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1.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(2): 39-51, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119324

ABSTRACT

Introducción: dados los efectos pleiotrópicos de los glucocorticoides (GCs) sobre el metabolismo, los niveles excesivos y sostenidos de GCs circulantes tienen efectos deletéreos e incrementan la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular. Objetivos: estudiar el efecto de la terapia antioxidante (con ácido lipoico o melatonina) sobre la hiperactivación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (HHA) en animales alimentados con dieta rica en sacarosa (DRS). Materiales y métodos: se evaluó la actividad del eje HHA y se determinaron parámetros hormonales, de estrés oxidativo y de inflamación en la adenohipófisis de animales tratados con DRS durante tres semanas. Resultados: los animales del grupo DRS mostraron mayores niveles circulantes de hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH, por sus siglas en inglés) y corticosterona. En paralelo se detectó un aumento en la expresión del polipéptido precursor (proopiomelanocortina, POMC) y de ACTH en la adenohipófisis, donde también se observó un aumento de lipoperóxidos y proteínas nitradas en tirosina (daño oxidativo), un mayor número de macrófagos tisulares y un incremento en la producción de IL-1beta. El tratamiento antioxidante previno los cambios en estos parámetros. En particular la melatonina también normalizó la actividad del eje HHA y la expresión hipofisaria de POMC. Conclusiones: la sobrecarga metabólica inducida por la administración de DRS genera daño oxidativo e inflamación en la adenohipófisis. La activación de los macrófagos tisulares producida en consecuencia podría impactar sobre los corticotropos hipofisarios e inducir su hiperfunción. La melatonina podría utilizarse como herramienta terapéutica para normalizar la actividad del eje HHA en modelos de obesidad por dieta.


Introduction: given the pleiotropic effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on metabolism, excessive and sustained levels of circulating GCs, have deleterious effects and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objectives: to study the effect of antioxidant therapy on hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in animals fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Materials and methods: the activity of the HPA axis was evaluated and hormonal, oxidative stress and inflammation parameters were determined in the adenohypophysis of animals treated with SRD for trhee weeks. Results: animals from the SRD group showed higher circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. In parallel, an increase in the expression of the polypeptide precursors, POMC and ACTH were detected in the adenohypophysis. We also observed an increase in lipoperoxides and proteins nitrated in tyrosine (oxidative damage), a greater number of tissue macrophages and an increase in the production of IL-1beta. Antioxidant treatment prevented all these changes. In particular, melatonin also normalized the activity of the HPA axis and pituitary expression of POMC. Conclusions: the metabolic overload induced by the administration of SRD generates oxidative damage and inflammation in the adenohypophysis. Activation of tissue macrophages could affect, in turn, pituitary corticotrophs inducing their activation. Melatonin could be used as a therapeutic tool to normalize the activity of the HPA axis in diet obesity models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Sucrose , Diet , Hypothalamus , Inflammation , Melatonin , Metabolism
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): 102-108, abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1099859

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el riesgo clínico de la apendicitis con apendicolito y su importancia al elegir las estrategias terapéuticas.Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente a niños con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda entre junio de 2011 y enero de 2017. Se dividió en un grupo con apendicolito(GA) y un grupo sin apendicolito (GSA) según la presencia o no de apendicolito durante la cirugía abierta. Se revisaron y compararon la presentación clínica, de laboratorios, los resultados de la tomografía computada y los cambios patológicos.Resultados. De 163 pacientes, se incluyó a 23 (media de edad: 6,1 años) en el GA y a 140 (media de edad: 8,1 años) en el GSA. Los pacientes en el GA tuvieron una hospitalización más extensa, mayor temperatura corporal, mayor frecuencia de diarrea, signo de Blumberg, aumento del porcentaje de neutrófilos, proteína C-reactiva y mayor riesgo de perforación. La puntuación en las escalas de Alvarado (8,3 ± 1,2 frente a 7,0 ± 1,3; P < 0,05) y de respuesta inflamatoria a apendicitis (10,7 ± 1,6 frente a 7,7 ± 1,9; P < 0,05) fue mayor en el GA que en el GSA; la presencia de fiebre y apendicolito se asoció con una mayor tasa de apendicitis perforada.Conclusiones. La apendicitis pediátrica con apendicolito representa un mayor riesgo clínico y tiende a causar apendicitis complicada


Objectives. This study aims to assess the clinical risk of pediatric appendicitis with appendicolith and its guiding significance in therapeutic strategies' selection.Methods. Children diagnosed with acute appendicitis from June 2011-January 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. Patient cohort was divided to appendicolith group (AG) and non- appendicolith group (NAG) based on whether the appendicolith presents or not in the open surgery. Clinical presentations, laboratory parameters, computed tomography findings, and pathological changes were reviewed and compared between two groups. Results. Among 163 patients, 23 (meanage,6.1yearsold)weredefinedin AG and 140; mean age, 8.1 years old) in NAG. The patients in AG demonstrated prolonged length of stay (12.4 ± 5.6d vs. 8.7 ± 5.0d, P <0.05), higher body temperature (38.2 ± 0.8 °C vs. 37.3 ± 0.8 °C, P <0.05), higher frequency of diarrhea (17 % vs. 3%, P <0.05), rebound tenderness (100 % vs. 87 %, P <0.05), increased neutrophil percentage (81.4 ± 8.0 % vs. 65.3 ± 22.8 %, P <0.05), C-reactive protein (33.13 ± 10.3 mg/L vs. 23.7 ± 13.7 mg/L, P <0.05), and great risk of perforation (78 % vs. 29 %, P <0.05). Alvarado score (8.3 ± 1.2 vs. 7.0 ± 1.3, P <0.05) and AIR score (10.7 ± 1.6 vs. 7.7 ± 1.9, P <0.05) of AG, were higher than NAG he presence of fever and appendicolith was associated with a high rate of perforated appendicitis.Conclusions. Pediatric appendicitis with appendicolith has greater clinical risk and tends to causing complicated appendicitis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Fecal Impaction/complications , Appendicitis/surgery , Comparative Study , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Retrospective Studies , Inflammation
3.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(1): 33-40, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1115460

ABSTRACT

El tabaquismo es considerado una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en la población general. En Chile la prevalencia de tabaquismo alcanza el 36,7% en hombres y 28,5% en mujeres. En este contexto, diversas estrategias farmacológicas y no farmacológicas han sido propuestas para promover la cesación de su consumo, así como para contrarrestar las comorbilidades asociadas al tabaquismo prolongado. Entre ellas, el ejercicio físico ha sido tradicionalmente considerado, por su impacto en la promoción de la cesación del hábito tabáquico, así como también por sus efectos en la reducción de las manifestaciones clínicas del síndrome de abstinencia post cesación. No obstante, estudios realizados en modelos animales durante los últimos 10 años han proporcionado datos contundentes para sustentar la hipótesis de que la práctica regular de ejercicio físico sería también efectiva para prevenir o modular el estrés oxidativo y la respuesta inflamatoria inducida por el tabaco, previniendo el deterioro orgánico de los sistemas fisiológicos expuestos. Esta revisión tiene por objetivo discutir la evidencia publicada respecto a los efectos biológicos inducidos por ejercicio físico y su impacto en la reversión de los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que subyacen a las comorbilidades asociadas al hábito tabáquico, focalizando el análisis en los mecanismos de estrés oxidativo y respuesta inflamatoria del sistema respiratorio y cardiovascular.


Smoking is considered one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the general population. In Chile, the prevalence of smoking reaches 36.7% in men and 28.5% in women. In this context, several pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies have been proposed to promote the cessation of their use, as well as to counteract the comorbidities associated with prolonged smoking. Among them, physical exercise has been traditionally considered, due to its impact on the promotion of cessation of smoking, as well as its effects in reducing the clinical manifestations of withdrawal syndrome. However, studies conducted in animal models during the last 10 years have provided strong data to support the hypothesis that regular practice of physical exercise would also be effective in preventing or modulating oxidative stress and the inflammatory response induced by tobacco, preventing the organic deterioration of exposed physiological systems. The objective of this review is to discuss the published evidence regarding the biological effects induced by physical exercise and its impact on the reversion of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the comorbidities associated with smoking, focusing the analysis on the mechanisms of oxidative stress and inflammatory response of the respiratory and cardiovascular system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise Therapy , Tobacco Smoking/therapy , Tobacco Use Disorder/physiopathology , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Exercise/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Tobacco Smoking/physiopathology , Inflammation
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 215-221, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056424

ABSTRACT

The potential inhibitory effect of the insulin mimicking agent, vanadium on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)induced alterations to the aorta ultrastructure associated with the suppression of dyslipedima and biomarkers of inflammation has not been investigated before. Therefore, we tested whether vanadium can protect against aortic injury induced secondary to T2DM possibly via the inhibition of blood lipid and inflammatory biomarkers. T2DM was induced in rats by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (50 mg/ kg), and the treatment group started vanadium treatment five days post diabetic induction and continued until being sacrificed at week 10. Using light and electron microscopy examinations, we observed in the model group substantial damage to the aorta tissue such as damaged endothelium, degenerative cellular changes with vacuolated cytoplasm and thickened internal elastic lamina that were substantially ameliorated by vanadium. Administration of vanadium to diabetic rats also significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood levels of glucose, hyperlipidemia and biomarkers of inflammation (TNF-a, IL-6). We conclude that vanadium protects against T2DM-induced aortic ultrastructural damage in rats, which is associated with the inhibition of blood sugar and lipid and inflammatory biomarkers.


El potencial efecto inhibidor del agente imitador de la insulina, el vanadio en las alteraciones inducidas por la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) en la ultraestructura de la aorta, asociada con la supresión de dislipidemia y los biomarcadores de inflamación no se ha investigado anteriormente. El objetivo fue estudiar las propiedades del vanadio para proteger contra la lesión aórtica inducida a la DM2, a través de la inhibición de los lípidos sanguíneos y los biomarcadores inflamatorios. La DM2 fue inducida en ratas con una dieta alta en grasas y estreptozotocina (50 mg / kg), y el grupo de tratamiento fue sometido a un régimen continuo con vanadio, cinco días después de la inducción diabética hasta ser sacrificadas en la semana 10. Se utilizaron exámenes de luz y microscopía electrónica en el grupo modelo y se observó un daño sustancial al tejido de la aorta, como también en el endotelio; los cambios celulares degenerativos con citoplasma vacuolado y lámina elástica interna engrosada mejoró sustancialmente con vanadio. La administración de vanadio a ratas diabéticas también redujo significativamente (p <0,05) los niveles sanguíneos de la glucosa, hiperlipidemia y los biomarcadores de inflamación (TNFa, IL-6). En conclusión, el vanadio protege contra el daño ultraestructural aórtico inducido por T2DM en ratas, que es asociado con la inhibición del azúcar en la sangre y los biomarcadores de lípidos y de inflamatorios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Vanadium/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Aorta/injuries , Aorta/ultrastructure , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Vanadium/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 38-44, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1088772

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Activated macrophages (M1-type macrophages) in adipose tissue secrete many proinflammatory cytokines that induce insulin resistance (IR). Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of Gp130 cytokines, plays an important role in a variety of biological functions, including the regulation of inflammatory responses. Proinflammatory cytokines released in patients with IR trigger a chronic, low-grade inflammatory reaction in blood vessel walls. This inflammator response leads to endothelial damage, which is the main mechanism for atherosclerosis and many cardiovascular diseases. Animal studies have reported a relationship between OSM and IR. To the best of our knowledge, however, few clinical studies have examined this topic. Therefore, we studied the relationship between serum levels of OSM and IR. Subjects and methods This prospective cross-sectional case-control study enrolled 50 people with IR (according to the HOMA-IR and QUICKI indices) and 34 healthy controls. The fasting blood concentrations of insulin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), and OSM were determined. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, sex, and HbA1c levels. Univariate analyses showed that waist circumference (WC) and levels of fasting glucose, insulin, CRP, HDL-C, OSM, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI differed between the two study groups. In multivariate analyses, both IR indices (QUICKI and HOMA) and OSM differed between the two groups. Conclusion OSM was correlated with the IR indices (QUICKI and HOMA). For simplicity, it might replace the other IR indices in the future. Further detailed studies are needed to confirm this.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Oncostatin M/blood , Inflammation/blood , Case-Control Studies , Pilot Projects , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
7.
Repert. med. cir ; 29((Núm. Supl.1.)): 10-14, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), COLNAL | ID: biblio-1118332

ABSTRACT

Actualmente el mundo atraviesa una de las peores crisis a nivel salud secundario a la infección por un nuevo coronavirus de alta transmisibilidad y mortalidad, que ha impactado múltiples aspectos. Se ha establecido de forma general que la severidad de la infección está asociada con edad avanzada y comorbilidades como hipertensión y diabetes. Por otro lado, la obesidad en este momento representa una de las mayores amenazas del sector salud, por su gran relación con morbimortalidad a nivel cardiometabólico, esto conlleva a un alto costo de la enfermedad. Este artículo busca alertar sobre lo que han llamado algunos expertos el "choque de dos pandemias", esto dado al aumento de la prevalencia de obesidad a nivel mundial, donde nuestro país no está exento, que podría relacionarse con un número mayor de personas vulnerables a la infección por COVID-19 y sus complicaciones respiratorias y de esta manera evitar desenlaces catastróficos.


Currently the world is going through one of the worst health crises secondary to the infection by a new highly transmissible and deadly coronavirus, which has impacted multiple aspects. It has been generally established that the severity of the infection is associated with old age and comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. On the other hand, obesity at this time represents one of the greatest threats to the health sector, due to its strong relationship with morbidity and mortality at the cardiometabolic level which leads to a high cost of the disease. This article seeks to warn about what some experts have called the "clash of two pandemics", this given the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, where our country is not exempt, which could be related with a greater number of people vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and related respiratory complications and thus avoid catastrophic outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Obesity , Inflammation
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 20200000. 81 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1119580

ABSTRACT

Pacientes com cirrose hepática podem desenvolver osteoporose como complicação relacionada ao déficit funcional hepático. O objetivo desse estudo é o de avaliar a presença de proteínas relacionadas ao metabolismo ósseo (RANKL, OPG, IL-1?, IL-6 e TNF-?) na saliva e no sangue de pacientes cirróticos e compará-los com o índice da cortical mandibular (ICM), relacionado à densidade mineral óssea, em radiografias panorâmicas. Trinta e oito pacientes cirróticos foram submetidos à anamnese, exame físico e tiveram amostras de sangue e de saliva não estimulada coletadas. Desses, 22 apresentavam radiografias panorâmicas que foram avaliadas segundo o ICM. As proteínas foram avaliadas através da tecnologia LuminexTM xMAP. Foram considerados estatisticamente significativos valores de p <=0.05. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (68,4%), com idade média de 50,61 anos, média de MELD de 18 pontos no momento da consulta e média de 21,34 meses na fila de espera para o transplante. A análise das radiografias panorâmicas permitiu constatar que a maior parte da amostra apresentava alguma modificação na cortical mandibular sugestiva de alterações osteoporóticas (72,7%). O perfil de expressão das proteínas foi bastante variável no sangue e na saliva. Correlação estatisticamente significativa foi observada entre a expressão salivar de RANKL e OPG em pacientes com ICM alterado. Não foi observada relação estatisticamente significante entre o perfil das proteínas e a etiologia da cirrose, tempo na fila de transplante hepático, idade e sexo dos pacientes. As proteínas RANKL, OPG, IL-1?, IL-6 e TNF-? se comportam de maneira diferente na saliva e no sangue. Valores elevados de RANKL e OPG em saliva estão relacionados com ICM sugestivo de osteoporose em pacientes cirróticos, e propõe-se que esse aumento ocorra devido ao microambiente inflamatório local.


Subject(s)
Osteoporosis , Radiography, Panoramic , RANK Ligand , Osteoprotegerin , Inflammation , Liver Cirrhosis
10.
Med. lab ; 24(1): 13-35, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), COLNAL | ID: biblio-1096999

ABSTRACT

Los procesos inflamatorios e infecciosos que se desencadenan en la próstata, primordial glándula reproductiva masculina, originan las tres principales enfermedades de este órgano: prostatitis, hiperplasia prostática benigna y cáncer. Para entender la relación que existe entre estas tres patologías y los procesos de infección e inflamación, se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica, a conveniencia, en la base de datos PubMed, empleando los términos próstata, prostatitis, hiperplasia prostática benigna y cáncer de próstata. La literatura revisada resalta la importancia del adecuado funcionamiento del sistema inmune en el tejido prostático para eliminar los microorganismos causantes de infecciones, proceso a través del cual se desencadena la inflamación del tejido. Además, infecciones urinarias ascendentes, que culminan en prostatitis crónica, favorecen el desarrollo de la hiperplasia prostática benigna, agrandamiento y fibrosis de la próstata en hombres adultos, e incluso su progresión a cáncer en individuos genéticamente susceptibles. Por otro lado, las limitaciones en el diagnóstico de las alteraciones prostáticas promueven la inflamación crónica, y el uso indiscriminado de antibióticos de amplio espectro para el tratamiento de la prostatitis, impulsa la diseminación sexual de microorganismos multirresistentes al tratamiento. Las alteraciones prostáticas, en especial la prostatitis, continúan siendo patologías enigmáticas de difícil diagnóstico y tratamiento. El estudio de la próstata, sus alteraciones y su relación con el sistema inmune contribuirán a limitar el uso indiscriminado de antibióticos y a reducir los costos en salud y los efectos sobre la calidad de vida de los individuos afectados


Inflammatory and infectious processes triggered in the prostate, the primary male reproductive gland, originate the three main diseases of this organ: prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cancer. To understand the relationship between these three pathologies and inflammatory and infectious processes, a review of the scientific literature was carried out in PubMed database using the terms prostate, prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The revised articles highlight the importance of properly immune system functioning in the prostate tissue to remove the microorganisms that cause infections, a process which also triggers tissue inflammation. In addition, ascending urinary infections, which culminate in chronic prostatitis, favor the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlargement and fibrosis of the prostate in adult men, and even its progression to cancer in genetically susceptible individuals. Furthermore, limitations in the diagnosis of prostatic disorders promote chronic inflammation, and the indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics for prostatitis treatment leads to sexual dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Prostatic disorders, especially prostatitis, continue to be enigmatic pathologies of difficult diagnosis and treatment. The study of the prostate, its disorders and its relationship with the immune system will contribute to limit the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and to reduce health costs and the effects on the quality of life of affected individuals


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatitis , Infections , Inflammation
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of Streptococcus mutans in the national culture collection from Korea. Twenty-nine (dental plaque, n=27; endodontic infections, n=1; blood, n=1) isolates were included in this study.METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the disk diffusion test. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), serotyping, and collagen-binding genes were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. A collagen-binding (to assess the adhesion properties) assay was performed. S. mutans demonstrated high susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Differences in collagen-binding abilities of the cnm-positive and -negative groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test (P<0.05).RESULTS: MLST analyses revealed 25 sequence types (STs), 17 of which (ST213-ST229) contained new alleles. The strains were classified into four serotypes with the c type encompassing 79.3% of all strains, while the e, f, and k types representing 6.9% each. Analysis of the cnm and cbm genes, which encode the two surface adhesin components of S. mutans, revealed three cnm-positive strains, each displaying greater adhesion ability than those of the cnm-negative strains.CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the presence of a wide variety of S. mutans genotypes in Korea. These findings may provide useful information regarding the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, such as dental caries.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteremia , Communicable Diseases , Dental Caries , Diffusion , Genotype , Inflammation , Korea , Molecular Epidemiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782511

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of horse oil in 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-treated BALB/c mice. After the application of DNCB, the mice showed atopic dermatitis symptoms, including severe erythema, hemorrhage, and erosion, whereas those symptoms were alleviated by treatment with horse oil. To explain the anti-dermatitis effect of horse oil, the gene expression levels in the healing process in dorsal skin were observed using a cDNA microarray. The cDNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression levels of 30 genes related to the inflammation, including Ccr1, Ccr2, Ccl20, Anxa1, and Hc genes, were up-regulated (higher than 2.0-fold) in the DNCB group compared to the levels in the control group, whereas the levels were restored to the control level in the DNCB + horse oil-treated group. In contrast, the gene expression levels of 28 genes related to inflammation, including chemokine genes Ccl5, Ccl7, Ccl8, Cxcl10, and Cxcl13 genes, were down-regulated (lower than 0.5-fold) in the DNCB group compared to the levels in the control group, whereas the levels were restored to the control level in the DNCB + horse oil-treated group. Overall, the results show that horse oil restores the expression levels of genes related to inflammation that were perturbed by DNCB treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dinitrochlorobenzene , Erythema , Gene Expression , Hemorrhage , Horses , Inflammation , Mice , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Skin
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to identify the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels.METHODS: We reviewed data of 1,897 patients in a large-scale multicenter prospective Korean study. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels.RESULTS: The mean relative wall thickness (RWT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were 0.38 and 42.0 g/m2.7, respectively. The mean ejection fraction (EF) and early diastolic mitral inflow to annulus velocity ratio (E/e′) were 64.1% and 9.9, respectively. Although EF and E/e′ were not associated with high serum hepcidin, RWT and LVMI were significantly associated with high serum hepcidin levels in univariate logistic regression analysis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for variables related to anemia, bone mineral metabolism, comorbidities, and inflammation, however, only each 0.1-unit increase in RWT was associated with increased odds of high serum hepcidin (odds ratio, 1.989; 95% confidence interval, 1.358–2.916; P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, the independent relationship between RWT and high serum hepcidin level was valid only in women and patients with low transferrin saturation (TSAT).CONCLUSION: Although the relationship was not cause-and-effect, increased RWT was independently associated with high serum hepcidin, particularly in women and patients with low TSAT. The relationship between cardiac geometry and serum hepcidin in CKD patients needs to be confirmed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Comorbidity , Female , Hepcidins , Humans , Inflammation , Logistic Models , Metabolism , Miners , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Transferrin
16.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782288

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease which has become a public health concern. Since oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, subsequent hematological disorders are expected. Therefore, antioxidant compounds such as quercetin could ameliorate the related side-effect of oxidative stress. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of quercetin on hematological parameters in NAFLD patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted as a pilot study. In this study 90 patients with NAFLD were supplemented with either a quercetin or a placebo capsule twice daily (500 mg) for 12 weeks. Blood sample was obtained for laboratory parameters at baseline and the end of week 12. End of trial values for red blood cell (RBC; p = 0.002), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.029), and mean platelet volume (p = 0.017), significantly increased and the levels of mean corpuscular volume (MCV; p = 0.023), RBC distribution width-coefficient of variation (p = 0.005), platelet distribution width (p = 0.015), and ferritin (p = 0.002) significantly decreased compared to the baseline in group receiving quercetin. Between group analysis revealed that RBC significantly increased (p = 0.025) but, mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.004), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; p = 0.002), and ferritin (p = 0.013) significantly decreased compared to placebo group. In this work quercetin showed significant effect on RBC, ferritin, MCV, and MCH in intervention group.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Center for Clinical Trials Identifier: IRCT2016060628299N1


Subject(s)
Anemia , Blood Platelets , Erythrocyte Indices , Erythrocytes , Ferritins , Hematology , Humans , Inflammation , Liver Diseases , Mean Platelet Volume , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Oxidative Stress , Pilot Projects , Public Health , Quercetin
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782283

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a chronic disease with inflammatory and hypercoagulable states. The current study aimed to compare the effects of flaxseed oil and sunflower oil consumption on the coagulation score and selected oxidative and inflammatory parameters in patients with MetS. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 patients with MetS were allocated into 2 groups. One group received 25 mL/day flaxseed oil and the other group received 25 mL/day sunflower oil for 7 weeks. Maintenance diet including 15% protein, 55% carbohydrate, and 30% fat from daily total energy intake was designed for each participant. Serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), as well as coagulation score were measured before and after the intervention. Three 24-hour food records were taken during the study. Fifty-two of participants (27 in sunflower oil and 25 in flaxseed oil groups) completed the study. The baseline characteristics and dietary intakes were similar between patients. After 7 weeks, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups regarding the serum TAC level and coagulation score (p > 0.05). However, serum IL-6 levels significantly decreased in the flaxseed oil group compared to the sunflower oil group (p = 0.017). No side effect was observed during the study due to the use of sunflower and flaxseed oils. We observed that consumption of flaxseed oil improved serum IL-6 levels but had no effect on oxidative stress and coagulation score in patients with MetS. Further studies are needed to confirm the veracity of our results.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials Identifier: IRCT2015012020737N1


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Diet , Energy Intake , Flax , Helianthus , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Linseed Oil , Oxidative Stress
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782241

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diquafosol is a pharmaceutical drug used for dry eye treatment with a novel mechanism of action. It is a purinergic P2Y2 receptor agonist that promotes the secretion of tears and healing of corneal epithelial wounds. However, its inhibitory effect on hyperosmotic stress-induced inflammation in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) remains unclear.METHODS: A hyperosmotic stress model was established by transferring HCECs from isosmotic (312 mOsm/kg to hyperosmotic medium (500 mOsm/kg). HCECs were incubated with 500 mOsm/kg hyperosmotic medium for 30 minutes, and then treated with diquafosol (0.6–6 mg/mL) for 4 or 24 hours. Cells were then harvested and analyzed by western blot, immunocytochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the expression of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the phosphorylation status of nuclear factor-kappa B.RESULTS: Diquafosol significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of hyperosmotic stress-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. These results were supported by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, diquafosol inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation by suppressing the phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor of кB.CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that diquafosol inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B signaling and inflammatory factors induced by hyperosmotic stress in HCECs. This suggests that using diquafosol for the improvement of dry eye syndrome could be effective in the treatment of inflammation-related corneal and conjunctival diseases.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Conjunctival Diseases , Dry Eye Syndromes , Epithelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Necrosis , Phosphorylation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Tears , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Wounds and Injuries
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is regarded as a potential biomarker for identifying eosinophilic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the clinical implication of FeNO and its influence on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) prescription rate in Korean chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.METHODS: FeNO level and its association with clinical features were analyzed. Changes in the prescription rate of ICS before and after FeNO measurement were identified.RESULTS: A total of 160 COPD patients were divided into increased (≥25 parts per billion [ppb], n=74) and normal (<25 ppb, n=86) FeNO groups according to the recommendations from the American Thoracic Society. Compared with the normal FeNO group, the adjusted odds ratio for having history of asthma without wheezing and with wheezing in the increased FeNO group were 2.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–6.29) and 4.24 (95% CI, 1.37–13.08), respectively. Only 21 out of 74 patients (28.4%) with increased FeNO prescribed ICS-containing inhaler and 18 of 86 patients (20.9%) with normal FeNO were given ICS-containing inhaler. Previous exacerbation, asthma, and wheezing were the major factors to maintain ICS at normal FeNO level and not to initiate ICS at increased FeNO level.CONCLUSION: Increased FeNO was associated with the history of asthma irrespective of wheezing. However, FeNO seemed to play a subsidiary role in the use of ICS-containing inhalers in real-world clinics, which was determined with prior exacerbation and clinical features suggesting Th2 inflammation.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Asthma , Eosinophils , Humans , Inflammation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Nitric Oxide , Odds Ratio , Prescriptions , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Sounds
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782189

ABSTRACT

The latest definition of a prebiotic is “a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit”; it now includes non-food elements and is applicable to extra-intestinal tissues. Prebiotics are recognized as a promising tool in the promotion of general health and in the prevention and treatment of numerous juvenile diseases. Prebiotics are considered an immunoactive agent, with the potential for long-lasting effects extending past active administration of the prebiotic. Because of its extremely low risk of serious adverse effects, ease of administration, and strong potential for influencing the composition and function of the microbiota in the gut and beyond, the beneficial clinical applications of prebiotics are expanding. Prebiotics are the third largest component of human breast milk. Preparations including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), 2′-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neo-tetraose are examples of commonly used and studied products for supplementation in baby formula. In particular, the GOS/FOS combination is the most studied. Maintaining a healthy microbiome is essential to promote homeostasis of the gut and other organs. With more than 1,000 different microbial species in the gut, it is likely more feasible to modify the gut microbiota through the use of certain prebiotic mixtures rather than supplementing with a particular probiotic strain. In this review, we discuss the latest clinical evidence regarding prebiotics and its role in gut immunity, allergy, infections, inflammation, and functional gastrointestinal disorders.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Infant Formula , Infant , Inflammation , Microbiota , Milk, Human , Prebiotics , Probiotics
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