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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(3): 804-815, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289819

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La covid-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, y es capaz de provocar un cuadro clínico variable. Los individuos que están en contacto estrecho con pacientes positivos de esta enfermedad, tienen un mayor riesgo de infección. Así les sucede a los trabajadores de la salud que atienden directamente a pacientes. Al igual que otros servicios de salud, la atención estomatológica requiere del contacto estrecho entre el profesional y el paciente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir las principales recomendaciones para la prevención y control de infecciones por SARS-CoV-2 en los servicios de Prótesis. En la práctica dental, la prevención, el control y la reducción de la transmisión de infecciones se realiza a través del uso del equipo de protección personal y de un conjunto de procedimientos de descontaminación, desinfección y esterilización en cualquier superficie o instrumento. La constante actualización científica y la adopción de medidas de protección antes, durante y después de la atención estomatológica, podrán garantizar el éxito de la atención médica con el mínimo riesgo de contagio (AU).


ABSTRACT COVID-19 is an infectious diseases caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, and it is able to provoke variable clinical characteristics. The individuals that are in close contact with this disease positive patients are at higher infection risk. That is the case of the heath care workers directly caring for patients. As in any health service, dentistry care requires the narrow contact between the professional and the patient. The aim of this paper was describing the main recommendations for preventing and control SARS-CoV-2 in Prosthetic services. In the dental practice, the prevention, control and reduction of infection transmission is achieved using the personal protection equipment and a whole of decontamination, disinfection and sterilization procedures in any surface or device. The constant scientific updating and adopting protection measures before, during and after the dentistry care can ensure the success of health care with the minimal risk of contagion (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dental Prosthesis/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Oral Medicine/education , Oral Medicine/methods , Ambulatory Care/methods
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e046, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153606

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Several guidelines for dental practice have been published by dental associations and regulatory boards since the beginning of the pandemic. Initially, all non-emergency dental treatment were suspended. Healthcare personnel around the world are gradually expanding back to elective procedures. International updated recommendations alert that professionals must maintain regular observation of local health department reports, ensure personal protective equipment, and screen all patients for COVID-19 signs and symptoms. Telehealth strategies, patient screening, rescheduling when presenting COVID-19 symptoms and/or history of contact with infected people and hand/environment hygiene practices are reinforced. Appropriate cleaning and surface disinfection are mandatory. The dental staff must be trained to use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), following a risk assessment and standard precautions: gloves; fluid resistant disposable gown, eye protection (face shield or goggles) and a medical mask. A fit tested N95 or KN95 respirator (or higher) is recommended when aerosol generating procedures are performed. Only essential accompanying persons should attend to dental appointment with the patient and must wear a cloth face covering or facemask. Social distancing and mask wearing by all staff are necessary in all areas of the office. Dental health care providers should keep up to date to the current guidance of clinical practice during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Dental Care , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 474-480, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134523

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La nueva enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es la última patología de preocupación internacional. Originada en Wuhan, China, se extendió rápidamente a nivel mundial, razón por la cual fue declarada una emergencia de salud pública. Sus síntomas principales son fiebre, tos, dolor de garganta, dificultad respiratoria, fatiga, malestar general y la anosmia, que ha sido incorporada recientemente. Sin embargo, también se han descrito múltiples casos asintomáticos que han alarmado a la población general. Esta enfermedad, se caracteriza por su alta tasa de contagio y su mecanismo de propagación es el contacto cercano entre personas y a través de fluidos corporales como la saliva y secreciones de las vías aéreas. El personal de salud es especialmente vulnerable a la infección debido a su gran exposición a las secreciones oronasales de los pacientes, sobre todo, aquellas especialidades médicas y odontológicas cuyo campo de acción se centra en estas áreas, siendo la cirugía oral y maxilofacial una de ellas, teniendo un alto riesgo de transmisión de SARS-CoV-2. Por lo tanto, es fundamental para este personal, seguir protocolos de prevención y control de infecciones, junto con una correcta anamnesis, examen y diagnóstico de los pacientes que permita establecer una priorización en las atenciones quirúrgicas, disminuyendo la propagación del virus. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer las recomendaciones básicas para la priorización de pacientes y el cuidado en los procedimientos quirúrgicos por parte del equipo de cirugía maxilofacial durante la pandemia por COVID-19.


ABSTRACT: The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest pathology of international concern. Originating in Wuhan, China, it spread rapidly worldwide, which is why it was declared a public health emergency. Its main symptoms are fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, fatigue, general discomfort, and anosmia, which has been recently incorporated. However, multiple asymptomatic cases have also been described that have alarmed the general population. This disease is characterized by its high contagion rate and its propagation mechanism is close contact between people and through bodily fluids such as saliva and airway secretions. Health personnel are especially vulnerable to infection due to their high exposure to patients' oronasal secretions, especially those medical and dental specialties whose field of action focuses on these areas, oral and maxillofacial surgery being one of them, having a high risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, it is essential for these personnel to follow infection prevention and control protocols, together with a correct anamnesis, examination, and diagnosis of patients, which allows prioritizing surgical care, reducing the spread of the virus. The objective of this review is to know the basic recommendations for patient prioritization and care in surgical procedures by the maxillofacial surgery team during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surgery, Oral/methods , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Surgery, Oral/classification , Algorithms , Elective Surgical Procedures , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Personal Protective Equipment
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 523-528, dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134531

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During the current coronavirus epidemic, personal protective equipment has become a vital issue. Depending on the procedure, the generation of aerosols increases the risk of infection for healthcare professionals. However, in dentistry, there is a high risk of contamination from blood or tissue fluids, generated in surgical procedures with ultrason ic and high-speed cutting devices. Thus, the creation of a prototype with a functional respiratory protection system offers filtered air at the entrance and exit of the circuit, also benefiting the patient. This experimental and unprecedented air purification system has 99.9 % high efficiency filters, positive and negative pressure control and also generates an internal balance of air flow; its purpose is to maintain the facial seal of the snorkel mask. The results showed that this air purificat ion system could be an option in environments contaminated by aerosol caused by rotary intruments in dentistry.


RESUMEN: Durante la actual epidemia de coronavirus, el equipo de protección personal se ha convertido en un problema vital. Dependiendo del procedimiento, la generación de aerosoles aumenta el riesgo de infección para los profesionales de la salud. Sin embargo, en odontología, existe un alto riesgo de contaminación por sangre o fluidos tisulares, generados en procedimientos quirúrgicos con dispositivos de corte ultrasónicos y de alta velocidad. Por lo tanto, la creación de un prototipo con un sistema funcional de protección respiratoria ofrece aire filtrado a la entrada y salida del circuito, lo que también beneficia al paciente. Este sistema de purificación de aire experimental y sin precedentes tiene 99.9 % de filtros de alta eficiencia, control de presión positiva y negativa y también genera un equilibrio interno del flujo de aire; Su propósito es mantener el sello facial de la máscara de snorkel. Los resultados mostraron que este sistema de purificación de aire podría ser una opción en ambientes contaminados por aerosoles causados por instrumentos rotativos en odontología.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dentistry/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Aerosols , Air Filters , Betacoronavirus , Masks
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): S183-S186, dic 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146242

ABSTRACT

Las estadísticas arrojadas por la pandemia de COVID-19 evidencian que el impacto sobre la población pediátrica no ha tenido la magnitud mostrada en los adultos. Aun así, tanto para los pediatras como para el resto de los integrantes de los equipos de salud, se plantea un dilema entre el mantenimiento de la responsabilidad, el compromiso en la atención de los pacientes afectados y las dudas e incertidumbres surgidas frente a la posibilidad de contraer la enfermedad y de trasmitirla a los seres más cercanos. Desde allí, se estructuran dos cuestiones centrales: ¿existe un límite moral frente a la posibilidad de correr riesgos durante el ejercicio profesional?, ¿qué influencia tiene la dificultad de acceso a mecanismos de protección imprescindibles para disminuir los riesgos que aquel implica? Consideramos que la bioética puede actuar como una herramienta que permita reflexionar sobre estos y otros aspectos a los que la actual pandemia nos enfrenta


It has been demonstrated by statistics that COVID-19 pandemic has not been as aggressive among pediatric population as in adults. Yet, pediatricians and the rest of the health care team face the dilemma of keeping the commitment and responsibilities towards the patients or withstanding the uncertainties arising versus the possibilities of getting infected and spreading it to their beloved ones.There are two main issues: during the professional everyday practice, is there a moral limit when it comes to taking risks? And what is the importance of having difficulty in getting the proper safety equipment in order to decrease the potential risks? Bioethics, as we think, may work as a tool, helping us all to ponder this and the many other bearings we are facing with the current pandemic


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pediatrics/ethics , Bioethics , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pediatrics/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
9.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(9): 562-568, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present comprehensive review aims to show the full extent of what is known to date and provide a more thorough view on the effects of SARS-CoV2 in pregnancy. Methods Between March 29 and May, 2020, the words COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID- 19 and pregnancy, SARS-CoV2 and pregnancy, and SARS and pregnancy were searched in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases; the guidelines from well-known societies and institutions (Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists [RCOG], American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology [ISUOG], Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO]) were also included. Conclusion The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in a pandemic with > 3.3 million cases and 230 thousand deaths until May 2nd. It is caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus and may lead to severe pulmonary infection and multi-organ failure. Past experiences show that unique characteristics in pregnancy make pregnant women more susceptible to complications from viral infections. Yet, this has not been reported with this new virus. There are risk factors that seem to increase morbidity in pregnancy, such as obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 35), asthma and cardiovascular disease. Current reports describe an increased rate of pretermbirth and C-section. Vertical transmission


Resumo Objetivo A presente revisão detalhada busca fornecer dados objetivos para avaliar o que se sabe até o momento e possibilitar uma visãomais ampla dos efeitos do SARSCoV2 na gravidez. Métodos Entre 29 demarço e 2 de maio de 2020, foi realizada uma busca nos bancos de dados PubMed e Google Scholar com as palavras COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19 e gravidez, SARS-CoV2 e gravidez, e SARS e gravidez. As recomendações dos principais órgãos sobre o tema também foram acessadas. Conclusão O surto de COVID-19 resultou em uma pandemia com> 3.3 milhões de casos e 230 mil mortes até 2 de maio. É uma condição causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV2 e pode levar ao acometimento pulmonar difuso e à falência de múltiplos órgãos. Características únicas da gestante tornam essa população mais propensas a complicações de infecções virais. Até o momento, essa tendência não foi observada para esse novo vírus. Os fatores que parecem estar associados à maior morbidade materno-fetal são obesidade (índice demassa corporal [IMC] > 35), asma e doença cardiovascular. Há descrição de aumento de parto prematuro e parto cesáreo. Não se pode descartar a possibilidade de transmissão vertical da doença, devido a relatos de positividade de reação em cadeia de polimerase (RT-PCR) de swab nasal, RT-PCR de líquido amniótico e imunoglobulina M (IgM) de recém-nascidos. Tratamentos devem ser analisados caso a caso, dada a falta de qualidade de estudos que comprovem a sua eficácia e segurança na gravidez. O corpo clínico deve utilizar equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) ao manusear pacientes suspeitos ou confirmados e ficar atento aos sinais de descompensação respiratória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Global Health , Risk Factors , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Perinatal Care/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
10.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S67-S74, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La reciente pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ha hecho resurgir preocupación sobre la exposición inadvertida del equipo quirúrgico a agentes infecciosos transmisibles por vía aérea durante el acto quirúrgico. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la confección de un sistema de filtrado simple y de bajo costo que permite reducir el riesgo de exposición al virus, particularmente en el proceso de aspiración, recambio y remoción del neumoperitoneo en cirugía laparoscópica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODO: Se diseñó e implementó un circuito cerrado de evacuación y de filtrado del neumoperitoneo en cirugías ginecológicas laparoscópicas en un centro de salud terciario. El circuito incluye un filtro HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) y una trampa de vacío que contiene una solución de inactivación en base a amonio cuaternario o hipoclorito de sodio. RESULTADOS: Desde su implementación se han realizado 17 cirugías laparoscópicas ginecológicas por diversas patologías. Dos de ellas fueron en pacientes Covid-19 (+). A la fecha no se han reportado contagios en el equipo médico que participó en la cirugía. CONCLUSIONES: Es posible implementar un sistema de evacuación del neumoperitoneo en cirugía laparoscópica presumiblemente eficaz en minimizar el riesgo de exposición al virus SARS-COV-2 (Covid-19). Su bajo costo lo hace especialmente recomendable en países en vías de desarrollo.


INTRODUCTION: The recent SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemics has raised concern on the incidental exposition of health team to air transmissible infectious agents during surgeries. The main goal of this work is to communicate a simple and low-cost filtering system allowing to reduce the risk of contagion related to the virus, associated with pneumoperitoneum removal during surgical laparoscopy. METHODS: A closed circuit of gas removal and filtering was developed and implemented in laparoscopic gynecologic procedures at a tertiary teaching hospital. The circuit included an HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter and a vacuum trap containing an inactivating solution based on quaternary ammonium or sodium hypochlorite. RESULTS: Since its introduction, seventeen laparoscopic surgeries have been carried out for different gynecologic pathologies. Two of them in Covid (+) cases. To date, no contagion has been reported among health teammates participating in these surgeries. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to implement a pneumoperitoneum evacuation system in laparoscopic surgery presumably effective in minimizing the risk of exposure to the SARS-COV-2 virus (Covid-19). Its low cost makes it especially recommended in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumoperitoneum , Security Measures , Sodium Hypochlorite , Laparoscopy/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Low Cost Technology , Ammonium Compounds , Betacoronavirus
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 430-439, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131732

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a potential threat to patients with autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Such patients are usually treated with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive agents, which may tamper with the organism's normal response to infections. Currently, no consensus has been reached on how to manage MS and NMOSD patients during the pandemic. Objective: To discuss strategies to manage those patients. Methods: We focus on how to 1) reduce COVID-19 infection risk, such as social distancing, telemedicine, and wider interval between laboratory testing/imaging; 2) manage relapses, such as avoiding treatment of mild relapse and using oral steroids; 3) manage disease-modifying therapies, such as preference for drugs associated with lower infection risk (interferons, glatiramer, teriflunomide, and natalizumab) and extended-interval dosing of natalizumab, when safe; 4) individualize the chosen MS induction-therapy (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, alemtuzumab, and cladribine); 5) manage NMOSD preventive therapies, including initial therapy selection and current treatment maintenance; 6) manage MS/NMOSD patients infected with COVID-19. Conclusions: In the future, real-world case series of MS/NMOSD patients infected with COVID-19 will help us define the best management strategies. For the time being, we rely on expert experience and guidance.


RESUMO Introdução: A mais recente pandemia causada pelo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19, do inglês coronavirus disease 2019) representa uma ameaça potencial para pacientes com doenças autoimunes, incluindo esclerose múltipla (EM) e transtorno do espectro de neuromielite óptica (NMOSD, do inglês neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders). Esses pacientes são geralmente tratados com medicamentos imunomoduladores ou imunossupressores que podem alterar a resposta normal do organismo a infecções. Até o momento, não há consenso sobre como o manejo dos pacientes com EM e NMOSD deve ser realizado durante a pandemia. Objetivo: Discutir estratégias para manejar esses pacientes. Métodos: Focamos em como 1) reduzir o risco de infecção por COVID-19, como distanciamento social, telemedicina e exames laboratoriais e de imagem em intervalos mais amplos; 2) manejo de surtos, incluindo evitar tratamento de surto leve e uso de corticoide oral; 3) gerenciar terapias modificadoras de doença, como a preferência por medicamentos associados a menor risco de infecção (interferons, glatirâmer, teriflunomida e natalizumabe) e infusão em intervalo estendido de natalizumabe, quando seguro; 4) individualizar a escolha da terapia de indução para EM (anticorpos monoclonais anti-CD20, alentuzumabe e cladribina); 5) manejar terapias preventivas de NMOSD, incluindo seleção inicial de terapia e manutenção do tratamento atual; 6) manejar pacientes com EM/NMOSD que foram infectados por COVID-19. Conclusão: No futuro, séries de casos de pacientes com MS/NMOSD infectados com COVID-19 nos ajudará a definir as melhores estratégias de manejo. Por enquanto, contamos com a experiência e orientação especializadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Risk , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Telemedicine , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(supl.1): 201-206, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134282

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Proposal: To highlight the indications for emergency surgery during the 2019 Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) that support recommendations published in midMarch 2020 by the American Confederation of Urology on its website. Materials and Methods: A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane Library to perform a non-systematic review, using key words: Urology, Emergency and COVID-19, to determine recommendations for patients that should receive emergency care due to urological pathology. Results: The main recommendations and protocols in the management of different urological emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic are reviewed and discussed. Conclusions: We are living a new condition with the COVID-19 pandemic, which obliges urologists to conform to the guidelines that appear on a daily basis formulated by multidisciplinary surgical groups to manage urological emergencies. Consequently, in this time of health crisis, we must adapt to the resources available, implementing all biosecurity measures to protect patients and all health personnel who are in charge of patient management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Urology/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pandemics , Urologists/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Urologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Urology/trends , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(supl.1): 113-119, July 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134275

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A new outbreak of respiratory infection caused by the novel coronavirus in late December 2019 in China caused standards of medical care to change not only for related areas but for the entire healthcare system, and when the WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic new strategies of patient care had to be defined initially to optimize resources to confront the pandemic and then to protect healthcare personnel. As urologists, we must be involved in these new standards, since without an effective vaccine the risk of contagion is high; thus, the purpose of this review is to have orientation on the measures urologists should take in their everyday clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Urologists/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
14.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 247-249, may.-jun. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249901

ABSTRACT

Resumen Con excepción de las mujeres embarazadas, el manejo de los pacientes adultos graves con COVID-19 durante la pandemia incluye los procedimientos estándar que se llevan a cabo en cualquier paciente que requiere atención en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, así como la administración limitada de las soluciones cristaloides, la intubación orotraqueal, la ventilación mecánica invasiva ante deterioro clínico del paciente y la relajación muscular en infusión continua solo cuando sea necesaria. No se recomienda la ventilación mecánica no invasiva, la oxigenoterapia de alto flujo debido a la generación de aerosol (asociado con riesgo de propagación del virus entre el personal de salud), la oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea ni el empleo de esteroides. Hasta el momento no hay tratamiento antiviral específico para pacientes con COVID-19 ni resultados de estudios controlados que avalen su uso.


Abstract Except for pregnant women, the management of critically ill patients with COVID-19 during the pandemic includes the standard procedures that are used for any patient that requires to be attended to at the intensive care unit, as well as limited administration of crystalloid solutions, orotracheal intubation, invasive mechanical ventilation in the event of patient clinical deterioration, and muscle relaxants continuous infusion only if necessary. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy are not recommended due to the generation of aerosol (associated with risk of viral spread among health personnel), and neither is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or the use of steroids. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment for patients with COVID-19, and neither are there results of controlled trials supporting the use of any.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Critical Illness , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics , COVID-19
15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 273-280, May-June 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132602

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: We are facing a pandemic with a great impact worldwide, as a result of the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). The medical community is still getting to know behavior of this virus and the consequences from a population point of view. All this knowledge is extremely dynamic, so some behaviors are still not well established. Otorhinolaryngologists have a central role in the management of this situation, in which they must assess the patient, avoid contamination to and by health professionals and other patients. Thus, the recommendations of the Brazilian Association of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervical-Facial Surgery (ABORL-CCF) have the main objective of reducing the spread of the new coronavirus during otorhinolaryngological care and assisting in the management of these patients. Methods: Review of the main recommendations of national and international scientific societies, decisions by government agencies and class councils. The topics will be related to the general aspects of COVID-19, personal protective equipment, care in patient assistance, endoscopic exam routines and the management of sinonasal, otological and pediatric evaluations related to COVID-19. Results: The use of personal protective equipment is considered crucial in routine ENT care. We recommend postponing appointments, exams and elective surgeries to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Similarly, we recommend changing routines in several areas of otolaryngology. Additionally, guidance is provided on the use of telemedicine resources during the pandemic period. Conclusions: We are still at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and scientific evidence is still scarce and incomplete, so these ABORL-CCF recommendations for otorhinolaryngologists may be updated based on new knowledge and the pattern of the new coronavirus spread.


Resumo: Introdução: Estamos diante de uma pandemia de grande impacto mundial como resultado da rápida propagação do novo coronavírus, COVID-19. A comunidade médica está ainda conhecendo o comportamento desse vírus e as repercussões do ponto de vista populacional. Todo esse conhecimento é extremamente dinâmico, por isso algumas condutas ainda não estão bem estabelecidas. O otorrinolaringologista tem um papel central no manejo dessa situação em que deve avaliar o paciente e evitar a contaminação dos profissionais da saúde e dos demais pacientes. Dessa forma, as recomendações da Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial (ABORL-CCF) têm por objetivo principal reduzir a propagação do novo coronavírus durante o atendimento otorrinolaringológico e auxiliar no manejo desses pacientes. Método: Revisão das principais recomendações das sociedades científicas nacionais, internacionais, decisões de órgãos governamentais e de conselhos de classe. Os tópicos serão relativos aos aspectos gerais do COVID-19, equipamentos de proteção individual, cuidados no atendimento ao paciente, as rotinas dos exames endoscópicos e o manejo de aspectos nasossinusais, otológicos e pediátricos relacionados ao COVID-19. Resultados: É considerado crucial o uso de equipamento de proteção individual no atendimento otorrinolaringológico de rotina. Recomendamos postergar atendimentos, exames e cirurgias eletivas para diminuir a propagação do COVID-19. Da mesma forma, recomendamos mudança de rotinas em diversas áreas da otorrinolaringologia. Além disso, orientações sobre o uso do recurso da telemedicina durante o período de vigência da pandemia. Conclusões: Estamos ainda no início da pandemia do COVID-19 e as evidências científicas são ainda escassas, por isso essas recomendações da ABORL-CCF para os otorrinolaringologistas podem sofrer atualizações baseadas nos novos conhecimentos e no padrão de disseminação do novo coronavírus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otolaryngology/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Betacoronavirus , Societies, Medical , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 689-696, mayo 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139354

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2), is a pandemic disease declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). This disease reports a high risk of contagion, especially by the transmission of aerosols in health care workers. In this scenario, aerosol exposure is increased in various procedures related to the airway, lungs, and pleural space. For this reason, it is important to have recommendations that reduce the risk of exposure and infection with COVID-19. In this document, a team of international specialists in interventional pulmonology elaborated a series of recommendations, based on the available evidence to define the risk stratification, diagnostic methods and technical considerations on procedures such as bronchoscopy, tracheostomy, and pleural procedures among others. As well as the precautions to reduce the risk of contagion when carrying out pulmonary interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics , Infection Control
18.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e3245, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251706

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El brote de la enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ha sido declarado emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional. Los estomatólogos, entre el personal sanitario, son los más expuestos a la enfermedad porque su área de trabajo es la boca, sitio que se reconoce como el lugar a partir del cual se contagia la enfermedad. Objetivo: Esclarecer elementos relacionados con la COVID-19 y las medidas a tener en cuenta para la prevención del contagio del personal de salud del área estomatológica. Comentarios principales: No se ha descubierto un método único que cumpla con todos los requisitos con respecto a las infecciones asociadas a la atención médica. En el enfrentamiento a la COVID-19 cumplen un papel importante las precauciones estándares, o sea, medidas que se aplican a todos los pacientes, independientemente del diagnóstico o de si se conoce si tiene una infección o está colonizado por un agente. El SARS-CoV-2 es un virus envuelto, y esta característica lo hace más sensible a la acción de las sustancias desinfectantes. Consideraciones globales: La COVID-19 manifiesta síntomas no específicos. Los más comunes son fiebre, anorexia y tos seca. La transmisión probablemente ocurre a través de la propagación del virus en el aire y por contacto. Con la implementación de precauciones estándares entre las que se encuentran la higiene de las manos, uso de equipos de protección personal y el cuidado del medio ambiente, se puede disminuir la posibilidad del contagio y contribuir a controlar la diseminación. Es importante que los proveedores de atención médica, dentro de los que se encuentra el personal de salud del área estomatológica, y el público conozcan este nuevo virus para que las acciones coordinadas, oportunas y efectivas puedan ayudar a prevenir casos adicionales o malos resultados ante el enfrentamiento a esta pandemia(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a worldwide public health emergency. Dentists are the health care providers most directly exposed to this condition, since their area of activity is the mouth, a location recognized as the site through which the disease is transmitted. Objective: Clarify some notions about COVID-19 and the measures to be taken to prevent transmission to dental care providers. Main remarks: A single method has not been discovered which meets all the requirements concerning infections associated to medical care. In the struggle against COVID-19 an important role is played by standard precautions, i.e. measures applied to all patients, irrespective of their diagnosis or whether they are known to have an infection or be colonized by a given agent. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus, a characteristic that makes it more sensitive to the action of disinfectants. General considerations: COVID-19 presents non-specific symptoms, the most common of which are fever, anorexia and dry coughing. Transmission probably occurs by the spread of the virus in the air and by direct contact. Implementation of standard precautions, among which are hand hygiene, the use of personal protection equipment and care for the environment, will lead to a reduction in the chances of contagion and will contribute to control the spread of the disease. It is important for medical care providers, among them dental care professionals, and the public at large to know about this new virus, so that coordinated, timely and effective actions may be taken which will help prevent the occurrence of new cases or bad results in the struggle against this pandemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Care/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Personal Protection/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hand Hygiene/methods
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877712

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 has presented multiple challenges to global healthcare services, dictating changes in almost every aspect of daily medical practice. Performing aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) in the field of interventional pulmonology can lead to profound formation of aerosols, leading to a high risk of infection among healthcare workers (HCWs). We share our experiences on performing AGPs in the midst of a COVID-19 pandemic by focusing on changes in AGP practices. In a pandemic, HCWs ought to adapt to the ever-changing situation and use available resources to provide the best possible healthcare to patients, ensure safety of staff, and continue medical education of future pulmonologists.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Bronchoscopy/trends , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Infection Control/trends , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Malaysia , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Tertiary Care Centers , Thoracoscopy/trends
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200358, 2020.
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136819

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The spread of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has generated the collapse of health care systems and significant impacts on the health of the workers involved in combatting the disease worldwide. METHODS: We conducted an integrative literature review focusing on the alternatives implemented to develop care for frontline health care workers in times of COVID-19. RESULTS: Fifteen articles disclosed the importance of physical and mental care for workers. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive view of the health care worker's care is urgently needed to maintain the quality of health service offered to the population and preserve the health of frontline workers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Health Personnel/psychology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
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