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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06669, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1180872

ABSTRACT

A high prevalence of pneumonic lesions has been reported to affect slaughtered pigs in southern Brazil. In order to identify which microorganisms have been causing those lesions, 30 pig lungs presenting pneumonic gross lesions were collected from five different slaughterhouses, totaling 150 lungs. Samples for bacterial isolation, molecular, histopathologic and immunohistochemistry (IHC) evaluation were taken from each lung. The pneumonic lesion scoring ranged from 1.53 to 2.83. The most frequent histopathological lesions found was the concomitant Influenza A virus (IAV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection, corresponding to 55.3% (83/150), and Pasteurella multocida type A was isolated in 54.2% (45/83) of these cases. In 102 samples (68%), there was histopathologic suggestion of involvement of more than one infectious agent. M. hyopneumoniae was the most frequent agent associated with pneumonic lesions, being present in 92.1% (94/102) of the lungs with coinfections, followed by IAV in 89.2% (91/102). Besides the coinfections, IAV lesions were observed also in six samples without another pathogenic microorganism detected. A total of 46 samples with acute and subacute IAV suspected lesions in histopathological examination were assessed for IHC and real time RT-PCR for IAV. A total of 35% (16/46) of them were positive by IHC and 13% (6/46) by real time RT-PCR. Regarding M. hyopneumoniae, 79.3% (119/150) of samples were positive by qPCR and 84.9% (101/119) of them also presented M. hyopneumoniae suspected lesions in the histopathological examination. The results of this study suggest the importance of IAV in respiratory diseases in finishing pigs, even though this virus is more frequently reported in the nursery phase. In addition, our results emphasize the importance of lung coinfections in finishing pigs.(AU)


Lesões sugestivas de pneumonia são frequentemente encontradas em altas prevalências em suínos abatidos no sul do Brasil. Para identificar quais microrganismos causam essas lesões, foram coletados 30 pulmões de suínos com lesão macroscópica sugestiva de pneumonia em cinco frigoríficos diferentes, totalizando 150 pulmões. Amostras para isolamento bacteriano, avaliação molecular, histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica (IHC) foram coletadas de cada pulmão. O escore de lesão pulmonar variou entre 1,53 a 2,83. O achado histopatológico mais observado foi a lesão sugestiva de infecção concomitante pelo vírus Influenza A (IAV) e Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae, correspondendo a 55,3% (83/150), e em 54,2% (45/83) desses casos Pasteurella (P.) multocida tipo A foi isolado. Em 102 amostras (68%), houve lesão histopatológica sugestiva do envolvimento de mais de um agente infeccioso. M. hyopneumoniae foi o microrganismo mais frequente associado a lesões de pneumonia, estando presente em 92,1% (94/102) dos pulmões com coinfecções, seguido de IAV, que foi encontrado em 89,2% (91/102). Além das coinfecções, lesões de IAV foram observadas em mais seis amostras que não aparentavam envolvimento de outro agente infeccioso. Um total de 46 amostras com suspeita de lesão aguda e subaguda de IAV no exame histopatológico foram avaliadas para IHC e RT-PCR em tempo real para IAV e 35% (16/46) delas foram positivas por IHC e 13% (6/46) foram positivas por RT-PCR em tempo real. Com relação a M. hyopneumoniae, 79,3% (119/150) das amostras foram positivas por qPCR e 84,9% (101/119) delas também apresentaram lesões suspeitas de M. hyopneumoniae no exame histopatológico. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem a importância do IAV como agente causador de pneumonias em suínos de terminação, embora esse vírus seja mais frequentemente relatado na fase de creche. Além disso, os achados deste trabalho demonstram a presença frequente de coinfecções pulmonares em suínos de terminação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Influenza A virus , Pneumonia , Swine/injuries , Pasteurella multocida , Infections , Lung , Immunohistochemistry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of children with influenza A virus infection and neurological symptoms.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza A and neurological symptoms who were treated in Xi'an Children's Hospital Affiliated to Xi'an Jiaotong University from January to December, 2019.@*RESULTS@#A total of 895 children were diagnosed with influenza A, among whom 291 had neurological symptoms. Boys had a significantly higher incidence rate of influenza A than girls (@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a high incidence rate of neurological symptoms in children with influenza A, and seizures are the most common symptom. Most of the patients with neurological symptoms tend to have a good prognosis, but those with ANE may have a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 73-80, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089322

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Influenza is an important cause of morbimortality worldwide. Although people at the extremes of age have a greater risk of complications, influenza has been more frequently investigated in the elderly than in children, and inpatients than outpatients. Yearly vaccination with trivalent or quadrivalent vaccines is the main strategy to control influenza. Objectives Determine the clinical and molecular characteristics of influenza A and B infections in children and adolescents with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods: A cohort of outpatient children and adolescents with ILI was followed for 20 months. Influenza was diagnosed with commercial multiplex PCR platforms. Results: 179 patients had 277 episodes of ILI, being 79 episodes of influenza A and 20 episodes of influenza B. Influenza A and B cases were mild and had similar presentation. Phylogenetic tree of influenza B viruses showed that 91.6% belonged to the B/Yamagata lineage, which is not included in trivalent vaccines. Conclusions: Influenza A and B are often detected in children and adolescents with ILI episodes, with similar and mild presentation in outpatients. The mismatch between the circulating influenza viruses and the trivalent vaccine offered in Brazil may have contributed to the high frequency of influenza A and B in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Young Adult , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/virology , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
4.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Print) ; 9(1): 1-6, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257344

ABSTRACT

Background: Influenza and HIV are endemic in Nigeria but there is no epidemiological data on the co-infection of influenza A and B among HIV patients.Objective: We investigated seasonal influenza A and B, and co-infection among HIV patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Lagos, Nigeria.Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, clear sera collected from 174 HIV-positive patients between August and September 2018 were analysed for immunoglobulin M-specific antibodies to seasonal influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2, and influenza B by enzyme immunoassay. Results: A total of 39.7% (69/174) of HIV patients were seropositive for influenza A or B viruses with 84.1% (58/69) being positive for influenza A, 13.04% (9/69) seropositive for both influenza A and B, and only 2.9% (2/69) positive for influenza B mono-infection. Median age was 44 (mean 45, mode 40, range 18­74) years. The 41­50 years age group had the highest seroprevalence (39.1%; 27/69). Seropositivity was highest among women (65.2%; 45/69). A total of 88.4% (61/69) of HIV patients seropositive for influenza A or B were on fixed dose cART, while 73.9% (51/69) were virologically suppressed. Furthermore, 27.5% (19/69) were immunocompromised, of which 21.1% (4/19) were severely immunosuppressed (cluster of differentiation 4 < 200 cells/mm>3).Conclusion: Influenza A and B was prevalent among HIV patients on cART, which may predispose them to life-threatening complications. We recommend strong advocacy on the need to reduce the risk of exposure to influenza and for the provision of an influenza vaccine in Nigeria


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection , HIV Infections , HIV Seroprevalence , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , Lakes , Nigeria
5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828747

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
6.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828583

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827018

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2429-2436, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Endothelial cells play a key role in the cytokine storm caused by influenza A virus. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is an important regulator in inflammation. Its role in the inflammatory response to influenza A infection, however, has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the role as well as the underlying mechanism of miR-155 in the cytokine production in influenza A-infected endothelial cells.@*METHODS@#Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were infected with the influenza A virus strain H1N1. The efficiency of H1N1 infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines and miR-155 were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. A dual-luciferase reporter assay characterized the interaction between miR-155 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1). Changes in the target protein levels were determined using Western blot analysis.@*RESULTS@#MiR-155 was elevated in response to the H1N1 infection in HPMECs (24 h post-infection vs. 0 h post-infection, 3.875 ± 0.062 vs. 1.043 ± 0.013, P = 0.001). Over-expression of miR-155 enhanced inflammatory cytokine production (miR-155 mimic vs. negative control, all P < 0.05 in regard of cytokine levels) and activation of nuclear factor kappa B in infected HPMECs (miR-155 mimic vs. negative control, P = 0.004), and down-regulation of miR-155 had the opposite effect. In addition, S1PR1 was a direct target of miR-155 in the HPMECs. Inhibition of miR-155 enhanced the expression of the S1PR1 protein. Down-regulation of S1PR1 decreased the inhibitory effect of the miR-155 blockade on H1N1-induced cytokine production and nuclear factor kappa B activation in HPMECs.@*CONCLUSION@#MiR-155 maybe modulate influenza A-induced inflammatory response by targeting S1PR1.


Subject(s)
Down-Regulation , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2410-2414, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurred during the flu season around the world. This study aimed to analyze the impact of influenza A virus (IAV) exposure on COVID-19.@*METHODS@#Seventy COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital during January and February 2020 in Wuhan, China were included in this retrospective study. Serum tests including respiratory pathogen immunoglobulin M (IgM) and inflammation biomarkers were performed upon admission. Patients were divided into common, severe, and critical types according to disease severity. Symptoms, inflammation indices, disease severity, and fatality rate were compared between anti-IAV IgM-positive and anti-IAV IgM-negative groups. The effects of the empirical use of oseltamivir were also analyzed in both groups. For comparison between groups, t tests and the Mann-Whitney U test were used according to data distribution. The Chi-squared test was used to compare disease severity and fatality between groups.@*RESULTS@#Thirty-two (45.71%) of the 70 patients had positive anti-IAV IgM. Compared with the IAV-negative group, the positive group showed significantly higher proportions of female patients (59.38% vs. 34.21%, χ = 4.43, P = 0.035) and patients with fatigue (59.38% vs. 34.21%, χ = 4.43, P = 0.035). The levels of soluble interleukin 2 receptor (median 791.00 vs. 1075.50 IU/mL, Z = -2.70, P = 0.007) and tumor necrosis factor α (median 10.75 vs. 11.50 pg/mL, Z = -2.18, P = 0.029) were significantly lower in the IAV-positive group. Furthermore, this group tended to have a higher proportion of critical patients (31.25% vs. 15.79%, P = 0.066) and a higher fatality rate (21.88% vs. 7.89%, P = 0.169). Notably, in the IAV-positive group, patients who received oseltamivir had a significantly lower fatality rate (0 vs. 36.84%, P = 0.025) compared with those not receiving oseltamivir.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study suggests that during the flu season, close attention should be paid to the probability of IAV exposure in COVID-19 patients. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify whether IAV increases the fatality rate of COVID-19 and to elucidate any benefits of empirical usage of oseltamivir.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719485

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used in the diverse field to evaluate influenza virus infection; for the surveillance, diagnosis, efficacy evaluation, and development of the vaccine. The aim of this study was to establish an ELISA for detecting HA strain-specific antibodies using recombinant pandemic A H1N1 (pH1N1) HA1 (rHA1) protein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: rHA1 was produced in baculovirus system. The clinical performance of the developed ELISA was validated using human serum samples, by comparison with standard methods for detecting a neutralizing antibody; hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and microneutralization test (MNT). The ability of the ELISA system to evaluate the efficacy test of an influenza vaccine was explored by measuring antibody levels in the serum of vaccinated mice. RESULTS: Our ELISA could detect anti-rHA1 antibody in influenza-infected patients and vaccinated subjects. Compared to HI assay and MNT as reference methods, our method showed good performance in detection of anti-rHA1 antibody. Detection of the anti-rHA1 antibody in vaccinated mice and its correlation with titers in HI assay was also proved in a mice model. CONCLUSION: An ELISA system using rHA1 of pH1N1 influenza virus was developed, and showed good clinical performance in diagnosis of influenza virus infection and evaluation of the vaccination efficacy in both human and animal models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Baculoviridae , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Orthomyxoviridae , Pandemics , Vaccination
11.
Immune Network ; : e29-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764017

ABSTRACT

The matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus (IFAV) has a relatively conserved ectodomain (M2e) composed of 23 amino acids, and M2e-based vaccines have been suggested to induce broad protective immunity in mice. In this study, we investigated whether N-terminal sequence of M2e (nM2e)-based vaccines with more conserved nM2e could induce influenza viral neutralizing activity. We constructed linear peptide vaccines with an nM2e sequence for PR8 virus (nM2Pr) connected to a probable 17-mer IFAV-derived helper T-cell epitope (ThE: T1, T2, or T3) at its N- or C-terminus. The peptide vaccines induced significant production of nM2e Abs regardless of either type or location of the ThE-epitope in BALB/c mice, while only T3 was effective in C57BL/6 mice. The Abs against nM2Pr-T3 elicited broader binding affinities to the nM2e peptides derived from various IFAVs than those against T3-nM2Pr. In addition, the nM2e-based vaccines efficiently protected the immunized mice from the lethal challenge of PR8 virus. These results suggest that the more conserved nM2e without cysteine will be useful for development of universal peptide vaccines than M2e.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Cysteine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Mice , Peptides , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758884

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are widely applied in disease diagnoses. Herein, we report a MAb, WF-4, against Influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP), its broad response with Influenza A virus, and its application in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. WF-4 was screened by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results showed that its reactivity with baculovirus-expressed full-length recombinant NP (rNP) in Western blot (WB), indicating its IHC applicability. Fifteen Influenza A virus (reference subtypes H1 to H15) infected chicken embryonated chorioallantoic membranes (CAM), fixed by formalin, were all detectable in the WF-4-based IHC assay. Also, the reactivity of the IHC test with NP from experimentally inoculated H6N1 and from all recent outbreaks of H5 subtype avian Influenza A virus (AIV) field cases in Taiwan showed positive results. Our data indicate that CAM, a by-product of Influenza A virus preparation, is helpful for Influenza A virus-specific MAb characterization, and that the WF-4 MAb recognizes conserved and linear epitopes of Influenza A virus NP. Therefore, WF-4 is capable of detecting NP antigens via IHC and may be suitable for developing various tests for diagnosis of Influenza A virus and, especially, AIV infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Blotting, Western , Chickens , Chorioallantoic Membrane , Diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Epitopes , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Formaldehyde , Immunohistochemistry , Influenza A virus , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Nucleoproteins , Taiwan
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761544

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EGID) is an uncommon disease that is accompanied by intestinal eosinophil infiltration without a secondary cause of eosinophilia. Eosinophilic enteritis is a secondary portion of EGID that can present a range of gastrointestinal symptoms according to the affected depth of the intestinal layer. The subserosal type of eosinophilic enteritis presenting as ascites is relatively rarer than the mucosal type. In general, eosinophilic enteritis occurs in patients with food allergies, but its mechanism is unclear. The authors experienced a 29-year-old female patient with a large amount of ascites with diarrhea and abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with an influenza A infection one week earlier. Peripheral eosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count: 6,351 cells/mm³) and eosinophilic ascites (97% of white blood cells in the ascites are eosinophil) were present. Abdominal CT revealed a large amount of ascites and edematous changes in the ileum and ascending colon wall. A diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was confirmed as eosinophilic ascites by paracentesis, with eosinophil infiltration of the bowel wall by an endoscopic biopsy. The patient's symptoms improved rapidly after using steroids. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis with massive ascites after an influenza A virus infection in a Korean adult.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Ascites , Biopsy , Colon, Ascending , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Enteritis , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Female , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Ileum , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Leukocytes , Paracentesis , Steroids , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760894

ABSTRACT

Postinfectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in children, but PIGN associated with other pathogens has been described in the literature. A previously healthy 6-year-old boy was admitted with complaints of cough, fever, and right chest pain. The patient was diagnosed with pneumococcal bacteremia and influenza A virus infection and treated with antibiotics and antiviral agent. During hospitalization, generalized edema, hematuria, proteinuria, and increased blood pressure were observed; therefore, we started administering diuretics. The boy was discharged with gross hematuria, and even microscopic hematuria disappeared 14 weeks after discharge. We report a case of PIGN associated with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza A virus infection in children. A urine test and blood pressure measurement should be considered for the early detection of PIGN in children with pneumococcal or influenza A virus infection when they present with nephritic symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Blood Pressure , Chest Pain , Child , Cough , Diuretics , Edema , Fever , Glomerulonephritis , Hematuria , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Male , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Proteinuria , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyogenes
15.
Mycobiology ; : 256-260, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760533

ABSTRACT

Neuraminidase (NA) cleaves the glycosidic bond linkages of sialic acids to release the mature virions from infected cells and has been an attractive therapeutic target for anti-influenza agents. In our ongoing investigation of NA inhibitors in mushroom extracts, we found that the extract the fruiting body of Glaziella splendens potently inhibited neuraminidase. The fruiting bodies of G. splendens were extracted and partitioned successively with hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol. The ethyl acetate soluble-layer was subjected to silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and MPLC to obtain five compounds (1–5). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. NA inhibitory activity of these compounds was evaluated using NAs from recombinant rvH1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses. One compound (1) was elucidated as a new azaphilone derivative, and four compounds (2–5) were identified as entonaemin A, comazaphilone D, rubiginosin A, and entonaemin B, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 showed considerable inhibitory activity against three types of neuraminidases with the IC₅₀ values of 30.9, 41.8, and 35.7 µM for 3 and 46.5, 50.4, and 29.9 µM for 4, respectively. This study reveals that the fruiting bodies of G. splendens possess azaphilone derivatives with the NA inhibitory activity. This is the first report on the isolation of neuraminidase inhibitors from the fruiting bodies of G. splendens.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Chromatography , Fruit , Influenza A virus , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Neuraminidase , Sialic Acids , Silica Gel , Virion
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760360

ABSTRACT

Equine influenza (EI) is the main cause of respiratory illness in equines across the globe and is caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV-A), which has impacted the equine industry internationally because of the marginal mortality and high morbidity. In the present study, the immune responses after equine influenza vaccination were evaluated in 4,144 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza virus (EIV), A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8), was used as the antigen in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 89.2% (97.4% in 2016, 77.6% in 2017, and 92.4% in 2018). This paper highlights the advances in understanding the effects of vaccines and control strategies for mitigating the emerging menace by EIV.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Hemagglutination , Horses , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Korea , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Vaccination , Vaccines
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787192

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EGID) is an uncommon disease that is accompanied by intestinal eosinophil infiltration without a secondary cause of eosinophilia. Eosinophilic enteritis is a secondary portion of EGID that can present a range of gastrointestinal symptoms according to the affected depth of the intestinal layer. The subserosal type of eosinophilic enteritis presenting as ascites is relatively rarer than the mucosal type. In general, eosinophilic enteritis occurs in patients with food allergies, but its mechanism is unclear. The authors experienced a 29-year-old female patient with a large amount of ascites with diarrhea and abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with an influenza A infection one week earlier. Peripheral eosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count: 6,351 cells/mm³) and eosinophilic ascites (97% of white blood cells in the ascites are eosinophil) were present. Abdominal CT revealed a large amount of ascites and edematous changes in the ileum and ascending colon wall. A diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was confirmed as eosinophilic ascites by paracentesis, with eosinophil infiltration of the bowel wall by an endoscopic biopsy. The patient's symptoms improved rapidly after using steroids. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis with massive ascites after an influenza A virus infection in a Korean adult.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Ascites , Biopsy , Colon, Ascending , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Enteritis , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Female , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Ileum , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Leukocytes , Paracentesis , Steroids , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786312

ABSTRACT

Influenza B virus infections appear to be more common extra-respiratory tract symptoms, compared to influenza A virus infections. Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a benign disease that is caused mainly by many viruses like influenza A or B virus infection. Usually BACM is fully cured with only supportive treatment without unnecessary investigation or invasive procedure. This report describes an eight-year-old boy with acute bilateral calf pain and walking difficulty who diagnosed with BACM after influenza B virus infection.


Subject(s)
Child , Herpesvirus 1, Cercopithecine , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human , Male , Myositis , Walking
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 377-386, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Influenza continues to drive seasonal morbidity, particularly in settings with low vaccine coverage. Objectives: To describe the influenza cases and viral circulation among hospitalized patients. Methods: A prospective study based on active surveillance of inpatients with influenza-like illness from a tertiary hospital in Bucharest, Romania, in the season 2016/17. Results: A total of 446 patients were tested, with a balanced gender distribution. Overall, 192 (43%) patients tested positive for influenza, with the highest positivity rate in the age groups 3-13 years and >65 years. Peak activity occurred between weeks 1 and 16/2017, with biphasic distribution: A viruses were replaced by B viruses from week 9/2017; B viruses predominated (66.1%). Among the 133 (69.3%) subtyped samples, all influenza A were subtype H3 (n = 57) and all influenza B were B/Victoria (n = 76). Patients who tested positive for influenza presented fewer comorbidities (p = 0.012), except for the elderly, in whom influenza was more common in patients with comorbidities (p = 0.050). Disease evolution was generally favorable under antiviral treatment. The length of hospital stay was slightly longer in patients with influenza-like illness who tested patients negative for influenza (p = 0.031). Conclusions: Distinctive co-circulation of A/H3 and B/Victoria in Bucharest, Romania in the 2016/17 influenza season was found. While the A/H3 subtype was predominant throughout Europe that season, B/Victoria appears to have circulated specifically in Romania and the Eastern European region, predominantly affecting preschoolers and school children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Seasons , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Romania/epidemiology , Time Factors , Comorbidity , Population Surveillance , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Age Distribution , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
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