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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e9422, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153527

ABSTRACT

Hyptis crenata, commonly known as "salva-do-Marajó", "hortelã-do-campo", and "hortelãzinha", is used in folk medicine in Northeast Brazil as tea or infusion to treat inflammatory diseases. Due to the pharmacological efficacy and the low toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata (EOHc), we decided to investigate the EOHc antiedematogenic effect in experimental models of inflammation. EOHc was administrated orally at doses of 10-300 mg/kg to male Swiss albino mice. Paw edema was induced by subcutaneous injection in the right hind paw of inflammatory stimuli (carrageenan, dextran, histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin) 60 min after administration of EOHc. EOHc significantly inhibited the induced edema. The inhibitory effect of EOHc on dextran-induced edema extended throughout the experimental time. For the 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses of EOHc, the inhibition was of 40.28±1.70, 51.18±2.69, and 59.24±2.13%, respectively. The EOHc inhibitory effect on carrageenan-induced edema started at 10 mg/kg at the second hour (h) and was maintained throughout the observation period. At 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses the inhibition started earlier, from 30 min. At the edema peak of 180 min, 56, 76, and 82% inhibition was observed for 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses, respectively. Additionally, the effect of EOHc on carrageenan-induced paw edema was influenced by the time of administration. The EOHc also inhibited myeloperoxidase activity. In conclusion, the EOHc showed a potent effect, both preventing and reversing the edema, consistent with its anti-inflammatory use in folk medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Hyptis/chemistry , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Brazil , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Carrageenan , Edema/chemically induced , Inflammation/chemically induced
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921713

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the material basis and mechanism of Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction in the treatment of airway inflammation. The cigarette smoke combined with lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce an airway inflammation model in mice. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) and the phosphorylation levels of p38 and IκB in the lungs of mice were taken as indexes to screen the effective extracts by system solvent extraction from Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction(dichloromethane extract, ethyl acetate extract, n-butanol extract, etc.). Meanwhile, the human bronchial epithelial(16-HBE) cell model of cigarette smoke extract(CSE)-induced injury was established, and the mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 and the phosphorylation levels of p38 and IκB proteins were also taken as indexes to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of different extracts of Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction. The results showed that Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction significantly antagonized airway inflammation in mice by down-regulating the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in mice with airway inflammation and 16-HBE cells with CSE-induced injury and inhibiting the phosphorylation levels of p38 and IκB. The dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, while such effects of other extracts were not prominent. Furthermore, the database of Pinelliae Rhizoma composition was constructed, and the components in effective extracts were analyzed by HPLC-TOF-MS and Nano-LC-MS/MS. As revealed by the results, the compositions of the two effective extracts were similar with 36 common components. They were combined and then divided into Pinelliae Rhizoma alkaloids(PTAs) and Pinelliae Rhizoma non-alkaloids(PTNAs) by 732 cation-exchange resin. Further in vitro investigation confirmed the significant anti-inflammatory effect of PTNAs, while such effect of PTAs was not manifest. The MS analysis showed 172 peptides and 7 organic acids in PTNAs. The peptide content in PTNAs was 63.5% measured by quantitative analysis of BCA assay, and the organic acid content was 9.92% by potentiometric titration method. The findings of this study suggested that Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction could antagonize airway inflammation in mice by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 and IκB and blocking the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and the effective components were related to the peptides and organic acids in PTNAs. The above results lay a foundation for the research on the mechanism and material basis of Pinelliae Rhizoma in antagonizing airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice , NF-kappa B/genetics , Pinellia/chemistry , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Rhizome , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921709

ABSTRACT

The present study optimized the extraction of flavonoids from Lonicera rupicola Hook. f. et Thoms(LRH) and explored its pharmacological effects, such as resisting inflammation, relieving pain, enhancing immunity, and inhibiting pyroptosis, aiming to provide data support and scientific basis for the development and utilization of LRH. Response surface methodology(RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction of flavonoids from LRH based on the results of single-factor experiments. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of LRH flavonoids were evaluated via inflammation and pain models in mice, such as xylene-induced ear swelling, carrageenan-induced footpad swelling, writhing caused by acetic acid, and paw licking. The effect of LRH flavonoids on the carbon clearance index of monocytes and serum immunoglobulin A(IgA) and IgM levels was analyzed on the immunosuppression model induced by cyclophosphamide in mice. The anti-oxidative effect in vivo of LRH flavonoids on liver superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and malondialdehyde(MDA) levels was determined based on the chronic/subacute aging model in mice induced by D-galactose. The levels of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and IL-18 in the supernatant of J774 A.1 mononuclear phagocytes were detected to evaluate the effect of LRH flavonoids on the pyroptosis of mononuclear phagocytes in mice induced by the combination of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and adenosine triphosphate(ATP). Meanwhile, the effect of LRH flavonoids on the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway was also explored. The optimum conditions for the extraction of LRH flavonoids are listed below: extraction temperature of 65 ℃, the ethanol concentration of 50%, extraction time of 60 min, a material-liquid ratio at 1∶25, and the yield of LRH flavonoids of 0.553%. RSM determined the multiple quadratic regression equation model of response value and variables as follows: the yield of LRH flavonoids=0.61-0.48A+0.1B+0.029C-0.014D+0.32AB+0.04AC-0.012AD-0.02BC+0.037BD-0.031CD-0.058A~2-0.068B~2-0.069C~2-0.057D~2. LRH flavonoids could effectively inhibit ear swelling and footpad swelling, reduced acetic acid-induced writhing, and delayed the paw licking response time in mice. Additionally, LRH flavonoids could improve the carbon clearance index in immunosuppressed mice, potentiate the activities of SOD and CAT and reduce MDA levels in the liver of aging mice induced by D-galactose, and effectively inhibit macrophage pyroptosis by decreasing the levels of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18. The results reveal that LRH flavonoids possess excellent pharmacological activities such as resisting inflammation and oxidation, relieving pain, and enhancing immunity. They can inhibit pyroptosis by enhancing the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. The results of this study can underpin the pharmacological research, development, and utilization of LRH.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Animals , Edema/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lonicera , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pain/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pyroptosis
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 501-508, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887685

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Cytokine-related research provides an important direction for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Cytokines, produced by different types of cells and acting on a range of targets, play a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the main pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines related to atherosclerosis and their underlying mechanism. We also outline current anti-atherosclerosis treatments targeting cytokines. The research and treatment prospects of cytokines in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis are discussed briefly as well.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922466

ABSTRACT

Unrestrained inflammation is harmful to tissue repair and regeneration. Immune cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles have been proven to show promise as inflammation targets and multitargeted inflammation controls in the treatment of severe inflammation. Prevention and early intervention of inflammation can reduce the risk of irreversible tissue damage and loss of function, but no cell membrane-camouflaged nanotechnology has been reported to achieve stage-specific treatment in these conditions. In this study, we investigated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles for topical treatment of early inflammation (early pulpitis as the model) with the help of in-depth bioinformatics and molecular biology investigations in vitro and in vivo. Nanoparticles have been proven to act as sentinels to detect and competitively neutralize invasive Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (E. coli LPS) with resident fibroblasts to effectively inhibit the activation of intricate signaling pathways. Moreover, nanoparticles can alleviate the secretion of multiple inflammatory cytokines to achieve multitargeted anti-inflammatory effects, attenuating inflammatory conditions in the early stage. Our work verified the feasibility of fibroblast membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles for inflammation treatment in the early stage, which widens the potential cell types for inflammation regulation.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli , Fibroblasts , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nanoparticles
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888187

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract from Saposhnikoviae Radix in a lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced inflammation mouse model and its regulation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. The ethanol extract from Saposhnikoviae Radix was separated and purified on the macroporous adsorption resin and its main chemical components were identified by UPLC-QE/MS. The identification results showed that the top ten components of ethanol extract from Saposhnikoviae Radix were mainly chromones and coumarins. A mouse model of inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract from Saposhnikoviae Radix after intragastric administration for seven successive days. Mice in all groups except for the control group were treated with intraperitoneal injection of LPS(0.015 g·kg~(-1)) one hour after the last administration, and twelve hours later, the blood was sampled and separated and the broncoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) was collected. The levels of nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in mouse serum and BALF were detected by ELISA. The harvested lung tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin(HE) for observing the pathological changes, followed by the detection of protein expression levels of related molecules in TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway by Western blotting. The results showed that the ethanol extract from Saposhnikoviae Radix significantly ameliorated the pathological conditions in lung tissue of model mice, reversed the increase in NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels of mouse serum and BALF, down-regulated the protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor(MyD88), and phosphorylated nuclear transcription factor κB-p65/nuclear transcription factor κB-p65(P-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65), and up-regulated the NF-κB inhibitory protein α(IκBα). The ethanol extract from Saposhnikoviae Radix exhibited a good anti-inflammatory effect in the LPS-induced acute inflammation muse model, which might be related to the inhibition of the activation of TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. Chromones and coumarins have been proved to be the active components for its anti-inflammatory effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Ethanol , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mice , NF-kappa B/genetics , Plant Extracts
7.
Clinics ; 76: e2518, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153969

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed increased morbidity and mortality rates and worse prognosis in individuals with underlying chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. There is also evidence of possible links among COVID-19, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Emerging evidence suggests a pro-inflammatory milieu and hypercoagulable state in patients with this infection. Despite anticoagulation, a large proportion of patients requiring intensive care may develop life-threatening thrombotic complications. Indeed, the levels of some markers of hemostatic activation, such as D-dimer, are commonly elevated in COVID-19, indicating potential risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In this review, we critically examine and discuss aspects of hypercoagulability and inflammation in COVID-19 and the possible benefits of statins in this scenario, with emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, we present recommendations on the use of antiviral drugs in combination with statins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombosis , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10185, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153547

ABSTRACT

Lumbar disc herniation is a common disease characterized by the degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs), accompanied by imbalance of metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis. Current studies establish that IVD degeneration is induced by increased apoptosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of NP cell survival/apoptosis are not well elucidated. Here, we reveal a novel mechanism by which mTORC1 signaling controls NP cell survival through regulating metabolic homeostasis. We demonstrated that hyperactivated mTORC1 activity induced by inflammatory cytokines engenders the apoptosis of NP cells, whereas pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 activity promotes NP cell survival. Using an integrative approach spanning metabolomics and biochemical approaches, we showed that mTORC1 activation enhanced glucose metabolism and lactic acid production, and therefore caused NP cell apoptosis. Our study identified mTORC1 in NP cells as a novel target for IVD degeneration, and provided potential strategies for clinical intervention of lumbar disc herniation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/drug therapy , Nucleus Pulposus , Apoptosis , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Inflammation/drug therapy
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 215-221, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056424

ABSTRACT

The potential inhibitory effect of the insulin mimicking agent, vanadium on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)induced alterations to the aorta ultrastructure associated with the suppression of dyslipedima and biomarkers of inflammation has not been investigated before. Therefore, we tested whether vanadium can protect against aortic injury induced secondary to T2DM possibly via the inhibition of blood lipid and inflammatory biomarkers. T2DM was induced in rats by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (50 mg/ kg), and the treatment group started vanadium treatment five days post diabetic induction and continued until being sacrificed at week 10. Using light and electron microscopy examinations, we observed in the model group substantial damage to the aorta tissue such as damaged endothelium, degenerative cellular changes with vacuolated cytoplasm and thickened internal elastic lamina that were substantially ameliorated by vanadium. Administration of vanadium to diabetic rats also significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood levels of glucose, hyperlipidemia and biomarkers of inflammation (TNF-a, IL-6). We conclude that vanadium protects against T2DM-induced aortic ultrastructural damage in rats, which is associated with the inhibition of blood sugar and lipid and inflammatory biomarkers.


El potencial efecto inhibidor del agente imitador de la insulina, el vanadio en las alteraciones inducidas por la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) en la ultraestructura de la aorta, asociada con la supresión de dislipidemia y los biomarcadores de inflamación no se ha investigado anteriormente. El objetivo fue estudiar las propiedades del vanadio para proteger contra la lesión aórtica inducida a la DM2, a través de la inhibición de los lípidos sanguíneos y los biomarcadores inflamatorios. La DM2 fue inducida en ratas con una dieta alta en grasas y estreptozotocina (50 mg / kg), y el grupo de tratamiento fue sometido a un régimen continuo con vanadio, cinco días después de la inducción diabética hasta ser sacrificadas en la semana 10. Se utilizaron exámenes de luz y microscopía electrónica en el grupo modelo y se observó un daño sustancial al tejido de la aorta, como también en el endotelio; los cambios celulares degenerativos con citoplasma vacuolado y lámina elástica interna engrosada mejoró sustancialmente con vanadio. La administración de vanadio a ratas diabéticas también redujo significativamente (p <0,05) los niveles sanguíneos de la glucosa, hiperlipidemia y los biomarcadores de inflamación (TNFa, IL-6). En conclusión, el vanadio protege contra el daño ultraestructural aórtico inducido por T2DM en ratas, que es asociado con la inhibición del azúcar en la sangre y los biomarcadores de lípidos y de inflamatorios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Vanadium/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Aorta/injuries , Aorta/ultrastructure , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Vanadium/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy
10.
Biol. Res ; 53: 48, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Keratinocytes hyperproliferation and excessive inflammatory response contribute to psoriasis pathogenesis. The agents able to attenuate keratinocytes hyper-proliferation and excessive inflammatory response are considered to be potentially useful for psoriasis treatment. Daphnetin exhibits broad bioactivities including anti-proliferation and anti-inflammatory. This study aims to evaluate the anti-psoriatic potential of daphnetin in vitro and in vivo, and explore underlying mechanisms. METHODS: HaCaT keratinocytes was stimulated with the mixture of IL-17A, IL-22, oncostatin M, IL-1α, and TNF-α (M5) to establish psoriatic keratinocyte model in vitro. Cell viability was measured using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to measure the mRNA levels of hyperproliferative marker gene keratin 6 (KRT6), differentiation marker gene keratin 1 (KRT1) and inflammatory factors IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-23A and MCP-1. Western blotting was used to detect the protein levels of p65 and p-p65. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was carried out to detect p65 nuclear translocation. Imiquimod (IMQ) was used to construct psoriasis-like mouse model. Psoriasis severity (erythema, scaling) was scored based on Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to examine histological change in skin lesion. The expression of inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-23A and IL-17A in skin lesion was measured by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Daphnetin attenuated M5-induced hyperproliferation in HaCaT keratinocytes. M5 stimulation significantly upregulated mRNA levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-23A and MCP-1. However, daphnetin treatment partially attenuated the upregulation of those inflammatory cytokines. Daphnetin was found to be able to inhibit p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, daphnetin significantly ameliorate the severity of skin lesion (erythema, scaling and epidermal thickness, inflammatory cell infiltration) in IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse model. Daphnetin treatment attenuated IMQ-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-23A and IL-17A in skin lesion of mice. CONCLUSIONS: Daphnetin was able to attenuate proliferation and inflammatory response induced by M5 in HaCaT keratinocytes through suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway. Daphnetin could ameliorate the severity of skin lesion and improve inflammation status in IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse model. Daphnetin could be an attractive candidate for future development as an anti-psoriatic agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Rabbits , Psoriasis/chemically induced , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Umbelliferones/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Imiquimod/adverse effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Keratinocytes , Cell Proliferation , Mice, Inbred BALB C
11.
Clinics ; 75: e1980, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133360

ABSTRACT

Considering that female sexual hormones may modulate the inflammatory response and also exhibit direct effects on the cells of the immune system, herein, we intend to discuss the sex differences and the role of estradiol in modulating the lung and systemic inflammatory response, focusing on its possible application as a treatment modality for SARS-CoV-2 patients. COVID-19 patients develop severe hypoxemia early in the course of the disease, which is silent most of the time. Small fibrinous thrombi in pulmonary arterioles and a tumefaction of endothelial were observed in the autopsies of fatal COVID-19 cases. Studies showed that the viral infection induces a vascular process in the lung, which included vasodilation and endothelial dysfunction. Further, the proportions of CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes were strongly reduced in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estradiol is connected with CD4+ T cell numbers and increases T-reg cell populations, affecting immune responses to infection. It is known that estradiol exerts a protective effect on endothelial function, activating the generation of nitric oxide (NO) via endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Estrogen attenuates the vasoconstrictor response to various stimuli and induces vasodilation in the pulmonary vasculature during stress situations like hypoxia. It exerts a variety of rapid actions, which are initiated after its coupling with membrane receptors, which in turn, may positively modulate vascular responses in pulmonary disease and help to maintain microvascular flow. Direct and indirect mechanisms underlying the effects of estradiol were investigated, and the results point to a possible protective effect of estradiol against COVID-19, indicating that it may be considered as an adjuvant therapeutic element for the treatment of patients affected by the novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/virology , Sex Factors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Inflammation/drug therapy
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200472, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136838

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the genesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there is a process of endotheliitis associated with thrombotic changes, no studies have reported the use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as a possible therapeutic approach. Statins could potentiate the ASA therapy. METHODS: This is a series of 14 cases with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. All patients underwent the ASA therapy. Those who had risk factors for vascular disease also underwent the high-potency statin therapy. When symptoms were totally or practically resolved, patients were discharged and advised to continue medications for a complementary time, according to the clinical evolution of each patient. RESULTS: The mean age of monitored patients was 48.6 years. A total of 78.6% patients presented with at least one comorbidity, which could have contributed as a risk factor for a poor prognosis in the evolution of COVID-19. Four patients had secondary bacterial infections; three patients needed hospitalization. None of the cases progress to stage III, and all patients had remission of symptoms, with 100% survival. CONCLUSIONS: the process of endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 involves disseminated thrombosis, initially microvascular and later expansion into larger vessels. ASA could act as a secondary prophylaxis and prevent thrombosis from developing and reaching stage III of the disease. As this was a case series, we cannot provide definitive conclusions; however, this study allows us to formulate hypotheses and support clinical trials to evaluate benefits of the ASA therapy in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Ischemia/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections , Endothelium/drug effects , Endothelium/pathology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Middle Aged
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(12): e9949, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132509

ABSTRACT

Acne is a kind of common, chronic skin condition caused by the inflammation of the sebaceous glands in hair follicles. Recent studies have demonstrated that baicalin (BA) possesses potential anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of BA in vitro and in vivo. Heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes-induced THP-1 cells and live P. acnes-injected male Sprague Dawley rats were used for establishing the acne model. The rate of ear swelling was calculated, and the severity was determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α)] in the cell supernatant and ear tissue homogenates was measured by ELISA. Protein levels of JNK, ERK, P38, IκBα, P65, Nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), pro-caspase-1, and IL-1β in THP-1 cells and ear tissues were detected by western blotting. NLRP3 and IL-1β were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the NLRP3, IL-1β and pro-caspase-1 mRNAs were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that BA decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, BA down-regulated the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK1/2, and κBα and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65. Furthermore, BA inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, at both the gene and protein levels. Taken together, the results demonstrated that BA might exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways and consequently suppressing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome both in vivo and in vitro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dermatitis/drug therapy , Inflammasomes , Propionibacterium acnes/metabolism , Flavonoids , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/drug therapy
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200458, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Calotropis procera latex protein fraction (LP) was previously shown to protect animals from septic shock. Further investigations showed that LP modulate nitric oxide and cytokines levels. OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether the protective effects of LP, against lethal bacterial infection, is observed in its subfractions (LPPII and LPPIII). METHODS Subfractions (5 and 10 mg/kg) were tested by i.p. administration, 24 h before challenging with lethal injection (i.p.) of Salmonella Typhimurium. LPPIII (5 mg/kg) which showed higher survival rate was assayed to evaluate bacterial clearance, histopathology, leukocyte recruitment, plasma coagulation time, cytokines and NO levels. FINDINGS LPPIII protected 70% of animals of death. The animals given LPPIII exhibited reduced bacterial load in blood and peritoneal fluid after 24 h compared to the control. LPPIII promoted macrophage infiltration in spleen and liver. LPPIII restored the coagulation time of infected animals, increased IL-10 and reduced NO in blood. MAIN CONCLUSIONS LPPIII recruited macrophages to the target organs of bacterial infection. This addressed inflammatory stimulus seems to reduce bacterial colonisation in spleen and liver, down regulate bacterial spread and contribute to avoid septic shock.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Proteins/therapeutic use , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Calotropis/chemistry , Homeostasis/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Latex/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Salmonella Infections/immunology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Down-Regulation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of astragaloside Ⅳ (AS-Ⅳ) on microglia/macrophage M1/M2 polarization and inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty eight male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation control group, model control group and AS-Ⅳ group with 16 rats in each. Focal cerebral ischemia model was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) using the intraluminal filament. After ischemia induced, the rats in AS-Ⅳ group were intraperitoneally injected with 40 mg/kg AS-Ⅳ once a day for 3 days. The neurological functions were evaluated by the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and the corner test on d1 and d3 after modelling. The infarct volume was measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on d3 after ischemia. The expression of M1 microglia/macrophage markers CD86, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, M2 microglia/macrophages markers CD206, arginase-1 (Arg-1), chitinase-like protein (YM1/2) and anti-inflammatory factors interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) was detected by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD16/32/Iba1 and CD206/Iba1 was determined by double labeling immunefluorescence method in the peripheral area of cerebral ischemia.@*RESULTS@#Compared with model control group, AS-Ⅳ treatment improved neurological function recovery and reduced infarct volume after ischemia (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The findings suggest that AS-Ⅳ ameliorates brain injury after cerebral ischemia in rats, which may be related to inhibiting inflammation through promoting the polarization of the microglia/macrophage from M1 to M2 phenotype in the ischemic brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cell Polarity/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , Male , Microglia/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins/therapeutic use , Triterpenes/therapeutic use
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180612, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132197

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of a Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) fruit extract in Wistar rats submitted to a palatable diet presenting systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Forty-two Wistar female rats (Rattus Novergicus) were used with 60 days old. The animals were feed for 60 days and divided in six groups (n=7): standard diet+water; standard diet+L. barbarum; palatable diet+water; palatable diet+L. barbarum; standard diet+water+LPS; standard diet+L. barbarum+LPS. A significant difference was shown between the analyzed groups concerning C-reactive protein, with the standard diet+water+LPS group presenting the highest inflammatory response in comparison to the other groups. Decreased inflammatory response was observed in the group administered a palatable diet along with the fruit extract when compared to the group that received only a palatable diet. Significant decrease in glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activity was observed in the standard diet+L. barbarum+LPS group compared to the standard diet+water group, as well as in the palatable diet+L. barbarum group compared to the palatable diet+water group. A significant increase in creatinine in the standard diet+water+LPS group was observed in according to the L. barbarum administration groups. The gene expression of the inflammatory markers genes in the liver showed a significant increase in TNF-α and IL-6 genes in the group treated with standard diet+L. barbarum+LPS when compared to the standard diet+LPS group. Thus, the administered L. barbarum extract displays the potential to reduce inflammatory responses induced by LPS and a palatable diet.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Lycium , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/microbiology
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18499, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285512

ABSTRACT

Lignosus rhinocerotis (tiger milk mushroom) is widely used by the indigenous people of Malaysia as a traditional remedy. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of L. rhinocerotis extract on brain microglial cells (BV2). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+) scavenging assays, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP, DPPH and ABTS•+ scavenging capacities of the TE3 fraction were 420.77 mg FE/g, 58.01%, and 7%, respectively. The cytotoxic activity was determined by MTS assay. The in vitro model of anti-neuroinflammatory property was evaluated by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 cells. The TE3 fraction showed a significant NO reduction at 1 to 100 µg/mL. The TE3 fraction down-regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) genes while it upregulated heme oxygenase (HO-1) and NADPH quinone acceptor oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) genes. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) transcription was also activated. The chemical component of the active fraction (TE3) was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Overall, the BV2 in vitro model anti-neuroinflammatory activity of L. rhinocerotis may be caused by the lipid constituents identified in the fraction


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Cells/classification , Agaricales/classification , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipids/adverse effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Antioxidants/pharmacology
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180096, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Clinical research has shed the light on the relation between coagulation and inflammation. Coagulation cascade is activated in lung injury resulting in thrombotic and fibrotic lesions. Such a cascade is initiated by inflammation, then the two systems intense each other. New therapies that modulate coagulation and inflammation will be more successful than therapies targeting only one of them. Mesenchymal stem cells showed anti-inflammatory functions in animal models. The role of mesenchymal stem cells in methotrexate induced lung injury model was evaluated, but no studies scoped on the role of stem cells in coagulation associated with inflammation in such models. This study focuses on the therapeutic role of mesenchymal stem cells against the development of clotting in methotrexate induced lung injury rat model. Results showed that mesenchymal stem cells treatment for 4 weeks caused a decrease in lung activated coagulation factors; protease activated receptor-1, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and platelet count with a decrease in inflammatory factors; tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon- γ, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and total leukocyte count. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells have anti-inflammatory potency against clotting risk in methotrexate induced lung injury model. This opens the outlook for stem cells as a new therapy that moderates coagulation associated with inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Blood Coagulation , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Models, Animal
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(5): e7798, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001525

ABSTRACT

Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel belongs to the Apocynaceae family and the latex from its trunk bark (Hd) is known as "janaguba milk". This latex is widely used in Northeast Brazil, mainly in the Cariri region, for its gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. The objective of this study was to investigate a triterpene-rich fraction (FJNB) from H. drasticus latex on acute models of nociception and inflammation and to clarify its mechanisms of action. Wistar rats or Swiss mice were subjected to the carrageenan-induced paw edema test or the formalin test, respectively, after the acute oral treatment with FJNB. The inflamed paws from the carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin tests were processed for histological and immunohistochemical assays, respectively. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and considered significant at P<0.05. FJNB (10 mg/kg) decreased the paw edema by 25% at the 3rd h after the carrageenan injection. Indomethacin, used as reference, inhibited the paw edema by 59% at the same time-point. In the formalin test, FJNB inhibited the 1st phase by 27, 49, and 52% and the 2nd phase by 37, 50, and 67%, at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, FJNB significantly inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa (NF-kB) were also inhibited at the same doses. In conclusion, the FJNB inhibitory actions on iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, HDAC, and NF-kB could be involved with the drug anti-inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Triterpenes/therapeutic use , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Edema/drug therapy , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers/blood , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e7773, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984030

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of ultrasound (US)-mediated phonophoresis alone or in association with diclofenac diethylammonium (DCF) administered topically in animal models of inflammation. A pre-clinical, prospective, and randomized experimental study of quantitative and qualitative nature was carried out. Phonophoresis was performed using a therapeutic ultrasound apparatus in two distinct models of acute inflammation. Edema was induced by an intraplantar injection of carrageenan and measured by plethysmography. The Hargreaves test was used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity and investigate the action of phonophoresis on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. A histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin was used to evaluate tissue repair, and the expression of COX-2 was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. At the peak of inflammatory activity (3 h), treatment with US, US+DCF, and DCF significantly reduced edema formation compared to the control group. Treatment with US+DCF was more effective than treatment with US alone at both analyzed times. In the analysis of the antinociceptive activity, the treatments significantly increased the latency time in response to the thermal stimulus. Histopathological analysis revealed a reduction of the inflammatory infiltrates and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the association was effective in reducing COX-2 expression compared to the control group. The association of DCF with US produced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in rat models of inflammation, which may be associated with inhibition of COX-2 and TNF-α production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phonophoresis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Random Allocation , Prospective Studies , Administration, Topical , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology
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