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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(3): e00045721, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364632

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a severe, vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination programs across Latin American countries show contrasting coverage rates, from 29% in Paraguay to 89% in Brazil. This study explores how national influenza vaccination programs in the chosen South American countries address vaccine confidence and convenience, as well as complacency toward the disease. Barriers and facilitators to influenza vaccination programs in their relation to vaccine hesitancy were observed by documentary analysis and interviews with 38 national immunization program officers in high- (Brazil and Chile) and low-performing (Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay) countries. Influenza vaccination policies, financing, purchasing, coordination, and accessibility are considered good or acceptable. National communication strategies focus on vaccine availability during campaigns. In Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, anti-vaccine propaganda was mentioned as a problem. Programming and implementation face human resource shortages across most countries. Statistical information, health information systems, and nominal risk-group records are available, with limitations in Peru and Paraguay. Health promotion, supervision, monitoring, and evaluation are perceived as opportunities to address confidence and complacency. Influenza vaccination programs identify and act on most barriers and facilitators affecting influenza vaccine hesitancy via supply-side strategies which mostly address vaccine convenience. Confidence and complacency are insufficiently addressed, except for Uruguay. Programs have the opportunity to develop integral supply and demand-side approaches.


La gripe es una enfermedad grave, prevenible mediante vacunas con sus correspondientes programas en países latinoamericanos, informando sobre tasas contrastadas de cobertura, desde el 29% en Paraguay al 89% en Brasil. Este artículo investiga cómo los programas nacionales contra la gripe en países seleccionados de Suramérica abordan la confianza en la vacuna y su conveniencia, así como también la complacencia hacia la enfermedad. Las barreras y facilitadores del programa de vacunación de la gripe, en su relación con la vacilación hacia la vacuna, se observaron mediante análisis documental y entrevistas a 38 a cargo de los programas nacionales de inmunización en países con alto (Brasil y Chile) y bajo desempeño (Paraguay, Perú y Uruguay). Políticas de vacunación contra la gripe, financiamiento, compras coordinación y accesibilidad fueron consideradas como buenas o aceptables. Las estrategias nacionales de comunicación se centran en la disponibilidad de la vacuna durante las campañas. En Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay la propaganda antivacunas fue mencionada como un problema. La planificación e implementación enfrentan escasez de recursos humanos en la mayoría de países a través de la mayoría de países. Los sistemas de información en salud, estadísticas y registros nominales por grupos de riesgo se encuentran disponibles con limitaciones en Perú y Paraguay. La promoción de la salud, supervisión, monitoreo y evaluación son percibidos como oportunidades para abordar la confianza y complacencia. Los programas de vacunación contra la gripe actúan principalmente sobre las barreras y facilitadores que afectan la vacilación a vacunarse mediante estrategias del lado de la demanda, las cuales en su mayor parte van dirigidas a contrarestar la conveniencia. La confianza y complacencia son insuficientemente abordadas en todos los países, excepto en Uruguay. Los programas tienen la oportunidad de desarrollar estrategias que aborden tanto el lado de la oferta como de la demanda.


A influenza é uma doença grave, imunoprevenível, para a qual os programas de vacinação nos países latino-americanos apresentam taxas de cobertura contrastantes, desde 29% no Paraguai até 89% no Brasil. O artigo explora de que maneira os programas nacionais de influenza em países selecionados da América do Sul lidam com a confiança e a conveniência da vacina, assim como, a acomodação em relação à doença. As barreiras e facilitadores dos programas de vacinação contra influenza foram observados em relação à hesitação vacinal, através de análise documental e entrevistas com 38 autoridades de programas nacionais de imunização em países com desempenho alto (Brasil e Chile) e baixo (Paraguai, Peru e Uruguai). As políticas de vacinação contra influenza, financiamento da compra de vacinas, coordenação e acessibilidade são consideradas boas ou aceitáveis. As estratégias nacionais de comunicação estão concentradas na disponibilidade durante campanhas. No Chile, Paraguai e Uruguay, a propaganda antivacina foi mencionada enquanto problema. A programação e a implementação enfrentam escassez de recursos humanos na maioria dos países. Dados estatísticos, sistemas de informação em saúde e registros nominais de grupos de risco estão disponíveis, com limitações no Peru e no Paraguai. A promoção da saúde, supervisão, monitoramento e avaliação foram percebidas como oportunidades para tratar da confiança e da acomodação. Os programas de vacinação contra influenza identificam e agem sobre a maioria das barreiras e facilitadores que afetam a hesitação vacinal através de estratégias do lado da oferta, tratando principalmente da conveniência da vacina. A confiança e a acomodação não são tratadas de maneira suficiente, com exceção notável do Uruguai. Os programas têm a oportunidade de desenvolver abordagens que integram os lados da oferta e da procura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Brazil , Vaccination , Immunization Programs
2.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 879-883, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339963

ABSTRACT

Resumen El desarrollo de la pandemia de la covid-19 ha motivado un renovado interés por la gripe de 1918-1919 para buscar elementos que facilitaran la comprensión de la experiencia presente, pero también como oportunidad para reevaluar la grave crisis sanitaria del siglo XX a la luz de lo que estamos viviendo. En este contexto y con ese objetivo se inserta esta reflexión histórica sobre estos dos fenómenos pandémicos, que muestra los paralelismos existentes y la necesidad de una toma de conciencia de que nuestro modelo de sociedad está en crisis y se requiere una transformación profunda.


Abstract The rise of the covid-19 pandemic has led to renewed interest in the 1918-1919 influenza in search of aspects that might help us understand the current situation, but also as an opportunity to re-evaluate the serious twentieth-century health crisis in light of what we are experiencing now. In this context and with that goal, this historical reflection shows the parallels that exist and the need for a realization that our model of society is undergoing a crisis and requires profound transformation.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/history , Influenza Vaccines/history , Hygiene/history , Denial, Psychological , World War I , Economics , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/history , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Military Personnel/history
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(8): 2937-2947, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285946

ABSTRACT

Resumo Imunizações de rotina durante pandemias podem ser prejudicadas. Este estudo estimou a cobertura vacinal para influenza em idosos durante a COVID-19 através do EPICOVID-19, inquérito populacional realizado em 133 cidades sentinelas dos 26 estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal. Selecionou-se 25 setores censitários por cidade, amostragem proporcional ao tamanho, dez domicílios por setor e uma pessoa por domicílio, aleatoriamente. O quantitativo de 8.265 idosos (≥ 60 anos) foram entrevistados e responderam se haviam sido vacinados contra gripe em 2020. A cobertura foi 82,3% (IC95% 80,1; 84,2), sem diferenças por sexo, idade ou região. Maiores coberturas ocorreram nos mais ricos (84,7% versus 80,1% nos mais pobres) e nos mais escolarizados (87,3% versus 83,2% nos menos escolarizados). Menor cobertura nos indígenas (56,9% versus coberturas superiores a 80% nos demais grupos étnicos). Houve associação positiva com número de comorbidades entre homens, mas não entre mulheres. A maioria vacinou-se na rede pública (97,5%), sendo a rede privada mais utilizada na região Sul, pelos mais escolarizados e mais ricos. Conclui-se que a cobertura vacinal ficou sete pontos percentuais abaixo da meta governamental (90%), e que desigualdades devem ser revertidas em futuras campanhas.


Abstract Routine immunization during pandemics can be harmed. This study estimated the influenza vaccination coverage in older adults during the COVID-19 through the EPICOVID-19, a population-based study conducted in 133 cities from the 26 Brazilian states and Federal District. We selected 25 census tracts per city, with probability proportional to the tract's size, ten households by census tract, and one random individual interviewed. A total of 8,265 older adults (≥60 years old) were interviewed and asked whether they had been vaccinated against flu in 2020. Vaccination coverage was 82.3% (95% CI: 80.1-84.2) with no difference by gender, age, and region; higher vaccination coverage was observed among the wealthiest (84.7% versus 80.1% in the poorest) and among the more educated (87.3% versus 83.2% less educated); lower coverage among indigenous (56.9% versus > 80% among other ethnic groups). A positive association was identified with the number of comorbidities among men but not among women. Most of the population was vaccinated (97.5%) in the public health system. The private network was chosen mainly in the South by the wealthiest and more educated. Vaccination coverage was seven percentage points lower than the government target (90%), and inequalities should be reversed in future campaigns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Cities , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887544

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world for more than a year, with multiple waves of infections resulting in morbidity, mortality and disruption to the economy and society. Response measures employed to control it have generally been effective but are unlikely to be sustainable over the long term.@*METHODS@#We examined the evidence for a vaccine-driven COVID-19 exit strategy including academic papers, governmental reports and epidemiological data, and discuss the shift from the current pandemic footing to an endemic approach similar to influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases.@*RESULTS@#A desired endemic state is characterised by a baseline prevalence of infections with a generally mild disease profile that can be sustainably managed by the healthcare system, together with the resumption of near normalcy in human activities. Such an endemic state is attainable for COVID-19 given the promising data around vaccine efficacy, although uncertainty remains around vaccine immunity escape in emergent variants of concern. Maintenance of non-pharmaceutical interventions remains crucial until high vaccination coverage is attained to avoid runaway outbreaks. It may also be worthwhile to de-escalate measures in phases, before standing down most measures for an endemic state. If a variant that substantially evades immunity emerges, it will need to be managed akin to a new disease threat, with pandemic preparedness and response plans.@*CONCLUSION@#An endemic state for COVID-19, characterised by sustainable disease control measures, is likely attainable through vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 503-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Influenza places a heavy public health burden in numerous countries every year. In addition to vaccines, there are some interventions that are effective in preventing influenza.@*OBJECTIVE@#This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of interventions for influenza prevention.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2020, Issue 1 for relevant Cochrane SRs using the keywords "common cold," "influenza," and "flu."@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#Cochrane SRs that investigated the prevention of influenza were included. Participants included the general population without influenza or influenza-like symptoms, who were treated with preventative interventions and compared to individuals receiving no treatment or placebo.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#Two reviewers independently screened citations against pre-defined inclusion criteria and extracted data. The methodological quality of these SRs was evaluated using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews-II (AMSTAR-II) guidelines. The primary outcome of our analysis was the incidence of influenza, and the secondary outcomes were the incidence of influenza-like illness and hospitalization. In addition to the narrative summary of SR findings, we also pooled data from homogeneous trials among these SRs and produced evidence mapping. We conducted a network meta-analysis to compare the effect across interventions and used the Cochrane approach to grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) to assess the quality of evidence.@*RESULTS@#Eleven Cochrane SRs were included, covering five medications, eleven vaccinations and four complementary therapies. Among these SRs, 73% scored "high" quality on AMSTAR-II rating. We found that eight interventions, including amantadine, garlic, and six different vaccines, were beneficial for reducing the incidence of influenza compared to placebo, while oseltamivir, zanamivir, Ganmao capsule, Echinacea, and another three types of vaccine were probably beneficial. Ganmao capsule ranked highest for influenza prevention in the network meta-analysis, followed by amantadine, garlic, and vaccines of all types. Monovalent inactivated parenteral vaccine was found to be beneficial in reducing the incidence of influenza-like illness. None of the interventions reduced the hospitalization rate.@*CONCLUSION@#High-quality evidence showed that garlic or vaccine had advantages in preventing influenza, and that vitamin C is not effective. The effect of other interventions needs to be further verified with high-quality evidence.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Network Meta-Analysis , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vitamins
7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1722-1749, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920989

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a respiratory infectious disease that can seriously affect human health. Influenza virus has frequent antigenic drifts that can facilitate escape from pre-existing population immunity and lead to rapid and widespread transmission. Seasonal influenza is characterized by annual epidemics and outbreaks in places of public gathering such as schools, kindergartens, and nursing homes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), seasonal influenza causes 3 to 5 million severe cases and 290 000 to 650 000 deaths globally each year. Pregnant women, young children, the elderly, and persons with chronic medical conditions are at highest risk for severe illness and death from influenza virus infection. With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 may co-circulate with influenza and other respiratory viruses in the upcoming winter-spring influenza season. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from influenza. China has several licensed influenza vaccines - trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3), which include split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine; quadrivalent split-virus inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4); and trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3). With the exception of a few major cities, influenza vaccine is a non-program vaccine, which means that influenza vaccination is not included in China's Expanded Program on Immunization, and recipients must pay for influenza vaccine and its administration. China CDC has issued "Technical Guidelines for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in China" every year from 2018 to 2020. This past year, there have been scientific and programmatic advances in prevention and control of seasonal influenza. To strengthen technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and facilitate operational research on influenza vaccination, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccination Technical Working Group (TWG) updated the 2020-2021 technical guidelines into the "Technical Guidelines for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in China (2021-2022)." The new version has updates in five key areas: (1) new research evidence, especially from studies in China, on disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, vaccine-avoidable disease burden, vaccine safety monitoring, and cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses, (2) policies and measures for influenza prevention and control that were issued by National Health Commission (NHC) in the past year, (3) licensure of a new seasonal influenza vaccine in time for the 2021-2022 season, (4) composition of the northern hemisphere trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccines for the 2021-2022 season, and (5) recommendations for influenza vaccination during the 2021-2022 influenza season. The recommendations specify that immunization clinics should provide influenza vaccine to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications; the interval between receipt of influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine should at least 14 days; and there is no preference for one influenza vaccine over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended, and appropriate vaccine is available. Considering the global COVID-19 pandemic and the need to decrease risk of influenza virus infection and minimize potential impact on COVID-19 prevention and control, we recommend the following target population priorities in preparation for the 2021-2022 influenza season: (1) healthcare workers, including clinical doctors and nurses, public health professionals, and quarantine professionals, (2) volunteers and staff who provide service and support for large events, (3) people living in nursing homes or welfare homes and staff who take care of vulnerable, at-risk individuals, (4) people who work in high population density settings, including teachers and students in kindergartens, primary, and secondary schools and prisoners and prison staff, and (5) people with high risk of complications from influenza, including adults ≥60 years of age, children 6-59 months of age, persons with certain chronic conditions, family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women and women who plan to become pregnant during the influenza season. Children 6 months through 8 years of age who have never received influenza vaccine or who have received only one lifetime dose require 2 doses of influenza vaccine that are administered at least 4 weeks apart. This recommendation applies to both IIV and LAIV. If children received 2 doses of influenza vaccine in the 2020-2021 influenza season or received more than 2 doses of influenza vaccine in prior influenza seasons, 1 dose of influenza vaccine is recommended. People more than 9 years old require only 1 dose of influenza vaccine. People should receive influenza vaccination by the end of October, and influenza vaccine should be offered as soon as it is available. For people unable to be vaccinated before the end of October, influenza vaccine will continue to be offered throughout the season. Influenza vaccine is recommended for pregnant women during any trimester of pregnancy. These guidelines are intended for use by staff of CDCs at all levels who work on influenza control and prevention; immunization clinic staff members; healthcare workers from departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases; and staff of maternity and child care institutions at all levels. The guidelines will be periodically updated as new evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
8.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 507-527, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888744

ABSTRACT

The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1152009

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: apresentar a experiência realizada durante a campanha de vacinação da influenza em Goiás, no cenário de pandemia do coronavírus. Método: Trata-se de um relato de experiência sobre as ações executadas durante a campanha de vacinação da influenza em meio a pandemia da COVID-19. Resultados: O modelo drive thru de vacinação foi implementado com a vacinação de 6.219 pessoas idosas e trabalhadores da saúde respectivamente, em que a cobertura vacinal, ao final da primeira fase da campanha foram: 103,5 % para idosos e 75% para os trabalhadores da saúde. A cobertura vacinal geral atual corresponde a 97,66%. Considerações finais: A vacinação contra a influenza no cenário de pandemia demonstrou desafios e experiências que apontaram que é possível a execução de estratégias exitosas para alcance da população alvo com medidas de segurança e parcerias intersetoriais


Objective: Present the experience carried out during the campaign of influenza vaccination in Goiás, in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Method: This article is an experience report on the implemented actions in the influenza vaccination campaign during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The "drive thru" vaccination model succeded in vaccinating 6,219 elderly people and healthworkers, and, at then do the firstst age of the campaign, the vaccination coverage was: 103.5% for the elderly and 75% for healthworkers. Currently, the general vaccination coverage corresponds to 97.66%. Final considerations: Influenza vaccination in the pandemics cenário revealed challenges and experience swhich pointed out it ispossibleto execute successful strategies to reach the target population with security measures and intersectoral partnerships


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vaccination Coverage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Coronavirus Infections
10.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5830, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with non-vaccination against influenza in the risk group. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study, carried out in the city of Rio Grande (RS). The outcome was defined as belonging to risk groups and not having been vaccinated in the last 12 months. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral variables, and access for health services were analyzed. Results In this study, 680 individuals participated. The prevalence was 46.0% (95%CI: 41.8-50.3), ranging from 27.9% (elderly) to 81.8% (pregnant women). Young adults, single, intermediate socioeconomic bracket, smoker, with depressive symptoms, who did not perform physical activity and did not consult a physician in the last year, had a higher prevalence of non-vaccination. Conclusion Half of the sample was not vaccinated in the period. Due to the similarity of influenza-like illness and the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), increasing vaccination would minimize mortality and use of hospital beds due to influenza, optimizing the response of hospital capacity.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a prevalência e os fatores associados à não vacinação contra influenza em grupos de risco. Métodos Estudo transversal, de base populacional, realizado em Rio Grande (RS). O desfecho foi definido como pertencer aos grupos de risco e não ter se vacinado nos últimos 12 meses. Foram analisadas variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais e de acesso a serviços de saúde. Resultados Participaram 680 indivíduos. A prevalência foi de 46,0% (IC95%: 41,8-50,3), variando de 27,9% (idosos) a 81,8% (gestantes). Adultos jovens, solteiros, de nível econômico intermediário, tabagistas, com sintomas depressivos, que não praticavam atividade física e não consultaram um médico no último ano tiveram maior prevalência de não vacinação. Conclusão Metade da amostra não foi vacinada no período. Pela semelhança da síndrome gripal com a doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), aumentar a vacinação minimizaria a mortalidade e a utilização de leitos hospitalares devido à influenza, otimizando a resposta da capacidade hospitalar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Aged , Young Adult , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(spe): e20200379, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1148333

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever a experiência de integração ensino-serviço durante a primeira etapa da 22ª Campanha Nacional de Vacinação contra a Influenza na emergência da COVID-19. Método: relato de experiência sobre a parceria de um curso de enfermagem de uma das instituições de ensino superior de Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brasil, com serviços da Atenção Primária à Saúde na referida campanha, no período de março a abril de 2020. Resultados: essa parceria mobilizou diversos voluntários para implementar 35 postos volantes de vacinação, incluindo um drive-thru. Nessa primeira etapa, foram aplicadas 91.697 doses do imunobiológico em idosos, de um total de 98.189, que correspondeu a 83,3%, valor muito próximo da cobertura vacinal de 90% esperada para esse grupo populacional. Com a parceria, o número total de doses aplicadas em idosos ao final da 22a campanha, na cidade, superou em 42,6% a média dos últimos cinco anos. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: atribui-se esse percentual ao trabalho coletivo e multiprofissional e ao compromisso social das instituições envolvidas com a proteção da saúde, a preservação da vida e o fortalecimento do Sistema Único de Saúde.


Objective: to describe the experience of teaching-service integration during the first stage of the 22nd Brazilian National Influenza Vaccination Campaign in the emergence of COVID-19. Method: this is an experience report on the partnership of a nursing course from one of the higher education institutions in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, with Primary Health Care services in that campaign, from March to April 2020. Results: this partnership mobilized several volunteers to implement 35 vaccination stations, including a drive-thru. In this first stage, 91,697 doses of the immunobiological agent were applied to older adults, from a total of 98,189, which corresponded to 83.3%, a value very close to the 90% vaccination coverage expected for this population group. With the partnership, the total number of doses applied to older adults at the end of the 22nd campaign in the city exceeded the average of the last five years by 42.6%. Conclusion and implications for practice: this percentage is attributed to the collective and multiprofessional work and the social commitment of the institutions involved with protection of health, preservation of life and strengthening of the Unified Health System.


Objetivo: describir la experiencia de integración enseñanza-servicio durante la primera etapa de la 22ª Campaña Nacional de Vacunación contra el Influenza en la emergencia de la covid-19. Método: un relato de experiencia de la asociación de un curso de enfermería de una institución de enseñanza superior de Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brasil con servicios de la atención primaria a la salud en la referida campaña, en el período de marzo a abril de 2020. Resultados: esta asociación movilizó a varios voluntarios para implementar 35 estaciones de vacunación, incluyendo un drive-thru. En esa primera etapa, fueron aplicadas 91.697 dosis del inmunobiológico en ancianos, de un total de 98.189, que correspondió a 83,3%, valor muy próximo de la cobertura vacunal de 90% esperada para ese grupo poblacional. Con la asociación, el número total de dosis aplicadas en ancianos al final de la 22a campaña en la ciudad superó en 42,6% el promedio de los últimos cinco años. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: este porcentaje se atribuye al trabajo colectivo e interprofesional y al compromiso social de las instituciones involucradas con la protección de la salud, la preservación de la vida y el fortalecimiento del Sistema Único de Salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Primary Health Care , Nursing Faculty Practice , Influenza Vaccines , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Education, Nursing , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control
13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 322-325, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139703

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of non-vaccination against influenza among Brazilian older adults with systemic arterial hypertension and determine the main reasons for non-adherence. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from older adults (≥ 60 years of age) with hypertension who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey and reported not having been vaccinated against flu over the previous 12 months (n = 1,295). The analyses were performed using the Stata 14.0 software. The data were weighted because of the sampling design. An estimated 3,026,080 older adults with hypertension had not received a flu vaccine over the 12 months prior to the survey (22.6%). No significant associations were found with sex, age group or schooling. The prevalence of unvaccinated older adults was lower in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil than in the northern and northeastern regions, even after adjusting for age. The prevalence was higher among individuals without private health insurance. The main reasons for non-vaccination were fear of a reaction, rarely having the flu and not believing in the protection of the vaccine. The present findings underscore the need for healthcare professionals to explain to the population the benefits of the vaccine for preventing severe influenza (protective effect and possible reactions) and for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Increasing the prevalence of vaccination in older adults with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases is of fundamental importance within the realm of public health as a strategy for reducing occurrences of complications and deaths associated with influenza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Hypertension/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination/psychology , Influenza, Human/psychology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
14.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 280-286, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223750

ABSTRACT

Las vacunas han sido una de las herramientas más útiles para lograr disminuir la mortalidad infantil. Sin embargo, los beneficios de las vacunas para menores de un año son dispares, debido a que son muy pequeños para ser vacunados. Otro grupo vulnerable son las embarazadas, quienes presentan mayor morbimortalidad por enfermedades como la influenza. La inmunización materna puede proteger a la madre contra las infecciones prevenibles por vacuna y al recién nacido mediante el traspaso de anticuerpos específicos al feto. No hay evidencia de resultados adversos en el embarazo o el feto/recién nacido por la vacunación de mujeres gestantes con vacuna inactivada contra virus, bacterias o toxoides. Por lo tanto, el embarazo no debe impedir que las mujeres reciban las vacunas que están médicamente indicadas. En Chile, se recomienda la vacunación de las mujeres gestantes, antes o durante la temporada de influenza. A fines de 2017 se implementó la vacunación con dTpa de las embarazadas con más de 28 semanas de gestación, con el objetivo de proteger al recién nacido contra el coqueluche y sus complicaciones. En el presente artículo, se hace una revisión de la literatura disponible sobre la vacunación de las embarazadas, principalmente enfocado en inmunización contra la influenza, el coqueluche y los beneficios en sus hijos.


Vaccines have been one of the most useful tools to reduce infant mortality. However, the benefits of vaccines for children under one year are disparate, because they are too small to be vaccinated. Another vulnerable group are pregnant women, who have a higher morbidity and mortality due to diseases such as influenza. Maternal immunization can protect the mother against vaccine-preventable infections and the newborn by transferring specific antibodies to the fetus. There is no evidence of adverse outcomes in pregnancy or the fetus / newborn by vaccination of pregnant women with inactivated vaccine against viruses, bacteria or toxoids. Therefore, pregnancy should not prevent women from receiving vaccines that are medically indicated. In Chile, vaccination is recommended for pregnant women, before or during the influenza season. In addition to the end of 2017, vaccination with Tdap of pregnant women with more than 28 weeks of gestation was implemented, with the aim of protecting the newly born against pertussis and its complications. In this article, we review the available literature on the vaccination of pregnant women, mainly focused on immunization against influenza, pertussis and benefits in their children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/methods , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Immunization/methods , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
15.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7963, 31-07-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119726

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Distintas intervenciones han sido propuestas para reforzar el uso de la vacuna contra la influenza. El uso de recordatorios, ya sea a través de cartas, llamadas telefónicas, panfletos o aplicaciones tecnológicas, entre otras, ha destacado dentro de aquellas orientadas a incrementar la adherencia al tratamiento. Sin embargo, su efectividad no está clara. En este resumen, que forma parte de una serie de evaluaciones de recordatorios, se abordará el envío de múltiples recordatorios enviados por correo. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un meta-análisis y prepara-mos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos ocho revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron 35 estudios primarios, de los cuales cuatro corresponden a ensayos aleatorizados que analizan el uso de múltiples recordatorios enviados por correo. Concluimos que más de un recordatorio enviado por correo probablemente aumenta la adherencia a vacunación contra influenza en pacientes mayores de 60 años, mien-tras que podría resultar en poca o nula diferencia en menores de 6 años, pero la certeza de la evidencia es baja.


INTRODUCTION: Different interventions have been proposed to reinforce the use of the influenza vaccine. The use of reminders, whether through letters, phone calls, pamphlets or technological applications, among others, has stood out among those aimed at increasing ad-herence to treatment. However, its effectiveness is not clear. In this summary, which is part of a series of reminder evaluations, we assess the use of multiple mail reminders. METHODS: We conducted a search in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic health reviews, which is maintained by screening multiple sources of information, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted the data from the identified reviews, analyzed the data from the primary studies, performed a meta-analysis and prepared a summary table of the results using the GRADE method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified eight systematic reviews including 35 primary studies, of which four analyze the use of more than one letter as a reminder. We conclude that the use of multiple mail reminders probably increase adherence to influenza vaccination in patients over 60; while it may make little or no difference in children under 6 years, but the certainty of the evidence is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Reminder Systems , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Postal Service , Databases, Factual , Age Factors , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
16.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mayo 12, 2020. 37 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096912

ABSTRACT

La información presentada en esta actualización se obtiene a partir de los datos notificados por los Ministerios de Salud y los Centros Nacionales de Influenza de los Estados Miembros a las plataformas informáticas globales de la OPS/OMS: FluNet y FluID; y de los informes/boletines semanales que los Ministerios de Salud publican en sus páginas web o comparten con OPS/OMS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Americas/epidemiology
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 73-80, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089322

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Influenza is an important cause of morbimortality worldwide. Although people at the extremes of age have a greater risk of complications, influenza has been more frequently investigated in the elderly than in children, and inpatients than outpatients. Yearly vaccination with trivalent or quadrivalent vaccines is the main strategy to control influenza. Objectives Determine the clinical and molecular characteristics of influenza A and B infections in children and adolescents with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods: A cohort of outpatient children and adolescents with ILI was followed for 20 months. Influenza was diagnosed with commercial multiplex PCR platforms. Results: 179 patients had 277 episodes of ILI, being 79 episodes of influenza A and 20 episodes of influenza B. Influenza A and B cases were mild and had similar presentation. Phylogenetic tree of influenza B viruses showed that 91.6% belonged to the B/Yamagata lineage, which is not included in trivalent vaccines. Conclusions: Influenza A and B are often detected in children and adolescents with ILI episodes, with similar and mild presentation in outpatients. The mismatch between the circulating influenza viruses and the trivalent vaccine offered in Brazil may have contributed to the high frequency of influenza A and B in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Young Adult , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/virology , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.2): e00040120, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132876

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Devido à importância da vacinação anual contra a gripe em idosos, objetivou-se analisar o impacto da vacinação contra gripe na morbimortalidade por influenza nos idosos no período de 2010 a 2019 nas regiões do Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico ecológico, com dados do Sistema de Informações do Programa Nacional de Imunizações, do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares e do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, disponíveis por intermédio do Ministério da Saúde. Os dados foram referentes ao Brasil e regiões, e contemplaram as taxas de cobertura vacinal contra gripe em idosos e de morbidade e mortalidade por causas relacionadas à influenza e pneumonia em idosos. Modelos de regressão linear simples foram utilizados para estudar a relação entre as taxas de morbidade e mortalidade e a cobertura vacinal. Houve um aumento da cobertura vacinal no período, e a meta de 80% de cobertura foi atingida em todas as regiões a partir de 2011. Identificou-se uma relação diretamente proporcional entre as variáveis estudadas, sendo que o aumento da cobertura vacinal resultou no aumento da morbimortalidade pelas causas avaliadas. Esses dados podem estar relacionados com a literatura, que mostra que o efeito da vacina é modesto em idosos. Porém, foi visto que o cálculo das taxas não leva em consideração o envelhecimento da população, utilizando dados com estimativas censitárias desatualizadas, e que os dados de internação e óbito podem incluir outros vírus e bactérias circulantes que não a influenza. A manutenção da cobertura vacinal elevada pode prevenir que o impacto da gripe seja ainda maior na morbimortalidade em idosos.


Resumen: Debido a la importancia de la vacunación anual contra la gripe en ancianos, el objetivo fue analizar el impacto de la vacunación contra la gripe en la morbimortalidad en ancianos durante el período de 2010 a 2019 en las regiones de Brasil. Se trata de un estudio epidemiológico ecológico, con datos del Sistema de Información del Programa Nacional de Inmunizaciones, del Sistema de Información Hospitalaria y del Sistema de Información de Mortalidad, disponibles gracias al Ministerio de Salud. Los datos se refirieron a Brasil y regiones, y contemplaron las tasas de cobertura de vacunación contra la gripe en ancianos, así como de morbilidad y mortalidad por causas relacionadas con la gripe y neumonía en ancianos. Se utilizaron modelos de regresión lineal simple para estudiar la relación entre las tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad y la cobertura de vacunación. Hubo un aumento de la cobertura vacunación durante el período, y la meta de un 80% de cobertura se alcanzó en todas las regiones a partir de 2011. Se identificó una relación directamente proporcional entre las variables estudiadas, siendo que el aumento de la cobertura de vacunación resultó en un aumento de la morbimortalidad por las causas evaluadas. Estos datos pueden estar relacionados con la literatura, que muestra que el efecto de la vacuna es modesto en ancianos. No obstante, se observó que el cálculo de las tasas no tiene en consideración el envejecimiento de la población, utilizando datos con estimaciones censales desactualizadas, y que los datos de internamiento y óbito pueden incluir otros virus y bacterias circulantes que no son gripe. El mantenimiento de una cobertura de vacunación elevada puede prevenir que el impacto de la gripe sea todavía mayor en la morbimortalidad en ancianos.


Abstract: Due to the importance of annual flu vaccination in the elderly, the study aimed to analyze the impact of influenza vaccination on morbidity and mortality from influenza in the elderly from 2010 to 2019 in the major geographic regions of Brazil. This is an ecological epidemiological study with data from the Information System of the National Immunization Program, Hospital Information System, and Mortality Information System, available from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Data referred to Brazil and its five major regions and included influenza vaccination coverage rates in the elderly and morbidity and mortality from causes related to influenza and pneumonia in the elderly. Simple linear regression models were used to study the relationship between morbidity and mortality and vaccination coverage rates. There was an increase in vaccination coverage during the period, and the target of 80% coverage was reached in all the regions since 2011. A directly proportional statistical association was identified between the study variables, and the increase in vaccination coverage was associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality from the target causes. These data may be related to reports in the literature showing that the vaccine's effect is modest in the elderly. However, the rates' calculation does not take the population's aging into account, using data from outdated census estimates. Besides, the hospitalization and mortality data may include other circulating viruses and bacteria besides influenza. The maintenance of high vaccination coverage may prevent the impact of influenza from being even higher on morbidity and mortality in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Morbidity , Vaccination
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877508

ABSTRACT

The overall coverage rate of influenza vaccination in China has been only about 2% in recent years. At present, free influenza vaccination programs, also named the "Publicly-funded Influenza Vaccination Project", have been carried out for the specific groups (the elderly, school-age children, healthcare workers, etc.) through livelihood projects or policies to benefit the people in some areas of China, which has significantly increased the vaccine coverage in the target population. In order to promote the project to be launched in a scientific and orderly manner in more and more regions of China, we organized and compiled this consensus on implementation of publicly-funded influenza vaccination project, including the project's purpose, establishment, implementation, organization and management, which was based on the research of influenza vaccine application strategies in some European countries and the United States and combined with the relevant policies, technical guidelines and past experiences in China. Meanwhile, the evaluation indicators, such as vaccination rates, effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness, and relevant assessment methods were also comprehensively expounded, aiming to provide reference for regions that are willing to implement or have launched the project.


Subject(s)
Aged , Child , China , Consensus , Humans , Immunization Programs , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , United States , Vaccination
20.
Brasília; Brasil. Ministério da Saúde; 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1087250

ABSTRACT

As mais diversas pandemias passadas deixaram um legado na história com um número significativo de óbitos e de pessoas enfermas. Essa experiência é capaz de mostrar a necessidade de elaboração de Planos de Preparação para Enfrentamento de Pandemias, flexíveis e capazes de dar resposta que o problema requer. Assim, o propósito desta revisão é proporcionar informações relativas a preparação e respostas antes, durante e depois de uma pandemia de influenza, cumprir seu papel na organização do Sistema Único de Saúde, além de servir como guia aos gestores das unidades federadas, subsidiando-os na estratégia para enfrentamento de situações de emergência. O plano contém diretrizes gerais que são essenciais à ação dos serviços de saúde. O processo e as respostas a uma possível pandemia de influenza devem ser mais importantes que os detalhes específicos que podem ser inaplicáveis a uma nova situação. De acordo com essa afirmativa é que procuramos apresentar um plano conciso com a certeza de que uma ameaça ou uma pandemia de influenza aumenta o nível de exigência de necessidade de uma ação integrada. Pelo caráter genérico, o Plano Nacional apresenta orientações gerais necessárias à intervenção não só do setor saúde e específicas, face a uma situação de emergência. A conseqüência, a conveniência e as respostas específicas devem ser continuamente revisadas e atualizadas. De modo geral, o Plano reúne as diretrizes de acordo com os períodos e fases e os planos específicos por área, contendo as medidas e os procedimentos que devem ser adotados, encontram-se anexos sob forma de links.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthomyxoviridae , Disease Outbreaks , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Environmental Health Surveillance , Brazil/epidemiology , Sanitary Control of Airports and Aircrafts , Sanitary Control of Harbors and Crafts , Sanitary Control of Borders , Health Communication/methods
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