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Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 530-537, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040705


This study aimed to verify whether the body and local temperatures change after high-intensity, short-duration exercise (team roping) and whether different pieces of training influence these changes. To this end, twelve animals, males and females, aged 3-6 years, with an average weight of 450 kg, were used. The horses were divided into two groups: regular training (RTG) and sporadic training (STG). The surface temperatures were assessed using a specific thermal camera. Temperatures of the ocular, thoracolumbar, distal tendon (thoracic and pelvic limbs) and croup regions were measured 30 min before, immediately after, and one, two, six and 24 hours after competition simulation. In the RTG, there was an increase in surface eye temperature two hours after exercise, returning to baseline level 24 hours later. In the STG, increase in eye temperature occurred immediately after exercise and returned to baseline level two hours later. Temperature of the pelvic limb tendons and croup (right side) rose immediately after exercise and did not return to baseline level 24 hours later. Team roping exercise increased the surface temperature of the distolateral thoracic and pelvic limb, croup and thoracolumbar regions in both groups and the eye temperature in the STG. Training frequency influenced the surface temperature profile in the distolateral pelvic limb, croup and thoracolumbar regions.(AU)

Os objetivos do presente estudo foram verificar se as temperaturas corpóreas e locais se alteram após exercício de alta intensidade e curta duração (prova de laço em dupla) e se treinamentos distintos podem influenciar nestas alterações. Foram utilizados 12 animais, machos e fêmeas, com idade entre 3 e 6 anos e peso médio de 450kg. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: treino regular (GTR) e treino esporádico (GTE). As aferições da temperatura por meio de termografia infravermelha foram feitas por uma câmera termal específica. As medições das temperaturas das regiões ocular, toracolombar, tendíneas distais (membros torácicos e pélvicos) e garupa foram realizadas 30 minutos antes, imediatamente depois, uma, duas, seis e 24 horas após a simulação de competição. No GTR houve aumento de temperatura ocular duas horas após o exercício, retornando ao basal apenas 24 horas depois. No GTE o aumento ocorreu imediatamente após o exercício e retornando ao basal duas horas depois. As temperaturas da região dos tendões dos membros pélvicos e garupa (lado direito) elevaram-se imediatamente após o exercício e não retornaram ao basal após 24 horas. O exercício de laço em dupla aumentou as temperaturas superficiais nas regiões distolateral de membros torácicos e pélvicos, garupa e região toracolombar de ambos os grupos e da temperatura ocular do GTE. A frequência de treinamento influenciou o perfil de temperatura superficial na região distal de membros pélvicos, garupa e toracolombar.(AU)

Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Body Temperature Regulation , Thermography/veterinary , Horses , Infrared Rays
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772523


This article summarizes the common problems in registration and supervision testing of infrared therapy equipment, combines YY 0306-2008 Particular requirements for the safety of heat radiation therapy equipment, GB 9706.1-2007 Medical electrical equipment-Part 1:General requirements for safety, Registration technical review guidelines for infrared treatment equipment, etc. This paper analyzes and discusses the following aspects, including classification and applicable standards, performance indicators and overtemperature protection. Some suggestions and solutions are given to provide some guidance for medical equipment manufacturers in design, research and development and registration, in order to avoid the problem effectively and improve the passing rate of testing.

Electricity , Equipment Design , Equipment Safety , Infrared Rays
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740721


OBJECTIVES: In recent years, serious concerns have been raised regarding the impacts of rising temperatures on health. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between elevated temperatures and kidney disease through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: In October 2017, 2 researchers independently searched related studies in PubMed and Embase. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model, including only studies that presented odds ratios, relative risks, or percentage changes, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The characteristics of each study were summarized, and the Egger test and funnel plots were used to evaluate publication bias. RESULTS: Eleven studies that met the criteria were included in the final analysis. The pooled results suggest an increase of 30% (95% CI, 20 to 40) in kidney disease morbidity with high temperatures. In a disease-specific subgroup analysis, statistically significant results were observed for both renal colic or kidney stones and other renal diseases. In a study design–specific subgroup analysis, statistically significant results were observed in both time-series analyses and studies with other designs. In a temperature measure–specific subgroup analysis, significant results were likewise found for both studies using mean temperature measurements and studies measuring heat waves or heat stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that morbidity due to kidney disease increases at high temperatures. We also found significant results in subgroup analyses. However, further time-series analyses are needed to obtain more generalizable evidence.

Hot Temperature , Infrared Rays , Kidney Calculi , Kidney Diseases , Kidney , Odds Ratio , Publication Bias , Renal Colic
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728014


Despite increased evidence of bio-activity following far-infrared (FIR) radiation, susceptibility of cell signaling to FIR radiation-induced homeostasis is poorly understood. To observe the effects of FIR radiation, FIR-radiated materials-coated fabric was put on experimental rats or applied to L6 cells, and microarray analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and wound healing assays were performed. Microarray analysis revealed that messenger RNA expressions of rat muscle were stimulated by FIR radiation in a dose-dependent manner in amount of 10% and 30% materials-coated. In 30% group, 1,473 differentially expressed genes were identified (fold change [FC] > 1.5), and 218 genes were significantly regulated (FC > 1.5 and p < 0.05). Microarray analysis showed that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and cell migration-related pathways were significantly stimulated in rat muscle. ECM and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-mediated cell migration-related genes were increased. And, results showed that the relative gene expression of actin beta was increased. FIR radiation also stimulated actin subunit and actin-related genes. We observed that wound healing was certainly promoted by FIR radiation over 48 h in L6 cells. Therefore, we suggest that FIR radiation can penetrate the body and stimulate PDGF-mediated cell migration through ECM-integrin signaling in rats.

Actins , Animals , Cell Movement , Extracellular Matrix , Focal Adhesions , Gene Expression , Homeostasis , Infrared Rays , Integrins , Microarray Analysis , Muscle, Skeletal , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Wound Healing
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6872, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889038


The primary objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of cariogenic bacteria and carious dentin by ablation using two lasers: fluorescence-feedback controlled (FFC) Er:YAG laser and different pulses of Er:YAG laser based on variable square pulse technology (VSPt). The secondary objective was to measure the temperature during laser ablation of carious tissue. Seventy-two extracted human molars were used in this study. Sixty teeth with carious dentin were randomly divided into four experimental groups according to the treatment for caries removal: group 1: 400 µs (FFC group); group 2: super short pulse (SSP group, 50 µs pulse); group 3: medium short pulse (MSP group, 100 µs pulse); group 4: short pulse (SP group, 300 µs pulse) and one positive control group with no treatment. Twelve teeth without carious lesion were used as a negative control group. After caries removal, swabs were taken with cotton pellets and real-time PCR analysis was performed. During caries ablation, a thermal infrared camera was used to measure the temperature changes. In all experimental groups, specimens were free of bacterial contamination after the treatment. In the SSP, MSP and SP groups, temperatures measured during caries ablation were significantly higher compared to temperatures in the FFC group (P<0.001). In this in vitro study, laser treatment for removal of carious dentin and cariogenic bacteria was an efficient treatment modality without causing excessive temperatures that might adversely affect pulp vitality.

Humans , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Dental Caries/therapy , Dental Cavity Preparation/methods , Dentin/microbiology , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Dental Pulp/physiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Infrared Rays , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Temperature , Thermography
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719906


OBJECTIVES: This study was to assess the status and awareness of excessive heat exposure among agricultural workers. METHODS: We selected a total of 90 farmers from a villages of Gyeongju-si, during August, 2015. We carried out the temperature measurement for nine times and derived Health Index (HI) and Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index. We compared the HI, WBGT and excessive heat warnings. Status of high temperature exposure, lifestyle, medical history, and awareness about excessive health related exposure illness assessed using survey questionnaires. RESULTS: The matching rates between the WBGT and the HI during excessive heat warning were high, but when it was a non-excessive heat warning, there were days of excessive HI or WBGT. Out of 90 farmers surveyed, 78 cases (86.7%) were in their 60s and older age group. Slightly more than two third (71.1%) farmers were farming in the dawn-morning (71.1%), and the daily working hours were less than 4 hours (54.4 %), but only 23.3% among farmers took regular breaks. Of total, 14.4% farmers experienced excessive heat exposure related illness in order of tiredness, lethargy, dizziness, headaches, and sweating. Overall, the awareness of the danger for excessive heat and the heat wave warnings were high at 70.0% and 74.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Politically, the excessive heat warnings should not be taken into account the simple temperature measurement but, have to consider WBGT and HI standards at the same time. Farmers need to be promoted and educated to prevent the excessive heat related illness by periodically increasing their rest time during farming.

Agriculture , Dizziness , Farmers , Headache , Hot Temperature , Humans , Infrared Rays , Lethargy , Life Style , Sweat , Sweating
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 28(2): 134-139, Dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008557


Introducción: Las neoplasias intraepiteliales anales de alto grado (AIN-AG) sin tratamiento progresan a carcinoma anal escamoso invasor (CAE) en 8-13% de los casos. Esto disminuye al 1,2% con la ablación dirigida por anoscopía de alta resolución (AAR). El tratamiento ideal de la AIN-AG no está establecido. Goldstone, en 2005 introdujo el coagulador infrarrojo (CIR) para la ablación de estas lesiones y demostró que tiene tanta efectividad como la cirugía, aunque menor morbilidad y la ventaja de no requerir quirófano. No hemos encontrado publicaciones con esta técnica en nuestro medio. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados de la ablación de las AIN-AG con CIR, las complicaciones del método y la recurrencia temprana. Diseño: Observacional, retrospectivo, con base de datos prospectiva. Pacientes y Método: Se incluyeron individuos con AIN-AG en conducto anal y/o región perianal diagnosticadas en el Consultorio de Detección Temprana de Displasia Anal del Hospital Juan A. Fernández mediante biopsia dirigida por AAR y tratadas con CIR con el aparato Redfield®, entre marzo 2013-agosto 2014 previo consentimiento informado escrito. Tras infiltración con anestesia local las lesiones fueron coaguladas con repetidos pulsos de 1,5 segundos hasta visualizar los vasos de la submucosa. Se controló entre los 3 y 6 meses con AAR y biopsia de lesiones sospechosas. Resultados: Fueron 14 pacientes (10 hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, todos VIH-positivos y 4 mujeres, 2 VIH-positivas). Edad mediana: 37,5 (rango 20-59) años. La AIN-AG se localizaba en el conducto anal en 11 pacientes y en la región perianal en 3. En la AAR diagnóstica todos presentaban sólo un área de AIN-AG. El procedimiento fue bien tolerado. Una paciente VIH-positiva presentó secreción purulenta a los tres días de la ablación, que se trató con antibióticos. Esta paciente y otro más tuvieron dolor post-procedimiento manejado con anti-inflamatorios no esteroides. En la AAR de control se hallaron 2 (14,3%) recurrencias, una interpretada como persistencia por margen insuficiente de una lesión extendida y otra diagnosticada al momento de realizar CIR, que no había sido observada en la AAR realizada 1 mes antes. La eficacia por lesión individual tratada fue del 92,9%. Conclusiones: El tratamiento de las AIN-AG en el consultorio mediante CIR es bien tolerado, tiene mínimas complicaciones y resulta efectivo en el corto plazo. Es necesario un seguimiento más prolongado para evaluar la tasa de recidiva y la utilidad para prevenir la progresión al CAE. (AU)

Background: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) without treatment progresses to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 8-13% of cases, and that incidence decreases to 1,2% with ablation targeted with high resolution anoscopy (HRA). The ideal treatment for HGAIN is not established yet. Goldstone, in 2005 introduced the infrared coagulator (IRC) for the ablation of these lesions, and with great experience demonstrated that it is as effective as surgery but has less morbidity and the advantage of not requiring the operating room. To our knowledge there are not publications with this technique in our country. The aim of this study is to assess the results of HGAIN ablation with CIR, the method complications, and early recurrence. Design: Observational, retrospective study, with prospective database. Patients and Methods: Individuals with HGAIN in the anal canal or the perianal region, diagnosed with biopsy targeted with HRA and treated with the IRC in the Anal Dysplasia Clinic of the Hospital Juan A. Fernández, between March 2013 and August 2014, were included. After written informed consent, HRA was repeated in the outpatient clinic to localize the area to be treated with the IRC Redfield®. After local anesthesia the lesions were coagulated with repeated 1.5 seconds pulses until the submucosa vessels were visualized. Control with HRA and biopsy of suspicious lesions was performed between 3-6 months of the procedure. Results: Fourteen patients (10 men who have sex with men, all HIV-positive, and 4 women, 2 HIV-positive). Median age: 37.5 (range 20-59) years. The HGAIN was localized at the anal canal in 11 patients, and in the perianal region in 3. In the diagnostic HRA all patients presented only one area of HGAIN. The procedure was well tolerated. Only one HIV-positive woman presented purulent discharge 3 days after ablation, and was treated with antibiotics. The latter and another patient had post-procedure pain, managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the control HRA, 2 (14,3%) recurrences were found, 1 was interpreted as persistency due to insufficient margin of a extended lesion, and 1 diagnosed during the CIR of other lesion, that had went unaware at the initial HRA performed one month before. The efficacy for individual lesion treated was 92.9%. Conclusions: The treatment of HGAIN with IRC in the outpatient department is well tolerated, has minimal complications, and is effective in the short term. It is necessary a longer surveillance to assess the recurrence rate and the usefulness for preventing progression to SCC. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anus Neoplasms/surgery , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Precancerous Conditions/surgery , Carcinoma in Situ/surgery , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnosis , Infrared Rays/therapeutic use , Anal Canal/pathology , Anus Neoplasms/epidemiology , Time Factors , Carcinoma in Situ/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Seropositivity , Treatment Outcome , Homosexuality, Male , Early Diagnosis , Light Coagulation/methods
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1091-1094, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893098


La glándula tiroides posee gran importancia debido a la síntesis y secreción de hormonas, las cuales desempeñan funciones fundamentales para la mantención de la fisiología animal. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en determinar parámetros morfométricos de estructuras tiroideas sometidas a estimulaciones con láser infrarrojo (LIR). Para ello, 10 ratas Sprague Dawley de 3 meses de vida y peso aproximado de 200 g, fueron divididas en dos grupos de 5 animales cada uno: grupo control y grupo experimental. Estos últimos recibieron estimulaciones infrarrojas en la tiroides con dosis de 16 J/cm2 durante 15 días seguidos. Una vez sacrificadas las ratas, se extrajeron las glándulas tiroides las que fueron procesadas para microscopía óptica obteniéndose placas histológicas y micrografías con aumentos finales de hasta 1000 X. Se efectuaron estudios morfométricos para determinar en 40 placas, variaciones tisulares generadas por las inducciones infrarrojas, con especial énfasis en la disposición coloidal y dimensiones de folículos y células tiroideas. El análisis de las 40 placas histológicas generados por las inducciones del láser infrarrojo comparados con los controles, reveló que existen marcadas diferencias en todos los componentes del tejido tiroideo analizado, lo cual podría otorgar antecedentes de diferentes funcionalidades en el metabolismo de las glándulas.

The thyroid gland is of great importance because of the synthesis and secretion of hormones which play key roles in the maintenance of animal physiology. In this context, the aim of the present study was to determine morphometric parameters of thyroid structures subjected to infrared laser stimulation (ILS) and for this purpose, 10 Sprague Dawley rats, 3 months of age and weighing approximately 200 grams, were divided into two groups of 5 animals each: the control group and the remaining 5 animals constituting the experimental group received infrared stimulation in the thyroid with doses of 16 J/cm2 for 15 consecutive days. After the rats were sacrificed, the respective thyroids were removed and processed for optical microscopy. Histological plates and micrographs were obtained with final increases of up to 1000 X. Morphometric studies were carried out to determine the tissue variations generated by infrared inductions, with special emphasis on the colloidal arrangement and dimensions of follicles and thyroid cells. Our results revealed that there are marked differences in all the components of the analyzed thyroid tissue which could give antecedents of different functionalities in the metabolism of thyroid glands.

Animals , Rats , Thyroid Gland/radiation effects , Infrared Rays , Thyroid Gland/ultrastructure , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(5): 453-458, maio 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895433


Desmama é uma fase crítica na vida do suíno devido a separação materna e a introdução de uma dieta seca. A termografia infravermelha medida na região ocular se mostra como um indicador confiável para a condição de estresse pontual de suínos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a relação entre medidas de termografia infravermelha da superfície ocular e de cortisol em situações de estresse em leitões na pós desmama. Foram avaliados 66 leitões, uma vez por semana, durante sete semanas, em dois períodos do dia (7h e 15h) com medidas de temperatura superficial ocular, temperatura superficial do dorso e amostras de saliva para determinação de cortisol salivar. A análise estatística contemplou os efeitos fixos de semana e período do dia e sua interação e correlações de Pearson para relação entre termografia ocular, temperatura superficial e cortisol a 5% de significância. Cortisol salivar não diferiu entre os períodos, mas foi superior nas três primeiras semanas após o desmame (P<0,05). Nas duas primeiras semanas após a desmama o cortisol apresentou correlação alta e positiva (P<0,05) com a temperatura ocular máxima (0,89) e a temperatura superficial do dorso (0,80). As duas temperaturas superficiais apresentaram uma associação moderada positiva (r=0,41; P<0,0001) durante todo o período experimental. Este estudo destaca que a temperatura de superfície ocular obtida por meio da termografia infravermelha pode ser um indicador de temperatura de superfície corporal e estado de bem-estar de leitões em fase de creche, além de ser um método não invasivo e de rápida mensuração. Entretanto, mais pesquisas são necessárias para aprofundar a relação entre temperatura ocular e cortisol durante estresse crônico.(AU)

Weaning is a critical phase in pigs' life due to maternal separation and the introduction of a new diet. Infrared thermography measurement taken in the ocular region appears to be a reliable indicator of the stress condition of the pig. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ocular surface temperature by infrared thermography and cortisol in piglets post weaning. Sixty-six piglets were evaluated once a week, during 7 weeks, in two periods of the day (7am and 15pm) and ocular surface temperature and dorsal surface temperature were collected using a thermographic camera and a laser surface thermometer, respectively. Saliva was also collected to determine salivary cortisol. Statistical analysis included fixed effects of week and period of the day and their interaction, and relationship between thermography, dorsal surface temperature and cortisol were done by Pearson's correlations with 5% significance level. Salivary cortisol did not differ between periods, but it was higher in the first three weeks after weaning (P<0.05). During the first two weeks after weaning cortisol presented high and positive correlation (P<0.05) between ocular surface temperature (0.89) and dorsal surface temperature (0.80). The two superficial temperatures had a moderate and positive association (r=0.41; P<0.0001) during all experiment. This study highlights that the ocular surface temperature obtained through infrared thermography can be a superficial body temperature indicators, besides being a non-invasive and fast method of measurement. However, more research is needed to deepen the relationship between ocular surface temperature and cortisol during chronic stress.(AU)

Animals , Stress, Mechanical , Swine/physiology , Body Temperature , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Thermography/veterinary , Infrared Rays , Ocular Physiological Phenomena , Weaning , Animal Welfare
Motriz (Online) ; 23(3): e101750, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-895006


Aims: The use of electromagnetic waves by phototherapy to skeletal muscle presents potential ergogenic effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of using bioceramic clothes on performance, heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during a 10 km race. Our hypothesis is that the use of such clothes modifies these variables. Methods: Participants were 10 runners (27.9 ± 4.2 years) who performed two 10 km performances on track under different intervention conditions: bioceramic garments (CER) and placebo garments (PLA). The mean velocity (MV), HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored at each trial. Additionally, partial MV was calculated in three phases: (1) start (first 400 m), (2) middle (400-9600 m) and (3) end (last 400 m). Results: MV in CER condition was significantly higher than in PLA condition (11.8 ± 1.0 km·h-1 vs 11.4 ± 1.2 km·h-1; F = 6.200; P = 0.034; ŋp² = 0.408). HR and RPE values in CER condition were not different from PLA condition. Conclusions Our main finding was that the use of bioceramic clothes (CER) increased MV when compared to the PLA condition. Based on these results, bioceramic may be used as an ergogenic resource to increase performance.(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Running/physiology , Clothing , Athletic Performance , Infrared Rays , Phytotherapy/methods , Ceramics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311395


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop a rapid, highly sensitive, and quantitative method for the detection of NT-proBNP levels based on a near-infrared point-of-care diagnostic (POCT) device with wide scope.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The lateral flow assay (LFA) strip of NT-proBNP was first prepared to achieve rapid detection. Then, the antibody pairs for NT-proBNP were screened and labeled with the near-infrared fluorescent dye Dylight-800. The capture antibody was fixed on a nitrocellulose membrane by a scribing device. Serial dilutions of serum samples were prepared using NT-proBNP-free serum series. The prepared test strips, combined with a near-infrared POCT device, were validated by known concentrations of clinical samples. The POCT device gave the output of the ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence signal of the detection line to that of the quality control line. The relationship between the ratio value and the concentration of the specimen was plotted as a work curve. The results of 62 clinical specimens obtained from our method were compared in parallel with those obtained from the Roche E411 kit.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Based on the log-log plot, the new method demonstrated that there was a good linear relationship between the ratio value and NT-proBNP concentrations ranging from 20 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL. The results of the 62 clinical specimens measured by our method showed a good linear correlation with those measured by the Roche E411 kit.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The new LFA detection method of NT-proBNP levels based on the near-infrared POCT device was rapid and highly sensitive with wide scope and was thus suitable for rapid and early clinical diagnosis of cardiac impairment.</p>

Antibodies , Biomarkers , Heart Diseases , Diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , Methods , Infrared Rays , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Blood , Peptide Fragments , Blood , Point-of-Care Testing , Reagent Strips , Sensitivity and Specificity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126544


BACKGROUND: The objectives of the present study are to: (i) evaluate the effect of environmental and metabolic heat on heat-related illnesses in outdoor workers; and (ii) evaluate the effect of personal factors, including heat acclimation, on the risk of heat-related illnesses in outdoor workers. METHODS: We identified 47 cases of illnesses from exposure to environmental heat in outdoor workers in Korea from 2010 to 2014, based on review of workers' compensation data. We also obtained the information on location, time, and work environment of each heat-related illness. RESULTS: Our major results are that 29 cases (61.7%) occurred during a heat wave. Forty five cases (95.7%) occurred when the maximum estimated WBGT (WBGTmax) was equal to or greater than the case specific threshold value which was determined by acclimatization and metabolic rate. Twenty two cases (46.8%) were not acclimated to the heat. Thirty-seven cases (78.7%) occurred after tropical night (temperature above 25 °C), during which many people may find it hard to sleep. CONCLUSION: Personal risk factors such as heat acclimation as well as environmental factors and high metabolic rate during work are the major determinants of heat-related illnesses.

Acclimatization , Extreme Heat , Hot Temperature , Humans , Infrared Rays , Korea , Risk Factors , Workers' Compensation
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(4): 577-579, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039718


ABSTRACT The intraoperative identification of certain anatomical structures because they are small or visually occult may be challenging. The development of minimally invasive surgery brought additional difficulties to identify these structures due to the lack of complete tactile sensitivity. A number of different forms of intraoperative mapping have been tried. Recently, the near-infrared fluorescence imaging technology with indocyanine green has been added to robotic platforms. In addition, this technology has been tested in several types of operations, and has advantages such as safety, low cost and good results. Disadvantages are linked to contrast distribution in certain clinical scenarios. The intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging is new and promising addition to robotic surgery. Several reports show the utility of this technology in several different procedures. The ideal dose, time and site for dye injection are not well defined. No high quality evidence-based comparative studies and long-term follow-up outcomes have been published so far. Initial results, however, are good and safe.

RESUMO A identificação intraoperatória de certas estruturas anatômicas, por seu tamanho ou por elas serem ocultas à visão, pode ser desafiadora. O desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe dificuldades adicionais, pela falta da sensibilidade tátil completa. Diversas formas de detecção intraoperatória destas estruturas têm sido tentadas. Recentemente, a tecnologia de fluorescência infravermelha com verde de indocianina foi associada às plataformas robóticas. Além disso, essa tecnologia tem sido testada em uma variedade de cirurgias, e suas vantagens parecem estar ligadas a baixo custo, segurança e bons resultados. As desvantagens estão associadas à má distribuição do contraste em determinados cenários. A imagem intraoperatória por fluorescência infravermelha é uma nova e promissora adição à cirurgia robótica. Diversas séries mostram a utilidade da tecnologia em diferentes procedimentos. Dose ideal, local e tempo da injeção do corante ainda não estão bem estabelecidos. Estudos comparativos de alta qualidade epidemiológica baseados em evidência ainda não estão disponíveis. No entanto, os resultados iniciais são bons e seguros.

Humans , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Infrared Rays , Biliary Tract/anatomy & histology , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Feasibility Studies , Indocyanine Green
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 603-612, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829719


Abstract Background and objectives: To evaluate the thermographic predictive value of local anesthetic poisoning in rats that indicates the early recognition of thermal signs of intoxication and enable the immediate start of advanced life support. Methods: Wistar rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of saline and ropivacaine; they were allocated into pairs, and experiments performed at baseline and experimental times. For thermography, central and peripheral compartment were analyzed, checking the maximum and average differences of temperatures between groups. Thermographic and clinical observations were performed for each experiment, and the times in which the signs of intoxication occurred were recorded. In the thermal analysis, the thermograms corresponding to the times of interest were sought and relevant data sheets extracted for statistical analysis. Results: Basal and experimental: the display of the thermal images at times was possible. It was possible to calculate the heat transfer rate in all cases. At baseline it was possible to see the physiology of microcirculation, characterized by thermal distribution in the craniocaudal direction. It was possible to visualize the pathophysiological changes or thermal dysautonomias caused by intoxication before clinical signs occur, characterized by areas of hyper-radiation, translating autonomic nervous system pathophysiological disorders. In animals poisoned by ropivacaine, there was no statistically significant difference in heat transfer rate at the experimental time. Conclusions: The maximum temperature, medium temperature, and heat transfer rate were different from the statistical point of view between groups at the experimental time, thus confirming the systemic thermographic predictive value.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Estudar o valor preditivo termográfico na intoxicação por anestésico local em ratos que efetue o reconhecimento precoce dos sinais térmicos de intoxicação e possibilite o início imediato do suporte avançado de vida. Método: Ratos Wistar foram submetidos à injeção intraperitoneal de soro fisiológico e ropivacaína, alocados aos pares, e foram feitos experimentos em tempos basal e experimental. Para o estudo termodinâmico foram analisados o compartimento central e o periférico, verificaram-se as diferenças das temperaturas máximas e médias entre os grupos. Foram feitas observações clínicas e termográficas para cada experimento e anotados os tempos em que os sinais de intoxicação ocorriam. Foram buscados na análise termográfica os termogramas correspondentes aos tempos de interesse e extraídas as planilhas de dados correspondentes, para análise estatística. Resultados: Foi possível a visibilização das imagens térmicas nos momentos basal e experimental. Foi possível calcular a taxa de transferência de calor em todos os casos. No momento basal foi possível observar a fisiologia da microcirculação, caracterizada por distribuição térmica no sentido craniocaudal. Foi possível visibilizar as alterações fisiopatológicas ou disautonomias térmicas causadas pela intoxicação antes que os sinais clínicos ocorressem, caracterizadas por áreas de hiperradiação e traduziram perturbações fisiopatológicas do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo. Nos animais intoxicados por ropivacaína houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na taxa de transferência de calor no momento experimental. Conclusões: Constatou-se que a temperatura máxima, a temperatura média e a taxa de transferência de calor foram diferentes do ponto de vista estatístico entre os grupos no momento experimental, o que corrobora o valor preditivo termográfico sistêmico.

Animals , Male , Rats , Poisoning/diagnostic imaging , Anesthetics, Local/poisoning , Thermography , Rats, Wistar , Ropivacaine , Amides/poisoning , Infrared Rays
Rev. bras. saúde matern. infant ; 16(supl.1): S51-S56, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830084


Abstract Introduction: in April of 2016, the epidemiological bulletin reported 39,017 suspected cases of chikungunya fever in Brazil. The main symptoms of the disease in the acute phase are: high fever, polyarthralgia, back pain, headache and fatigue; while in the late phase present polyarthralgia or musculoskeletal pain which often has prolonged duration. Description: in the late phase, the patient presented complaints mainly of: severe pain on the ankle joints wrists, elbows and shoulders. The medical handling consisted of continuous ultrasound sessions with the frequency of 1 MHz. The infrared laser with a dosage of 4J and 3s per point; TENS-burst with a pulse width of 250 us and the frequency of 2Hz, carried out for 10 days. The physiotherapeutic treatment proposal was an innovation, however there are no medical literatures for completementary medication for the treatment which could reduce the use of analgesics and could cause prolonged comfort to the patient ratified by EVA and the SF-36. Discussion: the use of ultrasound and low intensity laser are performed on the signs of chronic articular treatment in order to reduce inflammation, pain and joint stiffness. Therefore, a remarkable reduction of the algic state and the improvement of the patient's life along the r ten consecutive sessions of a proposed protocol in this study, thus there is a need for further researches on this issue so it is possible to perform a medical handling based on evidences on the theme.

Resumo Introdução: o boletim epidemiológico de abril de 2016 informou 39.017 casos prováveis de febre de chikungunya no país. Na fase aguda da doença os principais sintomas são: febre alta, poliartralgia, dores nas costas, dor de cabeça e fadiga; enquanto que na fase tardia estão presentes a poliartralgia ou dores músculo-esqueléticas, que frequentemente apresentam-se com duração prolongada. Descrição: o paciente apresentava na fase tardia como principais queixas: dores severas nas articulações dos tornozelos, punhos, cotovelos e ombros. O manejo clínico foi constituído de sessões com ultrassom contínuo com frequência de 1 MHz, Laser infravermelho com dosagem de 4J e 3s por ponto; TENS-burst com largura de pulso de 250 us e Frequência de 2Hz, realizado por 10 dias. O tratamento fisioterapêutico proposto foi inovador, pois não há na literatura tratamentos complementares que possam diminuir o uso de analgésicos e causar conforto prolongado ao paciente ratificado pelo EVA e o SF-36. Discussão: o uso do ultrassom e do laser de baixa intensidade são utilizados no tratamento de manifestações reumáticas crônicas com o objetivo de reduzir a inflamação, dor e rigidez articular. Por conseguinte, foi notável a redução do quadro álgico e melhora da qualidade de vida da paciente ao longo de dez sessões consecutivas com o protocolo proposto no presente estudo, sendo assim surge à necessidade de novas pesquisas acerca do assunto para que seja possível fazer um manejo clínico baseado em evidências sobre o tema.

Humans , Arthralgia , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/therapy , Physical Therapy Modalities , Arbovirus Infections , Brazil/epidemiology , Infrared Rays/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Ultrasonic Therapy
Int. j. morphol ; 34(2): 498-502, June 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-787028


Diez ratas Sprague Dawley de 4 meses de vida y peso aproximado de 250 g fueron divididas en dos grupos de 5 animales cada uno, el grupo A se mantuvo como control y los animales del grupo B recibieron estimulaciones con láser infrarrojo en la tiroides con dosis de 16 J/cm2 durante 15 días consecutivos. Posteriormente las ratas fueron sacrificadas, se extrajeron las respectivas tiroides siendo procesadas para microscopía óptica y se obtuvieron placas histológicas y micrografías de tiroides con aumentos finales de hasta 1000X, las cuales fueron sometidas a estudios morfométricos para determinar en 100 células foliculares: número, áreas y perímetro tanto celular como nuclear, además de disposición coloidal y presencia de vasos sanguíneos. El análisis de los resultados entre las 100 células foliculares pertenecientes a tiroides normal y estimulada revela que existen marcadas diferencias en todos los componentes analizados los que se podría traducir en distintas funcionalidades en el metabolismo de las respectivas glándulas.

Ten 4-month-old Sprague Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 g were divided into two groups of 5 animals each. Group A was the control and the animals in group B received thyroid stimulation with infrared laser in a dose of 16 J/cm2 for 15 consecutive days. Subsequently, rats were euthanized and thyroids were removed and processed for optical microscopy. From both cell types thyroid histological slides and micrographs were obtained with final increases of 400 and 1000X. Morphometric analysis determined the number, areas and cell perimeter as well as colloidal dispersion and presence of blood vessels in 100 follicular cells. Analysis of the results among the 100 follicular cells belonging to normal and stimulated thyroids revealed marked differences in all the analyzed components, which could translate into different functionalities in the metabolism of the respective glands.

Animals , Rats , Infrared Rays , Lasers , Thyroid Epithelial Cells/radiation effects , Thyroid Epithelial Cells/ultrastructure , Microscopy , Rats, Wistar , Thyroid Gland/radiation effects , Thyroid Gland/ultrastructure
Hig. aliment ; 30(256/257): 157-161, maio/junho 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1742


Entre as bactérias patogênicas vinculadas a doenças transmitidas por alimentos destaca-se a Escherichia coli, sendo a espécie predominante na microbiota do trato intestinal dos humanos e animais de sangue quente e que está associada diretamente com a má higienização dos manipuladores. Com a necessidade de aplicar processos inovadores sem a geração de resíduos, o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias para o controle e redução de carga microbiana nos alimentos vem sendo estudado, destacando-se a irradiação por micro-ondas. Com a intenção de testar o efeito bactericida de um forno micro-ondas (2450 MHz) sob cepas de E. coli, diferentes tempos de irradiação foram utilizados, sendo estes 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 e 60s tendo como controle, uma amostra não irradiada. Ainda, imagens termográficas e mapeamento do forno foram realizados para verificar a distribuição da temperatura das amostras irradiadas, demonstrando a heterogeneidade da incidência das ondas no interior da cavidade do mesmo. Após a realização dos testes, verificou-se que em 20s de irradiação, as cepas de Escherichia coli foram inativadas, demonstrando a relevância do método para a ciência e tecnologia dos alimentos uma vez que o processo mostrou-se eficaz no controle microbiano, de fácil operação, sem a geração de resíduos, rápido e econômico, quando comparado aos métodos convencionais de inativação e destruição microbiana.

Among the pathogenic bacteria transmitted to foodborne illness there is the Escherichia coli, being the predominant species in the microflora of the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals and is directly associated with poor hygiene of food handlers. With the need to apply innovative processes without waste generation, the development of new technologies for the control and reduction of microbial load in food has been studied, highlighting irradiation by microwave. With the intention of testing the bactericidal effect of a microwave oven (2450 MHz) as strains of E. coli different irradiation times were used, these being 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 60 as having s control, a sample not irradiated. Further, thermographic images and oven mapping were performed to verify the temperature distribution of the irradiated samples, demonstrating the heterogeneity of incidence of the waves within the cavity thereof. After the tests, it was found that in 20 seconds irradiation, strains of Escherichia coli were inactivated, demonstrating the relevance of the method for science and technology of food once the process has been shown to be effective in microbial control, easy operation with no waste generation, quickly and cost when compared to conventional methods of microbial inactivation and destruction.

Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Food Irradiation/methods , Microwaves , Thermography , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Disinfection , Escherichia coli , Food Technology/methods , Infrared Rays
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(2): 422-430, mar.-abr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779793


This paper aimed to evaluate the surface temperatures of buffalo bulls using infrared thermography, considering four distinct anatomical parts over time, and to correlate surface temperatures and thermal comfort indexes. The humid tropical climate (Kõppen's Afi) was predominant in the research station where the experiment was performed and the trial lasted from April to August. Ten bulls (n=10) were evaluated every 25 days (morning: 6:00-9:00; afternoon: 12:00-15:00) and the parameters assessed were respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and the thermograms of surface temperature for orbital area (ORB), right flank (RF), left flank (LF) and scrotum (SCR). Climatological data was continuously monitored and the Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) and the Index of Comfort of Benezra (ICB) were calculated. The average values of THI were ≥78, and significant differences between shifts were observed (P<0.05). The ICB ranged from 1.96 to 2.25 and significant differences were observed for shifts and throughout the months (P<0.05). The averages of surface temperatures were RT=38.2±0.5°C, ORB=36.1±0.8°C, LF=33.5±2.5°C, RF=35.4±1.7ºC and SCR=33.3±1.1°C, which exhibited significant differences for shifts and throughout the months (P<0.05). Positive correlations were obtained between THI and ORB (0.72), RF (0.77), LF (0.75) and SCR (0.41) (P<0.0001). The maximum temperature of ORB showed the highest correlation with RT (0.58, P<0.0001). Therefore, the surface temperatures are subject to climatic variations and increase throughout the day, due to the variation in thermal comfort indexes, and the maximum ORB temperature was the parameter most related to rectal temperature. Lastly, the results indicate that IRT may be a useful non-invasive and accurate tool to detect the variations in ORB, LF, RF and SCR temperature in buffalo bulls.

O presente trabalho visou avaliar as temperaturas superficiais de diferentes regiões anatômicas de búfalos ao longo do tempo, por meio da termografia infravermelha, e correlacioná-las a índices bioclimatológicos de conforto térmico. O ensaio foi realizado em região de clima tropical úmido (Afi de Kõppen), de abril a agosto. Dez touros (n=10) foram avaliados a cada 25 dias (manhã: seis-nove horas; tarde: 12-15h), quanto à frequência respiratória (FR), temperatura retal (TR) e imagens termográficas da órbita ocular (ORB), flanco direito (FLd), flanco esquerdo (FLe) e escroto (ESC). Os dados climatológicos foram ininterruptamente monitorados, e calculados o índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU) e o índice de conforto de Benezra (ICB). O ITU foi ≥78, com diferença entre turnos (P<0,05). Já o ICB variou de 1,96 a 2,25 e apresentou diferenças ao longo dos meses e entre turnos (P<0,05). As temperaturas observadas foram de TR=38,2±0,5ºC, ORB=36,1±0,8ºC, FLd=33,5±2,5ºC, FLe=35,4±1,7ºC e ESC=33,3±1,1ºC, as quais variaram significativamente ao longo dos meses e entre turnos (P<0,05). O ITU apresentou correlações positivas com ORB (0,72), FLd (0,77), FLe (0,75) e ESC (0,41) (P<0,0001). A temperatura máxima de ORB apresentou a maior correlação com a TR (0,58; P<0,0001). Portanto, as temperaturas superficiais dos animais sofrem interferências das variações climáticas e se elevam ao longo do dia, devido à variação nos índices de conforto térmico; a temperatura máxima de ORB foi o parâmetro mais condicionado à temperatura retal. Também, as oscilações de temperatura de superfície de ORB, FLd, FLe e ESC podem ser aferidas em bubalinos com o uso da termografia infravermelha, de modo preciso e não invasivo.

Animals , Cattle , Animal Welfare , Body Temperature , Buffaloes , Infrared Rays/adverse effects , Meteorology/analysis , Thermic Treatment
Int. j. morphol ; 34(1): 375-379, Mar. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780520


Un total de 24 ratas hembras de 4 meses de vida con peso aproximado de 250 g recibieron una solución de alcohol 40 % disuelto en agua lo cual derivó en una esteatosis alcohólica multivesicular. A 12 de estas ratas esteatósicas se le aplicó estimulaciones de láser infrarrojo con dosis de 8 J/cm2 durante 15 días consecutivos. Posteriormente las ratas fueron sacrificadas y se extrajeron muestras tanto de hígado esteatósico como del estimulado para enseguida ser procesadas para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. De hepatocitos esteatósicos y esteatósicos estimulados se obtuvieron microfotografías electrónicas de transmisión con aumentos finales de 9.500 X, las cuales fueron sometidas a estudios morfométricos para determinar tanto el número de poros nucleares como de fracciones volumétricas de los siguientes componentes celulares: Areas celular y nuclear, fracciones volumétricas de núcleos y nucléolos, eu y heterocromatina. De igual manera se determinó la relación nucleo-citoplasmática de ambos tipos celulares. Del análisis de los resultados entre hepatocitos alcohólicos y alcohólicos estimulados se visualiza que existen notables diferencias en todos los componentes celulares cuantificados. Se concluye que los efectos de la estimulación con lásr infrarrojo provoca en los hepatocitos una drástica transformación en su ultraestructura y en su morfología, situación que se traduciría, por ende, en una variación funcional, representando de esta manera el efecto que dicha estimulación provoca en los hepatocitos.

A total of 24 female rats, aged 4 months and weighing approximately 250 g and they given a solution of 40 % alcohol dissolved in water, leading to alcoholic multivesicular steatosis and 12 of rats was given and infrared laser with dose of 8 J/cm2 during 15 d. The rats were then killed and samples of steatosis and stimulated and were taken and processed for examination by transmission electron microscope. Transmission electron microscope microphotographs steatotic hepatocytes and stimulated steatotic were obtained with final magnification of 9,500 X. They were subjected to morphometric studies to determine the number of nuclear pores and volumetric fractions and areas the following components: cellular and nuclear area, volumetric fractions of nucleus, nucleolus, eu and heterochromatin, nucleocytoplamic ratio of each cell type was determined. Analysis of the results between alcoholic hepatocytes and stimulate alcoholic shows that noticeable differences exist in all the cell components quantified. It is concluded that the effects of the stimuli of laser infrared provoke in the hepatocytes, a drastic transformation of their ultrastructure and morphology. This finally leads to functional variations, representing the effects produced by this stimulate in the hepatocytes.

Animals , Female , Rats , Fatty Liver, Alcoholic/pathology , Hepatocytes/pathology , Hepatocytes/radiation effects , Infrared Rays , Lasers , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission