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1.
Clinics ; 74: e509, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011922

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening illness characterized by a complex pathophysiology, involving not only the respiratory system but also nonpulmonary distal organs. Although advances in the management of ARDS have led to a distinct improvement in ARDS-related mortality, ARDS is still a life-threatening respiratory condition with long-term consequences. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of this condition will allow us to create a personalized treatment strategy for improving clinical outcomes. In this article, we present a general overview p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and recent advances in understanding its functions. We consider the potential of the pharmacological targeting of p38MAPK pathways to treat ARDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/therapeutic use , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(4): 428-434, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888669

ABSTRACT

Abstract During insertion of titanium dental implants, particles may shear from the implant to the periimplant region causing osteolysis, and their association with bacteria can exacerbate the inflammatory reaction. However, the association of a high invasive bacterium from the oral cavity, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and titanium particles remains unknown. This study evaluated pro-inflammatory reaction of human macrophages in contact with micro and nanoparticles of titanium associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS). THP-1 cell were used and treated for 12, 24 and 48 h following 6 groups: Control(C), PgLPS (L); Microparticles (M); Nanoparticles (N); PgLPS and microparticles (LM); PgLPS and nanoparticles (LN). The following assays were carried out: i) cell viability using MTS, ii) cell morphology by SEM and iii) expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by qRT-PCR and ELISA. For statistics two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used (p<0.05). After treatment, cells presented similar viability and morphology demonstrating that the treatments were not able to induce cell death. Gene expression was significantly higher for TNF-α and IL1-β after 12 h, and for IL-6 after 24 h in the N and LN groups. Cytokine production over time was an ascending curve for TNF-α with the peak at 48 h and IL1-β and IL-6 had a straight line among the time points, although cells from N group presented a significant production of IL-6 at 48 h. In conclusion, these results suggest that titanium nanoparticles stimulate stronger pro-inflammatory response in macrophages, independent of their association with LPS from P.gingivalis.


Resumo Durante a inserção de implantes dentários partículas de titânio podem ser liberadas na região peri-implantar levando ao processo de osteólise e a associação com a bactéria pode exacerbar ainda mais a reação inflamatória. Entretanto, a associação de uma bactéria altamente invasiva da cavidade oral, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) e partículas de titânio ainda não foi investigada. Este estudo avaliou a reação pró-inflamatória de macrófagos humanos em contato com micro e nanopartículas de titânio associada a lipopolissacarídeo P. gingivalis (PgLPS). As células THP-1 foram utilizadas e tratadas durante 12, 24 e 48 h nos 6 seguintes grupos: Controle (C), PgLPS (L); micropartículas (M); nanopartículas (N); PgLPS e micropartículas (LM); PgLPS e nanopartículas (LN). Em seguida foram realizados os seguintes ensaios: i) a viabilidade celular utilizando MTS, ii) a morfologia celular por MEV e iii) expressão do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α), interleucina-1 beta (IL-1β) e interleucina 6 (IL-6) por qRT-PCR e ELISA. Como estatística foi realizado o teste ANOVA two-way seguido pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Após o tratamento, as células apresentaram viabilidade e morfologia semelhantes, demonstrando que os tratamentos não foram capazes de induzir a morte celular. A expressão de genes foi significativamente mais elevada para o TNF-α e IL1-β após 12h, e para a IL-6 após 24 horas em N e grupos de LN. A produção de citocinas em relação ao tempo representou uma curva ascendente para o TNF-α com o pico em 48 h, enquanto que para IL1-β e IL-6 se apresentou como uma linha reta com relação ao tempo, exceto pelo grupo N que foi significativo para IL-6 em 48 h . Conclui-se, a partir destes resultados, que as nanopartículas de titânio produziram o maior estímulo na resposta pró-inflamatória nos macrófagos, independente da sua associação com LPS de P. gingivalis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Titanium/pharmacology , Dental Implants , Porphyromonas gingivalis/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Particle Size , Titanium/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Gene Expression , Cell Line , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Porphyromonas gingivalis/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , O Antigens/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Macrophages/metabolism
3.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 661-674, May. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886670

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae), has been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes from ancient times to the present. In this study, we examined the effects of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF) on the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our data indicated that WEMF significantly suppressed the secretion of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages without any significant cytotoxicity. The protective effects were accompanied by a marked reduction in their regulatory gene expression at the transcription level. WEMF attenuated LPS-induced intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. It inhibited the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-kappa B p65 subunit and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, WEMF reduced LPS-induced NO production and ROS accumulation in zebrafish. Although more efforts are needed to fully understand the critical role of WEMF in the inhibition of inflammation, the findings of the present study may provide insights into the approaches for Mori folium as a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory and antioxidant disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Zebrafish , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Morus/chemistry , Macrophages/drug effects , Prostaglandins E/metabolism , Gene Expression , Genes, Regulator , Lipopolysaccharides , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , RAW 264.7 Cells , Macrophages/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
4.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 48-56, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838085

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Liver fibrosis resulting from chronic liver injury are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among causes of hepatic fibrosis, viral infection is most common (hepatitis B and C). In addition, obesity rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of liver injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Also liver fibrosis is associated with the consumption of alcohol, or autoimmune hepatitis and chronic cholangiophaties. The response of hepatocytes to inflammation plays a decisive role in the physiopathology of hepatic fibrosis, which involves the recruitment of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cells such as monocytes and macrophages. As well as the production of other cytokines and chemokines, which increase the stimulus of hepatic stellate cells by activating proinflammatory cells. The aim of this review is to identify the therapeutic options available for the treatment of the liver fibrosis, enabling the prevention of progression when is detected in time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Communication/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Disease Progression , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/pathology , Hepatic Stellate Cells/drug effects , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(6): 382-388, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785018

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the regulatory roles of neutrophil elastase (NE) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. METHODS: To construct LPS-induced ALI mouse models, wild-type C57BL/6 mice were administered 5.0 mg/kg of LPS through endotracheal, and/or 1.0 mg/kg of ONO-5046, and/or 20.0 mg/kg of chemically modified tetracycline-3 (CMT-3) by gavage. The levels of MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1, interleukin (IL)-6 were detected by real time RT-PCR at 6 h, 24 h and 48 h, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lung wet-dry weight ratio, white blood cell (WBC) count and polymorphonuclear (PMN) count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were tested at 48 h after administration. The 5-day survival analysis of the ALI mice was also performed. RESULTS: Both ONO-5046 and CMT-3, regardless of being used individually or combined, significantly reduced the levels of MMP-9, IL-6, and TNF in lung tissue as well as in BALF, and the WBC and PMN count in BALF. Combined treatment with ONO-5046 and CMT-3 remarkably improved the survival rate of ALI mice. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil elastase synergizes with matrix metalloproteinase-9 to promote and regulate the release of inflammatory mediators and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, consequently affecting the survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Tetracyclines/administration & dosage , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/enzymology , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Time Factors , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Survival Analysis , Lipopolysaccharides , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Leukocyte Elastase/drug effects , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factors/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/blood , Glycine/administration & dosage , Leukocyte Count , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(2): 202-207, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778326

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the biological activity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) purified from Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis strains, both isolated from primary endodontic infection (PEI) in the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α released by macrophage cells. Moreover, LPS was purified from F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis American Type Collection (ATCC) and its biological activity was compared to respectively clinical isolates strains. F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis strains clinically isolated from PEI had their identification confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. LPS from F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis and their respective ATCC strains were extracted by using Tri-reagent method. Macrophages (Raw 264.7) were stimulated with LPS at 100 ng/mL for 4, 8 and 12 h. Secretion of IL-1 β and TNF-α was also determined. Paired t-test, repeated measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA were employed. All LPS induced significant production of IL-1β and TNF-α, with the former being secreted at higher levels than the latter in all time-points. F. nucleatum induced a higher expression of both cytokines compared to P. gingivalis (p<0.05). No differences were observed between clinical and ATCC strains, as both presented the same potential to induce pro-inflammatory response. It was concluded that F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis LPS presented different patterns of activation against macrophages as seen by the IL-1β and TNF-α production, which may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of apical periodontitis. Moreover, clinical and ATCC strains grown under the same in vitro environment conditions presented similar biological activity.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a atividade biológica de lipopolissacarídeos (LPS) purificados a partir de linhagens de Fusobacterium nucleatum e Porphyromonas gingivalis, ambas isoladas de infecções endodônticas primárias (IEP) nos níveis de IL-1β e TNF-α produzidos por macrófagos. Adicionalmente, LPS foi purificado de F. nucleatum e P. gingivalis "American Type Collection" (ATCC) e sua atividade comparada às respectivas linhagens clinicamente isoladas. Linhagens de F. nucleatum e P. gingivalis isoladas clinicamente de IEP tiveram sua identificação confirmada por sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. LPS de F. nucleatum e P. gingivalis e das respectivas linhagens foram extraídos com o uso do método "Tri-reagent". Macrófagos (Raw 264.7) foram estimulados com LPS a 100 ng/mL por 4, 8 e 12 h. A secreção de IL-1β e de TNF-α foi determinada. Foram usados os testes t-pareado, ANOVA de medidas repetidas e ANOVA de um fator. Todos os LPS induziram a produção significante de IL-1β e TNF-α, sendo o primeiro secretado em mais altas concentrações que o último em todos os tempos avaliados. F. nucleatum induziu uma maior expressão de ambas as citocinas comparativamente ao P. gingivalis (p<0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças entre as linhagens clínica e ATCC, uma vez que ambas apresentaram o mesmo potencial de indução da resposta pró-inflamatória. Conclui-se que F. nucleatum e P. gingivalis possuem diferentes padrões de ativação dos macrófagos, como visto pela produção de IL-1β e TNF-α, o que pode contribuir para a imunopatogênese da periodontite apical. Ainda, linhagens clínica e ATCC mantidas no mesmo ambiente in vitro apresentaram ativação biológica semelhante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines/metabolism , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Fusobacterium nucleatum/chemistry , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Porphyromonas gingivalis/chemistry
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 161-167, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777371

ABSTRACT

Severe dengue pathogenesis is not fully understood, but high levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with dengue disease severity. In this study, the cytokine levels in 171 sera from Mexican patients with primary dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) from dengue virus (DENV) 1 (n = 116) or 2 (n = 55) were compared. DF and DHF were defined according to the patient’s clinical condition, the primary infections as indicated by IgG enzymatic immunoassay negative results, and the infecting serotype as assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Samples were analysed for circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-12p70, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-8 using a commercial cytometric bead array. Significantly higher IFN-γ levels were found in patients with DHF than those with DF. However, significantly higher IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were associated with DHF only in patients who were infected with DENV2 but not with DENV1. Moreover, patients with DF who were infected with DENV1 showed higher levels of IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-6 than patients with DHF early after-fever onset. The IL-8 levels were similar in all cases regardless of the clinical condition or infection serotype. These results suggest that the association between high proinflammatory cytokine levels and dengue disease severity does not always stand, and it once again highlights the complex nature of DHF pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Cytokines/metabolism , Dengue Virus/immunology , Severe Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/blood , /blood , /blood , /blood , Mexico , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Serogroup , Statistics, Nonparametric , Severe Dengue/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(1): 1-7, Jan. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771855

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of ischemic preconditioning on mortality, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were allocated according to the period of ischemia with or without ischemic preconditioning which consist on clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 10 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes before the sustained ischemia period. Mortality was assessed in Phase 1 study, and the CINC-1, CINC-2 and MDA levels in the lungs were analyzed in Phase 2. RESULTS: Mortality was lower in the ischemic preconditioning group subjected to 90 minutes of ischemia compared to the group without ischemic preconditioning (I-90: 50% and IPC-90: 15%, p=0.018), and it was lower in the ischemic preconditioning group as a whole compared to the groups without ischemic preconditioning (IPC-14% and I=30%, p=0.006). Lower levels of MDA, CINC-1, and CINC-2 were observed in the animals that were subjected to ischemic preconditioning compared to the animals that were not (MDA: I-45=1.23 nmol/mg protein, and IPC-45=0.62 nmol/mg protein, p=0.0333; CINC-1: I-45=0.82 ng/mL and IPC-45=0.67 ng/mL, p=0.041; CINC-2: I-45=0.52 ng/mL and IPC-45=0.35 ng/mL, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Ischemic preconditioning reduces mortality, inflammatory process and oxidative stress in rats subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Ischemic Preconditioning/mortality , Mesenteric Ischemia/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Reperfusion Injury/mortality , Chemokine CXCL1/analysis , Chemokines, CXC/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lung/metabolism , Lung/physiopathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mesenteric Arteries/metabolism , Mesenteric Ischemia/mortality , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149380

ABSTRACT

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is a global health problem of considerable socioeconomic burden. It is projected to worsen with the aging population worldwide. The lack of effective therapies underscores our incomplete understanding of this complex heterogeneous syndrome. A novel paradigm has recently emerged, in which central roles are ascribed to systemic inflammation and generalized endothelial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of HFPEF. In this review, we discuss the role of the endothelium in cardiovascular homeostasis and how deranged endothelial-related signaling pathways contribute to the development of HFPEF. We also review the novel therapies in various stages of research and development that target different components of this signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Signal Transduction , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
10.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(supl.2): 146-157, Out.-Dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776710

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Descrever o perfil dos pacientes que referiram diagnóstico médico de câncer e descrever os tipos de câncer mais prevalentes, segundo variáveis selecionadas. Métodos: Estudo descritivo que utilizou dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PSN) de 2013 para estimar prevalências e respectivos valores do intervalo de confiança (IC95%). Resultados: Menos de 2% dos adultos referiram diagnóstico médico de câncer, sendo mais relatado por mulheres, por pessoas com mais de 60 anos, entre brancos, em residentes da zona urbana e moradores da Região Sul. O câncer de próstata foi o mais referido entre os homens; entre as mulheres, o câncer de mama foi o mais prevalente. A menor idade média do primeiro diagnóstico foi identificada para câncer de colo de útero (35,4 anos; IC95% 30,3 - 40,6), e a maior, para câncer de próstata (65,7 anos; IC95% 64,2 - 67,0). Conclusão: Os achados deste estudo são importantes para o planejamento dos serviços de saúde e do seu acesso, pois revelam diferenças, principalmente regionais.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the profile of patients who reported a medical diagnosis of cancer and describe the most prevalent types of cancer, according to selected variables. Methods: A descriptive study that used data from the National Survey of Health, 2013, to estimate prevalence and their values of confidence interval (95%CI). Results: Less than 2% of adults reported a medical diagnosis of cancer, with most reported by women, people over 60, among whites, residents in the village and residents of South Prostate cancer was the most reported among men and breast among women. The lowest average age of first diagnosis was identified for cervical cancer (35.4 years; 95%CI 30.3 - 40.6) and the highest for prostate (65.7 years; 95%CI 64.2 - 67.0). Conclusion: The findings of this study are important for the planning of health services and access, as they show differences mainly regional.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Drug Carriers , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Lipids/chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Nanoparticles , Sepsis/drug therapy , Cytokines/blood , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Signal Transduction , Sepsis/chemically induced
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(6): 862-867, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769527

ABSTRACT

Abstract: It is known that inflammatory and immune responses protect us from the invasion of micro-organisms and eliminate "wastes" from the injured sites, but they may also be responsible for significant tissue damage. Adenosine, as a purine nucleoside, which is produced in inflamed or injured sites, fulfills its role in limiting tissue damage. Although, it may have a pleiotropic effect, which signals it with a proinflammatory state in certain situations, it can be considered a potent anti-inflammatory mediator. The effects of adenosine, which acts through its receptors on T cell, on mast cell and macrophages, on endothelial cells, on neutrophils and dendritic cells, as they indicate TNF-alpha and cytokines, show that this mediator has a central role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The way it acts in psoriasis will be reviewed in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine/metabolism , Psoriasis/etiology , Psoriasis/metabolism , Adenosine Deaminase/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunosuppressive Agents/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Methotrexate/metabolism
12.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 253-260, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752516

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: construir e validar um instrumento para monitorar a qualidade dos registros de enfermagem no Programa de Assistência Domiciliar (PAD) em um hospital universitário. Método: estudo metodológico envolvendo a elaboração de um manual e submetido à validação de conteúdo por seis juízes sob consenso ≥ 80%. A coleta ocorreu em 2012 por meio de questionário contendo: evolução de enfermagem, diagnóstico e prescrição de enfermagem e normas para os registros da equipe de enfermagem preconizadas pelo Conselho Regional de Enfermagem-SP e pela instituição. Os itens do manual foram julgados de acordo com as variáveis - relevância, pertinência, clareza e simplicidade. Resultados: das 39 proposições 100% atingiram consenso ≥ 80% em relevância, pertinência e clareza; 92,3% em simplicidade. Os itens sono/repouso, mobilidade e checagem nas atividades prescritas não atingiram consenso mínimo favorável, sendo aprimorados pelas sugestões dos juízes. Conclusão: acreditamos que o instrumento possibilitará a melhoria dos processos de trabalho no PAD. .


RESUMEN Objetivo: construir y validar un instrumento para monitorear la calidad del registros de enfermería en Programa de Atención Domiciliaria (PAD) de un Hospital Universitario. Metodo: estudio metodológico. Fue construido un manual y sometió a validación de contenido por seis jueces bajo el consenso ≥80%. La recogida currió en 2012, con un cuestionario que contiene: evolución de enfermería, diagnóstico y prescripción de enfermería y normas para los registros del personal de enfermaria estabelecidas por Consejo Regional de Enfermería-SP y por la institución. Los artículos del manual fueran juzgadso conforme las variables relevancia, pertinencia, claridad y sencillez. Resultados: de las 39 proposiciones 100% alcanzó consenso ≥ 80% en la relevancia, pertinencia y claridad; 92,3% en la simplicidad. Los itens sueño/resto, movilidad y verificar las actividades prescritas no alcanzó consenso favorable, siendo mejoradas por las sugerencias de los jueces. Conclusión: creemos que el instrumento permitirá la mejora de los procesos de trabajo en PAD. .


ABSTRACT Objective: to build and validate an instrument aimed at monitoring the quality of nursing records in the Home Care Program (HCP) of a university hospital. Method: methodological study involving the elaboration of a manual, whose content was later submitted to six experts for validation, reaching a ≥ 80% consensus. The data collection process was carried out in 2012 by means of a questionnaire comprised of the following issues: nursing evolution, nursing diagnosis, and nursing prescription, and standards for the nursing team recommended by the Regional Nursing Council of São Paulo and by the assessed institution. Manual items were judged according to the following variables: relevance, pertinence, clarity and simplicity. Results: of the 39 propositions, 100% achieved ≥ 80% agreement in the relevance, pertinence and clarity variables; 92.3% in the simplicity variable. Sleep/rest, Mobility and Check-out variables did not reach a favorable minimum consensus in the prescribed activities and were improved following suggestions from the experts. Conclusion: we believe that the instrument will enable the improvement of the HCP’s work process. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Actins/metabolism , Cofilin 1/metabolism , Dysentery, Bacillary/microbiology , Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein/metabolism , Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/metabolism , Shigella flexneri/physiology , Actins/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Cofilin 1/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Gene Expression Regulation , HeLa Cells , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunoprecipitation , Inflammation , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein/genetics , Phosphorylation , Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Signal Transduction
13.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 320-324, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752520

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: investigar a presença de micro-organismos nas narinas dos profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital de ensino brasileiro. Método: estudo transversal, em duas unidades de internação especializadas em HIV/aids. Foram coletadas amostras de secreção nasal de profissionais de enfermagem no período de um mês. As amostras foram processadas no laboratório de microbiologia da instituição e a análise dos dados resultantes por meio do software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versão 19.0. Os aspectos éticos foram contemplados. Resultados: dos 73 profissionais de enfermagem do serviço, foram coletadas amostras de secreção nasal de 61 (80,2%). Foram isolados seis tipos de micro-organismos em 22 (41,0%) culturas positivas. Destaca-se que o Staphylococcus aureus representou 22,9%, sendo quatro resistentes à oxacilina (MRSA). Conclusão: o Staphylococcus aureus foi o micro-organismo de maior prevalência nos indivíduos deste estudo. .


RESUMEN Objetivo: investigar la presencia de microorganismos en las fosas nasales del personal de enfermería de un hospital universitario brasileño. Método: estudio transversal en dos unidades de hospitalización especializados en VIH/SIDA. Muestras de secreción nasal de enfermeras fueron recolectados durante un mes. Las muestras fueron procesadas en el laboratorio de microbiología de la institución y se analizaron con el paquete estadístico para el software de Ciencias Sociales (SPSS) versión 19.0. Los aspectos éticos fueron cubiertos. Resultados: 73 de los profesionales de enfermería, se recogieron muestras de las secreciones nasales de 61 (80,2%). Se aislaron seis tipos de microorganismos en 22 (41,0%) cultivos positivos. Es de destacar que el Staphylococcus aureus representó el 22,9%, cuatro oxacilina-resistente (MRSA). Conclusión: Staphylococcus aureus fue la prevalencia más microorganismo en los individuos de este estudio. .


ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the presence of microorganisms in the nostrils of the nursing professionals of a Brazilian teaching hospital. Method: cross-sectional study in two inpatient units specialized in HIV/AIDS. Nasal secretion samples of nursing professionals were collected in one month. The samples were processed at the microbiology laboratory of the institution and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 19.0. Ethical aspects were abided. Results: from the 73 members of the nursing staff, samples of nasal secretions were collected from 61 (80.2%). Six types of microorganisms were isolated in 22 (41.0%) positive cultures. It is noteworthy that Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 22.9%, four of them oxacillin-resistant (MRSA). Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus microorganism accounted for the largest prevalence in individuals of this study. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Biomarkers/metabolism , Gonorrhea/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/etiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/pathogenicity , Neutrophils/immunology , Bacterial Adhesion , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/genetics , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression Profiling , Gonorrhea/metabolism , Gonorrhea/microbiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/immunology , Neutrophils/microbiology , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oxidative Stress , Phagocytosis/physiology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
14.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 68-75, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. RESULTS: Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml) values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages. .


OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo transversal foi avaliar os níveis do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina-1 (IGF-1 sérico) em pacientes de ambos os sexos e em diferentes estágios de maturação das vértebras cervicais (MVC). MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 60 pacientes, sendo 30 do sexo masculino e 30 do sexo feminino, com idades entre 8 e 23 anos. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de todos os pacientes, cujos níveis de IGF-1 sérico foram avaliados por meio do método de imunoensaio quimioluminescente (CLIA). O estágio de MVC foi avaliado por meio de radiografias cefalométricas de perfil por meio do método descrito por Baccetti. O nível de IGF-1 sérico e o estágio de maturação das vertebras cervicais de 30 pacientes do sexo feminino foram avaliados e os dados retirados dos registros de um estudo prévio. Os dados foram submetidos aos testes de Kruskal-Wallis e de Mann-Whitney. A correção de Bonferroni foi calculada e o valor de alfa foi de 0,003. RESULTADOS: o valor de pico do IGF-1 sérico foi encontrado no estágio CS3, para mulheres, e CS4, para homens. Foram encontradas diferenças entre as médias dos valores de IGF-1 entre homens e mulheres nos estágios CS3, 4 e 5. O valor médio mais alto para os níveis de IGF-1 nos homens foi observado no estágio CS4, seguido do estágio CS5 e CS3. Nas mulheres, o valor médio mais alto foi observado em CS3, seguido do estágio CS4 e CS5. Diferenças também foram encontradas quanto à curva do IGF-1, em relação ao estágio de maturação das vértebras cervicais nos pacientes de ambos os sexos. O valor médio de IGF-1 sérico mais alto foi comparado. As pacientes do sexo feminino apresentaram valores ligeiramente mais altos (397ng/ml) em comparação aos pacientes do sexo masculino (394.8ng/ml). CONCLUSÕES: homens e mulheres apresentam valores de IGF-1 diferentes em estágios de maturação das vértebras cervicais diferentes. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Macrolides/metabolism , Mycobacterium ulcerans/pathogenicity , Buruli Ulcer/metabolism , Buruli Ulcer/microbiology , Buruli Ulcer/pathology , Cell Line , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Endoplasmic Reticulum/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mycobacterium ulcerans/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Protein Transport/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
15.
Salud colect ; 11(1): 23-34, ene.-mar. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746682

ABSTRACT

Un tercio de la población mundial carece de acceso a los medicamentos y la situación es peor en los países pobres, en los que hasta un 50% de la población carece de acceso. El fracaso de los sistemas actuales de incentivos, basados en la propiedad intelectual, para ofrecer los productos farmacéuticos necesarios, especialmente en los países del sur, llama a la acción. Los problemas relacionados con el acceso a medicamentos no pueden ser resueltos tan solo a través de mejoras o adaptaciones de los modelos de incentivos existentes. El modelo del sistema de propiedad intelectual no ofrece la innovación necesaria para los países en desarrollo, se necesitan nuevos mecanismos que de forma simultánea y eficaz promuevan la innovación y el acceso a los medicamentos. Un tratado internacional vinculante sobre investigación y desarrollo, que se negocie bajo los auspicios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, puede proporcionar el marco adecuado para garantizar el establecimiento de prioridades, la coordinación y la financiación sostenible de los medicamentos a precios asequibles para los países en desarrollo.


One-third of the global population lacks access to medications; the situation is worse in poor countries, where up to 50% of the population lacks access. The failure of current incentive systems based in intellectual property to offer the necessary pharmaceutical products, especially in the global south, is a call to action. Problems related to drug access cannot be solved solely through improvements or modifications in the existing incentive models. The intellectual property system model does not offer sufficient innovation for developing countries; new mechanisms that effectively promote innovation and drug access simultaneously are needed. A binding international agreement on research and development, negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization, could provide an adequate framework for guaranteeing priority-setting, coordination, and sustainable financing of drugs at reasonable prices for developing countries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Chromatin/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology , Chromatin/genetics , DNA Repair , Enzyme Activation , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 112-123, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201303

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the proteasome inhibitor known as bortezomib can modulate the inflammatory process through the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, the immunomodulatory effect of pre-incubated bortezomib has not been fully evaluated for inflammation by infectious agents. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of bortezomib on the expression of inflammatory cytokines and mediators in macrophage cell lines and on survival in a murine peritonitis sepsis model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bortezomib was applied 1 hr before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in RAW 264.7 cells. The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experiments were performed in C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: Pre-incubation with bortezomib (25 nM or 50 nM) prior to LPS (50 ng/mL or 100 ng/mL) stimulation significantly recovered the number of viable RAW 264.7 cells compared to those samples without pre-incubation. Bortezomib decreased various inflammatory cytokines as well as nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated cells. The 7-day survival rate in mice that had received bortezomib at 0.01 mg/kg concentration 1 hr prior to CLP was significantly higher than in the mice that had only received a normal saline solution of 1 mL 1 hr prior to CLP. In addition, the administration of bortezomib at 0.01 mg/kg concentration 1 hr before CLP resulted in a significant decrease in inflammation of the lung parenchyma. Collectively, pretreatment with bortezomib showed an increase in the survival rate and changes in the levels of inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSION: These results support the possibility of pretreatment with bortezomib as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of overwhelming inflammation, which is a characteristic of severe sepsis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Boronic Acids/administration & dosage , Cecum/pathology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chymotrypsin/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Ligation , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Proteasome Inhibitors/pharmacology , Punctures , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Sepsis/drug therapy
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214120

ABSTRACT

The complex interaction of molecules within a biological system constitutes a functional module. These modules are then acted upon by both internal and external factors, such as genetic and environmental stresses, which under certain conditions can manifest as complex disease phenotypes. Recent advances in high-throughput biological analyses, in combination with improved computational methods for data enrichment, functional annotation, and network visualization, have enabled a much deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying important biological processes by identifying functional modules that are temporally and spatially perturbed in the context of disease development. Systems biology approaches such as these have produced compelling observations that would be impossible to replicate using classical methodologies, with greater insights expected as both the technology and methods improve in the coming years. Here, we examine the use of systems biology and network analysis in the study of a wide range of rheumatic diseases to better understand the underlying molecular and clinical features.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Biomedical Research/methods , Cytokines/genetics , Genetic Markers , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Phenotype , Prognosis , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatology/methods , Risk Factors , Signal Transduction , Systems Biology , Systems Integration
18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 26(4): 392-396, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732925

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar e compreender as implicações clínicas dos níveis plasmáticos de uma isoforma solúvel de um receptor de produtos finais de glicação avançada (do inglês receptor for advanced glycation end products - sRAGE) em diferentes fases da sepse. Métodos: Os valores do sRAGE sérico em pacientes divididos nos grupos controle na unidade de terapia intensiva, sepse grave, choque séptico e recuperação de choque séptico foram analisados do ponto de vista estatístico para avaliar a quantidade (Kruskal-Wallis), variabilidade (teste de Levine) e correlação (teste Spearman rank) em relação a certos mediadores inflamatórios (IL-1 α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IP-10, G-CSF, MCP-1, IFN-γ e TNF-α). Resultados: Não se observaram modificações nos níveis de sRAGE entre os grupos; contudo o grupo com choque séptico demonstrou diferenças na variabilidade do sRAGE em comparação aos demais grupos. Foi relatada, no grupo com choque séptico, uma correlação positiva com todos os mediadores inflamatórios. Conclusão: Os níveis de sRAGE se associaram com desfechos piores nos pacientes com choque séptico. Entretanto, uma análise de correlação estatística com outras citocinas pró-inflamatórias indicou que as vias que levam a esses desfechos são diferentes, dependendo dos níveis de sRAGE. ...


Objective: To evaluate and understand the clinical implications of the plasma levels of a soluble isoform of a receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in different stages of sepsis. Methods: Serum sRAGE values in patients who were divided into intensive care unit control, severe sepsis, septic shock and recovery from septic shock groups were statistically analyzed to assess quantity (Kruskal-Wallis), variability (Levine test) and correlation (Spearman rank test) with certain inflammatory mediators (IL-1 α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IP-10, G-CSF, MCP-1, IFN-γ and TNF-α). Results: No changes in sRAGE levels were observed among the groups; however, the septic shock group showed differences in the variability of sRAGE compared to the other groups. A positive correlation with all the inflammatory mediators was reported in the septic shock group. Conclusion: sRAGE levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with septic shock. However, a statistical correlation analysis with other proinflammatory cytokines indicated that the pathways leading to those outcomes are different depending on the sRAGE levels. Future studies to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involving sRAGE in models of sepsis are of great clinical importance for the safe handling of this biomarker. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/blood , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Shock, Septic/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Shock, Septic/mortality , Shock, Septic/physiopathology
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(11): 1003-1007, 11/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723896

ABSTRACT

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common surgical complication in cancer patients and evidence that inflammation plays a role in the occurrence of DVT is increasing. We studied a population of cancer patients with abdominal malignancies with the aim of investigating whether the levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines were associated with postoperative DVT, and to determine the levels in DVT diagnoses. The serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-10, nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and E-selectin (E-Sel) were determined in 120 individuals, who were divided into 3 groups: healthy controls, patients with and patients without DVT after surgery for an abdominal malignancy. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Dunnet's T3 test, chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression as needed. The CRP, IL-6, NF-κB, and E-Sel levels in patients with DVT were significantly higher than those in the other groups (P<0.05). The IL-10 level was higher in patients with DVT than in controls but lower than in patients without DVT. Univariate analysis revealed that CRP, IL-6, NF-κB, and E-Sel were statistically associated with the risk of DVT (OR=1.98, P=0.002; OR=1.17, P=0.000; OR=1.03, P=0.042; and OR=1.38, P=0.003; respectively), whereas IL-10 had a protective effect (OR=0.94, P=0.011). Multivariate analysis showed that E-Sel was an independent risk factor (OR=1.41, P=0.000). Thus, this study indicated that an increased serum level of E-Sel was associated with increased DVT risk in postoperative patients with abdominal malignancy, indicating that E-Sel may be a useful predictor of diagnosis of DVT.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Abdominal Neoplasms/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/blood , E-Selectin/blood , /blood , /blood , NF-kappa B/blood , Postoperative Period , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(11): 940-946, 11/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723907

ABSTRACT

Stimulation by a number of conditions, including infection, cytokines, mechanical injury, and hypoxia, can upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hepatocytes. We observed that exposure to hypergravity significantly upregulated the transcription of the hepatic iNOS gene. The aim of this study was to confirm our preliminary data, and to further investigate the distribution of the iNOS protein in the livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. ICR mice were exposed to +3 Gz for 1 h. We investigated the time course of change in the iNOS expression. Hepatic iNOS mRNA expression progressively increased in centrifuged mice from 0 to 12 h, and then decreased rapidly by 18 h. iNOS mRNA levels in the livers of centrifuged mice was significantly higher at 3, 6, and 12 h than in uncentrifuged control mice. The pattern of iNOS protein expression paralleled that of the mRNA expression. At 0 and 1 h, weak cytoplasmic iNOS immunoreactivity was found in some hepatocytes surrounding terminal hepatic venules. It was noted that at 6 h there was an increase in the number of perivenular hepatocytes with moderate to strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. The number of iNOS-positive hepatocytes was maximally increased at 12 h. The majority of positively stained cells showed a strong intensity of iNOS expression. The expression levels of iNOS mRNA and protein were significantly increased in the livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. These results suggest that exposure to hypergravity significantly upregulates iNOS at both transcriptional and translational levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression/physiology , Hypergravity , Liver/enzymology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hypergravity/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , /analysis , Liver/anatomy & histology , Liver/physiology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription, Genetic/physiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Up-Regulation/physiology
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