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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e264-e267, dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1399710

ABSTRACT

La infección por estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B o Streptococcus agalactiae puede causar morbilidad grave y mortalidad en los recién nacidos, especialmente en prematuros. Las estrategias de prevención actuales han sido eficaces en reducir la frecuencia de sepsis neonatal temprana ocasionada por transmisión vertical. La incidencia de sepsis tardía por dicho microrganismo no se ha modificado y la vía de infección es menos clara. En niños amamantados, la transmisión a través de la leche materna es posible. Se presentan tres casos de infección tardía por estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B en recién nacidos prematuros alimentados con leche materna cuyas madres tenían mastitis. En todos los casos, tanto en el cultivo de la leche materna como en los hemocultivos de los neonatos se desarrolló el mismo microrganismo.


Group B ß-hemolytic Streptococcus or Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in premature infants. Current prevention strategies have been effective in reducing the frequency of early onset neonatal sepsis caused by vertical transmission. The incidence of late onset sepsis due to this microorganism has not changed and the route of infection is less clear. In breastfed infants, transmission through breast milk is possible. We report three cases of late group B ß-hemolytic streptococcal infection in breastfed preterm infants whose mothers had mastitis. In all cases, both the breast milk culture and the blood cultures of the neonates developed the same microorganism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus agalactiae , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human
3.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(290): 8137-8150, julho.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379898

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar as percepções de mães adolescentes com HIV/Aids sobre a gestação e a transmissão vertical. Método: Estudo de revisão integrativa de literatura. As bases de informação utilizadas foram: Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), Web of Science, PubMed e Science Direct, reunindo artigos do recorte temporal de 2012 a 2020. O período de coleta de dados se deu entre outubro de 2021 a dezembro de 2021. Resultados: Elencaram-se dois artigos que relataram a condição biopsicossocial da gestante adolescente, associada ao medo, insegurança, incapacidade e culpabilização. Os resultados foram agrupados em categorias, a saber: a maternidade sob ótica da adolescente soropositiva e a transmissão vertical do HIV durante a gestação na adolescência. Conclusão: Espera-se que a temática possa ser explorada a fim de contribuir para a assistência voltada para o público estudado e minimizar os riscos da transmissão vertical.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the perceptions of adolescent mothers with HIV/AIDS about pregnancy and vertical transmission. Method: Study of integrative literature review. The information bases used were: Virtual Health Library (VHL), Web of Science, PubMed and Science Direct, gathering articles from the time frame from 2012 to 2020. The data collection period took place between October 2021 and December 2021. Results: Two articles were reported on the biopsychosocial condition of pregnant adolescents, associated with fear, insecurity, disability and guilt. The results were grouped into categories, that is: maternity from the perspective of hiv-positive adolescents and vertical transmission of HIV during pregnancy in adolescence. Conclusion: It is expected that the theme can be explored in order to contribute to the assistance aimed at the studied public and minimize the risks of vertical transmission.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar las percepciones de las madres adolescentes con VIH/SIDA sobre el embarazo y la transmisión vertical. Método: Estudio de la revisión integradora de la literatura. Las bases de información utilizadas fueron: Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS), Web of Science, PubMed y Science Direct, recopilando artículos del marco de tiempo de 2012 a 2020. El período de recolección de datos tuvo lugar entre octubre de 2021 y diciembre de 2021. Resultados: Se reportaron dos artículos sobre la condición biopsicosocial de adolescentes embarazadas, asociada con miedo, inseguridad, discapacidad y culpa. Los resultados se agruparon en categorías, es decir: maternidad desde la perspectiva de las adolescentes seropositivas y transmisión vertical del VIH durante el embarazo en la adolescencia. Conclusión: Se espera que el tema pueda ser explorado con el fin de contribuir a la asistencia dirigida al público estudiado y minimizar los riesgos de transmisión vertical.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pregnancy in Adolescence , HIV , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
4.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 8 jul. 2022. f:12 l:19 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 307).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1391790

ABSTRACT

La hepatitis B es una infección vírica que afecta al hígado, puede dar lugar tanto a un cuadro agudo como a una enfermedad crónica, y se transmite por la vía sexual, vertical y parenteral. En este informe, se describe la situación mundial y nacional de esta patología, y su transmisión vertical, así como la caracterización de niños expuestos al virus durante el embarazo, nacidos en el Hospital Materno Infantil Ramón Sardá entre 2018 y 2021.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology
5.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386952

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: se busca cuantificar los retornos de la inversión asociados a una intervención en el sistema público de salud de un municipio de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, consistente en el fortalecimiento de la estrategia denominada Eliminación de la Transmisión Maternoinfantil de la Infección por VIH, Sífilis, enfermedad de Chagas Congénita e Infección Perinatal por Hepatitis B (ETMI-PLUS). Metodología: el estudio (cuantitativo) se basa en la metodología de Retorno Social de la Inversión (RSI). Se establecieron definiciones ad-hoc para la medición de los retornos sobre la base de los datos disponibles provenientes de diversas fuentes: información primaria de la Secretaría de Salud del MAB; tasas de transmisión congénita de cada enfermedad notificados al Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de Salud; presupuestos detallados de los recursos asignados al proyecto por parte de la Fundación Mundo Sano y costos de tratamientos e insumos de nomencladores oficiales. Resultados: por cada peso invertido para reforzar la ETMI-PLUS en el MAB, se obtuvo un retorno de casi 4 pesos, gracias a las mejoras en la eliminación vertical de las cuatro enfermedades y al descenso de las complicaciones cardiacas en las mujeres embarazadas diagnosticadas con chagas y tratadas oportunamente. Conclusiones: estos resultados sugieren la existencia de una relación retorno-inversión favorable, analizada bajo una perspectiva conservadora, ya que, se incluyen exclusivamente los ahorros para el sistema de salud y se excluyen otras dimensiones de los retornos vinculadas con las mejoras en los resultados alcanzados.


Abstract Introduction: we seek to quantify the returns on investment associated with an intervention in the public health system of a Municipality of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This intervention consists of strengthening the strategy for the Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Infection, Syphilis, Congenital Chagas Disease and Perinatal Hepatitis B Infection, a strategy called ETMI-PLUS. Methodology: the study (quantitative) is based on the Social Return on Investment (RSI) methodology. Ad-hoc definitions are established for the measurement of returns based on the information available from various sources: primary information from the Ministry of Health of the MAB; rates of congenital transmission of each disease reported to the National Health Surveillance System; detailed budgets of the resources assigned to the project by Fundación Mundo Sano and costs of treatments and supplies from official nomenclators. Results: for each argentinean peso invested in strengthening the ETMI-PLUS in the MAB, a return of almost 4 pesos would have been obtained thanks to the improvements in the vertical elimination of the 4 diseases and the reduction of cardiac complications in pregnant women.Conclusions: these results suggest the existence of a return / investment relationship favorable to the intervention, analyzed under a conservative analysis since savings for the health system are exclusively included and other dimensions of returns associated with improvements in results are excluded.


Subject(s)
Humans , Syphilis/prevention & control , HIV , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Argentina , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(1): 127-135, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374512

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La malaria gestacional, definida como la presencia de Plasmodium spp. en sangre periférica materna o el hallazgo del parásito en la placenta, es considerada un importante problema de salud pública en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de casos de malaria gestacional diagnosticados en Ecuador entre 2015 y 2018. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal. Resultados. Se determinaron 46 casos de malaria gestacional en el período evaluado, 25 por Plasmodium falciparum y 21 por Plasmodium vivax, siendo el 2018 el año con más casos. En cuanto a las variables de edad y trimestre de gestación, prevalecieron en el grupo de 20 a 29 años (46 %) y en el segundo trimestre (37 %). Solo se observó una diferencia significativa entre los casos por año y la especie parasitaria. Conclusión. La malaria gestacional en Ecuador ha aumentado en los últimos cinco años, por lo que es importante informar a las mujeres en estado de gravidez sobre las medidas preventivas para evitar el contagio con el parásito, dadas las graves consecuencias que conlleva para ellas y sus hijos.


Introduction: Gestational malaria, defined as the presence of Plasmodium spp. in maternal peripheral blood or in the placenta, is considered an important public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. Objective: To determine the frequency of gestational malaria cases diagnosed in Ecuador between 2015 and 2018. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive, retrospective, and cross-sectional study. Results: There were 46 cases of gestational malaria between 2015 and 2018: 25 caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 21 by Plasmodium vivax. The year with the most cases in this period was 2018. The age group most affected was 20 to 29 years old with 21 cases (46%). Prevalence was found to be highest in the second trimester of pregnancy with 17 cases (37%). A significant difference was only observed between cases per year and parasitic species. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational malaria in Ecuador increased in the last five years. Therefore, it is important to inform pregnant women about preventive measures to avoid infection given its serious consequences both for the mother and her unborn child.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Ecuador
7.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 18 feb. 2022. a) f: 11 l:17 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 6, 287).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1359366

ABSTRACT

El hospital Materno Infantil Ramón Sardá, de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, es un centro perinatológico de alta complejidad del subsector público de salud, que asiste más de 5000 nacimientos por año. Es el hospital que reportó la mayor cantidad de casos de sífilis congénita en el período 2018-2019. El objetivo de este informe es caracterizar los casos asistidos durante el trienio 2018-2020.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Syphilis, Congenital/diagnosis , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control , Syphilis, Congenital/transmission , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Disease Notification/methods , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hospitals, Maternity/statistics & numerical data
8.
Rev. ABENO ; 22(2): 1546, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1396737

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to assess knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the clinical and sexual practices of dental students. This was a cross-sectional study in which a self-administered questionnaire about age, gender, and dental program term; knowledge of HIV/AIDStransmission and prevention; use of personal protective equipment; prevention and occurrence of accidental exposure to biological material; post-exposure conduct; and sexual behavior was answered by dental students (n = 148, answer rate of 91.9%). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses (chi-square and Fisher's exact tests) were performed, at a significance level of 5%. Students correctly recognized the routes of HIV transmission, including "blood" (100%), "sexual.3%). Regarding frequency of condom use during sexual intercourse, 37% of dental students said "always," 55.5% "sometimes" and 7.6% "never". Regarding clinical practices, 99.3% of dental students said they used personal protective equipment, 28.4% had intercourse" (99.3%), "vertical transmission" (58.1%) and "sharing contaminated material" (94.6%), and ways of prevention, including "condom use" (100%) and "not sharing needles and syringes" (99suffered percutaneous injuries, the needle was the most cited exposure agent (32.5%) and in most cases (54.8%), no providences were taken after the accident. In conclusion, the students had good knowledge of HIV / AIDS and appropriate preventive attitudes in clinical care and handling of sharp instruments; however, they still need to be motivated with regard to condom use and oriented about care after accidental exposure to biological material (AU).


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento de HIV/AIDS e as práticas clínicas e sexuais de estudantes de Odontologia. Este foi um estudo transversal, no qual um questionário autoadministrado abordando: idade, gênero, período do curso; conhecimento sobre transmissão e prevenção de HIV/AIDS; uso de equipamentos de proteção individual; prevenção e ocorrência de exposição acidental a material biológico; conduta pós-exposição e comportamento sexual foi respondido por alunos de Odontologia (n = 148, taxa deresposta de 91.9%). Foram realizadas análises estatísticas descritiva e inferencial (testes qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher), comnível de significância de 5%. Os estudantes reconheceram corretamente as rotas de transmissão de HIV, incluindo "sangue" (100%), "relação sexual" (99,3%), "transmissão vertical" (58,1%) e "compartilhamento de material contaminado" (94,6%) e os meios de prevenção, incluindo "uso de preservativo" (100%) e "não compartilhar agulhas e seringas" (99,3%). Quanto à frequência do uso de preservativo nas relações sexuais, 37% dos estudantes responderam "sempre", 55,5% "às vezes" e 7,6% "nunca". Com relação a práticas clínicas, 99,3% dos estudantes de Odontologia afirmaram utilizar equipamentos de proteção individual, 28,4% já sofreram acidente perfurocortante, sendo agulha o agente de exposição mais citado (32,5%) e na maioria dos casos (54,8%) nenhuma medida foi tomada após o acidente. Em conclusão, os estudantes exibiram bom conhecimento acerca de HIV/AIDS e atitudes preventivas adequadasno atendimento clínico e manejo de instrumentais perfurocortantes, entretanto ainda precisam ser motivados quanto ao uso de preservativo e orientados sobre os cuidados pós-exposição acidental a material biológico (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , HIV , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Sexual Behavior , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric
9.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381653

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The prevention of vertical transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is the object of research by several authors, who reinforce the importance of knowing the serological status of a woman's sexual partner. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and serodiscordance of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis infections among women admitted to a maternity hospital in southern Brazil and their partners. Methods: 350 women and their partners were interviewed in a service-based cross-sectional study conducted from August 16 to November 23, 2018. Results: 4.0% of the women and 4.3% of the men had one of the infections studied. Among women, 2.0% already knew they were HIV positive, 2.0% had a positive rapid test for syphilis and there was no positive result for hepatitis B or C. A total of 299 (85.4%) partners were located. Of these, 293 (98.0%) agreed to answer the study questionnaire. Of all men interviewed, 281 (95.9%) agreed to undergo an rapid test. Among men, 1.4% already knew they were HIV positive and 0.4% had chronic hepatitis B disease. There was a similar percentage of men with a positive rapid test for syphilis and hepatitis C (1.4%). Regarding couples, 6.8% had some positive test. Most of the positive test subjects were in a serodiscordant relationship (16 serodiscordant couples and 3 positive concordant couples). Conclusion: These results reinforce the importance of testing men to prevent the infection of a negative partner and the vertical transmission of sexually transmitted infections. The high acceptance, by men, to undergo an rapid test at the time of the woman's hospitalization demonstrated the viability of this strategy in the maternity ward.


Introdução: A prevenção da transmissão vertical de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis é objeto de pesquisa de diversos autores, os quais reforçam a importância do status sorológico do parceiro sexual da mulher. Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência e a sorodiscordância de infecções por HIV, hepatite B, hepatite C e sífilis em mulheres internadas em uma maternidade localizada no Sul do Brasil e seus parceiros. Métodos: Foram entrevistadas 350 mulheres e seus parceiros em um estudo transversal de base de serviço realizado de 16 de agosto a 23 de novembro de 2018. Resultados: Do grupo consultado, 4,0% das mulheres e 4,3% dos homens apresentaram alguma das infecções estudadas. Entre as mulheres, 2% já sabiam ser HIV positivas e 2% apresentaram teste rápido positivo para sífilis. Para hepatite B ou C, não se registrou nenhum resultado positivo. Foram localizados 299 (85,4%) companheiros, destes, 293 (98,0%) aceitaram responder ao questionário do estudo. Do total de homens entrevistados, 281 (95,9%) concordaram em se submeter aos testes rápidos, entre eles, 1,4% já sabiam ser HIV positivos, 0,4% eram portadores crônicos de hepatite B e 1,4% apresentaram testes rápidos positivos para sífilis e hepatite C. Em relação aos casais, 6,8% possuíam algum teste positivo, a maioria (16) era formada de indivíduos sorodiscordantes e 3 de concordantes positivos. Conclusão: Esses resultados reforçam a importância da testagem masculina com a intenção de evitar a infecção do cônjuge negativo e a transmissão vertical das infecções sexualmente transmissíveis. A alta aceitação masculina de se submeter ao teste rápido durante a internação da mulher demonstrou a viabilidade dessa estratégia de testagem na maternidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Women , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Syphilis , HIV , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis B
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 728-733, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935451

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the type, length, and CG loci of HBV DNA CpG islands in HBsAg positive maternal C genotype and its relationship with intrauterine HBV transmission, so as to provide a new perspective for the study of intrauterine transmission of HBV. Methods: From June 2011 to July 2013, HBsAg-positive mothers and their newborns who delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan were collected. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face questionnaires and electronic medical records. Serum HBV markers and serum HBV DNA were detected by electrochemiluminescence and quantitative fluorescence PCR, respectively. Intrauterine transmission of HBV was determined by positive HBsAg and/or HBV DNA in femoral venous blood before injection of HBV vaccine/Hepatitis B immunoglobulin within 24 h of birth. A total of 22 mothers and their newborns with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml in intrauterine transmission were selected as the intrauterine transmission group, and 22 mothers with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml without intrauterine transmission were chosen as the control group by random seed method. The distribution prediction of CpG islands of HBV DNA in 39 mothers with genotype C by HBV DNA sequencing was analyzed. Results: Among 39 mothers with HBV C genotype, 19 were in the intrauterine transmission group, and 20 were in the control group. The HBV DNA of 39 patients with genotype C traditional CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ, while the control group had traditional CpG island Ⅰ and novel CpG island Ⅳ and Ⅴ. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ and the number of CG loci of CpG island Ⅱ in the intrauterine transmission group differed from those in the control group (P<0.05). The CpG island Ⅱ length ≥518 bp and the number of CG loci ≥40 in the intrauterine transmission group (11/19) were significantly higher than those in the control group (2/20) (P<0.05). The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG loci in the X gene promoter region (Xp region) were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the HBV intrauterine transmission group, most of maternal (12/19) HBV DNA CpG island Ⅱ completely covered the Xp region, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (5/20), and the number of HBV DNA Xp region CG loci was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The distribution of maternal C genotype HBV DNA CpG islands is related to intrauterine transmission. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG sites may increase the risk of intrauterine transmission of HBV.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , CpG Islands , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935354

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influencing factors of HBV intrauterine transmission and their interaction effects by integrating logistic regression model and Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) decision tree model. Methods: A total of 689 pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates in the obstetrics department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan from 2007 to 2013 were enrolled, and the basic information of mothers and their neonates were obtained by questionnaire survey and medical record review, such as the general demographic characteristics, gestational week and delivery mode. HBV DNA and HBV serological markers of the mothers and newborns were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay respectively. The CHAID decision tree model and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to explore the factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission in neonates of HBsAg-positive mothers. Results: Among the 689 neonates, the incidence of HBV intrauterine transmission was 11.47% (79/689). After adjusted for confounding factors, the first and second logistic multivariate analysis showed that cesarean delivery was a protective factor for HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=0.25, 95%CI: 0.14-0.43; OR=0.27, 95%CI: 0.15-0.46); both models indicated that maternal HBeAg positivity and HBV DNA load ≥2×105 IU/ml before delivery were risk factors of HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=3.89, 95%CI: 2.32-6.51; OR=3.48, 95%CI: 2.12-5.71), respectively. The CHAID decision tree model screened three significant factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission, the most significant one was maternal HBeAg status, followed by delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load. There were interactions between maternal HBeAg status and delivery modes, as well as delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load before delivery. The rate of HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns of HBeAg-positive mothers by vaginal delivery increased from 19.08% to 29.37%; among HBeAg-positive mothers with HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml, the rate of HBV intrauterine transmission increased to 33.33% in the newborns by vaginal delivery. Conclusions: Maternal HBeAg positivity,maternal HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml and vaginal delivery could be risk factors for HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns. Interaction effects were found between maternal HBeAg positivity and vaginal delivery, as well as vaginal delivery and high maternal HBV DNA load. Logistic regression model and the CHAID decision tree model can be used in conjunction to identify the high-risk populations and develop preventive strategies accurately.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/genetics , Decision Trees , Female , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Logistic Models , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) of group B streptococcus (GBS) infection on the incidence and bacteriological profile of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 494 pregnant women with positive GBS screening results and 526 neonates born by these women. According to whether the pregnant woman received IAP, the neonates were divided into two groups: IAP (n=304) and control (n=222). The two groups were compared in terms of clinical indices, incidence rate of EONS, and distribution of pathogenic bacteria in blood culture.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the IAP group had a significantly lower proportion of children with abnormal clinical manifestations (P<0.001) and a significantly lower incidence rate of EONS (P=0.022). In the IAP group, Escherichia coli (2.3%) was the most common type of pathogenic bacteria in blood culture of the neonates with EONS, while GBS (3.2%) was the most common type of pathogenic bacteria in the control group. The IAP group had a significantly higher detection rate of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli than the control group (P=0.029).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although IAP can significantly reduce the incidence rate of EONS in neonates born to pregnant women with positive GBS screening results, the infection rate of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli may increase after IAP treatment. Therefore, it is needed to enhance the monitoring of blood culture results of neonates with EONS and timely adjust treatment plan according to drug susceptibility test results.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Neonatal Sepsis/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus agalactiae
13.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 56: e20210560, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1406770

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To test the effectiveness of the booklet, compared to the usual service care, in the increase of the knowledge of pregnant/puerperal women living with HIV, for the prevention of HIV-VT. Method: Pilot study of a randomized controlled clinical trial, initially with 104 pregnant women living with HIV, with a final sample of 45 women. It was held in three public maternity hospitals in Fortaleza-CE, from January/2017 to May/2018. The control group received regular care from the service and the intervention group had access to the booklet as an additive. The research was carried out in three phases: baseline; evaluation 2, in prenatal care; and evaluation 3, in the postpartum period. Results: There was no intergroup difference in the women's mean knowledge score (short-term p = 0.473; long-term p = 0.151). However, in the intragroup analysis, the booklet proved to be effective in improving the pregnant women's knowledge in the intervention group, in the short term (p = 0.002) and long term (p = 0.033). Conclusion: There was an improvement in knowledge within the intervention group over time, but there was no difference in women's knowledge in the intergroup analysis. Thus, based on this pilot, a broader study on the use of booklet is required to prove its effectiveness (ReBEC: UTN: U1111-1191-9954).


RESUMEN Objetivo: Testar la eficacia del cuardenillo, en comparación al servicio habitual, en el incremento del conocimiento de las mujeres embarazadas/puérperas que viven con el VIH, para la prevención del TV-VIH. Método: Piloto de un ensayo clínico controlado aleatorizado, inicialmente con 104 mujeres embarazadas que viven con el VIH, con una muestra final de 45 mujeres. Realizado en tres maternidades públicas de Fortaleza-CE, de enero/2017 a mayo/2018. El grupo control recibió atención regular del servicio y el grupo intervención tuvo acceso al cuadernillo como complemento. La investigación se llevó a cabo en tres etapas: línea de base; evaluación 2, en atención prenatal; y evaluación 3, en el puerperio. Resultados: No hubo diferencia entre grupos en la puntuación media de conocimiento de las mujeres (a corto plazo p = 0,473; a largo plazo p = 0,151). Sin embargo, en el análisis intragrupo, el cuardenillo se mostró eficaz en la mejora del conocimiento de las gestantes del grupo intervención, a corto plazo (p = 0,002) y a largo plazo (p = 0,033). Conclusión: Hubo una mejora en el conocimiento dentro del grupo de intervención con el tiempo, pero no hubo diferencia en el conocimiento de las mujeres en el análisis intergrupal. Por lo tanto, el cuadernillo necesita realizar un estudio más amplio, basado en este piloto, para probar su efectividad (ReBEC: UTN: U1111-1191-9954).


RESUMO Objetivo: Testar efetividade de cartilha, em comparação ao atendimento habitual do serviço, no aumento do conhecimento de gestantes/puérperas que vivem com HIV, para prevenção da TV-HIV. Método: Piloto de ensaio clínico randomizado controlado, inicialmente com 104 gestantes que vivem com HIV, com amostra final de 45 mulheres. Realizado em três maternidades públicas de Fortaleza-CE, de janeiro/2017 a maio/2018. O grupo controle recebeu atendimento habitual do serviço e o grupo intervenção teve como aditivo acesso à cartilha. A pesquisa foi realizada em três fases: linha de base; avaliação 2, no pré-natal; e avaliação 3, no pós-parto. Resultados: Não houve diferença intergrupos na média da pontuação do conhecimento das mulheres (curto prazo p = 0,473; longo prazo p = 0,151). Porém, na análise intragrupo, a cartilha se mostrou efetiva para melhorar o conhecimento das gestantes do grupo intervenção, em curto prazo (p = 0,002) e longo prazo (p = 0,033). Conclusão Houve melhora do conhecimento dentro do grupo intervenção, ao longo do tempo, porém não foi evidenciada diferença quanto ao conhecimento das mulheres na análise intergrupos. Assim, a cartilha carece da realização de estudo mais amplo, a partir deste piloto, para comprovação de sua efetividade (ReBEC: UTN: U1111-1191-9954).


Subject(s)
Teaching Materials , Nursing , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Health Education , HIV , Clinical Trial
14.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210013, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1356223

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial da mortalidade fetal por sífilis congênita entre os bairros do Município do Recife-PE. Método estudo ecológico, realizado a partir do indicador epidemiológico taxa de mortalidade fetal por sífilis congênita, agregado ao nível dos bairros, em dois quinquênios: 2007 a 2011 e 2012 a 2016. O padrão de autocorrelação espacial foi determinado pelos Índices de Moran Global e Local, com significância estatística inferior a 5% e representado em mapas BoxMap e MoranMap que apontaram as áreas com taxas altas, baixas e em transição epidemiológica e os clusters de maior interesse epidemiológico. Resultados foram notificados 208 óbitos fetais. O Índice Global de Moran evidenciou autocorrelação espacial positiva em grau razoável, no primeiro quinquênio (I = 0,351 e p-valor = 0,01) e, em grau fraco, no segundo quinquênio (I = 0,189 e p-valor = 0,02). Os Distritos Sanitários I e VII obtiveram os maiores percentuais de bairros que formaram o cluster de altas taxas do indicador com 63,3% e 38,4% no primeiro e segundo quinquênios, respectivamente. Conclusões e implicações para a Prática a análise espacial apontou as áreas críticas para ocorrência do indicador, podendo contribuir para o investimento nas áreas prioritárias de prevenção da transmissão vertical da sífilis.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar la distribución espacial de la mortalidad fetal por sífilis congénita entre los barrios de Recife-PE. Método Estudio ecológico, basado en el indicador epidemiológico tasa de mortalidad fetal por sífilis congénita, agregada a nivel de barrio, en dos quinquenios: 2007 a 2011 y 2012 a 2016. El patrón de autocorrelación espacial fue determinado por los Índices Moran Global y Local, con significancia estadística menor al 5% y representados en mapas de BoxMap y MoranMap, que indicaron áreas con tasas de transición alta, baja y epidemiológica y conglomerados de mayor interés epidemiológico. Resultados Notificadas 208 muertes fetales. El Índice Global de Moran mostró un grado razonable de autocorrelación espacial positiva en el primer quinquenio (I = 0,351 y p-valor=0,01) y un grado débil en el segundo quinquenio (I = 0,189 y p-valor=0,02). Los Distritos Sanitarios I y VII presentaron los mayores porcentajes de barrios que formaron el cluster de tasas altas del indicador con 63,3% y 38,4% en el primer y segundo quinquenio, respectivamente. Conclusión e Implicación para la Práctica El análisis espacial señaló las áreas críticas para la ocurrencia del indicador, que podrían contribuir a la inversión en áreas prioritarias para la prevención de la transmisión vertical de sífilis.


Abstract Objective To analyze the spatial distribution of fetal mortality due to congenital syphilis among the neighborhoods of the city of Recife-PE. Method Ecological study, based on the epidemiological indicator fetal mortality rate due to congenital syphilis, aggregated at the neighborhood level, in two five-year periods: 2007 to 2011 and 2012 to 2016. The pattern of spatial autocorrelation was determined by the Moran Global and Local Indexes, with statistical significance lower than 5% and represented in BoxMap and MoranMap maps that indicated areas with high, low and epidemiological transition rates and clusters of greater epidemiological interest. Results It was reported 208 fetal deaths. The Moran Global Index showed a reasonable degree of positive spatial autocorrelation in the first five-year period (I = 0.351 and p-value = 0.01) and a weak degree in the second five-year period (I = 0.189 and p-value = 0.02). Sanitary Districts I and VII had the highest percentages of neighborhoods that formed the cluster of high rates of the indicator with 63.3% and 38.4% in the first and second five-year periods, respectively. Conclusions and Implications for Practice The spatial analysis pointed out the critical areas for the occurrence of the indicator, which could contribute to investment in priority areas for the prevention of vertical transmission of syphilis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Fetal Mortality , Spatial Analysis , Prenatal Care , Quality of Health Care , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Social Vulnerability
15.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210081, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339657

ABSTRACT

Gilts represent a group risk for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vertical transmission in swine herds. Therefore, parity segregation can be an alternative to control M. hyopneumoniae infections. The study evaluated the effect of parity segregation on M. hyopneumoniae infection dynamics and occurrence and severity of lung lesions at slaughter. For that, three multiple site herds were included in the study. Herd A consisted of the farm where gilts would have their first farrowing (parity order (PO) 1). After the first farrowing PO 1 sows were transferred to herd B (PO2-6). Herd C was a conventional herd with gilt replacement (PO1-6). Piglets born in each herd were raised in separated nursery and finishing units. Sows (n = 33 (A), 37 (B), 34 (C)) in all herds were sampled prior to farrowing and piglets (n = 54 (A), 71 (B), 66 (C)) were sampled longitudinally at 21, 63, 100, 140 days of age and at slaughter for M. hyopneumoniae detection by PCR and lung lesions scoring. M. hyopneumoniae prevalence in sows did not differ among herds. Prevalence of positive piglets was higher at weaning in the PO1 herd (A) (P < 0.05). However, prevalence of positive pigs from 100 days of age to slaughter age was higher in the PO2-6 herd (B) (P < 0.05). Lung lesion occurrence and severity were higher in herd B. The authors suggested that the lack of a proper gilt acclimation might have influenced the results, leading to sows being detected positive at farrowing, regardless of the parity.


As leitoas consistem em um grupo de risco na transmissão vertical de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae dentro do sistema de produção de suínos. Dessa forma, a segregação de partos poderia ser utilizada como alternativa para controlar as infecções por M. hyopneumoniae. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da segregação de partos sobre a dinâmica de infecção de M. hyopneumoniae e a ocorrência e severidade das lesões pulmonares ao abate. Para isso três sistemas de produção de suínos com três sítios cada foram incluídos no estudo. A granja A consistia da unidade onde as leitoas tem o primeiro parto, ou seja, alojava somente de fêmeas de ordem de parto 1 (Granja OP1). Após o primeiro parto as fêmeas OP1 foram transferidas para a granja B (Granja OP2-6), ou seja, consistia de fêmeas de ordem de parto 2 a 6, e a granja C consistiu em uma granja convencional com reposição de leitoas (Granja OP1-6), com fêmeas de ordem de parto 1 a 6. Os leitões nascidos de cada granja foram transferidos e criados em creches e terminações segregadas. As matrizes (n = 33 (A), 37 (B), 34 (C)) de todas as granjas do estudo foram amostradas previamente ao parto e os leitões (n = 54 (A), 71 (B), 66 (C)) foram amostrados longitudinalmente aos 21, 63, 100 e 140 dias de idade e ao abate. Em todos os momentos de coleta, as amostras foram avaliadas por PCR para detecção de M. hyopneumoniae. As lesões pulmonares foram avaliadas e escores de lesão foram atribuídos ao abate. A prevalência de matrizes positivas para M. hyopneumoniae não diferiu entre as granjas (P > 0,05). A prevalência ao desmame foi maior na granja A (OP1) (P < 0,05). No entanto, dos 100 dias de idade até o abate a prevalência de leitões positivos para M. hyopneumoniae foi maior na granja B (OP2-6) (P < 0,05). A ocorrência e severidade de lesões pulmonares foram maiores na granja B. Os autores sugerem que a falta de uma aclimatação adequada das leitoas pode ter influenciado nos resultados, levando à detecção de matrizes positivas ao parto, independente da ordem de parto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Swine/injuries , Swine/microbiology , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/isolation & purification , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary , Birth Setting
16.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 463-476, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401550

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of modern family planning methods is key for achieving the prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, in the prevention of Mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) package. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors influencing the utilization of modern family planning services by persons living with HIV at Luwero Hospital, Uganda. Methods: The study was conducted among 210 persons living with HIV attending the ART clinic and was based on cross-sectional descriptive and analytical design. Sampling was by simple random techniques. Data was collected using researcher-administered questionnaires. Results: The uptake of Modern FP services is low (36.7%) among persons living with HIV. It was attributed to client-related factors such as being married [AOR: 2.2, 95% CI [1.123-4.140], p = 0.038]) and other factors. These are; religious views discouraging use of modern FP (p= 0.034), negative side effects (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI [0.043-1.968], p = 0.044) and services being unfriendly for persons living with HIV (p=0.000]). Conclusions: Despite the presence of modern family planning services, uptake among persons living with HIV is low. Poor utilization is a recipe for unintended pregnancy and thus jeopardizes efforts in the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV


Subject(s)
Natural Family Planning Methods , HIV , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy, Unplanned , Uganda , Antiviral Restriction Factors
17.
Afr. health sci. (Online) ; 22(2 Special Issue: Makerere@100): 22-33, 2022. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401010

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 90% of new paediatric HIV infections are acquired through mother to child transmission. Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) research in sub-Saharan Africa informed WHO guidelines which enabled implementation of PMTCT programs globally. Objectives: To describe Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University (MU-JHU) perinatal HIV prevention research and implementation of the Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH) PMTCT program. Methods: Perinatal HIV prevention studies conducted at MU-JHU between 1997­2016 were summarized. Program aggregated data was extracted and analyzed using STATA 15. Results: In 1999, the HIVNET 012 study demonstrated that single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) to the mother at onset of labor and to her newborn, reduced MTCT by nearly 50%. In 2016, the PROMISE study documented the safety and efficacy of ART during pregnancy and breastfeeding period. Program implementation at MNRH started in 2000. Uptake of HIV testing increased from 70% to 99% from 2006 onwards. sd NVP was the initial ARV regimen but by 2012, MOH recommended Option B+(triple therapy). MTCT rates reduced from 16.9% in 2001 to 2.3% in 2020. Conclusion: Perinatal HIV prevention clinical trials conducted at MU-JHU provided evidence to inform WHO PMTCT guidelines. MNRH program evaluation demonstrated the significant decline in MTCT rates over the last two decades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding , HIV Infections , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnant Women , HIV Testing , Referral and Consultation
18.
S. Afr. j. child health (Online) ; 16(1): 1-5, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1359340

ABSTRACT

Background. Mother-to-child transmissions (MTCT) accounts for 90% of the 370 000 new HIV-positive children, globally. Despite progress in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, children still acquire HIV infection. Objective. To identify and describe the prevalence of maternal, infant and/or health system-related risk factors gleaned from the literature for HIV transmission in HIV-positive children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH), Durban, South Africa. Method. A retrospective electronic chart review identifying all HIV-positive children under 2 years admitted to the PICU at IALCH between January 2017 and December 2019 was undertaken. Individual patient records were analysed using a standardised template. Results. Of the 80 mothers and children with HIV enrolled in the present study, 38.8% (n=31/80) of mothers were diagnosed prior to pregnancy, 42.5% (n=34/80) were diagnosed during pregnancy (unsure when exactly transmission occurred), and 18.8% (n=15/80) of mothers were diagnosed after delivery. The median (range) time of antiretroviral treatment (ART) was 225 (30 - 365) days for mothers. More than half of mothers (56.3%, n=45/80) whose babies became HIV-positive had poor adherence to antiretroviral drugs (HIV viral load >1 000 copies/mL). An HIV-positive diagnosis in the children of these mothers occurred throughout infancy and early childhood, especially in the first 6 months (87.5%, n=70/80). A third of mothers practised mixed feeding. Health system deficiency, mainly via cancellation of tests without notifying healthcare workers, was typical in infants (33%; n=26/80) and mothers (68.8%, n=55/80). All others (100%) were not counselled about the importance of PMTCT and 93.8% of mothers were not counselled about the importance of follow-up. Almost all HIV-positive infants (95%, n=76) presented with severe respiratory illness, mainly severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (62.5%, n=50/80) and pneumonia with hypoxic respiratory failure (32.5%, n=26/80). The overall mortality of the cohort was 22.5% (n=18/80), and most deaths were associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) or both (61.1%, n=11/18). Conclusion. This present study confirmed that a new diagnosis of HIV positivity occurs throughout pregnancy and early childhood in infants. Poor adherence to ART in mothers and their infants, poor counselling, failure to attend antenatal and postnatal care, mixed feeding, and challenged laboratory services were common modifiable factors that need addressing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , HIV Infections , Child, Hospitalized , HIV Seropositivity , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care Units , Postpartum Period
19.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 49(1): 75-82, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1372518

ABSTRACT

Background: Twenty five to forty percent of children will be infected with HIV in the absence of any form of intervention which is Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT). Objectives: This study determined the infant feeding knowledge and practices among HIV positive mothers attending HIV treatment centers in Lagos. Methods: A descriptive crosssectional design was used for the study. A multistage sampling technique was used to select / recruit 290 HIV positive mothers with babies between the ages of 2weeks to 18months, attending PMTCT services into the study Pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data and analysis was done using Epi-info software. Chi-square and Fischer exact tests were used to determine association between the dependent and independent variables. The pvalue was set at 0.05. Results: Majority of the respondents (58.9%) were within the age range of 31 ­ 40 years and about half had a secondary school level of education. Exclusive formula feeding (40.3%) and exclusive breast feeding (42.4%) were feeding options known by the majority of the respondents. More than half (55.5%) of the mothers had a good knowledge of infant feeding options. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) was practiced by majority (55.5%) of the respondents, 21.4% practiced exclusive formula feeding (EFF) while only 6% practiced mixed feeding (MF). Knowledge of infant feeding options and the attitude towards exclusive breast feeding being enough in the first 6 months of life were associated with infant feeding options practiced; those with good knowledge of infant feeding options did not practice MF (9.7%) (p = 0.013). Conclusion: knowledge of infant feeding options was good and poor knowledge was associated with exclusive formula feeding. Majority practiced EBF. Educational programmes targeted at improving the knowledge of HIV and infant feeding options as well as strengthening of counseling sessions at PMTCT clinic would help reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the child.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , HIV Seropositivity , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
20.
Afr. j. health sci ; 35(3): 371-377, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380277

ABSTRACT

Background Approximately 37 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2015. This led to high morbidity and mortality among women of childbearing age, especially in SubSaharan Africa which was the epicentre of this global pandemic. Strengthening and implementing prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT) services could reduce the incidence of vertical transmission and improve quality of life. We aimed to determine maternal and birth outcomes among HIV-positive pregnant mothers and HIV-exposed newborns in Nyahururu county referral hospital, Laikipia, Kenya. Main Outcomes Measures Reduce maternal morbidity and mortality and other birth-related complications. In addition, this will also reduce infant mortality and morbidity among HIV-exposed infants. Materials And Methods This was a hospital-based descriptive prospective study conducted at the PMTCT department at the Nyahururu County referral hospital. A sample of 180 HIV-positive pregnant women enrolled at the PMTCT consented to participate in the study. We monitored them until delivery and labour complications were addressed. Babies were scored against the APGAR scale, weighed and spot dried blood samples taken before breastfeeding; and started on prophylactic antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS Out of 180 participants, only 17 did not complete the study. Our findings indicate that 97.5 % of the mothers delivered in the hospital, had labour lasting less than 12 hours, 92.6% had a normal delivery and 94.9% had no complications during the labour period. About 2.5 % of the women had misoprostol administration. The majority of exposed babies had an average weight of between 2.51 - 3.00kg. No neonatal asphyxia was evident among exposed babies. Conclusions: The majority of the respondents delivered in the hospital; no neonatal asphyxia was evidenced and there was a significant correlation between APGAR scores and infant weight. There is a need for active follow-up and monitoring of HIV pregnant women and their unborn babies until delivery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications , Morbidity , Pregnant Women
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