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1.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339975

ABSTRACT

Resumo A partir de contribuições teóricas do campo da história das ciências, o presente texto debate aspectos das etapas das pandemias entendidas como fenômeno social e como tem ocorrido o processo de interiorização da covid-19 na Amazônia. A chegada da doença aos vastos territórios da floresta tem deixado mais evidente o processo de acesso diferenciado à saúde pública, com concentração de serviços e profissionais nas maiores cidades da região Norte. O crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na floresta evidencia, portanto, as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania na sociedade brasileira.


Abstract This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Forests , Pandemics/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Indians, South American , Public Health/history , Cities , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission
2.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 879-883, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339963

ABSTRACT

Resumen El desarrollo de la pandemia de la covid-19 ha motivado un renovado interés por la gripe de 1918-1919 para buscar elementos que facilitaran la comprensión de la experiencia presente, pero también como oportunidad para reevaluar la grave crisis sanitaria del siglo XX a la luz de lo que estamos viviendo. En este contexto y con ese objetivo se inserta esta reflexión histórica sobre estos dos fenómenos pandémicos, que muestra los paralelismos existentes y la necesidad de una toma de conciencia de que nuestro modelo de sociedad está en crisis y se requiere una transformación profunda.


Abstract The rise of the covid-19 pandemic has led to renewed interest in the 1918-1919 influenza in search of aspects that might help us understand the current situation, but also as an opportunity to re-evaluate the serious twentieth-century health crisis in light of what we are experiencing now. In this context and with that goal, this historical reflection shows the parallels that exist and the need for a realization that our model of society is undergoing a crisis and requires profound transformation.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/history , Influenza Vaccines/history , Hygiene/history , Denial, Psychological , World War I , Economics , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/history , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Military Personnel/history
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 389-395, jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346474

ABSTRACT

Abstract Influenza infection is a latent public health problem, affecting millions of people throughout the world, which imposes high morbidity and economic burden on the region. In Argentina, influenza‐associ ated mortality is estimated at 6/100 000 person‐years, and is higher among men ≥ 65 years old. The knowledge of the baseline characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients is crucial for public health officials planning interventions to address local outbreaks. Thus, in this retrospective, single-center study, performed in a high-complexity university hospital, we aimed to analyze clinical characteristics, image findings, and laboratory variables of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization in our hospital during 2019. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. One hundred and forty-three patients with influenza were hospitalized during the study period; 141 (98.6%) were infected with influenza virus type A, including 88 (61.5%) with the H1N1 subtype. The median age was 71 years (IQR 60- 82), 111 (77.6%) were older than 70 years, and 126 (88.1%) had at least one coexisting illness; 56 (39.1%) patients required intensive care unit, 16 (11.1%) invasive mechanical ventilation, and 6 (4.1%) died during hospitalization. In this study, in-hospital mortality was similar to that reported in previous series of non-pandemic influenza, even though the majority of the cases in this study were older than 70 years and had at least one coexisting illness.


Resumen La influenza es un problema latente de salud pública que afecta a millones de personas en todo el planeta e impone una alta morbilidad y carga económica para la región. En Argentina, la mortalidad asociada a la influenza se estima en 6/100 000 personas-año y es mayor entre los hombres mayores de 65 años. El conocimiento de las características clínicas y la evolución de los pacientes hospitalizados es fundamental para planificar el abordaje de los brotes locales. En este estudio retrospectivo, realizado en un hospital universitario de alta complejidad, nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características clínicas, los hallazgos de imágenes y las variables de laboratorio en 143 pacientes con influenza confirmada por laboratorio que requirieron hospitalización durante 2019. Los casos fueron confirmados mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa en tiempo real. El 98.6% (n: 141) estaban infectados por influenza tipo A y 61.5% (n: 88) correspondía al subtipo H1N1. La mediana de edad fue 71 años (IQR 60-82), el 77.6% (n: 111) tenía más de 70 años y el 88.1% (n: 126) al menos una enfermedad coexistente. El 39.1% (n: 56) requirió internación en unidad de cuidados intensivos, el 11.1% (n: 16) ventilación mecánica invasiva y seis pacientes (4.1%) fallecieron durante la hospitalización. En este estudio, la mortalidad hospitalaria fue similar a la publicada en series previas de influenza no pandémica, aunque la mayoría de los pacientes eran mayores de 70 años y presentaban al menos una enfermedad coexistente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Argentina/epidemiology , Seasons , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(1): 307-311, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154310

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se comparan los escenarios que se generaron en las pandemias de gripe española de 1918-1919 y de covid-19 en Argentina. Se analizan las políticas gubernamentales y desequilibrios estructurales en esa pandemia tomando como casos la ciudad de Buenos Aires y la provincia de Salta. Posteriormente se estudian los mismos tópicos para la pandemia de covid-19. Se describen las políticas nacionales y se analiza la provincia de Jujuy donde el sistema de salud se saturó. Se concluye que a fin de administrar la pandemia es necesario la elaboración de políticas de consenso y solución de los desequilibrios estructurales del país.


Abstract This article compares the scenarios generated in the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-1919 and covid-19 in Argentina. It analyzes governmental policies and structural imbalances in the earlier pandemic based on case studies of the city of Buenos Aires and the province of Salta. It then studies those same topics for the covid-19 pandemic. It describes national policies and analyzes the province of Jujuy, where the health care system was overwhelmed. It concludes that in order to manage the pandemic it is necessary to create consensus policies to solve the structural imbalanaces in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of children with influenza A virus infection and neurological symptoms.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza A and neurological symptoms who were treated in Xi'an Children's Hospital Affiliated to Xi'an Jiaotong University from January to December, 2019.@*RESULTS@#A total of 895 children were diagnosed with influenza A, among whom 291 had neurological symptoms. Boys had a significantly higher incidence rate of influenza A than girls (@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a high incidence rate of neurological symptoms in children with influenza A, and seizures are the most common symptom. Most of the patients with neurological symptoms tend to have a good prognosis, but those with ANE may have a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5830, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with non-vaccination against influenza in the risk group. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study, carried out in the city of Rio Grande (RS). The outcome was defined as belonging to risk groups and not having been vaccinated in the last 12 months. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral variables, and access for health services were analyzed. Results In this study, 680 individuals participated. The prevalence was 46.0% (95%CI: 41.8-50.3), ranging from 27.9% (elderly) to 81.8% (pregnant women). Young adults, single, intermediate socioeconomic bracket, smoker, with depressive symptoms, who did not perform physical activity and did not consult a physician in the last year, had a higher prevalence of non-vaccination. Conclusion Half of the sample was not vaccinated in the period. Due to the similarity of influenza-like illness and the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), increasing vaccination would minimize mortality and use of hospital beds due to influenza, optimizing the response of hospital capacity.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a prevalência e os fatores associados à não vacinação contra influenza em grupos de risco. Métodos Estudo transversal, de base populacional, realizado em Rio Grande (RS). O desfecho foi definido como pertencer aos grupos de risco e não ter se vacinado nos últimos 12 meses. Foram analisadas variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais e de acesso a serviços de saúde. Resultados Participaram 680 indivíduos. A prevalência foi de 46,0% (IC95%: 41,8-50,3), variando de 27,9% (idosos) a 81,8% (gestantes). Adultos jovens, solteiros, de nível econômico intermediário, tabagistas, com sintomas depressivos, que não praticavam atividade física e não consultaram um médico no último ano tiveram maior prevalência de não vacinação. Conclusão Metade da amostra não foi vacinada no período. Pela semelhança da síndrome gripal com a doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), aumentar a vacinação minimizaria a mortalidade e a utilização de leitos hospitalares devido à influenza, otimizando a resposta da capacidade hospitalar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Aged , Young Adult , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; nov. 10, 2020. 39 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128699

ABSTRACT

North America: Influenza activity remained lowin the subregion. In Canada, the United States, and in Mexico, SARS-CoV2 activity continued elevated. Caribbean: Influenza and other respiratory virus activity remained low in the subregion. In Haiti, SARI activity continued at epidemic levels. Central America: Influenza and other respiratory virus activity remained low in the subregion. In Costa Rica, SARI activity associated to SARS-CoV-2 continued elevated but decreasing. In Honduras, SARI activity continued at epidemic levels and decreasing. Andean: Influenza and other respiratory virus activity remained low in the sub-region. In Ecuador, SARI activity continued at moderate levels. Br azil and Southern Cone: Influenza and other respiratory virus activity remained low in the subregion. In Argentina, and Paraguay, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued elevated. Global: In the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity remained below inter-seasonal levels, though sporadic influenza detections were reported in some countries. In the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, no influenza detections were reported across countries. In tropical Africa, influenza activity was reported in West Africa in Côte d'Ivoire and Niger, and in East Africa in Kenya. In Southern Asia, influenza activity of predominately influenza A(H3N2) was reported in Bangladesh and India in recent weeks. In South East Asia, influenza detections continued to be reported in Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic.Worldwide, of the very low numbers of detections reported, seasonal influenza A(H3N2) viruses accounted for the majority of detections.


América del Norte: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja en la subregión. En Canadá, Estados Unidos y México, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó elevada. Caribe: la actividad de la influenza y otros virus respiratorios se mantuvo baja en la subregión. En Haití, la actividad de la IRAG continuó en niveles epidémicos. América Central:la actividad de la influenza y otros virus respiratorios se mantuvo baja en la subregión. En Costa Rica, la actividad de la IRAG asociada con SARS-CoV-2 continuaron elevadas pero en disminución. En Honduras, la actividad de la IRAG continuó en niveles epidémicos y en disminución. Andina:la actividad de la influenza y otros virus respiratorios se mantuvo baja en la subregión. En Ecuador, la actividad de la IRAG continuó en niveles moderados. Br asil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza y otros virus respiratorios se mantuvo baja en la subregión. En Argentina y en Paraguay, la actividad de SARS-CoV-2continuó elevada. Global: en la zona templada del hemisferio norte, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo por debajo de los niveles entre estaciones, aunque se informaron detecciones esporádicas de influenza en algunos países. En las zonas templadas del hemisferio sur, no se informaron detecciones de influenza en todos los países. En África tropical, se notificó actividad de influenza en África occidental en Costa de Marfil y Níger, y en África oriental en Kenia. En el sur de Asia, se informó actividad de influenza predominantemente influenza A(H3N2) en Bangladés e India en las últimas semanas. En el sudeste asiático, continuaron las notificaciones de detecciones de influenza en Camboya y la República Democrática Popular Lao . En todo el mundo, del muy bajo número de detecciones notificadas, los virus de la influenza estacional A (H3N2) representaron la mayoría de las detecciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Americas/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 322-325, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139703

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of non-vaccination against influenza among Brazilian older adults with systemic arterial hypertension and determine the main reasons for non-adherence. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from older adults (≥ 60 years of age) with hypertension who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey and reported not having been vaccinated against flu over the previous 12 months (n = 1,295). The analyses were performed using the Stata 14.0 software. The data were weighted because of the sampling design. An estimated 3,026,080 older adults with hypertension had not received a flu vaccine over the 12 months prior to the survey (22.6%). No significant associations were found with sex, age group or schooling. The prevalence of unvaccinated older adults was lower in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil than in the northern and northeastern regions, even after adjusting for age. The prevalence was higher among individuals without private health insurance. The main reasons for non-vaccination were fear of a reaction, rarely having the flu and not believing in the protection of the vaccine. The present findings underscore the need for healthcare professionals to explain to the population the benefits of the vaccine for preventing severe influenza (protective effect and possible reactions) and for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Increasing the prevalence of vaccination in older adults with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases is of fundamental importance within the realm of public health as a strategy for reducing occurrences of complications and deaths associated with influenza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Hypertension/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination/psychology , Influenza, Human/psychology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(2): 391-409, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134063

ABSTRACT

Resumen El artículo explora el pensamiento médico en torno al impacto de la pandemia de influenza de 1918 en México. Se analizan las ideas científicas sobre la etiología de la gripe, las cuales se reflejaron en el tipo de remedios y recetas médicas que se publicaron en la prensa y en boletines de salud. Para adentrarse en este tema profundizamos en el contexto histórico internacional dominado por la guerra. En México, años de conflictos armados a consecuencia de la Revolución agravaron las condiciones de vida de la población: hambre, tifo, viruela y otros padecimientos infecciosos se presentaron antes y durante el brote de la pandemia. El trabajo se apoya en documentación de archivo, boletines de salud, prensa de la época y bibliografía actualizada.


Abstract This article explores medical thought on the impact of the influenza pandemic of 1918 in Mexico. It analyzes scientific ideas on the etiology of the flu, as reflected in the types of remedies and medical prescriptions published in the press and in health bulletins. It then goes deeper into the topic by examining the international historic context, dominated by the war. In Mexico, years of armed conflict unleashed by the Revolution exacerbated living conditions among the population: starvation, typhus, smallpox and other infectious diseases were present before and during the outbreak of the pandemic. This study is based on archival documentation, health bulletins, press sources from the period, and modern bibliography.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , World War I , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Propaganda , Armed Conflicts/history , Influenza, Human/therapy , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Europe/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
10.
Bogotá; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; Jun. 30, 2020. 35 p.
Non-conventional in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102409

ABSTRACT

Los datos actuales de vigilancia de la influenza deben interpretarse con cautela ya que la pandemia de COVID-19 en curso podría haber influido en diferentes grados las conductas de búsqueda de salud, personal /rutinas en sitios centinela, así como las capacidades de prueba en los Estados Miembros. Las diversas medidas de distanciamiento social y físico implementadas por los Estados miembros para reducir la transmisión del virus SARS-CoV2 también podrían haber desempeñado un papel en la interrupción de la transmisión del virus de la influenza.


The current influenza surveillance data should be interpreted with caution as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may have influenced, to differing extents, health seeking behaviors, staffing/routines in sentinel sites, and testing capacities in Member States. The various social and physical distancing measures implemented by Member States to reduce SARS-CoV2 virus transmission may also have played a role in interrupting influenza virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , SARS Virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Betacoronavirus , Americas/epidemiology
11.
s.l; s.n; 3 abr. 2020. ilus.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1096732

ABSTRACT

Em 20 de março de 2020, foi declarado que a transmissão do novo coronavírus passou a ser considerada comunitária em todo o território nacional. Com isso, a Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde do Ministério da Saúde (SVS/MS) realizou a adaptação do Sistema de Vigilância de Síndromes Respiratórias Agudas, visando orientar o Sistema Nacional de Vigilância em Saúde para a circulação simultânea do coronavírus, influenza e outros vírus respiratórios no âmbito da Emergência de Saúde Pública de Importância Nacional. O Sistema de Vigilância de Síndromes Respiratórias Agudas foi criado em 2000 para realizar o monitoramento do vírus influenza a partir da Vigilância Sentinela de Síndromes Gripais (SG). Em 2009, após a pandemia de influenza pelo vírus H1N1, foi incorporada a Vigilância Universal de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave (SRAG). Essa adaptação é temporária e visa garantir a manutenção do sistema de vigilância de influenza e compreender o impacto que a Doença pelo Coronavírus 2019 terá sobre o Sistema Único de Saúde. Ainda não é possível afirmar se o coronavírus permanecerá endêmico ou se desaparecerá após a pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Brazil
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 73-80, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089322

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Influenza is an important cause of morbimortality worldwide. Although people at the extremes of age have a greater risk of complications, influenza has been more frequently investigated in the elderly than in children, and inpatients than outpatients. Yearly vaccination with trivalent or quadrivalent vaccines is the main strategy to control influenza. Objectives Determine the clinical and molecular characteristics of influenza A and B infections in children and adolescents with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods: A cohort of outpatient children and adolescents with ILI was followed for 20 months. Influenza was diagnosed with commercial multiplex PCR platforms. Results: 179 patients had 277 episodes of ILI, being 79 episodes of influenza A and 20 episodes of influenza B. Influenza A and B cases were mild and had similar presentation. Phylogenetic tree of influenza B viruses showed that 91.6% belonged to the B/Yamagata lineage, which is not included in trivalent vaccines. Conclusions: Influenza A and B are often detected in children and adolescents with ILI episodes, with similar and mild presentation in outpatients. The mismatch between the circulating influenza viruses and the trivalent vaccine offered in Brazil may have contributed to the high frequency of influenza A and B in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Young Adult , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/virology , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
13.
Brasília; Brasil. Ministério da Saúde; 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1087250

ABSTRACT

As mais diversas pandemias passadas deixaram um legado na história com um número significativo de óbitos e de pessoas enfermas. Essa experiência é capaz de mostrar a necessidade de elaboração de Planos de Preparação para Enfrentamento de Pandemias, flexíveis e capazes de dar resposta que o problema requer. Assim, o propósito desta revisão é proporcionar informações relativas a preparação e respostas antes, durante e depois de uma pandemia de influenza, cumprir seu papel na organização do Sistema Único de Saúde, além de servir como guia aos gestores das unidades federadas, subsidiando-os na estratégia para enfrentamento de situações de emergência. O plano contém diretrizes gerais que são essenciais à ação dos serviços de saúde. O processo e as respostas a uma possível pandemia de influenza devem ser mais importantes que os detalhes específicos que podem ser inaplicáveis a uma nova situação. De acordo com essa afirmativa é que procuramos apresentar um plano conciso com a certeza de que uma ameaça ou uma pandemia de influenza aumenta o nível de exigência de necessidade de uma ação integrada. Pelo caráter genérico, o Plano Nacional apresenta orientações gerais necessárias à intervenção não só do setor saúde e específicas, face a uma situação de emergência. A conseqüência, a conveniência e as respostas específicas devem ser continuamente revisadas e atualizadas. De modo geral, o Plano reúne as diretrizes de acordo com os períodos e fases e os planos específicos por área, contendo as medidas e os procedimentos que devem ser adotados, encontram-se anexos sob forma de links.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthomyxoviridae , Disease Outbreaks , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Environmental Health Surveillance , Brazil/epidemiology , Sanitary Control of Airports and Aircrafts , Sanitary Control of Harbors and Crafts , Sanitary Control of Borders , Health Communication/methods
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(4): e00070120, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100945

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A vigilância de síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) no Brasil visa a caracterizar a circulação dos vírus Influenza A e B em casos hospitalizados e óbitos, tendo sido ampliada em 2012 para incluir outros vírus respiratórios. A COVID-19 foi detectada no Brasil pela primeira vez na 9ª semana epidemiológica de 2020 e o teste para o vírus SARS-CoV-2 foi incluído no protocolo de vigilância a partir da 12ª semana epidemiológica. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o padrão de hospitalizações por SRAG no país após a entrada do SARS-CoV-2, comparando o perfil temporal, etário e de resultados laboratoriais com os anos de 2010 a 2019. Em 2020, a hospitalização por SRAG, contabilizada desde a data do primeiro caso de COVID-19 confirmado até a 12ª semana, superou o observado, no mesmo período, em cada um dos 10 anos anteriores. A faixa etária acima de 60 anos foi a mais acometida, em nível acima do histórico. Houve um aumento considerável de testes laboratoriais negativos, sugerindo a circulação de um vírus diferente dos presentes no painel. Concluímos que o aumento das hospitalizações por SRAG, a falta de informação específica sobre o agente etiológico e a predominância de casos entre idosos, no mesmo período de tempo em que cresce o número de casos novos de COVID-19, é coerente com a hipótese de que os casos graves da doença já estejam sendo detectados pela vigilância de SRAG com sobrecarga para o sistema de saúde. A inclusão da testagem para SARS-CoV-2 no protocolo de vigilância de SRAG e sua efetiva implementação são de grande importância para acompanhar a evolução dos casos graves da doença no país.


Resumen: La vigilancia del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SRAG) en Brasil tiene como objetivo caracterizar la circulación de los virus de la Influenza A y B en casos y muertes hospitalizadas, y se expandió en 2012 para incluir otros virus respiratorios. La COVID-19 se detectó en Brasil por la primera vez en la 9ª semana epidemiológica de 2020, y el examen test para el virus SARS-CoV-2 se incluyó en el protocolo de vigilancia a partir de la 12ª semana epidemiológica. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el patrón de hospitalizaciones por SRAG en Brasil desde la entrada de SARS-CoV-2, comparando el perfil temporal y de edad y los resultados de laboratorio entre los años 2010 a 2019. En 2020, las hospitalizaciones por SRAG, compiladas a partir de la fecha del primer caso confirmado de COVID-19 hasta la 12ª semana, excedió los números observados durante el mismo período en cada uno de los 10 años anteriores. El grupo de edad mayor de 60 años fue el más afectado, a niveles superiores a los históricos. Hubo un aumento considerable en las pruebas de laboratorio negativas, lo que sugiere la circulación de un virus diferente de los que ya están presentes en el panel. Se concluye que el aumento de las hospitalizaciones por SRAG, la falta de información específica sobre el agente etiológico y el predominio de casos entre los ancianos en el mismo período en que hubo un aumento de casos nuevos de COVID-19 se entiende que con esta hipótesis de que los casos graves de COVID-19 ya estén siendo monitorados por la vigilancia de SRAG, lo que genera una sobrecarga en el sistema de salud. La inclusión de los exámenes para SARS-CoV-2 en el protocolo de vigilancia de SRAG y la eficacia de implementación son de grande importancia para monitorear la evolución de los casos graves de COVID-19 en Brasil.


Abstract: Surveillance of the severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in Brazil aims to characterize the circulation of the Influenza A and B viruses in hospitalized cases and deaths, having been expanded in 2012 to include other respiratory viruses. COVID-19 was detected in Brazil for the time in the 9th epidemiological week of 2020, and the test for the SARS-CoV-2 virus was included in the surveillance protocol starting in the 12th epidemiological week. This study's objective was to investigate the pattern of hospitalizations for SARI in Brazil since the entry of SARS-CoV-2, comparing the temporal and age profiles and laboratory results to the years 2010 through 2019. In 2020, hospitalizations for SARI, compiled from the date of the first confirmed case of COVID-19 up to the 12th week, exceeded the numbers observed during the same period in each of the previous 10 years. The age bracket over 60 years was the most heavily affected, at higher than historical levels. There was a considerable increase in negative laboratory tests, suggesting circulation of a different virus from those already present in the panel. We concluded that the increase in hospitalizations for SARI, the lack of specific information on the etiological agent, and the predominance of cases among the elderly during the same period in which there was an increase in the number of new cases of COVID-19 are all consistent with the hypothesis that severe cases of COVID-19 are already being detected by SARI surveillance, placing an overload on the health system. The inclusion of testing for SARS-CoV-2 in the SARI surveillance protocol and the test's effective nationwide deployment are extremely important for monitoring the evolution of severe COVID-19 cases in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(7): e00149420, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124312

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo tem o objetivo de descrever os pacientes hospitalizados por síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) em decorrência da COVID-19 (SRAG-COVID), no Brasil, quanto às suas características demográficas e comorbidades até a 21ª Semana Epidemiológica de 2020. Buscou-se comparar essas características com as dos hospitalizados por SRAG em decorrência da influenza em 2019/2020 (SRAG-FLU) e com a população geral brasileira. As frequências relativas das características demográficas, comorbidades e de gestantes/puérperas entre os pacientes hospitalizados por SRAG-COVID e SRAG-FLU foram obtidas por meio do Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe (SIVEP-Gripe), e as estimativas para a população geral brasileira foram obtidas por meio de projeções populacionais realizadas pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos e de pesquisas de âmbito nacional. Entre os hospitalizados por SRAG-COVID, observou-se uma elevada proporção, em relação ao perfil da população geral brasileira, de indivíduos do sexo masculino, idosos ou com 40 a 59 anos, com comorbidades (diabetes mellitus, doença cardiovascular, doença renal crônica e pneumopatias crônicas) e de gestantes/puérperas. Já entre os hospitalizados por SRAG-FLU, observou-se prevalências superiores às populacionais de indivíduos de 0 a 4 anos de idade ou idosos, de raça ou cor branca, com comorbidades (diabetes mellitus, doença renal crônica, asma e outras pneumopatias crônicas) e de gestantes/puérperas. Esses grupos podem estar evoluindo para casos mais graves da doença, de forma que estudos longitudinais na área são de extrema relevância para investigar esta hipótese e melhor subsidiar políticas públicas de saúde.


El objetivo del presente estudio es describir a los pacientes hospitalizados por infección respiratoria aguda grave (IRAG) a consecuencia de la COVID-19 (IRAG-COVID), en Brasil, respecto a sus características demográficas y comorbilidades hasta la 21ª Semana Epidemiológica de 2020. Se buscó comparar estas características con las de los hospitalizados por SRAS, a consecuencia de la influenza en 2019/2020 (IRAG-FLU) y con la población general brasileña. Las frecuencias relativas de las características demográficas, comorbilidades y de embarazadas/puérperas entre los pacientes hospitalizados por IRAG-COVID y IRAG-FLU se obtuvieron mediante el Sistema de Información de la Vigilancia Epidemiológica de la Gripe (SIVEP-Gripe), y las estimaciones para la población general brasileña se consiguieron mediante proyecciones poblacionales realizadas por el Instituto Brasileño de Geografía e Estadística, datos del Sistema de Informaciones sobre Nascidos Vivos y de investigaciones de ámbito nacional. Entre los hospitalizados por IRAG-COVID, se observó una elevada proporción, respecto al perfil de la población general brasileña, de individuos del sexo masculino, ancianos o con 40 a 59 años, con comorbilidades (diabetes mellitus, enfermedad cardiovascular, enfermedad renal crónica y neumopatías crónicas) y de embarazadas/puérperas. Ya entre los hospitalizados por IRAG-FLU, se observaron prevalencias superiores a las poblacionales de individuos de 0 a 4 años de edad o ancianos, de raza o color blanco, con comorbilidades (diabetes mellitus, enfermedad renal crónica, asma y otras neumopatías crónicas) y de embarazadas/puérperas. Estos grupos pueden estar evolucionando hacia casos más graves de la enfermedad, por ello, los estudios longitudinales en esta área son de extrema relevancia para investigar esta hipótesis y apoyar mejor las políticas públicas de salud.


The study aims to describe patients hospitalized for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) due to COVID-19 (SARI-COVID) in Brazil according to demographic characteristics and comorbidities up to the 21st Epidemiological Week of 2020. The study aimed to compare these characteristics with those of patients hospitalized for SARI due to influenza in 2019/2020 (SARI-FLU) and with the Brazilian general population. The proportions of demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and pregnant and postpartum women among patients hospitalized for SARI-COVID and SARI-FLU were obtained from the SIVEP-Gripe database, and the estimates for the Brazilian population were obtained from the population projections performed by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Information System on Live Birth data, and nationwide surveys. Compared to the Brazilian population, patients hospitalized for SARI-COVID showed a higher proportion of males, elderly individuals and those aged 40 to 59 years, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and chronic lung diseases), and pregnant/postpartum women. Compared to the general population, Brazilians hospitalized for SARI-FLU showed higher prevalence rates of ages 0 to 4 years or over 60 years, white race/color, comorbidities (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, asthma, and other chronic lung diseases), and pregnant/postpartum women. The data suggest that these groups are evolving to more serious forms of the disease, so that longitudinal studies are extremely relevant for investigating this hypothesis and supporting appropriate public health policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Demography , Prevalence , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/complications , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Middle Aged
16.
Clinics ; 75: e2273, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies focusing on pediatric patients hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been limited to small case series. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of a large population of pediatric patients with severe COVID-19 and compare them with patients with severe cases of influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORV). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of Brazilian data from the National Epidemiological Surveillance Information System, gathered from January 1st to July 14th, 2020. The sample included 4,784 patients (2,570 with confirmed COVID-19, 659 with influenza, 1,555 with ORV). Outcome measures included clinical features, preexisting comorbidities, pediatric intensive care unit admissions, need for ventilatory support, and death. RESULTS: Compared with the influenza and ORV groups, the COVID-19 group had a higher proportion of newborns and adolescents, as well as lower frequencies of fever, cough, dyspnea, respiratory distress, and desaturation. Although use of invasive ventilatory support was similar among groups, death rate was highest for COVID-19 (15.2% vs. 4.5% vs. 3.2%, p<0.001), with death risk more than three times the other groups (adjusted OR=3.7 [95% CI 2.5-5.6]). The presence of two or more comorbidities further increased this risk (OR=4.8 [95% CI 3.5-6.6]). Preexisting comorbidities were reported in 986 patients with severe COVID-19 (38%). Mortality rate among COVID-19 patients was significantly higher for almost all comorbidities reported. CONCLUSION: Severe COVID-19 had a higher mortality rate than other viral respiratory illnesses, despite the lower frequency of fever, cough, dyspnea, respiratory distress, and desaturation. Death risk was strongly associated with preexisting comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20170498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057294

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We report the results of the active surveillance of influenza infections in hospitalized patients and the evaluation of the seasonality and correlation with temperature and rainfall data. METHODS: During the 2-year study period, 775 patients were tested for 15 respiratory viruses (RVs). RESULTS: Most of the 57% of (n=444) virus-positive samples were human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. However, 10.4% (n=46) were influenza virus (80% FluA; 20% FluB). Age and SARI were significantly associated with influenza. FluB circulation was higher is 2013. CONCLUSIONS: In the post-epidemic period, influenza remains an important cause of hospitalization in SARI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , Hospitalization , Middle Aged
18.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(3): e2020066, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101146

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar os atributos do sistema de vigilância da síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) no Brasil, no período 2014-2016. Métodos: estudo de avaliação segundo o guia do Centro de Controle de Doenças (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC) dos Estados Unidos; utilizaram-se dados do sistema de informação Influenza Web, notificados entre 2014 e 2016; avaliaram-se os atributos simplicidade, completude, inconsistência, oportunidade, aceitabilidade, representatividade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) da definição de caso de SRAG e utilidade. Resultados: observou-se estrutura simples; boa completude (100% nas variáveis obrigatórias; >95% nas não obrigatórias); baixa inconsistência (3,2%); não oportunidade (68,2%); aceitabilidade baixa (média de 70,4%); representatividade do território (capaz de análises de grupos de risco); alto VPP (29,1%); e utilidade (por cumprir objetivos do sistema). Conclusão: os atributos avaliados indicam que o sistema é capaz de fornecer informações completas, representativas e úteis sobre influenza, adequadas para balizar respostas do sistema de saúde.


Objetivo: evaluar los atributos del sistema del sistema de vigilancia del Síndrome Agudo Respiratorio Severo (SARS) en Brasil, entre 2014-2016. Método: estudio de evaluación según la guía del Centro para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC) dos Estados Unidos. Se utilizaron datos del sistema de información Influenza Web, notificados entre 2014-2016. Se evaluaron los atributos simplicidad, completitud, inconsistencia, oportunidad, aceptabilidad, representatividad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) de definición de caso de SARS y utilidad. Resultados: se observó estructura simple; buena completitud (100% en variables obligatorias; >95% en variables no obligatorias); baja inconsistencia (3.2%); no oportunidad (68,2%); baja aceptabilidad (promedio de 70.4%); representatividad de territorio (capaz de analizar grupos de riesgo); VPP alto (29.1%); y utilidad (por cumplir los objetivos del sistema). Conclusión: los atributos evaluados indican que el sistema es capaz de suministrar informaciones completas, representativas y útiles sobre la influenza en Brasil, adecuadas para orientar respuestas del sistema de salud.


Objective: to evaluate attributes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) surveillance system in Brazil, 2014-2016. Method: this was an evaluation study conducted according to United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Data from the Influenza Web information system notified for the period 2014-2016 were used. The simplicity, completeness, inconsistency, timeliness, acceptability, representativeness, positive predictive value (PPV) of the SARS case definition attributes and usefulness were evaluated. Results: a simple structure was found with good completeness (100% for required variables; >95% for optional variables); low inconsistency (3.2%); lack of timeliness (68.2%); low acceptability (average of 70.4%); representative of the territory (capable of analyzing risk groups); high PPV (29.1%); useful (fulfils system objectives). Conclusion: the attributes evaluated indicate that the system is capable of providing complete, representative and useful information about influenza, adequate for guiding national health responses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Surveillance Services , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Program Evaluation , Evaluation Study
19.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 27: :e40236, jan.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1024524

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: apresentar narrativa dos acontecimentos históricos sobre a epidemia de Influenza e suas interfaces com a saúde pública e enfermagem. Conteúdo: destaca-se a cultura, e os modos de ver a história ao longo dos anos para compreensão do comportamento epidemiológico da Influenza no Brasil, suas epidemias e o que se apreendeu e construiu após 100 anos cuidando e estudando sobre este agravo durante as epidemias que ocorreram no Brasil. Conclusão: entender que a imunização é a estratégia mais eficaz no controle de doenças transmissíveis e, no caso da Influenza, como imunobiológico potente, deve ser o legado apreendido das grandes epidemias deste agravo, mas também, a vigilância e educação em saúde das populações para tal, principalmente com foco nos movimentos antivacinas.


Objective: to present a narrative of historical events regarding the influenza epidemic and its interfaces with public health and nursing. Content: the study highlights culture and ways of seeing history over the years, in order to understand the epidemiological behavior of influenza in Brazil, its epidemics, and what has been learned and built after 100 years' caring for and studying this condition during epidemics that occurred in Brazil. Conclusion: immunization is the most effective strategy for controlling communicable diseases and, in the case of Influenza, is a powerful immunobiological resource. This should be the legacy learned from the major epidemics of this disease, as well as health surveillance and education of the public for the same purpose, with a special focus on anti-vaccine movements.


Objetivo: presentar narrativa de los sucesos históricos sobre la epidemia de Influenza y sus interfaces con la salud pública y la enfermería. Contenido: se destacan la cultura y los modos de ver la historia a lo largo de los años, para comprender el comportamiento epidemiológico de la Influenza en Brasil, sus epidemias y lo que se aprendió y construyó después de 100 años cuidando y estudiando sobre este agravio durante las epidemias que ocurrieron en Brasil. Conclusión: entender que la inmunización es la estrategia más eficaz en el control de enfermedades transmisibles y, en el caso de la Influenza, como inmunobiológico potente, ese debe ser el legado comprendido de las grandes epidemias. Asimismo, se debe llevar en cuenta la vigilancia y la educación en salud de las poblaciones, principalmente con foco en los movimientos antivacunas.


Subject(s)
Brazil , Public Health , Immunization , Influenza, Human/history , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Epidemics/history , Nursing , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/blood
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 274-282, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013784

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introduccion: Las infecciones asociadas a atencion de salud (IAAS) aumentan la morbilidad y mortalidad. Durante 2014, en Hospital Clinico Red de Salud UC Christus (RS-UCCH) se estimo que 15% de las infecciones virales respiratorias fueron adquiridas durante la atencion de salud, siendo mas frecuente el virus influenza. Objetivos: Caracterizacion clinico-epidemiologica de IAAS por influenza en pacientes hospitalizados en unidades de pacientes criticos (UPC) y cuidados especiales. Material y Metodos: Estudio descriptivo. Se incluyeron pacientes en UPC y cuidados especiales con IAAS influenza entre 2014 y 2017 en RS-UCCH. IAAS por influenza se definio como: inicio de sintomas y/o RPC-TR positiva para virus influenza ≥ 48 h de ingreso hospitalario, sin sintomatologia respiratoria o estudio negativo previo. Resultados: Se identificaron 22 pacientes, edad mediana 74 anos. La influenza fue adquirida en promedio al dia 13; el 77% fue por influenza A y el 27% presento coinfeccion respiratoria. Trece (59%) estaban hospitalizados en UPC, dos (15%) por problemas pulmonares. El 86% tenia co-morbilidad y el 50% descompensacion de ella. No estaba vacunado 59%; la letalidad observada fue 18%. Conclusiones: IAAS por influenza ocurrio en pacientes cronicos, de mayor edad y no vacunados. Es primordial educar en prevencion de IAAS y mantener altas coberturas de vacunacion.


Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) increase morbidity and mortality. During 2014, at the Hospital Clinico Red de Salud UC Christus (RS-UCCH) it was estimated that 15% of respiratory viral infections were acquired during hospitalization and influenza A was more frequent. Aims: Clinical and epidemiological characterization of HAIs due to influenza virus in patients hospitalized in critical care units (CCU) and special care. Methods: Descriptive study. We included patients hospitalized in CCU and special care with hospital acquired influenza during 2014-2017. HAI due to influenza was defined as: symptom onset and/or positive influenza PCR after ≥ 48 hours of hospital admission, without previous respiratory symptoms or previous negative influenza test study. Results: 22 patients were identified, median age was 74 years. Influenza was acquired average on day 13. Influenza A was detected in 77% and 27% had respiratory co-infection. Thirteen (59%) were hospitalized in CCU, only 2 (15%) due to lung problems. Comorbidity was present in 86% and decompensation in 50%. Only 41% received influenza vaccine. The associated lethality was 18%. Conclusions: HAI due to influenza occurred in chronic, older and unvaccinated patients. Education about HAIs and continuous high vaccination coverage must be reinforced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Vaccines , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Age Factors , Critical Care , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
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