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2.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 48-52, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180718

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of Sealapex Xpress and Real Seal XT and their effect on macrophage activation. J774.1 macrophages were incubated with Sealapex Xpress and Seal Real XT (0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay and macrophage activation was measured by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production using ELISA. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test (a=0.05). Cell viability was not affected with 0.1 or 1.0 mg/mL of extracts of Sealapex Xpress and Real Seal XT at 24 and 48 h (p>0.05), but was significantly lower when cells were exposed to 10 mg/mL of both sealers (p<0.05). Sealapex Xpress inhibited the production of TNF-a, whereas Real Seal XT induced TNF-a secretion at 24 h (p<0.05). IL-6 production was induced by Real Seal XT, but not by Sealapex Xpress (p<0.05). Real Seal XT and Sealapex Xpress induced the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10. IL-4 was not detected in any group. In conclusion, both sealers had low toxicity but differentially activated macrophages. Macrophage activation by Sealapex Xpress was characterized by inhibition of TNF-a and induction of IL-10, whereas Real Seal XT induced IL-6 solely.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a citotoxicidade dos cimentos endodônticos Sealapex Xpress e Real Seal XT pelo ensaio de MTT e a ativação de macrófagos J774.1. Os cimentos endodônticos Sealapex Xpress e Real Seal XT foram pesados e os extratos foram obtidos a partir da diluição em meio de cultura DMEM por 48 horas (10mg/mL, 1mg/m, e 0,1 mg/mL). A viabilidade celular foi avaliada pelo ensaio MTT e a produção de citocinas (TNF-a, IL-6 e IL-10) foi investigada pelo ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) em células de linhagem (macrofagos J774.1). Os dados obtidos foram analisados utilizando-se análise de variância de uma via e pós-teste de Tukey (a=0,05). A viabilidade celular após 24 ou 48 horas não foi afetada nas concentrações de 0,1 ou 1 mg/mL dos dois cimentos estudados (p>0,05). Por outro lado, na concentração 10 mg/mL, a viabilidade celular foi significativamente mais baixa (p <0,05). Observou-se que o Sealapex Xpress inibiu a produção de TNF-a, enquanto o Real Seal XT induziu a secreção de TNF-a às 24 h (p<0,05). A produção de IL-6 foi induzida pelo Real Seal XT, mas não pelo Sealapex Xpress (p<0,05). A secreção da citocina anti-inflamatória IL-10 foi induzida tanto pelo Real Seal XT quanto pelo Sealapex Xpress. IL-4 não foi detectada em nenhum grupo. Em conclusão, os dois cimentos obturadores apresentaram baixa toxicidade, mas ativaram os macrófagos de modo distinto. A ativação pelo Sealapex Xpress foi caracterizada pela inibição do TNF-a e indução da IL-10, enquanto o Real Seal XT induziu somente IL-6.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide , Salicylates , Inflammation Mediators , Macrophages
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878415

ABSTRACT

Resolution of inflammation plays an important part in maintaining homeostasis. It is an actively programmed progress involving multiple immune cells and mediators. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) derived from Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids include resolvins, protectins and maresins, and they exert abilities in the resolution of inflammation, host defense, organ protection, and tissue generation. Periodontitis is an inflammatory and destructive disease in the periodontal tissue initiated by dental plaque. Inadequate proinflammatory or proresolving responses, or the imbalance between the two, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Studies have shown that activating specialized receptors SPMs displayed multiple biological effects towards periodontitis, including resolution of inflammation, alveolar bone protection, periodontal tissue regeneration, and pathogen resistance. Thus, the relationship between SPM and periodontitis and the potentials and challenges in SPM application were reviewed.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Inflammation Mediators , Periodontitis
4.
Rev. Fundac. Juan Jose Carraro ; 24(44): 20-25, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223204

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad periodontal (EP) es una patología que afecta principalmente los tejidos que rodean a la pieza dentaria (PD) y se caracteriza, en la mayoría de los casos, por una exposición bacteriana que favorece una respuesta destructiva e inflamatoria del huésped, que conduce a la pérdida de inserción periodontal de la PD, provocando una marcada reabsorción ósea y la posible pérdida de las PD. El diagnóstico de EP implica evaluaciones clínicas y radiográficas, en la actualidad se están realizando diversas investigaciones para evaluar posibles compuestos en los fluidos orales a través de lo cual puede ser posible evaluar la presencia y gravedad de estas enfermedades, como así también el riesgo en los pacientes. Hay evidencias de la interacción de macromoléculas salivales, como las mucinas, con microorganismos específicos. De esta manera las mucinas, junto con otros productos de la saliva, ayudan a modular tanto el número como el tipo de proliferación de ciertos organismos y provocar la disminución de otros. La revisión de la literatura actual concluye que las mucinas salivales pueden servir como un parámetro bioquímico de la inflamación del periodonto (AU)


Periodontal disease (PD) is a pathology that mainly affects the tissues surrounding the tooth (PD) and is characterized, in most cases, by a bacterial exposure that favors a destructive and inflammatory response of the host, which leads to the loss of periodontal insertion of the PD, causing a marked bone resorption and the possible loss of the PD. The diagnosis of PD involves clinical and radiographic evaluations, at present several investigations are being carried out to evaluate possible compounds in oral fluids through which it may be possible to evaluate the presence and severity of these diseases, as well as the risk in patients. There is evidence of the interaction of salivary macromolecules, such as mucins, with specific microorganisms. In this way, mucins, together with other saliva products, help modulate both the number and type of proliferation of certain organisms and cause the decrease of others. The review of the current literature concludes that salivary mucins can serve as a biochemical parameter of inflammation of the periodontium (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Diseases , Biomarkers , Mucins/physiology , Saliva/immunology , Salivary Proteins and Peptides/physiology , Periodontium/physiopathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Inflammation Mediators/physiology
5.
Rev. Fundac. Juan Jose Carraro ; 24(44): 54-63, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223712

ABSTRACT

La periodontitis es una enfermedad inflamatoria, crónica que afecta a los tejidos de soporte de los dientes y puede repercutir en la salud general, afectando la calidad de vida del paciente. La enfermedad de Alzheimer es una condición neurodegenerativa y progresiva que va disminuyendo la memoria, el lenguaje y aprendizaje de los pacientes. El objetivo de la investigación es realizar una revisión bibliográfica para comprender la posible vinculación entre la periodontitis y el Alzheimer. Los microorganismos periodontopatógenos producen una respuesta inflamatoria que, por vía sistémica, puede desencadenar un mecanismo inflamatorio dentro del sistema nervioso central. La respuesta del hospedero es liberar gran cantidad de moléculas proinflamatorias que comprometen la barrera hematoencefálica sobreestimulando a las células microgliales, esto conduce a la destrucción de neuronas vitales y al mantenimiento de la inflamación crónica que contribuye a la progresión del Alzheimer. Por otra parte, la periodontitis puede favorecer la formación de placas ateromatosas que afectan la integridad vascular siendo éste un factor a considerar en el desarrollo de la patología cerebrovascular. A pesar que son pocos los estudios clínicos experimentales, ya se puede sugerir la correlación entre ambas enfermedades (AU)


Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of teeth, affecting the systemic health and quality of life of the patient. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative and progressive condition that decreases memory, speech and learning of patients. The objective of this literature review was to report the possible link between periodontitis and Alzheimer's disease. Periodontopathogens produce an inflammatory response that, systemically, can trigger an inflammatory mechanism within the central nervous system. Due to this attack, the host releases a great quantity of proinflammatory molecules that compromise the blood-brain barrier by over- stimulation microglial cells, this produces destruction of vital neurons and maintenance the chronic inflammation in CNS and that contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, periodontitis can favor the formation of atheromatous plaques that affect vascular integrity, being a factor to consider in the development of the cerebrovascular disease. Although there are few experimental clinical studies, the correlation between both diseases can already be suggested (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Periodontitis/complications , Periodontitis/prevention & control , Alzheimer Disease/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Chronic Disease , Inflammation Mediators/physiology , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Maintenance
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 519-525, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249961

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La relación entre 25-OH-vitamina D y el sistema inmune en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica es objeto de atención. Objetivos: Evaluar la prevalencia de la deficiencia de vitamina D en pacientes en hemodiálisis e investigar la asociación entre la vitamina D y proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus), índice neutrófilo/linfocito (INL) e índice plaqueta/linfocito (IPL). Método: Estudio transversal de 80 pacientes en hemodiálisis, divididos en dos grupos: un nivel sérico de 25-OH-vitamina D < 20 ng/mL se consideró como deficiencia de vitamina D y ≥ 20 ng/mL, como normal. Con el análisis de correlación de Spearman se definió la relación entre los parámetros. Resultados: 40 % de los pacientes presentó deficiencia de vitamina D. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos en PCRus (p = 0.047), INL (p = 0.039), IPL (p = 0.042) y tratamiento con análogos de vitamina D (p = 0.022). La vitamina D tuvo una correlación negativa significativa con PCRus (p = 0.026), INL (p = 0.013) e IPL (p = 0.022). Conclusiones: La deficiencia de vitamina D fue de 40 %. Los niveles de PCRus, INL e IPL fueron significativamente más altos ante deficiencia de vitamina D. Se encontró correlación inversa significativa entre vitamina D y PCRus, INL e IPL.


Abstract Introduction: The relationship between 25-OH-vitamin D and the immune system in patients with chronic kidney disease is a subject of attention. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients on hemodialysis and to investigate the association between vitamin D, ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR). Method: Cross-sectional study of 80 patients on hemodialysis, divided into two groups: a serum 25-OH-vitamin D level < 20 ng/mL was considered to be vitamin D deficiency and a serum level ≥ 20 ng/mL was regarded as normal. The relationship between the parameters was defined with Spearman’s correlation analysis. Results: 40 % of the patients had vitamin D deficiency. There were significant differences between groups in US-CRP (p = 0.047), NLR (p = 0.039), PLR (p = 0.042) and treatment with vitamin D analogues (p = 0.022). Vitamin D had a significant negative correlation with US-CRP (p = 0.026), NLR (p = 0.013) and PLR (p = 0.022). Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 40 %. The values of US-CRP, NLR and PLR were significantly higher in the presence of vitamin D deficiency. A significant inverse correlation was found between vitamin D levels and US-CRP, NLR and PLR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Blood Platelets/cytology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Lymphocytes/cytology , Biomarkers/blood , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Neutrophils/cytology
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828750

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Medical Research
8.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828586

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Medical Research
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827023

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Medical Research
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 417-426, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019352

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the associations among visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body fat percentage (%), and android/gynoid ratio (A/G ratio) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and verify if the parameters representative of visceral obesity correlate with and exhibit the same frequency as body composition variables; anthropometric indices; and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters. Subjects and methods This was a cross-sectional study that included 94 women with PCOS. Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed in all women. Free androgen index (FAI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), as well as LAP, VAI, and anthropometric indices, were calculated. The regions of interest (ROIs) in body composition and body composition indices were evaluated using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, 32 variables were selected as markers of body fat distribution. Results Among the 32 markers evaluated, 29 correlated with LAP, whereas 25 correlated with VAI, 19 with body fat (%), and 30 with A/G ratio. Additionally, some markers correlated with the four adiposity indices evaluated: ROIs, except for total mass and leg fat (%); body composition (body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference) indices; fasting insulin; and C-reactive protein. Conclusion LAP and VAI may be sensitive measures for screening and preventing metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in PCOS, with LAP being more sensitive than VAI, and the A/G ratio may be more sensitive than body fat percentage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/blood , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Body Fat Distribution , Testosterone/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Composition , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Overweight/blood , Lipid Accumulation Product , Insulin/blood
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(4): 275-282, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019420

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the intravitreal concentrations of cellular mediators involved in neurodegeneration, inflammation, and angiogenesis in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and other vitreoretinal diseases. Methods: A multiplex bead immunoassay was used to measure vitreous levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor, serum amyloid P, C-reactive protein, complement C4, alpha-1 antitrypsin, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-AA, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha and beta in patients undergoing 23-gauge vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and other diagnoses (control group). Results: We evaluated 55 patients, of whom 24 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 31 had other diagnoses including vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, macular hole, and epiretinal membrane. Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy demonstrated increased levels of serum amyloid P (85.49 vs. 31.38 ng/mL); C-reactive protein (59.89 vs. 41.75 ng/mL), vascular endothelial growth factor (2,330.11 vs. 554.25 pg/mL; p<0.001), platelet-derived growth factor A (127.32 vs. 39.11 pg/mL), platelet-derived growth factor B (29.37 vs. 7.12 pg/mL), interleukin-6 (69.37 vs. 33.58 pg/mL), interleukin-8 (175.25 vs. 59.71 pg/mL), and interleukin-10 (3.70 vs. 1.88 pg/mL); all p<0.004 when compared with the control group. Levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (30.06 vs. 27.48 ng/mL; p=0.295), complement C4 (570.78 vs. 366.24 ng/mL; p=0.069), and alpha-1-antitrypsin (359.27 vs. 522.44 ng/mL; p=0.264) were not significantly different between the groups. Intravitreal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-beta were undetectable. Serum Amyloid P, C-reactive protein, platelet-derived growth factor A, platelet-derived growth factor B, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 were correlated positively with vascular endothelial growth factor. Conclusions: Cellular mediators involved in neurodegeneration and inflammation demonstrated increased levels in the vitreous humor of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and may be part of the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar as concentrações intravítreas de mediadores celulares envolvidos na neurodegeneração, inflamação e angiogênese em pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa e outras doenças vítreo-retinianas. Métodos: Um ensaio imunomagnético foi utilizado para medir os níveis vítreos do fator derivado do epitélio pigmentar, amilóide P sérico, proteína-C-reativa, complemento C4, e alfa-1-antitripsina, fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular, fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas AA, fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas BB, interleucina-6, interleucina-8, interleucina-10, fator de necrose tumoral alfa e beta em pacientes submetidos à vitrectomia 23-gauge para retinopatia diabética proliferativa ou outros diagnósticos (grupo controle). Resultados: Foram avaliados 55 pacientes, dos quais 24 tinham retinopatia diabética proliferativa e 31 tinham outros diagnósticos, incluindo hemorragia vítrea, descolamento de retina, buraco macular e membrana epirretiniana. Pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa demonstraram níveis aumentados de amilóide P sérico (85,49 vs 31,38 ng/mL), proteína-C-reativa (59,89 vs 41,75 ng/mL), fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular (2.330,11 vs 554,25 pg/mL, p<0.001), fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas-A: (127,32 vs 39,11 pg/mL), fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas-B (29,37 vs 7,12 pg/mL), interleucina-6 (69,37 vs 33,58 pg/mL), interleucina-8 (175,25 vs 59,71 pg/mL) e interleucina-10 (3,70 vs 1,88 pg/mL), todos com p<0,004 quando comparados ao grupo controle. Níveis de fator derivado do epitélio pigmentar (30,06 vs 27,48 ng/mL; p=0,295), complemento C4 (570,78 vs 366,24 ng/mL; p=0,069), alfa-1 antitripsina (359,27 vs 522,44 ng/mL; p=0,264) não foram significativamente diferente entre os grupos. Níveis intravítreos de fator de necrose tumoral alfa e fator de necrose tumoral beta foram indetectáveis. O amilóide P sérico, a proteína C-reativa, o fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas A e B, a interleucina-6 e a interleucina-8 correlacionaram-se positivamente com o fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular. Conclusões: Os medidores celulares envolvidos na neurodegeneração e inflamação demonstraram níveis aumentados no humor vítreo de pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa e podem ser parte da patogênese da retinopatia diabética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Retinal Degeneration/pathology , Vitreous Body/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Reference Values , Vitrectomy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/analysis , Serum Amyloid P-Component/analysis , Serpins/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interleukins/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery , Eye Proteins/analysis , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 369-375, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002201

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The pathophysiology of urethral stricture and its recurrence remains vague and one of the important causes is progressive inflammation. It has been shown in recent years that the neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio is a marker of systemic inflammation and is associated with prognosis in many cardiovascular diseases, malignancies and chronic inflammatory diseases. We assessed simple systemic inflammation markers preoperatively and surgical techniques for urethral stricture recurrence after urethroplasty. Patients and Methods: After exclusion criteria applied, a total of 117 male cases operated with urethroplasty in our clinic between January 2012 and June 2017 were included in the study and analyzed retrospectively. Localization and length of the strictures of the patients, neutrophil counts and percentages, lymphocyte counts and percentages, and neutrophil / lymphocyte ratios in preoperative peripheral blood samples were statistically analyzed. Recurrent stricture during first 12 months follow-up after the surgery has been assessed as recurrence. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.12 ± 16.35 and the mean urethral stricture length was 3.44 ± 1.83 cm. Recurrence was observed in 30.1% of cases who received buccal graft, 30% in penile skin applied cases and 26.1% of cases treated with end-to-end anastomosis and there was no statistically significant difference between neutrophil, lymphocyte, neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio and average stricture segment length between recurrent and non-recurrent cases (p > 0.005). Conclusions: We consider that neutrophil, lymphocyte counts and their ratio prior to urethroplasty and the technique performed are not parameters that can be used to predict stricture recurrence. Prospective and randomized new trials with larger patient populations are needed to make more accurate judgments about the role of these inflammatory parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male/methods , Urethra/surgery , Urethral Stricture/surgery , Inflammation/blood , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis , Biomarkers/blood , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Middle Aged
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772937

ABSTRACT

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common nonfatal disease burden worldwide. Systemic chronic low-grade inflammation has been reported to be associated with MDD progression by affecting monoaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, whether various proinflammatory cytokines are abnormally elevated before the first episode of depression is still largely unclear. Here, we evaluated 184 adolescent patients who were experiencing their first episode of depressive disorder, and the same number of healthy individuals was included as controls. We tested the serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IgE, 14 different types of food antigen-specific IgG, histamine, homocysteine, S100 calcium-binding protein B, and diamine oxidase. We were not able to find any significant differences in the serum levels of hs-CRP or TNF-α between the two groups. However, the histamine level of the patients (12.35 μM) was significantly higher than that of the controls (9.73 μM, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Moreover, significantly higher serum food antigen-specific IgG positive rates were also found in the patient group. Furthermore, over 80% of patients exhibited prolonged food intolerance with elevated levels of serum histamine, leading to hyperpermeability of the blood-brain barrier, which has previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD. Hence, prolonged high levels of serum histamine could be a risk factor for depressive disorders, and antihistamine release might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for depression treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Biomarkers , Blood , C-Reactive Protein , Chronic Disease , Cytokines , Depressive Disorder, Major , Blood , Epidemiology , Female , Food Hypersensitivity , Blood , Histamine , Blood , Homocysteine , Blood , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Blood , Immunoglobulin G , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Inflammation Mediators , Blood , Male , Risk Factors , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Blood , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785903

ABSTRACT

Macrophages play essential roles in innate immune responses by producing various immune mediators. Therefore, modulating macrophage function is an attractive strategy to treat immune disorders. Aralia cordata var. continentalis (AC), known as “Dokwhal” in Korea, possesses various biological and medicinal functions, including immunomodulation. The present study investigated the effect of the hot water extract of AC (HAC) on RAW264.7 murine macrophages. When these cells were treated with HAC, nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was induced dose-dependently. In addition, HAC treatment triggered the secretion of innate immune cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6. Phagocytosis, measured by FITC-dextran internalization showed that HAC stimulated the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Furthermore, HAC promoted the production of reactive oxygen species in RAW264.7 cells, determined by CM-H2DCFDA. In addition, the immunoblot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed that NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways, which are important signaling mediators of inflammation, are upregulated by HAC. In conclusion, these findings suggested that HAC can stimulate macrophage activity, and NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways might be involved in the immunostimulatory effects of HAC.


Subject(s)
Aralia , Cytokines , Immune System Diseases , Immunity, Innate , Immunomodulation , Inflammation Mediators , Interleukin-6 , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Korea , Macrophages , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phagocytosis , Reactive Oxygen Species , Water
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the levels of airway inflammatory mediators in peripheral blood in infants and young children with wheezing and to study the possible pathogenesis of wheezing from the aspects of T helper cell 1 (Th1)/T helper cell 2 (Th2) imbalance and airway inflammation.@*METHODS@#A total of 50 children aged 1 month to 3 years with an acute wheezing episode were enrolled as the wheezing group, and 25 age-matched healthy infants were enrolled as the healthy control group. According to the number of wheezing episodes, the wheezing group was divided into a first-episode group (n=25) and a recurrent wheezing (number of episodes ≥2) group (n=25). According to the presence or absence of high-risk factors for asthma, the wheezing group was divided into a high-risk factor group (n=22) and a non-high-risk factor group (n=28). According to the results of pathogen detection, the wheezing group was divided into a positive pathogen group (n=23) and a negative pathogen group (n=27). Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-13 (IL-13), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and total IgE (TIgE) in peripheral blood were measured for each group. For children with wheezing, eosinophil (EOS) count in peripheral blood was measured, and related samples were collected for respiratory pathogen detection.@*RESULTS@#The wheezing group had significantly higher levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TGF-β1, and TIgE in peripheral blood than the healthy control group (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that in children with wheezing, EOS count was positively correlated with IL-4 level (P<0.01), IL-4 level was positively correlated with IL-5 and IL-13 levels (P<0.01), IL-5 level was positively correlated with IL-13 level (P<0.01), and IL-2 level was positively correlated with TGF-β1 level (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Th1/Th2 imbalance with a predominance of Th2 is observed in infants and young children with wheezing. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TGF-β1, and IgE are involved in the pathogenesis of wheezing in these children. Airway inflammation is also observed in these children with wheezing, but it is not associated with the number of wheezing episodes, presence or absence of high-risk factors for asthma, or results of pathogen detection.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Inflammation Mediators , Interleukin-13 , Respiratory Sounds , Th1 Cells
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776886

ABSTRACT

Atractylenolide III (ATL-III), a sesquiterpene compound isolated from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has revealed a number of pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer activity, and neuroprotective effect. This study aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective efficiency and potential mechanisms of ATL-III on corticosterone injured rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our results demonstrate that ATL-III increases cell viability and reduces the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The results suggest that ATL-III protects PC12 cells from corticosterone-induced injury by inhibiting the intracellular Ca overloading, inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulating the MAPK/NF-ΚB inflammatory pathways. These findings provide a novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which ATL-III protected the PC12 cells against corticosterone-induced injury for the first time. Our results provide the evidence that ATL-III may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Calcium , Metabolism , Cell Survival , Corticosterone , Toxicity , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Lactones , Pharmacology , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , PC12 Cells , Phosphorylation , Rats , Sesquiterpenes , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-neuroinflammation effect of extract of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (EFSC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 cells and the possible involved mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Primary cortical neurons were isolated from embryonic (E17-18) cortices of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse fetuses. Primary microglia and astroglia were isolated from the frontal cortices of newborn ICR mouse. Different cells were cultured in specific culture medium. Cells were divided into 5 groups: control group, LPS group (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS only) and EFSC groups (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS and 100, 200 or 400 mg/mL EFSC, respectively). The effect of EFSC on cells viability was tested by methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. EFSC-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitrite oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified and neuron-protection effect against microglia-mediated inflammation injury was tested by hoechst 33258 apoptosis assay and crystal violet staining assay. The expression of pro-inflammatory marker proteins was evaluated by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced NO, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-induced BV-2 cells (P<0.01 or P<0.05). EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced the expression of NO in LPS-induced primary microglia and astroglia (P<0.01). In addition, EFSC alleviated cell apoptosis and inflammation injury in neurons exposed to microglia-conditioned medium (P<0.01). The mechanistic studies indicated EFSC could suppress nuclear factor (NF)-?B phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation (P<0.01). The anti-inflammatory effect of EFSC occurred through suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (P<0.01 or P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EFSC acted as an anti-inflammatory agent in LPS-induced glia cells. These effects might be realized through blocking of NF-κB activity and inhibition of MAPK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Down-Regulation , Inflammation , Pathology , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice, Inbred ICR , Microglia , Metabolism , Pathology , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Nervous System , Pathology , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Schisandra , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the effects of hawthorn extract on serum lipid levels, pathological changes in aortic atherosclerosis plaque, inflammatory factors, and apoptosis-related protein and mRNA expression in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE) mice.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six ApoE mice were fed with a high-fat diet starting at the age of 8 weeks. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups by a random number table including model group, hawthorn extract group, and simvastatin group, 12 mice in each group. Twelve 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a basic diet and served as control. The mice in the control and model groups were administered 0.2 mL saline daily, the mice in the hawthorn extract and simvastatin groups were administered with 50 mg/kg hawthorn extract or 5 mg/kg simvastatin daily for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, plasma lipids including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined by an enzymatic assay. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were observed by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), adiponectin (APN), and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein and mRNA expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 in the aorta were assessed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively.@*RESULTS@#Compared to the control group, the plasma levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly increased and HDL-C were significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared to the model group, treatment with hawthorn extract significantly decreased the plasma levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C and increased the plasma level of HDL-C in ApoE mice (P<0.01). The levels of MCP-1, IL-1ß, and hs-CRP in the model group were significantly increased and APN was significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.01). Compared to the model group, treatment with hawthorn extract decreased the levels of MCP-1, IL-1ß, and hs-CRP and increased the APN level (P<0.01). Compared to the control group, the protein and mRNA expression of Bax in the model group were significantly increased and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Hawthorn extract also reduced the protein and mRNA expression of Bax and increased the Bcl-2 expression in the aorta (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Hawthorn extract has anti-atherosclerosis and stabilizing unstable plaque effects. The mechanism may be related to the inflflammation and apoptosis signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Pathology , Apoptosis , Atherosclerosis , Blood , Drug Therapy , Crataegus , Chemistry , Inflammation , Blood , Drug Therapy , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lipids , Blood , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Based on the establishment of a rat model of trigger point, this study was to intervene with warm acupuncture, and to evaluate the effect on pathological morphology and pain-induced inflammation of the rat model by microscopic pathology and microdialysis.@*METHODS@#Sixty-four SD rats were randomly divided into group A (blank control), group B (model control) and group C (model and intervention control). Groups A and B were divided into 3 groups (A0, A1, A2 and B0, B1, B2), the group C was divided into 2 groups (C1 and C2). The MTrPs model was established in both groups B and C, warm acupuncture intervention were given to the C1 group for 7 days and the C2 group for 15 days. Rats were sacrificed in batches. MTrPs were locally sampled and stained with hematoxylin-eosin after the preparation. The pathological changes were observed under light microscopy. The iocal interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2 were detected by microdialysis technique.@*RESULTS@#Microscopically, the muscle fibers of the model were arranged disorderly, broken, twisted, local fibrosis, contracture thickening and so on; macrophage and other inflammatory cell invasion in local area and a large area of adhesion occurred on the contracture nodule, the pathological state of local muscle fibers was significantly improved after warm needle intervention, local microvascular formation and maturation, local muscle fiber repair. After successful modeling, the amount of interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2 in group B0 was significantly higher than that in group A0 before warm needle intervention (0.05). Group C1 and B1 were significantly higher than group A1 (<0.01); warm needle intervention for 15 days, the amount of interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2 in group C2 were lower than those in group B2 (<0.05), but those in group C2 and B2 were significantly higher than group A2 (<0.01), and the amount of interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2 in group C2 was lower than group C1 (<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The modeling method of exercise combined hitting used in this study was proved to be effective by histopathology; warm acupuncture can improve the pathological and inflammatory state of local muscle fiber in myofascial pain trigger of rat, promote local microvascular formation and maturation, and help the trigger point local muscle fiber repair.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Inflammation Mediators , Myofascial Pain Syndromes , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Trigger Points
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