full term children of the same age. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Non-experimental, cross-sectional research. Forty-three pre term children who born weighting less than 1,500 g and/or less than 32 weeks of gestational age and a control group made up of forty full-term children, classmates of the sample group were included. Both groups had no diagnosis of neurological, sensory or cognitive disability. Parents signed infor med consent forms and data were collected through the Child Neuropsychological Assessment-ENI2, which considers 14 items: construction skills, memory, Perceptual skills, language, metalinguistic skills, reading, writing, arithmetic, skills spatial, attention, conceptual skills, fluency, cognitive flexi bility and planning. Data obtained were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test, establishing significance level at p < 05. RESULTS: Research findings partially agree with problems reported in the literature. In general, a lower standard score was observed at lower gestational age. There were significant differen ces in subtests of graphical skills, auditory perception, auditory attention, and cognitive flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: Children with history of extreme prematurity who participated in this research showed a variety of deficits in neuropsychological functions, although their performance, as well as that of the control group, is disharmonic, with high scores in some items and low ones in others.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Premature , Case-Control Studies , Child Development , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Premature, Diseases/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests
9.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(1): 18-23, feb. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900064

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Los prematuros extremos tienen mayor incidencia de Hipertensión Arterial (HTA) y riesgo de daño renal, secundario a un menor número de glomérulos con la consiguiente hiperfiltración de los remanentes. Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de cifras tensionales alteradas usando monitorización ambulatoria de presión arterial (MAPA) y marcadores de daño renal en escolares con antecedentes de prematurez extrema. Pacientes y Método: Realización medición aislada de presión arterial, MAPA, y evaluación de función renal en el seguimiento de prematuros extremos de edad escolar. Resultados: Se reclutaron 30 pacientes, obteniéndose mediciones válidas de MAPA en 19 casos, de los cuales nueve (47,4%) presentaron alteraciones, principalmente ausencia de diferencia de presión día noche. No hubo alteraciones de la función renal en ellos. Discusión: Nuestro estudio detectó una alta prevalencia de alteraciones en MAPA en escolares con antecedentes de prematurez extrema, principalmente la ausencia de diferencia de presión día noche, que se relaciona con mayor riesgo de progresión a HTA. Se resalta la importancia de realizar MAPA dentro del estudio en pacien tes con factores de riesgo de desarrollar HTA a fin de detectar en forma precoz alteraciones y realizar un manejo y seguimiento estrecho.


Abstract: Introduction: Extremely premature children have a higher incidence of High Blood Pressure (HBP) and risk of renal damage due to decreased glomerular count with consequent hyperfiltration of the remnants. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of altered blood pressure values in outpatient measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks and/ or ≤ 1,500 g birth weight between 5 and 7 years of age, as well as the presence of early renal damage markers. Patients and Methods: An isolated measurement of blood pressure, ABPM and laboratory tests (microalbuminuria/creatininuria ratio in an isolated urine sample, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urinalysis) were performed. Results: 30 patients were recruited, of whom valid measu rements of ABPM were obtained in 19 cases, of which nine (47,4%) presented some abnormalities, principally nocturnal day/night difference or DIP absent. No abnormal laboratory tests were found. Discussion: Our study detected a high prevalence of abnormalities in ABPM principally DIP absence, which has been related to an increased risk of progression to hypertension. The importance of per forming ABPM in the study is emphasized in patients with risk factors for developing hypertension in order to detect early alterations and close management and follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Infant, Extremely Premature , Hypertension/diagnosis , Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnosis , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 35(1): 92-101, jan.-mar. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-845733

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Buscar sistematicamente evidências fundamentadas e de qualidade sobre o processamento sensorial em crianças nascidas pré-termo no período da infância. Fontes de dados: A busca da literatura disponível sobre o tema foi realizada nas bases de dados eletrônicas Sistema Online de Busca e Análise de Literatura Médica (Medline)/PubMed, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs)/Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)/BVS, Scopus e Web of Science. Foram incluídos estudos indexados, originais, quantitativos e disponíveis na íntegra em meio digital, publicados em português, inglês ou espanhol, entre 2005 e 2015, envolvendo crianças entre zero e 9 anos de idade. Síntese dos dados: A busca identificou 581 artigos, e oito foram incluídos conforme critérios de elegibilidade. Destes, seis estudos (75%) encontraram alta frequência de processamento sensorial alterado em crianças pré-termo. A associação entre processamento sensorial e desfechos de desenvolvimento foi observada em três estudos (37,5%). Verificou-se associação entre processamento sensorial e características neonatais em cinco estudos (62,5%). Os resultados de processamento sensorial frequentemente se associam a idade gestacional, sexo masculino e lesões da substância branca. Conclusões: Análise da literatura atual sugere que prematuridade tem impacto negativo no processamento sensorial. Idade gestacional, sexo masculino e lesões de substância branca aparecem como fatores de risco para alterações de processamento sensorial em crianças nascidas pré-termo. O prejuízo na capacidade de receber informações sensoriais, de integrar e de adaptar-se a elas parece interferir negativamente no desenvolvimento motor, cognitivo e de linguagem dessas crianças. Destaca-se a viabilidade da identificação das alterações de processamento sensorial nos primeiros anos de vida, favorecendo o encaminhamento precoce para intervenções clínicas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a systematic search for grounded and quality evidence of sensory processing in preterm infants during childhood. Data source: The search of the available literature on the theme was held in the following electronic databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline)/PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs)/Virtual Library in Health (BVS), Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)/BVS, Scopus, and Web of Science. We included only original indexed studies with a quantitative approach, which were available in full text on digital media, published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish between 2005 and 2015, involving children aged 0-9years. Data synthesis: 581 articles were identified and eight were included. Six studies (75%) found high frequency of dysfunction in sensory processing in preterm infants. The association of sensory processing with developmental outcomes was observed in three studies (37.5%). The association of sensory processing with neonatal characteristics was observed in five studies (62.5%), and the sensory processing results are often associated with gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions. Conclusions: The current literature suggests that preterm birth affects the sensory processing, negatively. Gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions appear as risk factors for sensoryprocessing disorders in preterm infants. The impairment in the ability to receivesensory inputs, to integrateand to adapt to them seems to have a negative effect on motor, cognitive, and language development of these children. We highlight the feasibility of identifying sensory processing disorders early in life, favoring early clinical interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sensation Disorders/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Premature
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(1): 101-108, ene.-mar. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-779536

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La sífilis congénita es una enfermedad prevenible cuya incidencia en Colombia ha aumentado, alcanzando la cifra de 3,28 casos por 1.000 nacidos vivos en el 2011. Objetivo. Caracterizar a los recién nacidos con sífilis congénita y describir su diagnóstico y tratamiento durante el seguimiento de seis meses. Materiales y métodos. En el periodo comprendido entre agosto de 2011 y febrero de 2012 en el Hospital La Victoria, sede Instituto Materno Infantil, se identificaron y trataron los recién nacidos con sífilis congénita, y se hizo seguimiento clínico y de laboratorio hasta la curación de la enfermedad. Las variables analizadas incluyeron las características clínicas y de laboratorio. Resultados. En este periodo se diagnosticaron 29 pacientes que cumplían con los criterios de caso de sífilis congénita, cuya frecuencia en la institución era de un caso por cada 69 nacimientos. Hubo un mortinato y una muerte neonatal, cuatro recién nacidos fueron prematuros y cinco presentaron restricción en el crecimiento. De los 28 recién nacidos vivos, 15 fueron asintomáticos. Se presentaron dos casos con neurosífilis, es decir, 15 % de los sintomáticos. Se hizo seguimiento a 18 de los 27 niños (66,6 %), incluidos la mayoría de los sintomáticos y los dos casos con neurosífilis; la disminución esperada de los títulos en la prueba del Venereal Disease Research Laboratory , VDRL, se presentó en todos los pacientes, y no hubo secuelas clínicas, con lo que se cumplieron los criterios de curación. Conclusiones. Se evidenció una gran incidencia de la enfermedad, fallas en su prevención, una variada expresión en su presentación y la efectividad del tratamiento en el periodo neonatal.


Introduction: Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease. However, the incidence in Colombia has increased and reached the figure of 3.28 cases per 1,000 live births in 2011. Objective: To characterize newborns with congenital syphilis and describe follow-up over 6 months following their diagnosis and treatment. Materials and methods: Between August, 2011, and February, 2012, in Hospital La Victoria, sede Instituto Materno Infantil , newborns with congenital syphilis were identified and treated. Clinical and laboratory follow-up was carried out for six months until it was determined that the disease was cured. The analyzed variables included patients´ clinical and laboratory characteristics. Results: In this period, we identified 29 cases that met the criteria of congenital syphilis, with a frequency in the institution of one case per 69 births. There was one stillbirth and one neonatal death, four were premature, and five had growth restriction. Of the 28 live births, 15 were asymptomatic. There were two cases with neurosyphilis, representing 15% of symptomatic newborns. Follow-up was done on 18 out of 27 children (66.6%), including most symptomatic cases and the two cases of neurosyphilis . All cases showed the expected decrease in VDRL titers without clinical sequelae, meeting the criteria of being cured. Conclusions: A high incidence of the disease, failure to prevent it, varied expression in its presentation, and the effectiveness of treatment in the neonatal period were evidenced in this study.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Premature , Syphilis Serodiagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Stillbirth , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Neurosyphilis/congenital , Neurosyphilis/epidemiology
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(6): 415-425, dic. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771660

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Existe evidencia respecto a que los niños que nacen prematuros moderados y tardíos (PMT) tendrían mayor riesgo de hospitalización, morbilidad neonatal y deficiencias del desarrollo psicomotor (DSM). Objetivo: Determinar, en PMT, la asociación entre el déficit de DSM, edad gestacional y la morbilidad neonatal. Pacientes y método: Estudio caso control anidado en una cohorte de niños nacidos PMT entre los años 2006 y 2009, en una institución privada de la Región Metropolitana. Los niños fueron evaluados con la Escala de Bayley-III de desarrollo infantil a los 8 o 18 meses de edad corregida, o a los 30 meses de edad cronológica. Retrospectivamente se revisaron los registros neonatales. Se generó un modelo de análisis de asociación multivariado para conocer el efecto de la morbilidad neonatal sobre el desarrollo alcanzado. Resultados: Se estudiaron 130 PMT, 25 casos y 105 controles. El 83,8% fue hospitalizado en el periodo neonatal. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre casos y controles solo en relación con la edad materna y la hipoglucemia sintomática (OR cruda 3,5, OR ajustada 8,18); se encontró que las variables que afectan de forma negativa el coeficiente de desarrollo son el género masculino, la gemelaridad y la menor edad gestacional. Conclusiones: La hipoglucemia sintomática es el principal factor de riesgo de déficit del DSM, mientras que la gemelaridad, el género masculino y la edad gestacional influyen en el coeficiente de desarrollo global obtenido. Es fundamental desarrollar estrategias de prevención, pesquisa y manejo precoz de esta alteración metabólica para prevenir dificultades del DSM posteriores.


Introduction: There is evidence that children born moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) have a higher risk of hospitalisation, neonatal morbidity, and developmental delay (DD). Objective: To determine the association between DD, gestational age, and neonatal morbidity in MLP children. Patients and method: A case control study design nested in a cohort of MLP children born between 2006 and 2009 at a private hospital located in the Metropolitan area of Santiago. The children were assessed with the Bayley-III Scales of Infant Development at 8 or 18 months corrected age, or at 30 months of chronological age. Neonatal records were retrospectively reviewed. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of neonatal morbidity on development. Results: A total of 130 MLP children, 25 cases and 105 controls, were studied. Most of them (83.8%) were hospitalised during the neonatal period. Significant differences between cases and controls regarding maternal age and symptomatic hypoglycaemia were observed (crude OR 3.5, adjusted OR 8.18). It was concluded that the variables that negatively affect the rate of development are male gender, being a twin, and gestational age. Conclusions: Symptomatic hypoglycaemia is the main risk factor for DD, while being a twin, male gender, and gestational age influenced the total development rate obtained. It is essential to develop strategies for prevention, screening, and early management of this metabolic disorder to prevent future DD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Child Development/physiology , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Premature , Case-Control Studies , Developmental Disabilities/etiology , Chile , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Maternal Age , Hypoglycemia/complications
13.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 36(4): 84-89, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-770324

ABSTRACT

Objective: the research objective was to characterize preterm infants with birth weight under 1500 g, and to identify the incidence of late-onset neonatal sepsis among this population. Methods: a prospective cohort study with a sample of 30 preterm newborns that weighed under 1500 g and were hospitalized in the NICU of the university hospital. Data were collected from January to December 2013 using a structured instrument. Results: of the 30 neonates included in the study, 14 developed late-onset neonatal sepsis with a prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: the incidence of late-onset neonatal sepsis indicates a vulnerability in preterm infants due to immunological immaturity. These results reveal that knowledge of the profile of newborn infants admitted to the NICU and the risk factors to which they are exposed are central to the planning of nursing care for these patients. Future studies should address strategies for preventing nosocomial infection.


Objetivo: el objetivo de la investigación fue caracterizar los recién nacidos prematuros con peso al nacer inferior a 1.500g e identificar la incidencia de sepsis neonatal tardía en ellos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo, cuya muestra fue compuesta por 30 recién nacidos prematuros con peso inferior a 1.500g, hospitalizados en la UCI Neonatal de un hospital universitario. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo a partir de enero a diciembre 2013 utilizando un instrumento estructurado. Resultados: entre los 30 prematuros incluidos en el estudio, 14 desarrollaran sepsis neonatal tardía, siendo predominante el Staphylococcus Coagulase negativo. Conclusiones: la incidencia de sepsis neonatal tardía muestra la vulnerabilidad de los prematuros, debido a la inmadurez inmunológica de esa población. Por lo tanto, el perfil de RN del conocimiento admitido en la UCIN y los factores de riesgo a que están expuestos son fundamentales para la planificación de los cuidados de enfermería a los pacientes. Se necesitan más estudios para desarrollar estrategias para la prevención de la infección hospitalaria.


Objetivo: o objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar os recém-nascidos pré-termo nascidos com peso inferior a 1.500g e identificar a incidência de sepse neonatal tardia. Métodos: realizou-se um estudo de coorte prospectivo, cuja amostra foi composta por 30 recém-nascidos pré-termo com peso inferior a 1.500g, internados em UTI Neonatal de um hospital universitário. A coleta de dados ocorreu de janeiro a dezembro de 2013 por meio de instrumento estruturado. Resultados: foram incluídos 30 neonatos, dos quais 14 desenvolveram sepse neonatal tardia, prevalecendo o Staphylococcus Coagulase negativo. Conclusões: a incidência de sepse neonatal tardia indica a vulnerabilidade desses pré-termos, devido à imaturidade imunológica dessa população. Assim, o conhecimento do perfil dos RN internados na UTIN e os fatores de risco a que estão expostos são fundamentais para o planejamento dos cuidados de enfermagem desses pacientes. Futuros estudos são necessários para desenvolver estratégias para a prevenção da infecção nosocomial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Sepsis/epidemiology , Incidence , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
14.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 80(3): 221-228, jun. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-752871

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Los niños nacidos entre las 34 0/7 y 36 6/7 semanas se denominan prematuros tardíos (PT), constituyen 5-7% de los nacidos y poseen mayor morbimortalidad que los niños de término. OBJETIVO: Analizar las causas de partos PT en nuestra institución. Comparar morbilidad neonatal de nacidos PT y de término. MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo. Se revisan registros de nacimientos entre enero de 2009 y diciembre de 2012 identificando los nacidos vivos entre las 34 0/7 y 36 6/7 y entre las 39 0/6 y 40 6/7 semanas. Se identifica grupo clínico de parto prematuro al que pertenecen. Se compara frecuencia de resultados perinatales de nacidos PT y de término completo. RESULTADOS: En el período estudiado nacieron 8.890 niños vivos. Tasa de partos PT fue 7,49% (n = 666). El 64,11% fue por causa idiopática o asociado a rotura de membranas y 35,89% por indicación médica. Dentro del grupo de indicaciones médicas un 19,25% de interrupciones no están basadas en evidencia y ninguna puramente electiva. Los PT, comparados con niños de término, tienen más riesgo de hospitalización y morbilidad neonatal; este riesgo es mayor a menor edad gestacional. CONCLUSIONES: En nuestro hospital 1 de cada 5 PT pudo haber nacido a una edad gestacional mayor, lo que podría haber evitado los riesgos perinatales asociados. Se sugiere que las instituciones de salud analicen las causas de interrupciones del embarazo en el grupo de PT, lo que podría ser un indicador de calidad obstétrica.


BACKGROUND: Children born between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation are called late-preterm infants. Represent 5 to 7% of live births and they are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality than term infants. OBJECTIVE: To analyze causes of late preterm births in our institution. To compare neonatal morbidity in late-preterm and term infants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study. Birth records between January 2009 and December 2012 were reviewed identifying live births between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 and between 39 0/6 and 40 6/7 weeks of gestation. Clinical group of preterm labor to which they belong was identified. Frequency of perinatal outcomes of late-preterm and term infants were compared. RESULTS: In the period under study there were 8890 live birth. The late-preterm birth rate was 7.49% (n = 666); 64.11% of them was idiopathic in cause or associated with rupture of membranes and 35.89% was for medical indication. In the group of medical indications 19.25% of the interruptions were not based on evidence and none were purely elective. Late-preterm infants have higher risk of hospitalization and neonatal morbidity than term infants; this risk is higher at earlier gestational ages. CONCLUSIONS: In our hospital 1 in 5 late-preterm birth could have been born at higher gestational age, preventing perinatal risks. It is suggested that health institutions analyze causes of interruption of pregnancy in the late-preterm group, which could constitute an indicator of obstetric quality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy Outcome , Chile , Causality , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Morbidity , Gestational Age , Live Birth , Infant, Premature, Diseases/etiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature/etiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature/epidemiology
15.
Lima; s.n; 2015. 38 p. tab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-782225

ABSTRACT

Conocer si existe diferencias en los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de los recién nacidos prematuros con peso al nacer entre 600 - 749 g, 750 - 999 g, 1000 - 1249 g y 1250 - 1499 g del servicio de Neonatología del Hospital San Juan de Dios de Ayaviri durante enero 2012 a octubre 2014. Material y métodos: El estudio fue de tipo descriptivo, transversal de casos y controles. La muestra estuvo constituida por 48 neonatos cuyo peso fue de 1250 - 1499 g y por 30 neonatos cuyo peso fue de 1000 - 1249 g en el periodo que corresponde al estudio. Se usó una ficha de datos la cual fue validada por los Médicos Asistentes del servicio de Neonatología del Hospital San Juan de Dios de Ayaviri. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó el programa SPSS versión 21. Resultados: Hubo asociación de recién nacidos con peso entre 1000 a 1249gr relacionados con morbilidad cardiorespiratoria (80 por ciento), y requerimiento de oxigeno (90 por ciento). Asimismo los recién nacidos entre 1250 a 1499gr tuvieron una mayor frecuencia de fototerapia en los recién nacidos prematuros entre 1250 a 1499 hubo 18,8 por ciento de mortalidad, y en los neonatos de 1000 a 1249 la frecuencia de mortalidad fue del 10 por ciento, no existiendo diferencias estadísticas. La tasa de mortalidad global fue del 15,4 por ciento (12/78). Encontramos que de los pacientes que fallecieron el 50 por ciento tuvo afección pulmonar. Conclusiones: Las patologías asociadas a mortalidad de mayor frecuencia fueron los problemas respiratorios. Encontramos asociación de la edad materna, primiparidad, morbilidad neonatal, y requerimiento de oxigeno en neonatos cuyo peso fluctuó entre 1000 a 1249g. La tasa de mortalidad global fue del 15,4 por ciento...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/mortality , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Survivorship , Retrospective Studies , Case-Control Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 283-289, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138285

ABSTRACT

Hypernatremic dehydration is an important cause of intracranial hemorrhage. A possible association of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) with hypernatremia and/or high sodium intake has been suggested in preterm infants. To investigate the associations of early fluid and sodium intake or serum sodium concentrations with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, we reviewed the medical records of 169 inborn ELBW infants. Daily fluid and sodium intake, urine output, weight loss and serum sodium concentration during the first 4 days of life were obtained. Patients were divided into the severe IVH (grade 3/4) and the control (no or grade 1/2 IVH) group. The maximum serum sodium concentration and the incidence of hypernatremia did not differ between the two groups. Related to the fluid balance and sodium intake, the risk for severe IVH was strongly associated with total fluid and sodium intake during the initial four days of life. With respect to the fluids other than transfusion, severe IVH can be discriminated only by sodium intake but not by fluid intake. Large randomized controlled trials are required to clarify the causal relationship between the early sodium intake and severe IVH in ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Birth Weight , Dehydration , Drinking , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hypernatremia/blood , Infant Mortality , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight/blood , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sodium/blood , Sodium, Dietary
17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 283-289, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138284

ABSTRACT

Hypernatremic dehydration is an important cause of intracranial hemorrhage. A possible association of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) with hypernatremia and/or high sodium intake has been suggested in preterm infants. To investigate the associations of early fluid and sodium intake or serum sodium concentrations with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, we reviewed the medical records of 169 inborn ELBW infants. Daily fluid and sodium intake, urine output, weight loss and serum sodium concentration during the first 4 days of life were obtained. Patients were divided into the severe IVH (grade 3/4) and the control (no or grade 1/2 IVH) group. The maximum serum sodium concentration and the incidence of hypernatremia did not differ between the two groups. Related to the fluid balance and sodium intake, the risk for severe IVH was strongly associated with total fluid and sodium intake during the initial four days of life. With respect to the fluids other than transfusion, severe IVH can be discriminated only by sodium intake but not by fluid intake. Large randomized controlled trials are required to clarify the causal relationship between the early sodium intake and severe IVH in ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Birth Weight , Dehydration , Drinking , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hypernatremia/blood , Infant Mortality , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight/blood , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sodium/blood , Sodium, Dietary
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 36(1): 10-16, 01/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-702028

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação de variáveis perinatais com o nascimento de recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso ao nascer (MBPN). MÉTODOS: Foi um estudo retrospectivo com análise de prontuários de recém-nascidos (RN) de parto pré-termo espontâneo com admissão em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. Os RN pré-termo foram distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo muito baixo peso ao nascer (MBPN; peso <1.500g) e grupo baixo peso ao nascer (BPN; peso ≥1.500g e <2.500g). Foram pesquisadas variáveis de pré-natal maternas de intercorrências durante a gestação e parto/periparto e intercorrências fetal/neonatal. Foi realizada análise estatística por meio do teste exato de Fisher ou χ2, com cálculo do risco relativo (RR), considerando valor p≤0,05 e teste t de Student para comparação das médias dos grupos. RESULTADOS: As comorbidades hemorrágicas (p=0,006; RR=1,2) e hipertensivas (p=0,04; RR=1,5), parto operatório (p=0,001; RR=0,5), idade gestacional <33 semanas (p<0,001; RR=16,7) e Apgar de 1° e 5° minuto (p=0,006; RR=1,6; p=0,01; RR=1,9) estiveram associadas à ocorrência de MBPN. Os RN com MBPN apresentaram associação significativa para ocorrência de comorbidades metabólicas (p=0,01; RR=1,8), neurológicas (p=0,01; RR=1,7) e infecciosas (p=0,001; RR=1,9), período de internação >4 semanas (p=0,02; RR=1,8) e óbito neonatal precoce (p=0,001; RR=2,9). CONCLUSÕES: Fatores como comorbidades hipertensivas e hemorrágicas durante a gestação e parto com idade gestacional inferior a 33 semanas foram associadas ao nascimento de recém-nascidos de MBPN. Esse grupo de recém-natos também apresentou RR elevado para a ocorrência de óbito neonatal precoce. .


PURPOSE: To investigate the association of perinatal variables with the birth of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm newborns. METHODS: It was a retrospective study of the medical records of infants born after spontaneous preterm labor with admission to a neonatal intensive care unit. Preterm infants were divided into two groups: very low birth weight (VLBW) group (weight <1,500 g) and low birth weight (LBW) group (weight ≥1,500 g and <2,500 g). Prenatal variables such as maternal complications during pregnancy and childbirth/postpartum, and fetal/neonatal complications were investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test or χ2 test, with calculation of relative risk (RR), and the Student t test for comparison of group means, with the level of significance set at p≤0.05. RESULTS: Hemorrhagic comorbidities (p=0.006; RR=1.2) and hypertension (p=0.04; RR=1.5), surgical delivery (p=0.001; RR=0.5), gestational age <33 weeks (p< 0.001; RR=16.7) and Apgar score at 1st and 5th minute (p=0.006; RR=1.6; p=0.01; RR=1.9) were associated with the occurrence of VLBW. Infants with VLBW had a significant association with the occurrence of metabolic comorbidities (p=0.01; RR=1.8), neurological (p=0.01; RR=1.7) and infectious diseases (p=0.001; RR=1.9), hospitalization >4 weeks (p=0.02; RR=1.8) and early neonatal death (p=0.0001; RR=2.9). CONCLUSIONS: Factors such as hypertension and bleeding comorbidities during delivery and management of gestational age of less than 33 weeks were associated with the birth of VLBW newborns. This group of infants also showed higher RR for the occurrence of early neonatal death. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Fetal Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Brazil , Hospitals, Public , Hospitals, University , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Retrospective Studies
19.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 34(4): 21-27, dez. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-704296

ABSTRACT

O estudo investigou desfechos clínicos do primeiro ano de vida de prematuros egressos da Unidade de Terapia Neonatal (UTIN), a partir de dados da mortalidade, reinternação e do desenvolvimento motor destas crianças. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa de coorte retrospectiva. A amostra foi composta 170 de crianças, com idade gestacional menor que 37 semanas, que sobreviveram à internação na UTIN. Os dados foram coletados dos prontuários, do sistema informatizado do hospital e de entrevista telefônica com o responsável pela criança. Observou-se 100% de sobrevida no período estudado, 39,4% dos RN apresentaram reinternações hospitalares, frequentemente (26,5%) por afecções respiratórias. Quanto ao desenvolvimento, verificou-se que, utilizando-se a idade corrigida, foi considerado dentro do esperado. Ao término deste estudo, concluiu-se que os prematuros dos estudos apresentaram boa evolução clínica de observação proposta.


The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate clinical outcomes of the first year of life of premature infants discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) based on mortality and readmission data, and the motor development of the children. The sample consisted of 170 children with gestational age under 37 weeks and who survived hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Data were collected from medical records, the hospital IT system and telephone interview with the caregiver. The authors found 100% survival during the study period and that 39.4% of the infants were often readmitted (26.5%) due to respiratory conditions. Their development was considered as expected, when using the corrected age. In conclusion, the premature infants from this study showed good clinical evolution of the proposed observation.


En este estudio se investigaron los resultados clínicos de los primeros años de vida en los recién nacidos prematuros dados de alta de la Unidad de Cuidados Neonatales (UCIN) de los datos de mortalidad, de la readmisión y el desarrollo motor de los niños. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes. La muestra consistió en 170 niños con edad gestacional inferior a 37 semanas que sobrevivieron a la hospitalización en la UCIN. Los datos se obtuvieron de los registros médicos y el hospital sistema de TI y entrevista telefónica con el cuidador. Se observó 100% de supervivencia durante el período de estudio, el 39,4% de los niños tenía reingresos con frecuencia (26,5%) debido a enfermedades respiratorias. En cuanto al desarrollo, se encontró que el uso de la edad corregida se consideró como dentro de lo esperado. Al final de este estudio, se concluyó que el prematuro de los estudios mostró buena evolución clínica de observación propuesta.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases , Cohort Studies , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
20.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 78(2): 88-94, 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-682336

ABSTRACT

El cerclaje es un factor de riesgo de rotura prematura pretérmino de membranas (RPPM). La RPPM ocurre en aproximadamente un 38-65 por ciento de los embarazos con cerclaje y no existe consenso aún sobre cuál es el manejo más adecuado: retirar o mantener el cerclaje. En esta revisión presentamos la evidencia disponible en relación al retiro versus mantención del cerclaje y su directa influencia sobre el resultado materno-perinatal, con el objetivo de proponer una pauta de manejo. La mantención del cerclaje se asoció a un aumento de la latencia al parto mayor a 48 horas, a un aumento en la incidencia de corioamnionitis clínica, y aumento en la incidencia de mortalidad neonatal por sepsis. Conclusión: en pacientes embarazadas con cerclaje que presentan RPPM antes de las 34 semanas proponemos como la conducta más adecuada la mantención del cerclaje sólo hasta completar la inducción de madurez pulmonar con corticoides, luego retirar el cerclaje y proceder al manejo habitual de un embarazo con RPPM antes de las 34 semanas.


Cervical cerclage is a risk factor for preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). PPROM occurs in about 38-65 percent of pregnancies with cerclage. There is no consensus on whether to remove or retain the cerclage after PPROM. Here we review the evidence about clinical management of PPROM in women with cerclage and its influence on maternal and neonatal outcome. Retained cerclage was found to be associated to a prolongation of pregnancy by more than 48 hours, to a higher incidence of maternal chorioamnionitis and to a higher incidence of neonatal mortality from sepsis. In pregnancies with cerclage complicated with PPROM before 34 weeks we propose to retain the cerclage just enough time to complete fetal lung maturation with corticosteroid therapy, then remove the cerclage and manage pregnancy as any PPROM before 34 weeks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Cerclage, Cervical/adverse effects , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture/epidemiology , Cerclage, Cervical/methods , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Gestational Age , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Infant Mortality , Pregnancy Outcome , Sepsis/epidemiology , Decision Making
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