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1.
Med. infant ; 30(3): 274-280, Septiembre 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1515976

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia del HIV a los antirretrovirales (ARVs) es una de las principales causas de fallo terapéutico en niños, niñas y adolescentes que conviven con el virus. Desde el año 2006, el Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Retrovirus del Hospital Garrahan realiza el estudio genotípico de resistencia (ER) del HIV-1 a los ARVs a fin de identificar mutaciones que disminuyen la susceptibilidad del virus a los fármacos que componen el tratamiento ARV. Objetivos: El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el tipo y frecuencia de resistencia del HIV a los ARVs, a través de un análisis de 371 ER realizados entre los años 2006 y 2021 en niños, niñas y adolescentes con HIV-1 adquirido por transmisión vertical y con solicitud médica de ER por presentar fallo terapéutico. Resultados: Entre los años 2006 y 2013 la proporción de casos con resistencia a al menos una clase de fármaco ARV fue mayor al 90%, sugiriendo una asociación directa entre el fallo virológico y la disminución en la susceptibilidad del HIV-1 a uno o más componentes del TARV. A partir del año 2012, se observa una disminución progresiva del nivel de resistencia de HIV-1, llegando al 50% en 2021 (p<0.0001). La frecuencia de mutaciones de resistencia fue diferente para cada una de las clases de ARVs. Mientras que la resistencia a INNTR no sufrió cambios significativos a lo largo del período de estudio, oscilando entre 27% y 75%. La proporción de mutaciones a IPs en pacientes con fallo virológico disminuyó de 87% en 2006 a 17% en 2021 y para los INTR, disminuyó de 79% en 2006 a 45% en 2021. Conclusión: El nivel de resistencia a los ARVs ha disminuido de manera sustancial a lo largo de los últimos 16 años, probablemente por el uso de nuevos fármacos ARV con alta potencia que posibilitaron la intensificación de los tratamientos ARV y la implementación de criterios de fallo terapéutico más estrictos tanto a nivel clínico como virológico (AU)


Introduction: HIV resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs is one of the main causes of therapeutic failure in children and adolescents living with the virus. Since 2006, the Cell Biology and Retrovirus Laboratory of the Garrahan Hospital has been performing the genotypic study of HIV-1 resistance to ARV drugs in order to identify mutations that reduce the susceptibility of the virus to the drugs that constitute ARV treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the type and frequency of HIV resistance to ARV drugs through an analysis of 371 genotype studies performed between 2006 and 2021 in children and adolescents with HIV-1 acquired through motherto-child transmission and with medical request for genotype study due to therapeutic failure. Results: Between 2006 and 2013, the proportion of cases with resistance to at least one ARV drug class was greater than 90%, suggesting a direct association between virologic failure and decreased susceptibility of HIV-1 to one or more components of ART. From 2012 onwards, a progressive decrease in the level of HIV-1 resistance was observed, reaching 50% in 2021 (p<0.0001). The frequency of resistant mutations was different for each of the ARV classes, while resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) did not change significantly over the study period, ranging from 27% to 75%. The proportion of drug-resistant mutations to protease inhibitors (PI) in patients with virologic failure decreased from 87% in 2006 to 17% in 2021 and for NNRTIs from 79% in 2006 to 45% in 2021. Conclusion: The level of resistance to ARV drugs has decreased substantially over the last 16 years, probably due to the use of new ARV drugs with high potency that allowed the intensification of ARV treatments and the implementation of stricter criteria for therapeutic failure both clinically and virologically (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Mutation , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
2.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(112): 27-35, 20230000. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1451761

ABSTRACT

ntroducción: Las infecciones perinatales pueden transmi-tirse al feto y al recién nacido. Sífilis, VIH y hepatitis B deben tamizarse durante la gestación.Objetivo: Conocer la incidencia, prevalencia y manejo de sífilis, VIH y hepatitis B en el binomio madre/hijo. Comparar resultados con estadísticas oficiales.Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico, mediante revisión de historias clínicas del Sana-torio de la Cañada y Hospital Pasteur, Villa María, Córdoba. Período 01/12/2020 al 31/07/2021. Resultados: Se estudiaron 870 embarazos, la incidencia de sífilis materna fue 52,87/1000 embarazos, 76,1% de las gestantes eran menores de 30 años y hubo 41% de diag-nósticos tardíos. La incidencia de sífilis congénita fue de 18,3/1000 RN vivos. La incidencia de VIH materno fue de 6,89/1000 embarazos, 66,7% tenían menos de 30 años y el 77,7% tuvo carga viral indetectable al parto. El 100% de los RN expuestos fueron estudiados, todos con carga viral indetectable al nacimien-to. No hubo casos de hepatitis B.Conclusión: 6,3% de las embarazadas presentaron al me-nos una serología reactiva y el mayor porcentaje diagnós-tico se centró en menores de 30 años. La incidencia de sífilis congénita superó la provincial y nacional (18,3 vs. 1,18 vs. 1,14). El porcentaje de positividad de VIH materno superó al provincial. No hubo transmisión vertical de VIH al nacimiento. La prevalencia de hepatitis B fue menor a las oficiales


Introduction: Perinatal infections can be transmitted to the fetus and new-born. Syphilis, HIV and Hepatitis B must be monitored during pregnancy.Objective: To know incidence, prevalence and management of syphilis, HIV and Hepatitis B in the mother/child binomial. To compare results with official statistics.Materials and methods: Retrospective, descriptive and analytical study, through the review of medical records from Sanatorio La Cañada and Hospital Pasteur in Villa Maria, Cordoba. Period 12/01/2020 to 07/31/2021.Results 870 pregnancies were studied, the incidence of maternal syphilis was 57.87/1000 pregnancies, 76.1% of pregnant women were under 30 years old, and there were 41% late diagnoses. The incidence of congenital syphilis was 18.3/1000 live newborns. The incidence of maternal HIV was 6.89/1000 pregnancies, 66.7% were women under 30 years old and 77.7% had undetectable viral load at birth. 100% of the exposed newborns were studied, all with undetectable viral load at birth. There were no cases of Hepatitis B.Conclusion: 6.3% of pregnant women presented at least one reactive serology and the highest diagnostic percentage was focused on those under 30 years old. The incidence of congenital syphilis exceeded the provincial and national data (18.3 vs 1.18 vs 1.14). The percentage of maternal HIV positivity was superior to the provincial one. There was no vertical transmission of HIV at birth. The prevalence of Hepatitis B was less than the official ones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Syphilis, Congenital/therapy , Prevalence , HIV/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Hepatitis B/therapy
3.
Distúrb. comun ; 35(1): e58742, 01/06/2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436216

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A integridade do sistema auditivo é essencial para o desenvolvimento das habilidades auditivas e aquisição da linguagem da criança. Considerando a alta prevalência de perda auditiva em recém-nascidos, devido a infecções congênitas que ocorrem durante a gestação, há a necessidade de investigar os efeitos da Covid-19 na audição do RN. Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre perda auditiva em neonatos de gestantes diagnosticadas com COVID-19. Estratégia de Pesquisa: A busca de artigos científicos foi realizada nas bases de dados Medline (Pubmed), LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science e Bireme sem restrição de idioma, período e localização. Para complementar e evitar viés de risco foi realizada uma busca por literatura cinzenta no Google Acadêmico. Critérios de Seleção: A revisão sistemática foi conduzida de acordo com as recomendações do Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) e incluiu estudos que pontuaram ≥ 6 pontos de acordo com o protocolo de pontuação qualitativa proposto por Pithon et al. (2015). Análise dos dados: Os artigos elegíveis foram analisados e quantificados seguindo os critérios propostos no presente estudo com juízes cegos nas etapas de recuperação. Resultados: foram recuperados 29 artigos com potencial de inclusão, dos quais 6 responderam à questão norteadora com potencial de elegibilidade. Quatro estudos encontrados não detectaram associação entre infecção materna por COVID-19 e perda auditiva congênita. Conclusão: A infecção por COVID-19 durante a gravidez não parece ser fator de risco para perda auditiva congênita e não foram verificadas alterações auditivas impactantes que comprometessem estes neonatos por infecção vertical. (AU)


Introduction: The integrity of the auditory system is essential for children to develop auditory skills and acquire language. Considering the high prevalence of hearing loss in newborns due to congenital infections that occur during pregnancy, there is a need to investigate the effects of COVID-19 on newborns' hearing. Objective: To verify the association between hearing loss in newborns whose mothers had been diagnosed with COVID-19 during pregnancy. Research Strategy: Scientific articles were searched in the MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science, and BIREME databases, without restrictions on the language, time, and place of study. The grey literature was also searched in Google Scholar to complement the sample and avoid risk bias. Selection Criteria: The systematic review followed the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and included studies that scored ≥ 6 points according to the protocol for qualitative scoring proposed by Pithon et al. (2015). Data analysis: It was performed using a specific form for systematic reviews prepared by two researchers in Excel®. Results: 29 potentially eligible articles were retrieved, six of which answered the research question. Four studies did not detect an association between maternal COVID-19 infection and congenital hearing loss. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection during pregnancy does not seem to be a risk factor for congenital hearing loss and there were no impacting hearing changes due to vertical infection that might affect these newborns. (AU)


Introducción: La integridad del sistema auditivo es fundamental para el desarrollo de las habilidades auditivas y la adquisición del lenguaje de los niños. Considerando la alta prevalencia de hipoacusia (HL) en recién nacidos (RN), debido a infecciones congénitas que ocurren durante el embarazo, surge la necesidad de investigar los efectos del Covid-19 en la audición del recién nacido. Objetivo: Verificar la asociación entre hipoacusia en neonatos de gestantes diagnosticadas con COVID-19. Estrategia de investigación: La búsqueda de artículos científicos se realizó en las bases de datos Medline (Pubmed), LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science y Bireme, sin restricción de idioma, período y ubicación. Para complementar y evitar sesgos de riesgo, se realizó una búsqueda de literatura gris en Google Scholar. Criterios de selección: La revisión sistemática se realizó de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de los Elementos de información preferidos para revisiones sistemáticas y metanálisis (PRISMA). Los estudios que obtuvieron una puntuación ≥ 6 puntos según el protocolo de puntuación cualitativa propuesto por Pithon et al. (2015). Análisis de datos: Se realizó mediante un formulario específico para revisión sistemática elaborado por dos investigadores del Programa Excel®. Resultados: se recuperaron 29 artículos con potencial de inclusión, de los cuales 6 respondieron a la pregunta orientadora Cuatro estudios encontrados no detectaron una asociación entre la infección materna por COVID-19 y la pérdida auditiva congénita. Conclusión: La infección por COVID-19 durante el embarazo no parece ser un factor de riesgo para la pérdida auditiva congénita y no hubo cambios auditivos impactantes que pudieran comprometer a estos recién nacidos debido a la infección vertical. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , COVID-19 , Hearing Loss/congenital , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Risk Factors , Hearing Loss/etiology
4.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(2): 92-100, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513198

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection with low-cost and accessible treatment; however, it is considered a public health problem. Further studies are needed to improve knowledge about the factors that may contribute to the mother-to-child transmission of syphilis. Given its high detection rate in pregnant women and the possible adverse events of syphilis in Brazil, the objective was to evaluate the association of individual and clinical characteristics of syphilis with the incidence of congenital syphilis in pregnant women. Methods: This retrospective study was performed in a medium-size municipality in the State of São Paulo. Notification forms from the Notifiable Diseases Information System were used and the occurrence of congenital syphilis was the outcome of the study. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression were performed with variables that obtained p values <0.25. Results: Most pregnant women were 20-34 years old (62.2%) and had white skin (63.2%) and incomplete elementary schooling (35.4%). The occurrence of congenital syphilis was associated with the maternal syphilis diagnosis (p<0,001) and with not performing the treponemal test during the prenatal examination (p =0.014). There was a greater risk for the occurrence of congenital syphilis in cases with late diagnosis during pregnancy (OR=16.48; 95%CI 3.22-84.26) and tertiary/latent clinical classification (OR=7.62; 95%CI 1.40-41.54). Conclusion: Maternal diagnosis in the third trimester of pregnancy and tertiary/latent clinical classification were the main risk factors for the occurrence of congenital syphilis, reinforcing the importance of a quality prenatal examination performed timely.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: A sífilis é uma Infecção Sexualmente Transmissível, com tratamento de baixo custo e acessível; porém, ela é considerada um problema de saúde pública. Para aprimorar o conhecimento sobre os fatores que podem contribuir para transmissão vertical da sífilis, mais estudos são necessários. Diante da elevada taxa de detecção em gestantes e dos possíveis eventos adversos da sífilis no Brasil, o objetivo foi avaliar a associação das características individuais e clínicas de sífilis com a incidência de sífilis congênita em gestantes. Métodos: Este estudo retrospectivo foi realizado em um município de médio porte no Estado de São Paulo. Foram usadas as fichas de notificação do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação e o desfecho do estudo foi a ocorrência de sífilis congênita. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística com as variáveis que obtiveram valores de p<0,25. Resultados: As maioria das gestantes tinha 20-34 anos (62,2%), era branca (63,2%), com escolaridade fundamental incompleta (35,4%). A ocorrência de sífilis congênita esteve associada ao diagnóstico de sífilis materno no terceiro trimestre de gestação (p<0,001) e com a não realização de teste treponêmico durante o pré-natal (p=0,014). Houve maior risco para a ocorrência de sífilis congênita os casos com diagnóstico tardio na gestação (OR=16,48; IC95% 3,22-84,26) e classificação clínica terciária/latente (OR=7,62; IC95% 1,40-41,54). Conclusão: Os principais fatores de risco para ocorrência de sífilis congênita foram o diagnóstico materno no terceiro trimestre de gestação e classificação clínica terciária/latente, reforçando a importância de um exame pré-natal de qualidade e em tempo oportuno.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: La sífilis es una Infección de Transmisión Sexual con tratamiento accesible y de bajo coste, sin embargo, es considerada un problema de salud pública. Se necesitan más estudios para mejorar el conocimiento sobre los factores que pueden contribuir a la transmisión maternoinfantil de la sífilis. Dada su alta tasa de detección en gestantes y los posibles eventos adversos de la sífilis en Brasil, el objetivo fue evaluar la asociación de las características individuales y clínicas de la sífilis con la incidencia de sífilis congénita en gestantes. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en una ciudad de mediano porte del Estado de São Paulo. Fueran utilizados formularios de notificación obligatoria del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria y el desenlance fue la ocurrencia de sífilis congénita. Se realizaron análisis bivariados y regresión logística con las variables que obtuvieron p-value<0,25. Resultados: La mayoría de las mujeres embarazadas tenían entre 20 y 34 años (62,2%), eran blancas (63,2%), con instrucción primaria incompleta (35,4%). La aparición de sífilis congénita se asoció con el diagnóstico de sífilis materna en el tercer trimestre del embarazo (p<0,001) y con la no realización de prueba treponémica durante el prenatal (p=0,014). Hubo un mayor riesgo de sífilis congénita en los casos diagnosticados tardíamente en el embarazo (OR=16,48; IC95% 3,22-84,26) y clasificación clínica terciaria/latente (OR=7,62; IC95% 1,40-41,54). Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo de aparición de sífilis congénita fueron el diagnóstico materno en el tercer trimestre de gestación y la clasificación clínica terciaria/tardía, lo que refuerza la importancia de una atención prenatal de calidad y oportuna.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Syphilis/transmission , Risk Factors , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Public Health
5.
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417814

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: No mundo, cerca de 16 milhões de mulheres vivem com HIV, muitas delas em idade reprodutiva. Esses níveis de infecção e as taxas de transmissão vertical ainda trazem grandes preocupações, devido à pouca intervenção terapêutica precoce em muitos países africanos. Em Moçambique, país da África Subsaariana, os índices de prevalência do HIV são de 13,2%, colocando o país em segundo lugar na conta de novas infecções, atrás apenas da África do Sul. OBJETIVO: Conhecer as experiências e as principais dificuldades vivenciadas pelas gestantes ou lactantes soropositivas e seus parceiros sexuais no contexto específico. METODOLOGIA: Estudo qualitativo realizado em Chókwè na província de Gaza- Moçambique. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com mulheres gestantes ou lactantes que vivem com HIV, com seus parceiros sexuais e com profissionais de saúde. Foram realizados grupos focais com mães mentoras e entrevista em grupo com pais mentores, as quais ocorreram no segundo semestre de 2021. As entrevistas e os encontros foram gravados com gravador de voz e transcritas na íntegra. As informações passaram pelo processo de análise temática. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo dez mulheres gestantes ou lactantes soropositivas e um parceiro sexual; treze mães mentoras e dois pais mentores; duas enfermeiras de Saúde Materno Infantil e uma psicóloga. Os achados revelam que as participantes associam o diagnóstico do HIV ao teste de gravidez ou ao parto, e o período da gestação e da amamentação é marcado pelo medo de infectar o filho com o vírus. As mulheres escondem seu estado sorológico do marido, da família e da comunidade por medo das consequências relacionadas com normas sociais rígidas e interferência de fatores culturais. Os resultados dos profissionais de saúde trouxeram aspectos similares aos das mulheres vivendo com HIV, entretanto, ressaltam a falta de profissionais para oferecer atendimento de qualidade. Constatou-se que na unidade de saúde e na comunidade utilizam palestras como única estratégia de educação em saúde, apesar da pouca eficácia. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que ainda existem muitas barreiras para prevenção da transmissão vertical em Moçambique, em especial, a qualidade do aconselhamento e dificuldades de acesso ao serviço, seja por falta de recursos ou pelas normas sociais e familiares que não reconhecem a autonomia da mulher. É necessario apoiar as mães que não desejam amamentar e aquelas que tem maior vulnerabilidade socioeconômica. Recomenda-se maior investimento nas estratégias de apoio psicossocial e envolvimento comunitário, utilizando alternativas como a Terapia Comunitária Integrativa (TCI) e Educação Popular. Sugere-se o envolvimento de lideranças comunitárias no processo de desenvolvimento de um programa de intervenção e promoção de saúde mental para mulheres gestantes ou lactantes soropositivas.


OBJECTIVE: In the world, about 16 million women are living with HIV, many of them in reproductive age. These levels of infection and vertical transmission rates are still of great concern, due to the lack of early therapeutic intervention in many African countries. In Mozambique, a country in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV prevalence rates are 13.2%, placing the country in second place in terms of new infections, behind only South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To know the experiences and the main difficulties experienced by HIV-positive pregnant or lactating women and their sexual partners in the specific context. METHODOLOGY: Qualitative study carried out in Chókwè in the province of Gaza - Mozambique. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pregnant or lactating women living with HIV, with their sexual partners and with health professionals. Focus groups were held with mentor mothers and group interviews with mentor fathers, which took place in the second half of 2021. The interviews and meetings were recorded with a voice recorder and transcribed in full. The information went through the thematic analysis process. RESULTS: Ten seropositive pregnant or lactating women and one sexual partner participated in the study; thirteen mentor mothers and two mentor fathers; two Maternal and Child Health nurses and a psychologist. The findings reveal that the participants associate the HIV diagnosis with the pregnancy test or childbirth, and the period of pregnancy and breastfeeding is marked by the fear of infecting the child with the virus. Women hide their serological status from their husband, family and community for fear of consequences related to rigid social norms and interference of cultural factors. The results of health professionals brought similar aspects to those of women living with HIV, however, they highlight the lack of professionals to offer quality care. It was found that the health unit and the community use lectures as the only health education strategy, despite its low effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that there are still many barriers to preventing mother-to-child transmission in Mozambique, in particular, the quality of counseling and difficulties in accessing the service, whether due to lack of resources or social and family norms that do not recognize women's autonomy. . It is necessary to support mothers who do not wish to breastfeed and those who are more socioeconomically vulnerable. Greater investment in psychosocial support and community involvement strategies is recommended, using alternatives such as Integrative Community Therapy (ICT) and Popular Education. It is suggested the involvement of community leaders in the process of developing a program of intervention and promotion of mental health for seropositive pregnant or lactating women.


OBJETIVO: En el mundo, alrededor de 16 millones de mujeres viven con el VIH, muchas de ellas en edad reproductiva. Estos niveles de infección y tasas de transmisión vertical siguen siendo motivo de gran preocupación, debido a la falta de una intervención terapéutica temprana en muchos países africanos. En Mozambique, un país del África subsahariana, las tasas de prevalencia del VIH son del 13,2%, lo que coloca al país en el segundo lugar en términos de nuevas infecciones, solo por detrás de Sudáfrica. OBJETIVO: Conocer las vivencias y las principales dificultades vividas por mujeres embarazadas o lactantes seropositivas y sus parejas sexuales en el contexto específico. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio cualitativo realizado en Chókwè en la provincia de Gaza-Mozambique. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con mujeres embarazadas o lactantes que viven con el VIH, con sus parejas sexuales y con profesionales de la salud. Se realizaron grupos focales con madres mentoras y entrevistas grupales con padres mentores, que se realizaron en el segundo semestre de 2021. Las entrevistas y encuentros fueron grabados con una grabadora de voz y transcritas en su totalidad. La información pasó por el proceso de análisis temático. RESULTADOS: Participaron del estudio diez mujeres embarazadas o lactantes seropositivas y una pareja sexual; trece madres mentoras y dos padres mentores; dos enfermeras de Salud Materno Infantil y una psicóloga. Los hallazgos revelan que las participantes asocian el diagnóstico de VIH con la prueba de embarazo o el parto, y el período de embarazo y lactancia está marcado por el miedo a contagiar al niño con el virus. Las mujeres ocultan su estado serológico a su esposo, familia y comunidad por temor a las consecuencias relacionadas con las normas sociales rígidas y la interferencia de factores culturales. Los resultados de los profesionales de la salud trajeron aspectos similares a los de las mujeres que viven con el VIH, sin embargo, destacan la falta de profesionales para ofrecer una atención de calidad. Se constató que la unidad de salud y la comunidad utilizan las charlas como única estrategia de educación en salud, a pesar de su baja efectividad. CONCLUSIONES: Se observó que todavía existen muchas barreras para prevenir la transmisión maternoinfantil en Mozambique, en particular, la calidad de la consejería y las dificultades para acceder al servicio, ya sea por falta de recursos o por normas sociales y familiares que no reconocer la autonomía de la mujer. Es necesario apoyar a las madres que no desean amamantar ya aquellas que son más vulnerables socioeconómicamente. Se recomienda una mayor inversión en estrategias de apoyo psicosocial y participación comunitaria, utilizando alternativas como la Terapia Comunitaria Integrativa (TIC) y la Educación Popular. Se sugiere involucrar a los líderes comunitarios en el proceso de desarrollo de un programa de intervención y promoción de la salud mental para mujeres embarazadas o lactantes seropositivas.


Subject(s)
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Women , HIV
6.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(2): 59-64, Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449708

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among puerperal women cared for at a tertiary university hospital and the level of understanding of these puerperal women about toxoplasmosis, vertical transmission, and its prophylaxis. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 225 patients using presential interviews, prenatal documentation, and electronic medical records. Data were stored using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) software. Prevalence rates were estimated by the presence of reactive IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square test and calculation of the odds ratio (OR). Seroreactivity to T. gondii and exposure variables (age, educational level, and parity) were analyzed using a confidence interval (95%CI) and a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05). Results The seropositivity rate for T. gondii was 40%. There was no association between seroprevalence and age. Primiparity was a protective factor against seropositivity and low education was a risk factor. Conclusion Knowledge of T. gondii infection and its transmission forms was significantly limited, presenting a risk for acute maternal toxoplasmosis and vertical transmission of this protozoan. Increasing the education level regarding the risk of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy could reduce the rates of infection and vertical transmission of this parasite.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a soroprevalência de toxoplasmose entre puérperas atendidas em um hospital universitário terciário e o nível de compreensão dessas puérperas sobre toxoplasmose, transmissão vertical e sua profilaxia. Métodos Para esse estudo transversal, foram avaliadas 225 pacientes utilizando entrevistas presenciais, documentação de pré-natal e prontuário eletrônico. Os dados foram armazenados usando o software Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). As taxas de prevalência foram estimadas pela presença de anticorpos IgG reativos contra o Toxoplasma gondii. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio do teste do qui-quadrado e cálculo do odds ratio (OR). A sororreatividade ao T. gondii e as variáveis de exposição (idade, escolaridade e paridade) foram analisadas, utilizando-se intervalo de confiança (IC95%) e nível de significância de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados A taxa de soropositividade para T. gondii foi de 40%. Não houve associação entre soroprevalência e idade. A primiparidade foi fator de proteção contra a soropositividade e a baixa escolaridade foi fator de risco. Conclusão O conhecimento da infecção por T. gondii e suas formas de transmissão foi significativamente limitado, apresentando risco para toxoplasmose materna aguda e transmissão vertical desse protozoário. Aumentar o nível de escolaridade quanto ao risco de toxoplasmose durante a gravidez pode reduzir as taxas de infecção e transmissão vertical desse parasita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Toxoplasmosis , Health Education , Prevalence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 611-616, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985535

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the current status of fertility safety cognition among married HIV-infected people aged 18-45 years and to provide evidence for fertility safety intervention in HIV-infected families. Methods: Six districts in Chongqing and Zigong City in Sichuan Province were selected. A questionnaire survey was conducted among married HIV-infected people aged 18-45 years who were followed up from November 2021 to April 2022 to collect their general demographic characteristics, histories of sex experience, fertility intention, and knowledge of birth safety. Unconditional logistic regression and Poisson regression were used to analyze the factors affecting the cognition of birth safety. Results: A total of 266 HIV-infected people were included in the study; 58.3% (155/266) were women, and 48.9% (130/266) had fertility desire. The cognition rate of knowledge of birth safety was 59.4% (158/266). The cognition rate of women's knowledge of birth safety was 2.14 (95%CI: 1.25-3.66) times that of men's. The cognition rate of knowledge of birth safety among HIV-infected persons with a high school education level or above was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.08-3.27) times that of those with a low education level. The cognition rate of knowledge of reproductive safety among HIV-infected people with fertility intention was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.10-3.22) times that of those without fertility intention. The cognition rate of knowledge of birth safety among HIV-infected persons who received AIDS knowledge promotion and education was 9.06 (95%CI: 2.46-33.32) times that of those who did not. The cognition rate of measures of birth safety was 5.3% (14/266). The Poisson regression analysis showed no significant difference in the cognition rate of specific measures among gender, age, education and other factors. Conclusions: HIV-infected people aged 18-45 years and married with a spouse have a low awareness of birth safety, and there are risks of HIV transmission between couples and mother-to-child in the family. Targeted birth safety education and intervention should be strengthened to reduce HIV transmission.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , HIV Infections , Spouses , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Fertility , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cognition
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 278-283, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of breastfeeding on immune function in infants with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 135 infants with HCMV infection who were admitted to Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University from January 2021 to May 2022, and all these infants received breastfeeding. According to the results of breast milk HCMV-DNA testing, the infants were divided into two groups: breast milk HCMV positive (n=78) and breast milk HCMV negative (n=57). According to the median breast milk HCMV-DNA load, the infants in the breast milk HCMV positive group were further divided into two subgroups: high viral load and low viral load (n=39 each). Related indicators were compared between the breast milk positive and negative HCMV groups and between the breast milk high viral load and low viral load subgroups, including the percentages of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells), CD4+/CD8+ ratio, IgG, IgM, IgA, and urine HCMV-DNA load.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in the percentages of CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, IgG, IgM, IgA, and urine HCMV-DNA load between the breast milk HCMV positive and HCMV negative groups, as well as between the breast milk high viral load and low viral load subgroups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Breastfeeding with HCMV does not affect the immune function of infants with HCMV infection.


Subject(s)
Female , Child , Humans , Infant , Breast Feeding , Cytomegalovirus Infections , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Retrospective Studies , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Milk, Human , Cytomegalovirus , Immunity , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
9.
Curationis ; 46(1): 1-11, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1436838

ABSTRACT

Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services has become an integral part of antenatal services. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission was introduced in all the regions of Ghana, but mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) continued to increase. Objectives: To explore and describe midwives' perceptions and attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV services. Method: Quantitative research approach and descriptive cross-sectional design were used. The population includes all midwives between the ages of 21 and 60 years who work in antenatal care (ANC) clinics in 11 district hospitals in the Central Region of Ghana where the study was conducted. Forty-eight midwives were interviewed using a census sample process. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21. Correlation analysis was performed to find the relationships between the attitudes and the perceptions of the midwives on PMTCT of HIV services. Results: Seventy percent of midwives had positive perceptions of PMTCT of HIV services and 85% had positive attitudes towards the provision of PMTCT of HIV services. Midwives were screening all pregnant women who visited the ANCs and referring those who tested positive to other institutions where they can be monitored. Some of the concerns considered were views on retesting HIV-infected pregnant women throughout their pregnancy. There was a positive correlation between attitudes and perceptions of midwives on PMTCT of HIV services. Conclusion: Midwives had positive perceptions and positive attitudes towards the PMTCT of HIV services that they were providing to antenatal attendees. Also, as the attitudes of the midwives towards PMTCT of HIV services improved, their perceptions of PMTCT services also improved. Contribution: Decentralisation of PMTCT of HIV services to community-based health facilities is appropriate to enable sub-district health facilities to test for HIV and provide counselling services to pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Perception , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Health Facilities , Midwifery , Attitude , Pregnant Women
10.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20220225, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431257

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to characterize the profile of pregnant women and newborns accompanied at a reference center for infectious-parasitic diseases, after the exposure of T. gondii, establishing comparisons with a previous study, in the same location, ten years ago. Methods: this is a retrospective cohort study, with a follow-up of four years (2016 to 2019), using the previous study carried out from 2002 to 2010 as a comparative for the variables assessed. Mothers who presented tests suggestive of seroconversion for the disease during prenatal care and their respective concepts, followed up over a year, were included. The chi-square test was used, assuming a significance level of 5% for the comparison of the groups in the two periods. Results: during the period from 2016 to 2019, 79 binomials were studied, whereas 58 binomials were accompanied in the previous period. Comparing both periods, the findings showed lower proportions of adolescents (p<0.001), with low schooling (p<0.001), with low serological testing (p<0.001) and with late or postnatal diagnosis (p<0.001). As to the children, the findings showed fewer changes in fundoscopy (p<0.001), strabismus (p=0.002), hepatomegaly (p=0.026) and any sequelae (p<0.001). Conclusion: a positive advance was observed regarding the care provided for the mother-child binomial affected by T. gondii, with a reduction in negative outcomes for the child. However, there are still challenges concerning the diagnosis and proper management of the disease.


Resumo Objetivos: caracterizar o perfil de gestantes e neonatos acompanhadas em um centro de referência em doenças infecto-parasitárias, após exposição ao Toxoplasma gondii, estabelecendo comparações em relação a estudo prévio, no mesmo local, há dez anos. Métodos: trata-se de estudo de coorte retrospectivo, com seguimento de quatro anos (2016 a 2019), servindo o estudo prévio realizado de 2002 a 2010 como comparativo para as variáveis estudadas. Foram incluídas mães que apresentaram durante o pré-natal exames sugestivos soroconversão para a doença e seus respectivos conceptos, acompanhados ao longo de um ano. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado, assumindo-se nível de significância de 5% para a comparação dos grupos nos dois períodos. Resultados: durante o período de 2016 a 2019, foram estudados 79 binômios, enquanto no período anterior foram acompanhados 58 binômios. Comparando-se os dois períodos, em relação às mães, registraram-se menores proporções de adolescentes (p<0,001), de baixa escolaridade (p<0,001), baixa realização de testes sorológicos (p<0,001) e com diagnóstico tardio ou pós-natal (p<0,001). Em relação às crianças, verificaram-se menores proporções de alterações de fundoscopia (p<0,001), estrabismo (p=0,002), hepatomegalia (p=0,026) e qualquer sequela (p<0,001). Conclusão: observou-se um avanço em relação aos cuidados para o binômio mãe-filho acometido pelo T. gondii, com redução de desfechos negativos sobre a criança. Todavia, ainda existem desafios para o diagnóstico e adequado manejo da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Prenatal Care , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Health Surveys
11.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 534-540, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981990

ABSTRACT

Currently, the main strategy for preventing neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is prenatal screening combined with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, which has effectively reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS early-onset disease. However, the burden of GBS infection is still significant. The intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis strategy has limitations such as inducing antibiotic resistance and inability to effectively prevent GBS late-onset disease. It is crucial to develop and evaluate other prevention strategies, while paying close attention to assessing penicillin allergy in pregnant women and how to prevent GBS infection in neonates with negative maternal GBS screening. In recent years, there has been some progress in GBS vaccines and related immunological research, and the use of specific vaccines is expected to significantly reduce GBS infection in neonates.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus agalactiae
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e264-e267, dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1399710

ABSTRACT

La infección por estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B o Streptococcus agalactiae puede causar morbilidad grave y mortalidad en los recién nacidos, especialmente en prematuros. Las estrategias de prevención actuales han sido eficaces en reducir la frecuencia de sepsis neonatal temprana ocasionada por transmisión vertical. La incidencia de sepsis tardía por dicho microrganismo no se ha modificado y la vía de infección es menos clara. En niños amamantados, la transmisión a través de la leche materna es posible. Se presentan tres casos de infección tardía por estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B en recién nacidos prematuros alimentados con leche materna cuyas madres tenían mastitis. En todos los casos, tanto en el cultivo de la leche materna como en los hemocultivos de los neonatos se desarrolló el mismo microrganismo.


Group B ß-hemolytic Streptococcus or Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in premature infants. Current prevention strategies have been effective in reducing the frequency of early onset neonatal sepsis caused by vertical transmission. The incidence of late onset sepsis due to this microorganism has not changed and the route of infection is less clear. In breastfed infants, transmission through breast milk is possible. We report three cases of late group B ß-hemolytic streptococcal infection in breastfed preterm infants whose mothers had mastitis. In all cases, both the breast milk culture and the blood cultures of the neonates developed the same microorganism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus agalactiae , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human
13.
Med. infant ; 29(4): 268-274, dic 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1415399

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis han aumentado su prevalencia, especialmente en jóvenes embarazadas. Esto adquiere relevancia en pediatría por el elevado riesgo de transmisión vertical al neonato y su potencial gravedad en el lactante. Estas infecciones requieren de un alto índice de sospecha, por cuadro clínico atípico y signos radiológicos inespecíficos. Los métodos diagnósticos convencionales presentan limitaciones para su detección. Las técnicas moleculares son las recomendadas por su elevada sensibilidad, especificidad y rapidez, lo cual permite una terapéutica adecuada y oportuna. En este estudio, desarrollado en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales de un hospital de alta complejidad durante 12 años, se describieron las características de la población, su presentación clínica y evolución. La detección microbiológica se realizó por métodos moleculares. Se incluyeron 29 pacientes (p) con infección por C. trachomatis (3,9% del total de muestras enviadas),13 p con infección respiratoria y 16 p con compromiso ocular. La mediana de edad fue de 19 días al momento del diagnóstico y el 65% de las gestantes tenía <25 años. Veinticuatro p (83%) eran recién nacidos a término y 23 p (79%) previamente sanos. Nueve p (31%) presentaron fiebre al momento del ingreso y 12 (41%) eosinofilia. De los 13 p con enfermedad respiratoria, 9 (69%) consultaron por tos y 11 (85%) con hipoxemia, con requerimientos de oxígeno en 8 (61%), asistencia respiratoria mecánica en 3 (23%) y uno (16%) requirió ECMO. Los hallazgos radiológicos mostraron un patrón intersticial inespecífico. Nueve p (31%) presentaron coinfección y uno falleció asociado a influenza A (AU)


The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections has increased, especially among young pregnant women. This is of particular relevance in pediatrics due to the high risk of motherto-child transmission and the potential severity of the infection in infants. A high index of suspicion is required for these infections due to the atypical clinical features and non-specific radiological signs. The usefulness of conventional diagnostic methods is limited. Molecular techniques are recommended because of their high sensitivity, specificity, and speed, allowing for adequate and timely treatment. In this 12-year study conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary-care hospital, patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcome are described. Microbiological detection was performed using molecular methods. Twenty-nine patients with C. trachomatis infection (3.9% of the total samples submitted), of whom 13 had respiratory tract infection and 16 ocular involvement, were included. The median age at diagnosis was 19 days and 65% of the mothers were <25 years old. Twenty-four p (83%) were term newborns and 23 patients (79%) were previously healthy. On admission, 9 patients (31%) had fever and 12 (41%) had eosinophilia. Of the 13 patients with respiratory tract involvement, 9 (69%) consulted for cough and 11 (85%) had hypoxemia, requiring oxygen in 8 (61%), mechanical ventilation in 3 (23%), and ECMO in 1 (16%). Radiological findings showed a nonspecific interstitial pattern. Nine patients (31%) presented with coinfection, one of whom died due to an associated influenza A infection (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/etiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(4): 823-831, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422685

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to estimate the detection rate of syphilis in pregnant women, the occurrence of congenital syphilis, and the rate of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis, in addition to analyzing missed opportunities in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in the indigenous population. Methods: descriptive study of cases of pregnant indigenous women with syphilis resulting or not in a case of congenital syphilis. The data were obtained from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System of Notifable Diseases), the records of the Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis do Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena (Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Special Indigenous Health District), and the medical records of pregnant indigenous women in 2015. The database and the calculation of syphilis rates in pregnant women, congenital syphilis, and mother-to-child transmission were carried out. Data on prenatal, diagnosis and treatment of syphilis during pregnancy were collected from the medical records. Results: the detection rate of syphilis in pregnant women reached 35.2/1,000 live births (LB), the occurrence of congenital syphilis encompassed 15.7/1.000 LB, and the rate of mother-to-child transmission was 44.8%. Six (24%) pregnant women started prenatal care in the first trimester and seven (28%) attended seven or more consultations. The diagnosis of syphilis was late and only nine (36%) women were properly treated. Conclusions: failures in the diagnosis and the adequate treatment of pregnant women with syphilis compromised the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the disease.


Resumo Objetivos: estimar a taxa de detecção de sífilis em gestantes, a incidência de sífilis congênita e a taxa de transmissão verticalda sífilis e analisar as oportunidades perdidas na prevenção da transmissão vertical na população indígena. Métodos: estudo descritivo de casos de gestantes indígenas com sífilis que tiveram ou não como desfecho um caso de sífilis congênita. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, dos registros da área de Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis do Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena e dos prontuários de gestantes indígenas, no ano de 2015. Realizou-se o relacionamento da base de dados e cálculo de taxas de sífilis em gestantes, sífilis congênita e de transmissão vertical. Nos prontuários, coletaram-se dados do pré-natal, diagnóstico e tratamento da sífilis na gestação. Resultados: a taxa de detecção de sífilis em gestantes foi de 35,2/1.000 nascidos vivos (NV), a incidência de sífilis congênita, 15,7/1.000 NV e a taxa de transmissão vertical, 44,8%. Evidenciou-se que seis (24%) gestantes iniciaram o pré-natal no primeiro trimestre e sete (28%) realizaram sete ou mais consultas. O diagnóstico de sífilis foi tardio e apenas nove (36%) realizaram adequadamente o tratamento. Conclusões: falhas no diagnóstico e no tratamento adequado de gestantes com sífilis comprometeram a prevenção da transmissão vertical da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control , Syphilis/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Prenatal Care , Underregistration , Brazil/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Health Vulnerability
15.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(4): 229-238, oct.2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443031

ABSTRACT

El HTLV-1 es un retrovirus que afecta principalmente a los linfocitos T-CD4, causando enfermedades como paraparesia espástica o mielopatía, uveítis, dermatitis infecciosas, leucemia/linfoma de las células T del adulto, además de otras enfermedades. Causa una infección crónica de por vida en humanos y su transmisión ocurre a través de la lactancia materna, el contacto sexual y las transfusiones de sangre. En Chile actualmente ocupa el cuarto lugar en notificaciones entre el año 2014-2021, estimándose a nivel mundial más de 20 millones de portadores. El mayor riesgo de transmisión ocurre por lactancia mayor a seis meses y alta carga proviral y altos títulos de anticuerpos en la madre portadora. El objetivo consistió en analizar la situación de la portación del virus HTLV-1 durante el embarazo, determinando su prevalencia, vías de transmisión y complicaciones. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sistemática de artículos publicados en bases de datos científicas referidos al virus HTLV-1. Este virus está globalmente diseminado y se presenta en forma endémica en algunas regiones del mundo con prevalencias entre muy elevadas y bajas. En Chile la seroprevalencia en promedio es de 0,124% para HTLV-1. Esta infección no cuenta con tratamiento, solo se tratan los síntomas por lo que mientras esto no cambie, solo es factible reducir la transmisión, incidencia y la morbilidad del HTLV-1 incorporando medidas de control del virus en las intervenciones de control de enfermedades y estrategias de salud pública. La forma más eficiente de transmisión del virus madre-hijo es a través de la leche materna, es necesario implementar la detección prenatal de HTLV-1, en especial en las zonas endémicas, así como también asesorar a las madres HTVL-1 positivas sobre la lactancia materna.


HTLV-1 is a retrovirus that mainly affects CD4-T lymphocytes, causing diseases such as spastic paraparesis or myelopathy, uveitis, infectious dermatitis, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and other diseases. It causes a lifelong chronic infection in humans and its transmission occurs through breastfeeding, sexual contact and blood transfusions. In Chile, it currently ranks fourth in notifications between the years 2014-2021, with more than 20 million carriers being estimated worldwide. The greatest risk of transmission occurs by breastfeeding for more than six months and high proviral load and high antibody titers in the carrier mother. The objective consisted of analyzing the situation of the carriage of the HTLV-1 virus during pregnancy, determining its prevalence, transmission routes and complications. A systematic bibliographic review of articles published in scientific databases referring to the HTLV-1 virus was carried out. This virus is globally disseminated and occurs endemic in some regions of the world with prevalence between very high and low. In Chile, the average seroprevalence is 0.124% for HTLV-1. There is no treatment for this infection, only the symptoms are treated, so as long as this does not change, it is only feasible to reduce the transmission, incidence, and morbidity of HTLV-1 by incorporating virus control measures into disease control interventions and strategies. of public health. The most efficient form of mother-child transmission of the virus is through breast milk, it is necessary to implement prenatal screening for HTLV-1, especially in endemic areas, as well as counsel HTLV-1 positive mothers on breastfeeding


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
17.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(3): 577-584, July-Sept. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406670

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to estimate the proportion of seroconversion cases among infants exposed to HIV and verify the risk factors associated. Methods: this was a historical cohort study conducted in the State of Santa Catarina between 2007 and 2017. The data were obtained from the Notifable Diseases Information System (SINAN - Portuguese acronym) that records HIV-infected pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants. The public health service monitored the infants from birth to 18 months of age to determine whether HIV seroconversion occurred. Results: a total of 5,554 HIV-infected pregnant women were included in the study (mean age 26.7±6.5 years). They were predominantly white, with poor education level, and were diagnosed with HIV until the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 4,559 records of HIV-exposed infants were screened, of which 130 cases (2.9%) of seroconversion were confrmed. Non-use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy (OR=9.31, CI95%=5.97-14.52; p<0.001) and breastfeeding (OR=3.10, CI95%=1.34-7.20; p=0.008) were independent risk factors for seroconversion. Conclusions: these data demonstrate gaps in prenatal care, regarding adherence to treatment and monitoring of HIV-infected mothers, resulting in new cases of HIV among children, which could be avoided.


Resumo Objetivos: estimar a proporção de soroconversão da criança exposta ao HIV e verificar os fatores de risco associados, no período de 2007-2017 em Santa Catarina. Métodos: o delineamento utilizado foi de coorte histórica e os dados obtidos no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) que registra as gestantes infectadas e as crianças expostas ao HIV. As crianças foram acompanhadas pelo serviço de saúde desde o nascimento até o 18º mês de vida, para determinar a ocorrência de soroconversão pelo HIV. Resultados: foram identificadas 5.554 gestantes infectadas pelo HIV com média de idade de 26,7±6,5 anos, predomínio da raça branca, baixa escolaridade e que receberam o diagnóstico para o HIV até o 2º trimestre gestacional. Foram incluídas 4.559 fichas de crianças expostas ao HIV, das quais 130 casos (2,9%) de soroconversão foram confrmados. O não uso de antirretroviral durante a gestação (OR=9,31, IC95%=5,97-14,52; p<0,001) e aleitamento materno (OR=3,10, IC95%=1,34-7,20; p=0,008) foram fatores de risco independentes para a soroconversão. Conclusões: esses dados demonstram lacunas na assistência pré-natal, quanto a adesão ao tratamento e acompanhamento de mães infectadas pelo HIV, resultando em casos novos de HIV entre crianças, que poderiam ser evitados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Risk Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Prenatal Care , Brazil/epidemiology
18.
Nursing (Ed. bras., Impr.) ; 25(290): 8137-8150, julho.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379898

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar as percepções de mães adolescentes com HIV/Aids sobre a gestação e a transmissão vertical. Método: Estudo de revisão integrativa de literatura. As bases de informação utilizadas foram: Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), Web of Science, PubMed e Science Direct, reunindo artigos do recorte temporal de 2012 a 2020. O período de coleta de dados se deu entre outubro de 2021 a dezembro de 2021. Resultados: Elencaram-se dois artigos que relataram a condição biopsicossocial da gestante adolescente, associada ao medo, insegurança, incapacidade e culpabilização. Os resultados foram agrupados em categorias, a saber: a maternidade sob ótica da adolescente soropositiva e a transmissão vertical do HIV durante a gestação na adolescência. Conclusão: Espera-se que a temática possa ser explorada a fim de contribuir para a assistência voltada para o público estudado e minimizar os riscos da transmissão vertical.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the perceptions of adolescent mothers with HIV/AIDS about pregnancy and vertical transmission. Method: Study of integrative literature review. The information bases used were: Virtual Health Library (VHL), Web of Science, PubMed and Science Direct, gathering articles from the time frame from 2012 to 2020. The data collection period took place between October 2021 and December 2021. Results: Two articles were reported on the biopsychosocial condition of pregnant adolescents, associated with fear, insecurity, disability and guilt. The results were grouped into categories, that is: maternity from the perspective of hiv-positive adolescents and vertical transmission of HIV during pregnancy in adolescence. Conclusion: It is expected that the theme can be explored in order to contribute to the assistance aimed at the studied public and minimize the risks of vertical transmission.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar las percepciones de las madres adolescentes con VIH/SIDA sobre el embarazo y la transmisión vertical. Método: Estudio de la revisión integradora de la literatura. Las bases de información utilizadas fueron: Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS), Web of Science, PubMed y Science Direct, recopilando artículos del marco de tiempo de 2012 a 2020. El período de recolección de datos tuvo lugar entre octubre de 2021 y diciembre de 2021. Resultados: Se reportaron dos artículos sobre la condición biopsicosocial de adolescentes embarazadas, asociada con miedo, inseguridad, discapacidad y culpa. Los resultados se agruparon en categorías, es decir: maternidad desde la perspectiva de las adolescentes seropositivas y transmisión vertical del VIH durante el embarazo en la adolescencia. Conclusión: Se espera que el tema pueda ser explorado con el fin de contribuir a la asistencia dirigida al público estudiado y minimizar los riesgos de transmisión vertical.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pregnancy in Adolescence , HIV , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
19.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 8 jul. 2022. f:12 l:19 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 307).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1391790

ABSTRACT

La hepatitis B es una infección vírica que afecta al hígado, puede dar lugar tanto a un cuadro agudo como a una enfermedad crónica, y se transmite por la vía sexual, vertical y parenteral. En este informe, se describe la situación mundial y nacional de esta patología, y su transmisión vertical, así como la caracterización de niños expuestos al virus durante el embarazo, nacidos en el Hospital Materno Infantil Ramón Sardá entre 2018 y 2021.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Ciudad de Buenos Aires; GCBA. Ministerio de Salud; jul. 2022. 79 p. tab, graf.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1513101

ABSTRACT

Nueva edición de la Situación epidemiológica del VIH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, que presenta información actualizada y sistematizada sobre el estado actual de la epidemia y sobre las líneas de trabajo desarrolladas para responder a ella en los terrenos preventivo y asistencial. Se aspira a que esta información contribuya a la planificación de acciones en el nivel central, así como en los efectores responsables de la atención e implementación de estrategias preventivas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Epidemiologic Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
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