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In. Mazza, Norma. Medicina intensiva: en busca de la memoria. Montevideo, Fin de Siglo, 2022. p.181-187.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1434451
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1124-1137, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927768


Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein, which is related to the adhesion of different cells and tumor formation. Previous studies found that TGM2 is involved in the interaction between host cells and viruses, but the effect of TGM2 on the proliferation of influenza virus in cells has not been reported. To explore the effect of TGM2 during H1N1 subtype influenza virus infection, a stable MDCK cell line with TGM2 overexpression and a knockout cell line were constructed. The mRNA and protein expression levels of NP and NS1 as well as the virus titer were measured at 48 hours after pot-infection with H1N1 subtype influenza virus. The results showed that overexpression of TGM2 effectively inhibited the expression of NP and NS1 genes of H1N1 subtype influenza virus, while knockout of TGM2 up-regulated the expression of the NP and NS1 genes, and the expression of the NP at protein level was consistent with that at mRNA level. Virus proliferation curve showed that the titer of H1N1 subtype influenza virus decreased significantly upon TGM2 overexpression. On the contrary, the virus titer in TGM2 knockout cells reached the peak at 48 h, which further proved that TGM2 was involved in the inhibition of H1N1 subtype influenza virus proliferation in MDCK cells. By analyzing the expression of genes downstream of influenza virus response signaling pathway, we found that TGM2 may inhibit the proliferation of H1N1 subtype influenza virus by promoting the activation of JAK-STAT molecular pathway and inhibiting RIG-1 signaling pathway. The above findings are of great significance for revealing the mechanism underlying the interactions between host cells and virus and establishing a genetically engineering cell line for high-yield influenza vaccine production of influenza virus.

Animals , Cell Proliferation , Dogs , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Protein Glutamine gamma Glutamyltransferase 2
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 799-805, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927570


BACKGROUND@#The new emerging avian influenza A H7N9 virus, causing severe human infection with a mortality rate of around 41%. This study aims to provide a novel treatment option for the prevention and control of H7N9.@*METHODS@#H7 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific B cells were isolated from peripheral blood plasma cells of the patients previously infected by H7N9 in Jiangsu Province, China. The human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated by amplification and cloning of these HA-specific B cells. First, all human mAbs were screened for binding activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, those mAbs, exhibiting potent affinity to recognize H7 HAs were further evaluated by hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) and microneutralization in vitro assays. Finally, the lead mAb candidate was selected and tested against the lethal challenge of the H7N9 virus using murine models.@*RESULTS@#The mAb 6-137 was able to recognize a panel of H7 HAs with high affinity but not HA of other subtypes, including H1N1 and H3N2. The mAb 6-137 can efficiently inhibit the HA activity in the inactivated H7N9 virus and neutralize 100 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of H7N9 virus (influenza A/Nanjing/1/2013) in vitro, with neutralizing activity as low as 78 ng/mL. In addition, the mAb 6-137 protected the mice against the lethal challenge of H7N9 prophylactically and therapeutically.@*CONCLUSION@#The mAb 6-137 could be an effective antibody as a prophylactic or therapeutic biological treatment for the H7N9 exposure or infection.

Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927279


INTRODUCTION@#Disease outbreaks such as the COVID-19 pandemic significantly heighten the psychological stress of healthcare workers (HCWs). The objective of this study was to understand the factors contributing to the perceived stress levels of HCWs in a public primary care setting during the COVID-19 pandemic, including their training, protection and support (TPS), job stress (JS), and perceived stigma and interpersonal avoidance.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study using an electronic self-administered questionnaire was conducted at the National Healthcare Group Polyclinics in March 2020. Data was collected anonymously. Analysis was performed using regression modelling.@*RESULTS@#The response rate was 69.7% (n = 1,040). The mean perceived stress level of HCWs in various departments ranged from 17.2 to 20.3. Respondents who reported higher perceived stress were those who made alternative living arrangements, were more affected by the current pandemic, reported higher JS and were Muslims. Respondents who reported lower perceived stress were those who had been through the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in 2003 and H1N1 pandemic in 2009 as HCWs, and those who had higher confidence in the organisation's TPS.@*CONCLUSION@#All HCWs, regardless of their scope of work, were similarly stressed by the current pandemic compared to the general population. Improving the confidence of HCWs in their training, protection and the support of personal protective equipment, and retaining experienced HCWs who can provide advice and emotional support to younger colleagues are important. Adequate psychological support for HCWs in the pandemic can be transformed into reserves of psychological resilience for future disease outbreaks.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 544-548, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357198


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto no número de casos de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea e as taxas de sobrevivência nos anos seguintes à pandemia de H1N1 de 2009. Métodos: Avaliaram-se dois períodos distintos de utilização de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea como suporte para insuficiência respiratória em crianças, por meio da análise de conjuntos de dados da Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Foram construídos modelos autorregressivos integrados de médias móveis para estimar os efeitos da pandemia. O ano de 2009 foi o ano de intervenção (epidemia de H1N1) em um modelo de séries temporais interrompidas. Os dados colhidos entre 2001 e 2010 foram considerados pré-intervenção e os obtidos entre 2010 e 2017 como pós-intervenção. Resultados: Em comparação com o período entre 2001 e 2010, o período entre 2010 e 2017 mostrou aumento das taxas de sobrevivência (p < 0,0001), com melhora significante da sobrevivência quando se realizou oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea nos casos de insuficiência aguda por pneumonia viral. Antes do ponto de nível de efeito (2009), o modelo autorregressivo integrado de médias móveis mostrou aumento de 23 casos de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea ao ano. Em termos de sobrevivência, a curva mostra que não houve aumento significante das taxas de sobrevivência antes de 2009 (p = 0,41), porém o nível de efeito foi próximo à significância após 2 anos (p = 0,05), com aumento de 6% na sobrevivência. Em 4 anos, ocorreu aumento de 8% (p = 0,03) na sobrevivência, e, 6 anos após 2009, a sobrevivência mostrou aumento de até 10% (p = 0,026). Conclusão: Nos anos após 2009, ocorreu significante e progressivo aumento global das taxas de sobrevivência com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea para todos os casos, principalmente em razão de melhoras tecnológicas e dos protocolos de tratamento para insuficiência respiratória aguda relacionada à pneumonia viral e a outras condições respiratórias.

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate whether there was any impact on the number of pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs and survival rates in the years subsequent to the 2009 pandemic. Methods: We studied two different periods of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for respiratory failure in children by analyzing datasets from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Autoregressive integrated moving average models were constructed to estimate the effect of the pandemic. The year 2009 was the year of intervention (the H1N1 epidemic) in an interrupted time series model. Data collected from 2001 - 2010 were considered preintervention, and data collected from 2010 - 2017 were considered postintervention. Results: There was an increase in survival rates in the period 2010 - 2017 compared to 2001 - 2010 (p < 0.0001), with a significant improvement in survival when extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed for acute respiratory failure due to viral pneumonia. The autoregressive integrated moving average model shows an increase of 23 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs per year, prior to the point of the level effect (2009). In terms of survival, the preslope shows that there was no significant increase in survival rates before 2009 (p = 0.41), but the level effect was nearly significant after two years (p = 0.05), with a 6% increase in survival. In four years, there was an 8% (p = 0.03) increase in survival, and six years after 2009, there was up to a 10% (p = 0.026) increase in survival. Conclusion: In the years following 2009, there was a significant, global incremental increase in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival rates for all runs, mainly due to improvements in the technology and treatment protocols for acute respiratory failure related to viral pneumonia and other respiratory conditions.

Humans , Child , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(4): 369-377, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287046


Abstract Objective This was a systematic review of studies that examined the impact of epidemics or social restriction on mental and developmental health in parents and children/adolescents. Source of data The PubMed, WHO COVID-19, and SciELO databases were searched on March 15, 2020, and on April 25, 2020, filtering for children (0-18 years) and humans. Synthesis of data The tools used to mitigate the threat of a pandemic such as COVID-19 may very well threaten child growth and development. These tools — such as social restrictions, shutdowns, and school closures — contribute to stress in parents and children and can become risk factors that threaten child growth and development and may compromise the Sustainable Development Goals. The studies reviewed suggest that epidemics can lead to high levels of stress in parents and children, which begin with concerns about children becoming infected. These studies describe several potential mental and emotional consequences of epidemics such as COVID-19, H1N1, AIDS, and Ebola: severe anxiety or depression among parents and acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress, anxiety disorders, and depression among children. These data can be related to adverse childhood experiences and elevated risk of toxic stress. The more adverse experiences, the greater the risk of developmental delays and health problems in adulthood, such as cognitive impairment, substance abuse, depression, and non-communicable diseases. Conclusion Information about the impact of epidemics on parents and children is relevant to policy makers to aid them in developing strategies to help families cope with epidemic/pandemic-driven adversity and ensure their children's healthy development.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Child Development , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Parents , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 389-395, jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346474


Abstract Influenza infection is a latent public health problem, affecting millions of people throughout the world, which imposes high morbidity and economic burden on the region. In Argentina, influenza‐associ ated mortality is estimated at 6/100 000 person‐years, and is higher among men ≥ 65 years old. The knowledge of the baseline characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients is crucial for public health officials planning interventions to address local outbreaks. Thus, in this retrospective, single-center study, performed in a high-complexity university hospital, we aimed to analyze clinical characteristics, image findings, and laboratory variables of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization in our hospital during 2019. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. One hundred and forty-three patients with influenza were hospitalized during the study period; 141 (98.6%) were infected with influenza virus type A, including 88 (61.5%) with the H1N1 subtype. The median age was 71 years (IQR 60- 82), 111 (77.6%) were older than 70 years, and 126 (88.1%) had at least one coexisting illness; 56 (39.1%) patients required intensive care unit, 16 (11.1%) invasive mechanical ventilation, and 6 (4.1%) died during hospitalization. In this study, in-hospital mortality was similar to that reported in previous series of non-pandemic influenza, even though the majority of the cases in this study were older than 70 years and had at least one coexisting illness.

Resumen La influenza es un problema latente de salud pública que afecta a millones de personas en todo el planeta e impone una alta morbilidad y carga económica para la región. En Argentina, la mortalidad asociada a la influenza se estima en 6/100 000 personas-año y es mayor entre los hombres mayores de 65 años. El conocimiento de las características clínicas y la evolución de los pacientes hospitalizados es fundamental para planificar el abordaje de los brotes locales. En este estudio retrospectivo, realizado en un hospital universitario de alta complejidad, nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características clínicas, los hallazgos de imágenes y las variables de laboratorio en 143 pacientes con influenza confirmada por laboratorio que requirieron hospitalización durante 2019. Los casos fueron confirmados mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa en tiempo real. El 98.6% (n: 141) estaban infectados por influenza tipo A y 61.5% (n: 88) correspondía al subtipo H1N1. La mediana de edad fue 71 años (IQR 60-82), el 77.6% (n: 111) tenía más de 70 años y el 88.1% (n: 126) al menos una enfermedad coexistente. El 39.1% (n: 56) requirió internación en unidad de cuidados intensivos, el 11.1% (n: 16) ventilación mecánica invasiva y seis pacientes (4.1%) fallecieron durante la hospitalización. En este estudio, la mortalidad hospitalaria fue similar a la publicada en series previas de influenza no pandémica, aunque la mayoría de los pacientes eran mayores de 70 años y presentaban al menos una enfermedad coexistente.

Humans , Male , Aged , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Argentina/epidemiology , Seasons , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 115-119, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287787


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the clinical, epidemiological, and prognostic features of the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic in 2020. METHODS: This retrospective study involved subjects from seven centers that were admitted and found to be positive for H1N1 or COVID-19 real-time polymerase chain reaction test. RESULTS: A total of 143 patients with H1N1 and 309 patients with COVID-19 were involved in the study. H1N1 patients were younger than COVID-19 ones. While 58.7% of H1N1 patients were female, 57.9% of COVID-19 patients were male. Complaints of fever, cough, sputum, sore throat, myalgia, weakness, headache, and shortness of breath in H1N1 patients were statistically higher than in COVID-19 ones. The duration of symptoms until H1N1 patients were admitted to the hospital was shorter than that for COVID-19 patients. Leukopenia was more common in COVID-19 patients. C-reactive protein levels were higher in COVID-19 patients, while lactate dehydrogenase levels were higher in H1N1 ones. The mortality rate was also higher in H1N1 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic is a major public health problem that continues to affect the world with its high rate of contagion. In addition, no vaccines or a specific drug for the benefit of millions of people have been found yet. The H1N1 pandemic is an epidemic that affected the whole world about ten years ago and was prevented by the development of vaccines at a short period. Experience in the H1N1 pandemic may be the guide to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic from a worse end.

Humans , Male , Female , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , COVID-19 , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31112, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354570


Introdução: de destaque como agente etiológico em várias doenças respiratórias, os vírus, tem grande importância dentro da Pneumologia Pediátrica. Objetivo: estudar os vírus identificados de secreções respiratórias de pacientes pediátricos, hospitalizados na enfermaria e UTI pediátrica, durante o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2020. Metodologia: levantamento de resultados do RT-PCR (reação da transcriptase reversa seguida pela reação em cadeia da polimerase) de secreções respiratórias de pacientes pediátricos, através do GAL (Gerenciamento de Análises Laboratoriais) aplicando os filtros necessários para selecionar os pacientes da instituição e o período estipulado. Resultados: Foram realizadas 30 coletas em 2019 e 196 em 2020 de secreções respiratórias devido ao quadro de Síndrome Respiratória. As amostras coletadas em 2019 foram positivas para vírus em 56,7% dos casos investigados, sendo 6,7% para Influenza e 50% para Vírus Sincicial Respiratório (VSR), enquanto que em 2020 as amostras foram positivas em 21,4% dos casos, sendo todos eles para SARS-CoV-2. O período do ano com maior número de coletas de secreção foi em maio e junho considerando o ano de 2019 (60% das coletas de 2019), e julho, agosto e dezembro considerando o ano de 2020 (42,8% das coletas de 2020), com uma positividade de 77,7% (2019) e 25% (2020) para os vírus solicitados para pesquisa. Conclusão: Pôde-se perceber uma importante mudança no perfil dos vírus identificados dos quadros respiratórios entre 2019 e 2020, comparáveis ao perfil apresentado pelos Boletins Epidemiológicos do Ministério da Saúde, principalmente no ano de 2020 com o surgimento do novo coronavírus e sua pandemia. A etiologia viral presente na grande maioria dos quadros respiratórios da pediatria, deve sempre ser valorizada e os testes de identificação viral são ferramentas de grande aplicabilidade na clínica.

Introduction: highlighted as an etiological agent in several respiratory diseases, viruses, has great importance in Pediatric Pulmonology. Objective: study the viruses identified from respiratory secretions of pediatric patients hospitalized in the pediatric ward and ICU, during the period from January 2019 to December 2020. Methodology: survey of results of the RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase reaction followed by polymerase chain reaction) of respiratory secretions of pediatric patients, through the LAM (Laboratory Analysis Management) applying the necessary filters to select the patients of the institution and the stipulated period. Results: Thirty collections were performed in 2019 and 196 in 2020 for respiratory secretions due to the Respiratory Syndrome. The samples collected in 2019 were positive for viruses in 56.7% of the investigated cases, with 6.7% for Influenza and 50% for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), while in 2020 the samples were positive in 21.4% of the cases, all of which were for SARS-Cov-2. The period of the year with the highest number of secretion collections was in May and June considering 2019 (60% of 2019 collections), and July, August and December considering 2020 (42.8% of 2020 collections), with a positivity of 77.7% (2019) and 25% (2020) for viruses requested for research. Conclusion: It was possible to notice an important change in the profile of the viruses identified in respiratory conditions between 2019 and 2020, comparable to the profile presented by the Epidemiological Bulletins of the Ministry of Health, especially in the year 2020 with the emergence of the new coronavirus and its pandemic. The viral etiology present in the vast majority of pediatric respiratory conditions should always be valued and viral identification tests are tools of great applicability in the clinic.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Coronavirus , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210014, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156023


ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with the willingness to take the pandemic influenza vaccine. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of Brazilian civil servants participating in the fourth wave (2012-2013) of the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated by multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Among 2,828 participants, 15.9% would not be willing to vaccinate in the future if the Brazilian Ministry of Health promoted a new vaccination campaign against pandemic influenza. Not willing to vaccinate in the future was strongly associated with not taking the pandemic influenza vaccine in 2010 (OR = 9.0, 95%CI 6.9 - 11.6). Among the unvaccinated, females, those aged > 60 years, and non-health care workers were less willing to vaccinate in the future. Again, in the vaccinated group, females were less willing to vaccinate. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary efforts should be encouraged in order to identify reasons for refusing vaccination, focusing on the individual and group perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to vaccination. Such information is needed to identify target groups for the delivery of customized interventions towards preventing emerging pandemics, such as avian influenza and COVID-19.

RESUMO: Objetivo: Investigar fatores sociodemográficos associados à disposição em adotar a vacina contra influenza pandêmica. Métodos: Estudo transversal entre servidores técnico-administrativos participantes da quarta onda (2012-2013) do estudo longitudinal Pró-Saúde. Associações foram expressas como razões de chances (RC) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC 95%), estimados mediante modelos de regressão logística multivariada. Resultados: Entre os 2.828 participantes, 15,9% não estariam dispostos a serem vacinados no futuro se o Ministério da Saúde do Brasil promovesse uma nova campanha de vacinação contra influenza pandêmica. Não estar disposto a ser vacinado no futuro foi fortemente associado a não receber a vacina contra influenza pandêmica em 2010 (RC = 9,0, IC95% 6,9 - 11,6). Entre os não vacinados, mulheres, maiores de 60 anos e profissionais de outras áreas que não a saúde estavam menos dispostos a serem vacinados no futuro. Novamente, para aqueles vacinados, as mulheres estavam menos dispostas a serem vacinadas. Conclusão: Abordagens multidisciplinares devem ser estimuladas para identificar as razões para recusa vacinal, com foco nas percepções individual e coletivas sobre suscetibilidade, gravidade, benefícios e barreiras à vacinação. Essas informações são necessárias para identificar grupos-alvo para a oferta de intervenções particularizadas para a prevenção de pandemias emergentes, como a de influenza aviária e de covid-19.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Government Employees/psychology , Government Employees/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination/psychology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878989


In this paper, Asarum polysaccharides(AP) were extracted, and its composition was analyzed to study the activity against H1 N1 influenza virus in vitro and its intervention effect on mice with kidney Yang deficiency syndrome. AP was prepared by the strategy of water extraction and alcohol precipitation, the content was determined, and its monosaccharide composition was analyzed. The cell Real-time monitoring system and Reed-Muench model were adopted to evaluate the antiviral activity of AP in vitro. And the mouse model of kidney Yang deficiency syndrome was established in vivo to compare the efficacy of Mahuang Xixin Fuzi Decoction(MXF) and AP. MXF group and AP group were treated with clinical equivalent doses of 1.8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) and 0.077 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) respectively, once a day for 6 consecutive days. Real-time PCR was used to detect the relative expression of M gene of H1 N1 influenza virus and cytokines in lung tissue. The content of AP in Asarum was 25.22%, and the protein content was 0.8%. And the monosaccharide composition was identified as L-rhamnose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, D-glucose, D-galactose and D-mannose. TI values of Tamiflu, MXF and AP were 30.00, 8.06 and 10.33, respectively. Three different doses of AP could significantly reduce the concentration of virus in supernatant. Compared with the model mice, lung indexes of MXF group and AP group decreased significantly(P<0.05), and the relative expression of M gene decreased significantly(P<0.05). The relative expressions of IL-10 and IFN-γ were up-regulated to varying degrees, while the relative gene expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 were down-regulated to different degrees. In addition, AP could significantly enhance the expression of TNF-α(P<0.01). AP had a good anti-influenza virus activity in vitro, and could protect mice with kidney Yang deficiency syndrome by reducing the viral load in lung tissue, decreasing inflammation damage in lung tissue, and regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with the prescription of MXF, AP had a better antiviral activity.

Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asarum , Cytokines/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/genetics , Lung , Mice , Polysaccharides
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(4): e401, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144319


Abstract Introduction The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased exponentially in recent years and has shown to be effective in treating adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to HiNi-related pneumonia. However, evidence remains controversial. This study describes a case series of ECMO in ARDS secondary to viral pneumonia. Methods A search was conducted in the ECMO database of Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia for the 20132017 period. A case series report was written of patients diagnosed with ARDS secondary to confirmed or suspected viral pneumonia. Results Nineteen patients with ECMO support and ARDS due to viral pneumonia were included in the study. The survival rate upon discharge was 11 patients (58%) and weaning from ECMO support was successful in 13 patients (68%). Hemorrhagic complications were the most frequent: gastrointestinal bleeding, 10 patients (53%); intracranial bleeding, 2 (10%); alveolar hemorrhage, 2 (10%);' hemothorax requiring thoracostomy with chest tube drainage, 2 (10%); cannulation site bleeding, 9 patients (47%); and surgical site bleeding in 3 patients (25%) who required tracheostomy. Other complications were: pneumothorax, 1 patient (5%); sepsis, 6 patients (32%); and growth of microorganisms in bronchial lavage, 6 patients (32%). Conclusions This study supports the use of veno-venous ECMO to achieve a higher survival rate than expected in patients with severe ARDS and refractory hypoxemia secondary to viral pneumonia. Early initiation of the therapy should improve overall results.

Resumen Introducción El uso de la oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea (ECMO) ha tenido un incremento exponencial en los últimos años y ha demostrado ser efectivo en el manejo del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria del adulto (SDRA) secundario a neumonía por H1N1, si bien la evidencia sigue siendo controvertida. En este estudio describimos una serie de casos de ECMO por SDRA secundario a neumonía viral. Métodos Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos de ECMO de la Fundación Cardiovascular desde el año 20132017. Reportamos una serie de casos donde se incluyeron pacientes diagnosticados con SDRA secundario a neumonía viral sospechosa o confirmada. Resultados Se incluyeron en el estudio 19 pacientes con soporte de ECMO y SDRA por neumonía viral. La sobrevida al alta fue 11 pacientes (58%) y el destete del ECMO fue exitoso en 13 pacientes (68%). Las complicaciones hemorrágicas presentadas fueron: sangrado digestivo, 10 pacientes (53%), sangrado cerebral, 2 (10%), hemorragia alveolar, 2 (10%), hemotórax con requerimiento de toracostomía a drenaje cerrado, 2 (10%), sangrado activo por sitio de canulación, 9 pacientes (53%), y 3 pacientes traqueostomizados (25%) que sangraron por el sitio quirúrgico. Otras complicaciones presentadas fueron: neumotórax, 1 paciente (5%), septicemia, 6 (32%) y crecimiento de microorganismos en lavados bronquiales 6 (32%). Conclusion El presente estudio permite indicar que el uso de la ECMO VV viabiliza una sobrevida mayor a la esperada en pacientes con SDRA severo e hipoxemia refractaria secundario a neumonía viral. Su inicio tempranamente debe mejorar los resultados globales.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral , Poisons , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Chest Tubes , Hemothorax , Pneumothorax , Thoracostomy , Tracheostomy , Catheterization , Survival Rate , Sepsis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 781-792, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142605


Abstract Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes COVID-19, and it is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 H1N1 influenza outbreak. The classic symptoms of the disease have been well defined by the World Health Organization; however, olfactory/gustatory disorders have been reported in some studies, but there are still several missing points in the understanding and in the consensus about the clinical management of these cases. Objective: To identify evidence in the scientific literature about olfactory/gustatory disorders, their clinical presentation, prevalence and possible specific treatments associated with COVID-19. Methods: A systematic review of articles published up to April 25, 2020 was performed in Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus and Google Schoolar,, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine and Reasearch Gate. Inclusion criteria: (1) Studies on patients with COVID-19; (2) Records of COVID-19 signs/symptoms, and olfactory/gustatory functions. Exclusion criteria: (1) Studies on non-human coronavirus; (2) Review articles; (3) Experimental studies (in animals or in vitro); (4) Olfactory/gustatory disorders initiated prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The risk assessment of bias of the selected studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: Six articles from the 1788 records met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 1457 patients of different ethnicities were assessed; of them, 885 (60.7%) and 822 (56.4%) had smell and taste disorders, respectively, with women being most often affected. There were olfactory/gustatory disorders even without nasal obstruction/rhinorrhea and beginning even before the signs/symptoms of COVID-19; the recovery of smell/taste, when it occurs, usually happened in the first two weeks after COVID-19 resolution. There is evidence that olfactory/gustatory disorders are strong predictors of infection by SARS-CoV-2, and it is possible to recommend patient isolation, as early as of the medical consultation, preventing the spread of the virus. No scientific evidence has been identified for effective treatments for any of the disorders. Conclusion: Olfactory/gustatory disorders may occur at varying intensities and prior to the general symptoms of COVID-19 and should be considered as part of the clinical features of COVID-19, even in mild cases. There is still no scientific evidence of specific treatments for such disorders in COVID-19 disease.

Resumo Introdução: O vírus SARS-CoV-2 causa a COVID-19 e é responsável pela maior pandemia desde o surto de influenza H1N1 de 1918. Os sintomas clássicos da doença já foram bem definidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde; entretanto, distúrbios olfativo-gustativos têm sido relatados em alguns estudos, mas ainda com várias lacunas no entendimento e no consenso sobre a condução clínica desses casos. Objetivo: Identificar evidências na literatura científica sobre os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos acerca da apresentação clínica, prevalência e possíveis tratamentos específicos associados à COVID-19. Método: Revisão sistemática de artigos publicados até 25 de abril de 2020 nas bases de dados: Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus e Google Schoolar,, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine e Research Gate. Foram critérios de inclusão: 1) Estudos com indivíduos com COVID-19; 2) Registro dos sinais/sintomas da COVID-19 e das funções olfativo-gustativa. Foram critérios de exclusão: 1) Estudos sobre coronavírus não humano; 2) Artigos de revisão; 3) Estudos experimentais (em animais ou in vitro); 4) Distúrbios olfativos-gustativos iniciados previamente à infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. A avaliação de risco de viés dos estudos selecionados foi feita por meio da escala de Newcastle-Ottawa. Resultados: Seis artigos dos 1.788 registros foram selecionados. Um total de 1.457 pacientes de diversas etnias foi avaliado; desses, 885 (60,7%) apresentaram perda do olfato e 822 (56,4%) perda do paladar, sendo as mulheres as mais afetadas. Os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos estiveram presentes mesmo sem obstrução nasal/rinorreia e com início mesmo antes dos sinais/sintomas clínicos da COVID-19; a recuperação do olfato/paladar, quando ocorre, geralmente se dá nas duas primeiras semanas após a resolução da doença. Há evidências de que os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos sejam fortes preditores de infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, podendo-se recomendar o isolamento do paciente, já a partir da consulta médica, para evitar a disseminação do vírus. Não foram identificadas evidências científicas para tratamentos eficazes para qualquer dos distúrbios. Conclusão: Podem ocorrer distúrbios olfativo-gustativos em intensidades variáveis e prévios aos sintomas gerais da COVID-19, devem ser considerados como parte dos sintomas da doença, mesmo em quadros leves. Não há ainda evidências científicas de tratamentos específicos para tais distúrbios na COVID-19.

Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pandemics , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Betacoronavirus
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(3): 1-11, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247766


Justificativa e Objetivos: Em 2009, o Brasil enfrentou a pandemia de influenza A/H1N1pdm09 que infectou, pelo menos, 50 mil pessoas. Em 2020, enfrenta outra pandemia causada pelo vírus SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19). Por se tratar de uma doença nova, há muita especulação sobre a mesma, assim como comparação com outros cenários, muitas vezes com base em informações falsas. Este estudo compara os impactos e diferenças epidemiológicas da Influenza A/H1N1 e COVID-19 no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, descritivo, epidemiológico, de base documental, cujos dados foram coletados nas plataformas de informação do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil e da Organização Mundial da Saúde, além de artigos científicos. Os dados sobre Influenza A/H1N1 referem-se ao ano de 2009 e os de COVID-19 ao período de março a 30 de abril de 2020. Resultados: Constata-se que no Brasil, em apenas dois meses, o número de casos da COVID-19 (85.380) já ultrapassou o total de casos de influenza A/H1N1pdm09 (50.482) ocorridos em todo o ano de 2009 e provocou o triplo de óbitos. Portanto, a COVID-19 apresenta-se de forma mais severa, dada as proporções alcançadas em letalidade, pela falta de vacina e tratamento específico dos casos. Conclusão: A pandemia da COVID-19 é mais impactante para o Brasil que a pandemia da influenza A/H1N1pdm09.(AU)

Background and Objectives: In 2009, Brazil faced the influenza A/H1N1pdm09 pandemic that infected at least 50 thousand people. In 2020, it faces another pandemic caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus (COVID-19). Because it is a new disease, there is much speculation about it and comparison with other scenarios, often based on fake news. This study compares the impacts and epidemiological differences of Influenza A / H1N1 and COVID-19 in Brazil. Methods: Quantitative, descriptive, epidemiological study, based on documents, whose data were collected on the information platforms of the Ministry of Health of Brazil and the World Health Organization, in addition to scientific articles. The data on Influenza A/H1N1 refer to the year 2009 and the data on COVID-19 to the period from March to April 30, 2020. Results: It appears that in Brazil, in just two months the number of cases of COVID-19 (85,380) has already exceeded the total cases of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 (50,482) that occurred in the whole year of 2009 and caused a triple of deaths. Therefore, COVID-19 presents itself more severely, given the proportions reached in lethality, due to the lack of vaccine and specific treatment of cases. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic is more impactful for Brazil than the influenza A/H1N1pdm09 pandemic.(AU)

Justificación y Objetivos: En 2009, Brasil se enfrentó a la pandemia de influenza A / H1N1pdm09 que infectó al menos a 50,000 personas. En 2020, se enfrenta a otra pandemia causada por el virus SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19). Como se trata de una enfermedad nueva, se especula mucho y se compara con otros escenarios, a menudo basados en información falsa. Este estudio compara los impactos y las diferencias epidemiológicas de la Influenza A / H1N1 y COVID-19 en Brasil. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico cuantitativo, descriptivo, basado en documentos, cuyos datos fueron recolectados en las plataformas de información del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, además de artículos científicos. Los datos sobre Influenza A / H1N1 se refieren al año 2009 y los datos sobre COVID-19 al período de marzo al 30 de abril de 2020. Resultados: Parece que en Brasil, en solo dos meses, el número de casos de COVID-19 (85,380) ya excedió el número total de casos de influenza A / H1N1pdm09 (50,482) que ocurrieron en todo el año de 2009 y causaron un triple de muertes. Por lo tanto, COVID-19 se presenta más severamente, dadas las proporciones alcanzadas en la letalidad, debido a la falta de vacuna y al tratamiento específico de los casos. Conclusión: La pandemia de COVID-19 es más impactante para Brasil que la pandemia de influenza A / H1N1pdm09.(AU)

Humans , Brazil , Epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(8)ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389300


The aim of this work was to conduct a systematic review on psychological behavior in the context of pandemic scenarios during the twenty-first century. We focused on empirical works and brief case reports of H1N1 flu and COVID-19. Our review included 32 papers published both in English or Spanish. We built a set of tables that allowed us to classify the information in four main categories, namely the psychological impact of the pandemic, whether people follow or not official measures to protect themselves against the pandemic, psychological adherence considerations implied as mediators to respect official strategies, and relevant methodological characteristics of the pandemic research. Results show that there are significant impacts on the psychological behavior of people, social groups and organizations in several dimensions, namely emotion, cognition, behavior, mental health, organization and psychosocial factors. In addition, we found that certain social groups experienced a critical psychosocial impact likely due to the pandemic. Psychosocial factors affecting adherence were also identified, which allow us to better understand how health strategies are followed by the population. Different psychosocial suggestions, which emerged from the papers reviewed, were systematized and should be considered as possible pandemic strategies to be implemented.

Humans , Health Behavior , Influenza, Human/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Rev. invest. clín ; 72(3): 144-150, May.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251848


ABSTRACT The emergence of coronavirus disease 19 pandemic and novel research on the high transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised controversies over the use of face masks to prevent community transmission. Specific regulations need to be fulfilled to use a face mask as part of the personal protective equipment and high quality of evidence supporting its use to prevent respiratory viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2, is lacking. However, its widespread use is becoming a standard practice in some countries and discrepancies between health authorities on their policy have led to controversy. The aim of this review is to provide an outlook on recent research in this matter and areas of opportunity.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Masks , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Protective Devices , Program Evaluation , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Aerosols , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Air Microbiology , Equipment Design , Equipment Failure , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 182-190, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134820


ABSTRACT Introduction: Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are considered to be at high risk for infection. Here, we describe the clinical outcomes of chronic HD patients with influenza A (H1N1) infection and the strategies adopted to control an outbreak of influenza A in a dialysis unit. Methods: Among a total of 62 chronic HD patients, H1N1 infection was identified in 12 (19.4%). Of the 32 staff members, four (12.5%) were found to be infected with the H1N1 virus. Outcomes included symptoms at presentation, comorbidities, occurrence of hypoxemia, hospital admission, and clinical evaluation. Infection was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: The 12 patients who had H1N1 infection did not differ significantly from the other 50 non-infected patients with respect to age, sex, dialysis vintage, dialysis modality, or proportion of comorbidities. Obesity was higher in the H1N1-infected group (41.5 vs. 4%, p<0.002). The most common symptoms were fever (92%), cough (92%), and rhinorrhea (83%). Early empirical antiviral treatment with oseltamivir was started in symptomatic patients and infection control measures, including the intensification of contact-reduction measures by the staff members, antiviral chemoprophylaxis to asymptomatic patients undergoing HD in the same shift of infected patients, and dismiss of staff members suspected of being infected, were implemented to control the spread of infection in the dialysis unit. Conclusion: The clinical course of infection with H1N1 in our patients was favorable. None of the patients developed severe disease and the strategies adopted to control the outbreak were successful.

RESUMO Introdução: Pacientes em hemodiálise (HD) crônica apresentam risco elevado para infecções. O presente estudo descreve os desfechos clínicos de pacientes em HD crônica com infecção pelo vírus influenza A (H1N1) e as estratégias adotadas para controlar um surto de influenza A numa unidade de diálise. Métodos: Doze (19,4%) de 62 pacientes em HD crônica e quatro (12,5%) de 32 funcionários desta unidade de diálise apresentaram infecção pelo vírus H1N1. Os desfechos incluíram sintomas à apresentação, comorbidades, ocorrência de hipoxemia, internação hospitalar e avaliação clínica. A presença de infecção foi confirmada por reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR) em tempo real. Resultados: Os 12 pacientes com infecção por H1N1 não diferiram significativamente dos 50 pacientes sem infecção no tocante a idade, sexo, tempo em diálise, modalidade de diálise e percentual de comorbidades. O percentual de obesidade foi mais elevado no grupo com infecção por H1N1 (41,5% vs. 4%, p<0,002). Os sintomas mais comuns foram febre (92%), tosse (92%) e rinorreia (83%). Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento antiviral com oseltamivir e medidas de controle (intensificação das medidas de redução de contato pelos funcionários da clínica, quimioprofilaxia com antiviral para pacientes assintomáticos em HD na mesma sala dos pacientes com infecção e afastamento de funcionários da clínica com suspeita de infecção) para controlar a disseminação da infecção pela unidade de diálise. Conclusão: O curso clínico da infecção por H1N1 em nossos pacientes foi favorável. Nenhum evoluiu para doença grave e as estratégias adotadas foram efetivas no controle do surto.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Vaccination/methods , Treatment Outcome , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Oseltamivir/administration & dosage , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction