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J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200155, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250253


Infection with vector-borne pathogens starts with the inoculation of these pathogens during blood feeding. In endemic regions, the population is regularly bitten by naive vectors, implicating a permanent stimulation of the immune system by the vector saliva itself (pre-immune context). Comparatively, the number of bites received by exposed individuals from non-infected vectors is much higher than the bites from infected ones. Therefore, vector saliva and the immunological response in the skin may play an important role, so far underestimated, in the establishment of anti-pathogen immunity in endemic areas. Hence, the parasite biology and the disease pathogenesis in "saliva-primed" and "saliva-unprimed" individuals must be different. This integrated view on how the pathogen evolves within the host together with vector salivary components, which are known to be endowed with a variety of pharmacological and immunological properties, must remain the focus of any investigational study dealing with vector-borne diseases. Considering this three-way partnership, the host skin (immune system), the pathogen, and the vector saliva, the approach that consists in the validation of vector saliva as a source of molecular entities with anti-disease vaccine potential has been recently a subject of active and fruitful investigation. As an example, the vaccination with maxadilan, a potent vasodilator peptide extracted from the saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, was able to protect against infection with various leishmanial parasites. More interestingly, a universal mosquito saliva vaccine that may potentially protect against a range of mosquito-borne infections including malaria, dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever. In this review, we highlight the key role played by the immunobiology of vector saliva in shaping the outcome of vector-borne diseases and discuss the value of studying diseases in the light of intimate cross talk among the pathogen, the vector saliva, and the host immune mechanisms.(AU)

Parasites , Heel , Vaccination , Inflammation/immunology , Immunity
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 188-196, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223685


El tratamiento actual de la depresión mayor, una condición de alta prevalencia a nivel mundial, aún no resulta satisfactorio por las significativas tasas de falta de respuesta o de síntomas residuales. Esto, entre otras razones, ha motivado a la búsqueda de nuevos modelos de comprensión de los procesos biológicos que están a la base de esta enfermedad, con el propósito de encontrar mejores estrategias terapéuticas, al menos desde el punto de vista farmacológico. Se examinan algunas correspondencias entre los fenómenos clínicos y la articulación de los sistemas inmune, nervioso y endocrino, y se revisa algunas relaciones entre depresión y enfermedades inflamatorias sistémicas.

The current treatment of major depression, a condition of high prevalence worldwide, is still unsatisfactory due to the elevated rates of non-response or residual symptoms. This, among other reasons, has motivated the search for new models of understanding the biological processes that could better explain this disease, with the purpose of finding better therapeutic strategies, at least from the pharmacological point of view. Some correspondences between clinical phenomena and the interplay of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems are examined. Also, some relationships between depression and systemic inflammatory diseases are reviewed.

Humans , Depression/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/psychology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/psychology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/psychology
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 23-29, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089369


Abstract Introduction Obstrutive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction, associated with intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia, and the main risk factor in childhood is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The lymphocytes in these structures are responsible for local and systemic immune responses. Objective Verify the levels of the inflammatory markers, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, CRP and α1-GP, in the tonsils of children with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional prospective study included 34 children with complains of snoring, difficulty breathing during sleep or recurrent tonsillitis. Patients underwent to a complete otorhinolaryngological examination, nasal endoscopy and polysomnography and were divided into two groups with 17 children each: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group and control group. All underwent an adenotonsillectomy. Cytokines were measured in the collected tonsils (ELISA and Multiplex methods). Results Statistically significant increasing were observed between IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines of patients with obstructive sleep apnea when compared to the control group; also between c-reactive protein and α1-GP of the tonsils cortical region in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome when compared with the medullary region. There were no statistically significant differences for the remaining inflammatory mediators. Conclusion After the analysis of the levels of pro and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, CRP, α1-GP) in the tonsils, we observed higher levels of markers IL-8 and IL-10 in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Resumo Introdução A síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono é caracterizada por episódios repetidos de obstrução das vias aéreas superiores, associados a hipóxia intermitente e hipercapnia, e o principal fator de risco na infância é a hipertrofia adenotonsilar. Os linfócitos nessas estruturas são responsáveis por respostas imunes locais e sistêmicas. Objetivo Dosar os marcadores inflamatórios, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, PCR e α1-GP, nas tonsilas de crianças com e sem síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método Estudamos prospectivamente 34 crianças que se queixavam de ronco, dificuldade para respirar durante o sono ou tonsilites recorrentes. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exame otorrinolaringológico completo, endoscopia nasal e polissonografia e foram divididos em dois grupos com 17 crianças cada: síndrome de apneia obstrutiva do sono e controle. Todos foram submetidos à adenotonsilectomia. As citocinas foram medidas nas tonsilas coletadas (métodos ELISA e Multiplex). Resultados Com diferenças estatisticamente significantes, observou-se aumento das citocinas IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação ao grupo controle, assim como aumento dos níveis de proteína C reativa e de α1-GP na região cortical das tonsilas de crianças portadoras de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação com a região medular. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes para o restante dos mediadores inflamatórios. Conclusão Após a análise dos níveis de marcadores pró e anti-inflamatórios (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, PCR, α1-GP) nas tonsilas, observamos níveis mais altos de marcadores IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes pediátricos com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Palatine Tonsil/immunology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/immunology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillectomy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Orosomucoid/analysis , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Interleukins/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Inflammation/immunology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8770, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089354


Early mobilization is beneficial for critically ill patients because it reduces muscle weakness acquired in intensive care units. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive cycle ergometry (PCE) on the nitrous stress and inflammatory cytometry in critically ill patients. This was a controlled, randomized, open clinical trial carried out in a 16-bed intensive care unit. The patients were randomized into four groups: Control group (n=10), did not undergo any therapeutic intervention during the study; PCE group (n=9), lower-limb PCE for 30 cycles/min for 20 min; FES group (n=9), electrical stimulation of quadriceps muscle for 20 min; and FES with PCE group (n=7), patients underwent PCE and FES, with their order determined randomly. The serum levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and interleukins 6 and 10 were analyzed before and after the intervention. There were no differences in clinical or demographic characteristics between the groups. The results revealed reduced nitric oxide concentrations one hour after using PCE (P<0.001) and FES (P<0.05), thereby indicating that these therapies may reduce cellular nitrosative stress when applied separately. Tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were reduced after the PCE intervention (P=0.049). PCE and FES reduced nitric oxide levels, demonstrating beneficial effects on the reduction of nitrosative stress. PCE was the only treatment that reduced the tumor necrosis factor alpha concentration.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive/methods , Cytokines/blood , Critical Illness/therapy , Nitrosative Stress/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Electric Stimulation/methods , Quadriceps Muscle/physiopathology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intensive Care Units
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 28(108): 30-37, 20201000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349405


La disfunción inmune asociada a la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es generada por una estimulación crónica del sistema inmune secundaria a la imposibilidad del organismo de erradicar el virus. La misma se encuentra exacerbada en el contexto de la coinfección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). La inflamación sistémica producto de la coinfección por ambos virus genera un aumento de la morbilidad y mortalidad en los individuos afectados. Son varios los mediadores solubles de activación inmunológica, como IP-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß (marcadores de inflamación sistémica); IL-17 (linfocitos T CD4+ Th17); IL-2, IFN-γ (linfocitos T CD4+ Th1); IL-8 (inducción de neutrofilia); CD23s, ICAMs, CD14s, CD163s (marcadores de activación de monocitos/macrófagos), niveles circulantes de lipopolisacárido (LPS) (translocación bacteriana); entre otros. Actualmente se necesitan más estudios para lograr definir cuáles serían los biomarcadores de progresión óptimos para el seguimiento de los individuos coinfectados por VIH/VHC. El objetivo de esta revisión es realizar una reseña sobre los mecanismos inmunopatológicos de la infección por VIH/VHC involucrados en la inflamación, daño hepático y su impacto en la morbimortalidad de los individuos coinfectados

The immune dysfunction associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is generated by a chronic stimulation of the immune system, because of the inability to eradicate the virus from the host. This immune dysfunction is exacerbated in the context of coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Systemic inflammation caused by coinfection with both viruses generates an increase in morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. There are several soluble mediators of immunological activation, such as IP-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß (systemic inflammation markers); IL-17 (CD4+ T cells Th17); IL-2, IFN-γ (CD4+ T cells Th1); IL-8 (neutrophilia); CD23s, ICAMs, CD14s, CD163s, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (monocyte/macrophage activation markers and bacterial translocation); among others. Currently, more studies are needed to define optimal progression biomarkers for the follow-up of HIV/HCV coinfected individuals. In this review, we focus on the immunopathological mechanisms of HIV/HCV infection involved in inflammation, liver damage and its impact on the morbidity and mortality of affected individuals

Humans , Biomarkers , HIV Infections/immunology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Hepatitis/immunology , Immunity , Immune System Diseases , Inflammation/immunology
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1527-1533, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040165


En órganos dañados, el ácido láctico (AL) modifica la respuesta inmune innata e inflamatoria, induciendo una menor expresión de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias, que provocan, la modulación del reclutamiento de células inmunes. El daño por compresión del nervio isquiático (NI) desencadena una respuesta inflamatoria y un aumento exponencial del infiltrado inflamatorio de células inmunes, produciendo la destrucción de axones y pérdida funcional del nervio. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el efecto agudo de la inyección de AL, sobre la proporción de células inmunes en la fase inflamatoria temprana, en el sitio de lesión del NI post compresión. Para ello, se utilizaron 15 ratas machos Sprague Dawley adultas, en tres grupos de compresión nerviosa. Un grupo control, un grupo control negativo con placebo (100 µL PBS) y un grupo experimental con inyección de 100 µL de AL [20mM]. Al tercer día los NI se analizaron histológicamente y se estableció la proporción de células inmunes en el sitio de lesión. Los resultados muestran que la inyección intraneural de AL provoca una disminución en el porcentaje de linfocitos y un aumento en el porcentaje de macrófagos. Este es el primer trabajo de inyección intraneural de AL y demuestra el efecto modulador del AL sobre las células inmunes en el sistema nervioso periférico.

In damaged organs, lactic acid (LA) modifies the innate and inflammatory immune response, inducing a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which provoke the modulation of immune cell recruitment. Damage by compression of the sciatic nerve (SN) triggers an inflammatory response and an exponential increase in the inflammatory infiltrate of immune cells, producing the destruction of axons and functional loss of the nerve. The objective of this study is to evaluate the acute effect of the injection of LA, on the proportion of immune cells in the early inflammatory phase, in the site of SN post-compression injury. For this, 15 adult Sprague Dawley rats were used in three groups of nervous compression. A control group, a negative control group with placebo (100 mL PBS) and an experimental group with injection of 100 mL of LA [20mM]. On the third day, the SNs were histologically analyzed and the proportion of immune cells at the injury site was established. The results show that the intraneural injection of LA causes a decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and an increase in the percentage of macrophages. This is the first work of intraneural injection of LA and demonstrates the modulating effect of LA on immune cells in the peripheral nervous system.

Animals , Male , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Sciatic Nerve/immunology , Lactic Acid/pharmacology , Nerve Compression Syndromes/pathology , Sciatic Nerve/pathology , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lactic Acid/administration & dosage , Inflammation/immunology , Macrophages/drug effects
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 29-36, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983752


Abstract: Background: Diseases caused by melanized fungi include mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. This broad clinical spectrum depends on the dynamic interactions between etiologic agent and host. The immune status of the host influences on the development of the disease, as, an exemple. phaeohyphomicosis is more frequently observed in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: Examine the histological inflammatory response induced by Fonsecaea pedrosoi in several different strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, Nude and SCID, and reconstituted Nude). Methods: Fonsecaea pedrosoi was cultivated on agar gel and a fragment of this gel was implanted subcutaneously in the abdominal region of female adult mice. After infection has been obtained, tissue fragment was studied histopathologically. Results: There were significant changes across the strains, with the nodular lesion more persistent in Nude and SCID mice, whereas in immunocompetent mice the lesion progressed to ulceration and healing. The histopathological analysis showed a significant acute inflammatory reaction which consisted mainly of neutrophils in the initial phase that was subsequently followed by a tuberculoid type granuloma in immunocompetent mice. Study limitations: There is no a suitable animal model for chromoblastomycosis. Conclusions: The neutrophilic infiltration had an important role in the containment of infection to prevent fungal spreading, including in immunodeficient mice. The fungal elimination was dependent on T lymphocytes. The re-exposure of C57BL/6 mice to Fonsecaea pedrosoi caused a delay in resolving the infection, and appearance of muriform cells, which may indicate that re-exposure to fungi, might lead to chronicity of infection.

Animals , Female , Ascomycota , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Immunocompetence , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/microbiology , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Blood Cell Count , Chronic Disease , Chromoblastomycosis/immunology , Chromoblastomycosis/pathology , Mice, SCID , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Nude , Neutrophils
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 18(1): 30-44, ene.-feb. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004120


RESUMEN Introducción: La inflamación es una respuesta homeostática del organismo. Es uno de los principales motivos de consulta en Cuba y el mundo. Existe una percepción errónea de que es una entidad aislada y siempre patológica. Es un proceso dinámico, complejo, sistémico y multifactorial. Por eso constituye un reto el dilucidar los elementos, cambios tisulares que causa y cómo proceder en la clínica ante un cuadro inflamatorio. Objetivo: Describir la inflamación, su clasificación, elementos involucrados y cambios sistémicos desde una perspectiva inmunológica. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sobre el tema empleando la bibliografía actualizada y luego se consultaron artículos de libre acceso en las bases de datos Pubmed y Scielo en el período de enero de 2013 a diciembre de 2018. Desarrollo: La inflamación puede clasificarse según el daño, tiempo o los efectores involucrados. Las principales moléculas son las citocinas como TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, TGF-β. Participan células como los neutrófilos, mastocitos, macrófagos, linfocitos T y las del endotelio vascular. Durante el proceso inflamatorio se modifican las funciones de casi todos los sistemas de órganos. En ciertos tipos de inflamación, es la respuesta adaptativa quien origina y perpetúa el proceso inflamatorio. Conclusiones: En la actualidad se desconocen los acontecimientos que desencadenan inflamación crónica y cómo ocurre el daño tisular. El mayor desafío consiste en dilucidar las causas y mecanismos inmunológicos que conllevan a las manifestaciones inflamatorias sistémicas que se manifiestan como enfermedades neurológicas, cardiovasculares y autoinmunes, entre otras.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Inflammation is a homeostatic response of the body. It is one of the main reasons for consultation in Cuba and throughout world. There is a misperception that it is an isolated and always pathological entity. It is a dynamic, complex, systemic, and multifactorial process. Therefore, it is a challenge to elucidate the elements and the tissue changes that it causes to establish the best way to improve the clinical practice related to an inflammatory process. Objective: To describe inflammation, its classification, elements involved, and systemic changes from an immunological perspective. Material and Methods: A review of the topic was made using the updated bibliography. Free-access articles were consulted in Pubmed and Scielo databases in the period from January 2013 to December 2018. Development: Inflammation can be classified according to the damage, time or effectors involved. The main molecules are the cytokines like TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, TGF-β. Some cells participate such as neutrophils, mastocytes, macrophages, T-lymphocyes, and the vascular endothelium. During the inflammatory process, the functions of almost all organ systems are modified. It produces systemic changes that are observed in physiological processes such as pregnancy or aging. Sometimes inflammation triggers diseases such as cardiovascular and neurological ones, and cancer. The pathophysiological mechanisms have not been clarified. Conclusions: Currently, the events that trigger chronic inflammation and how tissue damage occurs are unknown. The biggest challenge is to elucidate the causes and immunological mechanisms that lead to inflammatory manifestations that are expressed as systemic neurological, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, among others.

History, 21st Century , Inflammation/immunology , Bibliography
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180550, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012512


Abstract Purpose To compare, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the inflammatory cells, vascular density and IL-6 immunolabeled cells present in the pulp after pulpotomy with white MTA versus 15.5% ferric sulfate (FS). Methodology Forty-eight mandibular first molars from 24 Wistar rats were divided into MTA or FS groups and subdivided according to the period after pulpotomy procedure (24, 48 and 72 hours). Four teeth (sound and untreated) were used as controls. Histological sections were obtained and assessed through the descriptive analysis of morphological aspects of pulp tissue and the quantification of inflammatory cells, vascular density and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression. Data were statistically analyzed (p<0.05). Results The number of inflammatory cells was similar in both groups, being predominantly localized at the cervical radicular third. In the MTA group, increased inflammation was observed at 48 hours. Vascular density was similar in both groups and over time, being predominant in the medium radicular third. No correlation was found between the number of inflammatory cells and the vascular density. Pulp tissue was more organized in MTA-treated teeth. In both groups, a weak to moderate IL-6 expression was detected in odontoblasts and inflammatory cells. Comparing both groups, there was a greater IL-6 expression in the cervical radicular third of teeth treated with MTA at 24 hours and in the medium and apical thirds at 72 hours, while in the FS group a greater IL-6 expression was found in the apical third at 24 hours. Conclusion The MTA group presented better histological features and greater IL-6 expression than the FS group. However, no difference was observed between the groups regarding the inflammatory status and vascularization, suggesting the usefulness of FS as a low-cost alternative to MTA.

Animals , Male , Oxides/pharmacology , Pulpotomy/adverse effects , Ferric Compounds/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/analysis , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Aluminum Compounds/pharmacology , Inflammation/immunology , Time Factors , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Dental Pulp/pathology , Drug Combinations
Clinics ; 74: e509, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011922


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening illness characterized by a complex pathophysiology, involving not only the respiratory system but also nonpulmonary distal organs. Although advances in the management of ARDS have led to a distinct improvement in ARDS-related mortality, ARDS is still a life-threatening respiratory condition with long-term consequences. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of this condition will allow us to create a personalized treatment strategy for improving clinical outcomes. In this article, we present a general overview p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and recent advances in understanding its functions. We consider the potential of the pharmacological targeting of p38MAPK pathways to treat ARDS.

Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/therapeutic use , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 34-40, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887623


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this research was to analyze the expression profile of miR-155, miR-146a, and miR-326 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 47 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and 39 control subjects, as well as the possible association with autoimmune or inflammatory markers. Subjects and methods Expression profile of miRs by means of qPCR using TaqMan probes. Autoantibodies and inflammatory markers by ELISA. Statistical analysis using bivariate correlation. Results The analysis of the results shows an increase in the expression of miR-155 in T1D patients in basal conditions compared to the controls (p < 0.001) and a decreased expression level of miR-326 (p < 0.01) and miR-146a (p < 0.05) compared T1D patients to the controls. miR-155 was the only miRs associated with autoinmmunity (ZnT8) and inflammatory status (vCAM). Conclusion Our data show a possible role of miR-155 related to autoimmunity and inflammation in Chilean patients with T1D.

Humans , Child , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantibodies/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers , Autoimmunity/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 30(2): 108-113, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885701


ABSTRACT Background: Extramedullary hematopoiesis depends on complex pathophysiological mechanisms linked to hematopoietic stem cells and the proteins considered mediators of the inflammation. The identification of hematopoietic cells outside bone marrow in the adult is an occurrence that can occasionally follows the inflammatory response, was considered a secondary occurrence, but current biomolecular studies have changed that concept. Aim: Describe the presence of clusters of precursor cells of platelets (megakaryocytes), and cells of the inflammatory response in the abdominal wall and spleen of rats with experimentally induced incisional hernias and repaired with different synthetic prostheses. Methods: Twenty-five rats with incisional hernias previously performed, were divided into groups of five animals each: Group 1, repair of the hernia defect without prosthetic implant; Group 2, repair with polypropylene prosthesis; Group 3, repair using polypropylene with low weight; Group 4, the use of polypropylene and polyglecaprone prosthesis; Group 5, of polypropylene and polyglactin prosthesis. All prostheses were cut in rhombus format with area 2,625 cm². The animals were reoperated after 10 days, the abdominal walls were removed with the viscera attached to them and the material was processed for histological study. Results: Megakaryocyte niches in the abdominal wall and spleen, occasionally removed together with the adhesions produced in animals with implantation of prostheses and significant inflammatory reaction. Conclusion: The intense inflammatory reaction due to the prostheses with polypropylene in their composition was disproportionate to the expected response, indicating that further studies should be accomplished including immunophenotyping evaluation and specific panels of monoclonal antibodies to better understand the findings.

RESUMO Racional: A hematopoiese extramedular depende de mecanismos fisiopatológicos complexos, havendo relação destas células-tronco hematopoiéticas com proteínas mediadoras da inflamação. A identificação de células hematopoiéticas fora da medula óssea no adulto, situação que ocasionalmente pode acompanhar a resposta inflamatória era considerada ocorrência secundária, mas estudos biomoleculares modificaram este conceito. Objetivo: Descrever agrupamentos de células precursoras das plaquetas (megacariócitos) e células da resposta inflamatória, na parede abdominal e no baço de ratos com hérnias incisionais induzidas experimentalmente e reparadas com diferentes próteses sintéticas. Métodos: Vinte e cinco ratos com hérnias incisionais previamente realizadas foram distribuídos em grupos com cinco animais: Grupo 1, reparo do defeito herniário sem implante de prótese; Grupo 2, reparo com prótese de polipropileno; Grupo 3, reparo empregando polipropileno com baixa gramatura; Grupo 4, utilização de prótese de polipropileno e poliglecaprone; Grupo 5, prótese de polipropileno e poliglactina. Todas as próteses foram recortadas na forma de losangos com área de 2,625 cm². Os animais foram reoperados após 10 dias, as paredes abdominais foram retiradas em bloco com as vísceras a elas aderidas e o material foi processado em rotina histológica. Resultados: Foram evidenciados nichos de megacariócitos na parede abdominal e no baço coletado juntamente com as aderências em animais com implante de próteses, além de reação inflamatória significativa. Conclusão: A intensa reação inflamatória, local e sistêmica em relação às próteses com polipropileno em sua composição, foi desproporcional à resposta esperada, requerendo aprofundamento do estudo com avaliação da imunofenotipagem e painéis específicos de anticorpos monoclonais para melhor esclarecimento.

Animals , Rats , Spleen/cytology , Blood Platelets , Abdominal Wall , Incisional Hernia/surgery , Incisional Hernia/immunology , Inflammation/etiology , Polymers , Prosthesis Design , Stem Cells , Surgical Mesh/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Inflammation/immunology
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(1): 72-80, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838007


ABSTRACT Autoinflammatory disorders are immune-mediated diseases with increased production of inflammatory cytokines and absence of detectable autoantibodies. They course with recurrent episodes of systemic inflammation and fever is the most common symptom. Cutaneous manifestations are prevalent and important to diagnosis and early treatment of the syndromes. The purpose of this review is to emphasize to dermatologists the skin symptoms present in these syndromes in order to provide their early diagnosis.

Humans , Skin Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/immunology , Inflammation/immunology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(9): e6393, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888997


Although acute exercise is apparently pro-inflammatory and increases oxidative stress, it can promote the necessary stress stimulus to train chronic adaptations in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study aimed to compare the effects of exercise intensity and duration on the inflammatory markers soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and on oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] in individuals with CHF. Eighteen patients performed three exercise sessions: 30 min of moderate-intensity (M30) exercise, 30 min of low-intensity (L30) exercise, and 45 min of low-intensity (L45) exercise. Blood analysis was performed before exercise (baseline), immediately after each session (after), and 1 h after the end of each session (1h after). Thirty min of M30 exercise promoted a larger stressor stimulus, both pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative, than that promoted by exercises L30 and L45. This was evidenced by increased sTNFR1 and MDA levels after exercise M30. In response to this stressor stimulus, 1 h after exercise, there was an increase in IL-6 and CAT levels, and a return of sTNFR1 to baseline levels. These findings suggest that compared with the duration of exercise, the exercise intensity was an important factor of physiologic adjustments.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Exercise Test , Heart Failure/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Catalase/blood , Chronic Disease , Interleukin-6/blood , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/blood , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/blood , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/blood , Malondialdehyde/blood
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 56(1): 44-51, jan.-fev. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775218


Resumo Objetivo: Estabelecer diretrizes baseadas em evidências científicas para manejo das síndromes periódicas associadas à criopirina (criopirinopatias – Caps). Descrição do método de coleta de evidência: A diretriz foi elaborada a partir de quatro questões clínicas que foram estruturadas por meio do PICO (Paciente, Intervenção ou Indicador, Comparação e Outcome), com busca nas principais bases primárias de informação científica. Após definir os estudos potenciais para sustento das recomendações, esses foram graduados pela força da evidência e pelo grau de recomendação. Resultado: Foram recuperados, e avaliados pelo título e resumo, 1.215 artigos e selecionados 42 trabalhos para sustentar as recomendações. Recomendações: 1. O diagnóstico de Caps é baseado na anamnese e nas manifestações clínicas e posteriormente confirmado por estudo genético. Pode se manifestar sob três fenótipos: FCAS (forma leve), MWS (forma intermediária) e Cinca (forma grave). Avaliações neurológica, oftalmológica, otorrinolaringológica e radiológica podem ser de grande valia na distinção entre as síndromes; 2. O diagnóstico genético com análise do gene NLRP3 deve ser conduzido nos casos suspeitos de Caps, isto é, indivíduos que apresentam, antes dos 20 anos, episódios recorrentes de inflamação expressa por urticária e febre moderada; 3. As alterações laboratoriais incluem leucocitose e elevação nos níveis séricos de proteínas inflamatórias; 4. Terapias alvo dirigidas contra a interleucina 1 levam a rápida remissão dos sintomas na maioria dos pacientes. Contudo, existem limitações importantes em relação à segurança em longo prazo. Nenhuma das três medicações anti-IL1β evita progressão das lesões ósseas.

Abstract Objective: To establish guidelines based on cientific evidences for the management of cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes. Description of the evidence collection method: The Guideline was prepared from 4 clinical questions that were structured through PICO (Patient, Intervention or indicator, Comparison and Outcome), to search in key primary scientific information databases. After defining the potential studies to support the recommendations, these were graduated considering their strength of evidence and grade of recommendation. Results: 1215 articles were retrieved and evaluated by title and abstract; from these, 42 articles were selected to support the recommendations. Recommendations: 1. The diagnosis of CAPS is based on clinical history and clinical manifestations, and later confirmed by genetic study. CAPS may manifest itself in three phenotypes: FCAS (mild form), MWS (intermediate form) and CINCA (severe form). Neurological, ophthalmic, otorhinolaryngological and radiological assessments may be highly valuable in distinguishing between syndromes; 2. The genetic diagnosis with NLRP3 gene analysis must be conducted in suspected cases of CAPS, i.e., individuals presenting before 20 years of age, recurrent episodes of inflammation expressed by a mild fever and urticaria; 3. Laboratory abnormalities include leukocytosis and elevated serum levels of inflammatory proteins; and 4. Targeted therapies directed against interleukin-1 lead to rapid remission of symptoms in most patients. However, there are important limitations on the long-term safety. None of the three anti-IL-1β inhibitors prevents progression of bone lesions.

Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes/diagnosis , Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes/therapy , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Prognosis , Urticaria , Severity of Illness Index , Age of Onset , Evidence-Based Medicine , Interleukin-1beta , Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes/genetics , Fever , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Mutation
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(3): 469-473, July-Sep. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761962


Chemokines are a large family of small cytokines and generally have low molecular weight ranging from 7 to 15kDa. Chemokines and their receptors are able to control the migration and residence of all immune cells. Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory, and their release can be induced during an immune response at a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling of cells migration during tissue development or maintenance. The physiologic importance of this family of mediators is resulting from their specificity − members of the chemokine family induce recruitment of well-defined leukocyte subsets. There are two major chemokine sub-families based upon cysteine residues position: CXC and CC. As a general rule, members of the CXC chemokines are chemotactic for neutrophils, and CC chemokines are chemotactic for monocytes and sub-set of lymphocytes, although there are some exceptions. This review discusses the potential role of chemokines in inflammation focusing on the two best-characterized chemokines: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a CC chemokine, and interleukin-8, a member of the CXC chemokine sub-family.

Quimiocinas são uma grande família de pequenas citocinas e seu peso molecular varia de 7 a 15kDa. As quimiocinas e seus receptores são capazes de controlar a migração e a residência de células imunes. Algumas quimiocinas são consideradas pró-inflamatórias e podem ser induzidas durante a resposta imune no sítio de infecção, enquanto outras são consideradas homeostáticas e estão envolvidas no controle da migração celular durante o desenvolvimento ou a manutenção dos tecidos. A importância fisiológica dessa família de mediadores é resultado de sua especificidade − os membros da família de quimiocinas induzem ao recrutamento de subtipos bem definidos de leucócitos. Existem duas grandes subfamílias de quimiocinas baseadas na posição dos resíduos de cisteínas: CXC e CC. Como regra geral, membros da família de quimiocinas CXC são quimiotáticos de neutrófilos, e as quimiocinas CC são quimiotáticos de monócitos e subtipos de linfócitos, apesar de existirem algumas exceções. Esta revisão discute o potencial papel das quimiocinas na inflamação focando nas duas quimiocinas mais bem caracterizadas: a proteína quimioatraente de monócitos-1, uma quimiocina CC, e a interleucina 8, uma quimiocina membro da subfamília CXC.

Humans , Chemokines/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Acute Disease , Interleukin-8/immunology , Chemokine CCL2/immunology , Inflammation/immunology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 665-675, 08/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753050


Neutrophils are widely known as proinflammatory cells associated with tissue damage and for their early arrival at sites of infection, where they exert their phagocytic activity, release their granule contents, and subsequently die. However, this view has been challenged by emerging evidence that neutrophils have other activities and are not so short-lived. Following activation, neutrophil effector functions include production and release of granule contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector. The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells. In fact, neutrophils have been found to help B cells and to modulate dendritic cell (DC), macrophage, and T-cell activities. In this review, we describe some ways in which neutrophils influence the inflammatory environment in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity, regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.

Humans , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Cell Plasticity/immunology , Immunomodulation/immunology , Neutrophil Activation/immunology , Neutrophils/physiology , Immune System Diseases/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(7): 644-649, 07/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751345


Radiotherapy is one of the main approaches to cure prostate cancer, and its success depends on the accuracy of dose planning. A complicating factor is the presence of a metallic prosthesis in the femur and pelvis, which is becoming more common in elderly populations. The goal of this work was to perform dose measurements to check the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment planning under these complicated conditions. To accomplish this, a scale phantom of an adult pelvic region was used with alanine dosimeters inserted in the prostate region. This phantom was irradiated according to the planned treatment under the following three conditions: with two metallic prostheses in the region of the femur head, with only one prosthesis, and without any prostheses. The combined relative standard uncertainty of dose measurement by electron spin resonance (ESR)/alanine was 5.05%, whereas the combined relative standard uncertainty of the applied dose was 3.35%, resulting in a combined relative standard uncertainty of the whole process of 6.06%. The ESR dosimetry indicated that there was no difference (P>0.05, ANOVA) in dosage between the planned dose and treatments. The results are in the range of the planned dose, within the combined relative uncertainty, demonstrating that the treatment-planning system compensates for the effects caused by the presence of femur and hip metal prostheses.

Adult , Humans , Male , Cytokines/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/blood , Lymphoma, B-Cell/blood , Lymphoma, B-Cell/virology , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Bisexuality , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections/immunology , Homosexuality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/immunology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/immunology , Multivariate Analysis
Clinics ; 70(3): 185-189, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747109


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variations in blood glucose levels, hemodynamic effects and patient anxiety scores during tooth extraction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM and coronary disease under local anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with or without epinephrine. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective randomized study of 70 patients with T2DM with coronary disease who underwent oral surgery. The study was double blind with respect to the glycemia measurements. Blood glucose levels were continuously monitored for 24 hours using the MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. Patients were randomized into two groups: 35 patients received 5.4 mL of 2% lidocaine, and 35 patients received 5.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Hemodynamic parameters (blood pressure and heart rate) and anxiety levels were also evaluated. RESULTS: There was no difference in blood glucose levels between the groups at each time point evaluated. Surprisingly, both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in blood glucose levels over time. The groups showed no significant differences in hemodynamic and anxiety status parameters. CONCLUSION: The administration of 5.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine neither caused hyperglycemia nor had any significant impact on hemodynamic or anxiety parameters. However, lower blood glucose levels were observed. This is the first report using continuous blood glucose monitoring to show the benefits and lack of side effects of local anesthesia with epinephrine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary disease. .

Adult , Humans , Male , Cytokines/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/blood , Lymphoma, B-Cell/blood , Lymphoma, B-Cell/virology , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Bisexuality , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections/immunology , Homosexuality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/immunology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/immunology , Multivariate Analysis
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(1): 262-277, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-736428


INTRODUÇÃO: O absenteísmo-doença, enquanto falta ao trabalho justificada por licença médica, é um importante indicador das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores. Em geral, características sociodemográficas e ocupacionais situam-se entre os principais fatores associados ao absenteísmo-doença. A administração pública é responsável por 21,8% dos empregos formais no Brasil. Esta população permite o estudo de uma grande variedade de categorias profissionais. OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil e os indicadores de absenteísmo-doença entre servidores municipais de Goiânia, no Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal das licenças certificadas para tratamento de saúde superiores a três dias, de todos os servidores, desde janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2010. Foram calculadas as prevalências, utilizando como critérios o número de indivíduos, os episódios e os dias de afastamento. RESULTADOS: Foram concedidas 40.578 licenças certificadas para tratamento de saúde a 13.408 servidores numa população média anual de 17.270 pessoas, o que resultou em 944.722 dias de absenteísmo. A prevalência acumulada de licença no período foi de 143,7%, com média anual de 39,2% e duração de 23 dias por episódio. A prevalência acumulada de absenteísmo-doença foi maior entre mulheres (52,0%) com idade superior a 40 anos (55,9%), com companheiro (49,9%), de baixa escolaridade (54,4%), profissionais de educação (54,7%), > 10 anos de serviço (61,9%) e múltiplos vínculos profissionais (53,7%). Os grupos de diagnósticos (CID-10) com as maiores prevalências acumuladas de licenças foram os do capítulo de transtornos mentais (26,5%), doenças osteomusculares (25,1%) e lesões (23,6%). CONCLUSÕES: Os indicadores de absenteísmo-doença expressam a magnitude desse fenômeno no serviço público e podem auxiliar no planejamento das ações de saúde do trabalhador, priorizando os grupos ocupacionais mais vulneráveis. .

BACKGROUND: Sickness absence, as work absenteeism justified by medical certificate, is an important health status indicator of the employees and, overall, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics are among the main factors associated with sickness absence. Public administration accounts for 21.8% of the formal job positions in Brazil. This population allows the study of a wide range of professional categories. OBJECTIVE: To assess the profile and indicators of sickness absence among public workers from the municipality of Goiania, in the State of Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on certified sick leaves, lasting longer than three days, of all civil servants from January 2005 to December 2010. Prevalence rates were calculated using as main criteria the number of individuals, episodes and sick days. RESULTS: 40,578 certified sick leaves were granted for health treatment among 13,408 public workers, in an annual average population of 17,270 people, which resulted in 944,722 days of absenteeism. The cumulative prevalence of sick leave for the period was of 143.7%, with annual average of 39.2% and duration of 23 days per episode. The cumulative prevalence of sickness absence was higher among women (52.0%), older than 40 years old (55.9%), with a partner (49.9%), low schooling (54.4%), education professionals (54.7%), > 10 years of service (61.9%), and with multiple work contracts (53.7%). Diagnoses groups (ICD-10) with higher cumulative prevalence of sick leaves were those with mental disorders (26.5%), musculoskeletal diseases (25.1%), and injuries (23.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Indicators of sickness absence express the magnitude of this phenomenon in the public sector and can assist in planning health actions for the worker, prioritizing the most vulnerable occupational groups. .

Animals , Male , Rats , Complement Factor H , Cytokines/immunology , Neuroglia/immunology , Seizures/immunology , Age Factors , Amino Acid Transport System X-AG/immunology , Amino Acid Transport System X-AG/physiology , Astrocytes/drug effects , Astrocytes/immunology , Astrocytes/physiology , Blotting, Western , Clusterin/immunology , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hippocampus/immunology , Hippocampus/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation/immunology , Kainic Acid , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/immunology , Microglia/physiology , Neuroglia/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Severity of Illness Index , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/physiopathology , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/immunology , Up-Regulation/physiology