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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18628, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364417

ABSTRACT

Abstract Degenerative diseases diabetes and oxidative stress constitute a major health concern worldwide. Medicinal plants are expected to provide effective and affordable remedies. The present research explored antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of extracts of Carissa opaca roots. Methanolic extract (ME) was prepared through maceration. Its fractions were obtained, sequentially, in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. An aqueous decoction (AD) of the finely ground roots was obtained by boiling in distilled water. The leftover biomass with methanol was boiled in water to obtain biomass aqueous decoction (BAD). The extracts and fractions showed considerable porcine pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 in the range of 5.38-7.12 mg/mL while acarbose had 0.31 mg/mL. The iron chelating activity in terms of EC50 was 0.2939, 0.3429, 0.1876, and 0.1099 mg/mL for AD, BAD, ME, and EDTA, respectively. The EC50 of beta-carotene bleaching activity for AD, BAD, ME, and standard BHA were 4.10, 4.71, 3.48, and 2.79 mg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of AD and BAD were also considerable. In general, ethyl acetate fraction proved to be the most potent. Thus, the C. opaca roots had excellent antioxidant activity while having moderate α-amylase inhibitory potentia


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/analysis , Iron Chelating Agents/analysis , beta Carotene/analysis , Apocynaceae/classification , Disease , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18594, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364422

ABSTRACT

Abstract Traditionally dates is consumed as a rich source of iron supplement and the current research discuss the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using methanolic seed extract of Rothan date and its application over in vitro anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity against lung cancer cell line (A549). FTIR result of synthesised AgNPs reveals the presence of functional group OH as capping agent. XRD pattern confirms the crystalline nature of the AgNPs with peaks at 38º, 44º, 64º and 81º, indexed by (111), (200), (220) and (222) in the 2θ range of 10-90, indicating the face centered cubic (fcc) structure of metallic Ag. HR- TEM results confirm the morphology of AgNPs as almost spherical with high surface areas and average size of 42 ± 9nm. EDX spectra confirmed that Ag is only the major element present and the Dynamic light scattering (DLS) assisted that the Z-average size was 203nm and 1.0 of PdI value. Zeta potential showed − 26.5mv with a single peak. The results of the biological activities of AgNPs exhibited dose dependent activity with 68.44% for arthritic, antiinflammatory with 63.32% inhibition and anti-proliferative activity illustrated IC50 value of 59.66 µg/mL expressing the potential of AgNPs to combat cancer


Subject(s)
Silver , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chronology as Topic , Nanoparticles , Phoeniceae/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/classification , Seeds , zeta Potential , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Dosage/methods
3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 877-888, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922482

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, effective treatment options remain very limited for this disease; therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-COVID-19 agents. In this study, we screened over 6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and pharmacologically active compounds to identify leads that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Together with main protease (M


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e181086, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350237

ABSTRACT

Malaria is nowadays one of the most serious health concerns in a global scale and, although there is an evident increase in research studies in this area, pointed by the vast number of hits and leads, it still appears as a recurrent topic every year due to the drug resistance shown by the parasite exposing the urgent need to develop new antimalarial medications. In this work, 38 molecules were synthesized via copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) or "click" chemistry, following different routes to produce 2 different organic azides, obtained from a 4,7 dicholoquinoline, reacted with 19 different commercially available terminal alkynes. All those new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against the chloroquine resistant malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (W2). The cytotoxicity evaluation was accomplished using Hep G2 cells and SI index was calculated for every molecule. Some of the quinoline derivatives have shown high antimalarial activity, with IC50 values in the range of 1.72-8.66 µM, low cytotoxicity, with CC50>1000 µM and selectivity index (SI) in the range of 20-100, with some compounds showing SI>800. Therefore, the quinolinotriazole hybrids could be considered a very important step on the development of new antimalarial drugs


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/analysis , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Research/classification , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Chimera/abnormalities , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Click Chemistry
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18973, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249174

ABSTRACT

A self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) composed of ethyl oleate, Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 600 was prepared as a new route to improve the efficacy of imatinib. The drug-loaded SNEDDS formed nanodroplets of ethyl oleate stabilized by Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 600 with a diameter of 81.0±9.5 nm. The nanoemulsion-based delivery system was stable for at least two months, with entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of 16.4±0.1 and 48.3±0.2%, respectively. Imatinib-loaded SNEDDS was evaluated for the drug release profiles, and its effectiveness against MCF-7 cell line was investigated. IC50 values for the imatinib-loaded SNEDDS and an imatinib aqueous solution were 3.1 and 6.5 µg mL-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Efficacy/classification , Imatinib Mesylate/adverse effects , Polyethylene Glycols/analysis , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , MCF-7 Cells/classification , Drug Liberation/drug effects
6.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 7(2): 29-38, nov. 2019. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1178625

ABSTRACT

La tripanosomiasis americana es una enfermedad infecciosa desatendida, causada por el parásito protozoo Trypanosoma cruzi, que no cuenta con tratamiento en la fase crónica de esta enfermedad mortal, uno de los desafíos es encontrar terapias efectivas para esta compleja enfermedad, dado que no presenta síntomas asociables a la parasitosis por lo que es desconocida entre los médicos tradicionales. Nuestra Facultad está evaluando la medicina tradicional tacana como fuente de agentes antiparasitarios potenciales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar productos naturales trypanocidas utilizando el método colorimétrico XTT-PMS. Para ello, se realizaron curvas de crecimiento de epimastigotes de T. cruzi y determinamos el tiempo óptimo de realización de los ensayos. Se seleccionó la población inicial de trabajo (3x106 parásitos/mL), las condiciones de incubación (medio LIT, 27ºC, 72 horas) y revelado (XTT-PMS, 4 horas). Con el protocolo optimizado, se realizaron evaluaciones de actividad de drogas control, controles naturales y 20 extractos crudos de plantas medicinales de la amazonía. La actividad se basó en cálculos de concentración inhibitoria media y se consideraron activos las sustancias con CI50<50µg/mL. De los 20 extractos evaluados, el 40% fueron activos. Las plantas más interesantes fueron Sipu sipu (CI50=8.9±1.7µg/mL), Ejije bid'u (CI50=9.1±1.5µg/mL) e Id'ene eidhue (CI50=10.8±1.1µg/mL) con valores de CI50 cercanos a los controles, confirmando la utilidad y potencial del protocolo desarrollado


American trypanosomiasis is listed among the unattended infectious disease, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and has no treatment in the chronic phase of this deadly disease. One of the challenges is finding effective therapies for this complex disease, given that it does not present any associated symptoms to the parasitism and is unknown among traditional doctors. Our Faculty is evaluating tacana traditional medicine as a source of potential antiparasitic agents. The objective of this work was to identify trypanocidal natural products using the XTTPMS colorimetric method. For this, growth curves of T. cruzi epimastigotes were made to determine the optimal time to carry out the tests. The initial work population (3x106 parasites/mL), the incubation conditions (medium LIT, 27ºC, 72 hours) and revealed process (XTT-PMS, 4 hours) were selected. With the optimized protocol, activity evaluations of control drugs, natural controls and 20 crude extracts of medicinal plants of the Amazon were carried out. The activity was based on calculations of mean inhibitory concentration and substances with IC50 <50µg/mL were considered active. Of the 20 extracts evaluated, 40% were active. The most interesting plants were Sipu sipu (IC50=8.9±1.7µg/mL), Ejije bid'u (IC50=9.1±1.5µg/mL) and Id'ene eidhue (IC50=10.8±1.1µg/mL) with values of IC50 close to the controls, confirming the usefulness and potential of the developed protocol.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Medicine, Traditional , Therapeutics , Trypanosoma cruzi , Pharmaceutical Preparations
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776883

ABSTRACT

Jatrogricaine A (1), a new diterpenoid possessing a 5/6/6/4 carbon ring system, together with eight known diterpenoids (2-9) were isolated from the stems of Jatropha podagrica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and compound 3 showed significant inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells with an IC of 13.44 ± 0.28 μmol·L, being comparable to the positive control, quercetin (IC 17.00 ± 2.10 μmol·L).


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Carbon , Diterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Jatropha , Chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides , Toxicity , Macrophages , Metabolism , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776882

ABSTRACT

Four new octadecanoid derivatives (1-4) including a pair of enantiomers (1/2), along with 12 known analogues (5-16), were isolatedfrom the seeds of Ipomoea nil. Their structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and comparison with reported data of structurally related compounds, with the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 being assigned by an in situ dimolybdenum ECD method. Our bioassays revealed that these isolates did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity while 10 and 13 displayed better α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the positive control acarbose (IC 167.7 ± 1.55 μmol·L), with IC of 92.73 ± 3.12 and 11.39 ± 2.18μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids , Chemistry , Metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Chemistry , Metabolism , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Ipomoea nil , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Seeds , Chemistry
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763032

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as quinoline, quinazolinones and indole are scaffolds of natural products and have broad biological effects. During the last years those structures have been intensively synthesized and modified to yield new synthetic molecules that can specifically inhibit the activity of dysregulated protein kinases in cancer cells. Herein, a series of newly synthesized isoquinolinamine (FX-1 to 8) and isoindoloquinazolinone (FX-9, FX-42, FX-43) compounds were evaluated in regards to their anti-leukemic potential on human B- and T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Several biological effects were observed. B-ALL cells (SEM, RS4;11) were more sensitive against isoquinolinamine compounds than T-ALL cells (Jurkat, CEM). In SEM cells, metabolic activity decreased with 10 μM up to 26.7% (FX-3), 25.2% (FX-7) and 14.5% (FX-8). The 3-(p-Tolyl) isoquinolin-1-amine FX-9 was the most effective agent against B- and T-ALL cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.54 to 1.94 μM. None of the tested compounds displayed hemolysis on erythrocytes or cytotoxicity against healthy leukocytes. Anti-proliferative effect of FX-9 was associated with changes in cell morphology and apoptosis induction. Further, influence of FX-9 on PI3K/AKT, MAPK and JAK/STAT signaling was detected but was heterogeneous. Functional inhibition testing of 58 kinases revealed no specific inhibitory activity among cancer-related kinases. In conclusion, FX-9 displays significant antileukemic activity in B- and T-ALL cells and should be further evaluated in regards to the mechanisms of action. Further compounds of the current series might serve as templates for the design of new compounds and as basic structures for modification approaches.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Biological Products , Erythrocytes , Hemolysis , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leukocytes , Phosphotransferases , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Protein Kinases , Quinazolinones
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vascular inflammation is an important feature in the atherosclerotic process. Recent studies report that leaves and branches of Carpinus turczaninowii (C. turczaninowii) have antioxidant capacity and exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, no study has reported the regulatory effect of C. turczaninowii extract on the arterial inflammatory response. This study therefore investigated modulation of the arterial inflammatory response after exposure to C. turczaninowii extract, using human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). MATERIALS/METHODS: Scavenging activity of free radicals, total phenolic content (TPC), cell viability, mRNA expressions, and secreted levels of cytokines were measured in LPS-stimulated (10 ng/mL) HAoSMCs treated with the C. turczaninowii extract. RESULTS: C. turczaninowii extract contains high amounts of TPC (225.6 ± 21.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of the extract), as well as exerts time-and dose-dependent increases in strongly scavenged free radicals (average 14.8 ± 1.97 µg/mL IC50 at 40 min). Cell viabilities after exposure to the extracts (1 and 10 µg/mL) were similar to the viability of non-treated cells. Cytokine mRNA expressions were significantly suppressed by the extracts (1 and 10 µg/mL) at 6 hours (h) after exposure. Interleukin-6 secretion was dose-dependently suppressed 2 h after incubation with the extract, at 1–10 µg/mL in non-stimulated cells, and at 5 and 10 µg/mL in LPS-stimulated cells. Similar patterns were also observed at 24 h after incubation with the extract (at 1–10 µg/mL in non-stimulated cells, and at 10 µg/mL in the LPS-stimulated cells). Soluble intracellular vascular adhesion molecules (sICAM-1) secreted from non-stimulated cells and LPS-stimulated cells were similarly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h exposure to the extracts, but not after 2 h. In addition, sICAM-1 concentration after 24 h treatment was positively related to IL-6 levels after 2 h and 24 h exposure (r = 0.418, P = 0.003, and r = 0.524, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that C. turczaninowii modulates the arterial inflammatory response, and indicates the potential to be applied as a therapeutic use for atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Betulaceae , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Free Radicals , Gallic Acid , Humans , Inflammation , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Interleukin-6 , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Phenol , RNA, Messenger
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although aged black garlic has various biological activities such as anti-allergy, anti-inflammation and neuroprotection, effect of aged black garlic on chemically contact dermatitis is unclarified. MATERIALS/METHODS: To evaluate anti-dermatitic activity of aged black garlic extract, we investigated effects of a fraction of aged black garlic extract (BG10) on both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: BG10 almost inhibited formation of nitric monoxide and interleukin-6 (IL-6; IC50, 7.07 µg/mL) at 25 µg/mL, and dose-dependently reduced production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; IC50, 52.07 µg/mL) and prostaglandin E2 (IC50, 38.46 µg/mL) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, BG10 significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear NF-κB, and improved that of cytosolic levels of NF-κB and IκBα in the cells. Consistent with in vitro studies, BG10 (0.5 mg/mL) not only reduced ear edema but also suppressed the formation of IL-6 and TNF-α induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in ear tissues of mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest BG10 has anti-dermatitic activity through inhibiting activation of macrophages. Therefore, such effects of BG10 may provide information for the application of aged black garlic for prevention and therapy of contact dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Cytosol , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Contact , Dinoprostone , Ear , Edema , Garlic , In Vitro Techniques , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Mice , Necrosis , Neuroprotection , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
12.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 233-237, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760567

ABSTRACT

Three Diels-Alder type adducts, guangsangon E (1), chalcomoracin (2) and sorocein I (3) were isolated from hairy root cultures of Morus macroura. The structures of the isolated compounds (1 – 3) were determined by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS), and spectral comparison to literature. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds (1 – 3) were investigated against P-388 murine leukemia cell line. Guangsangon E (1) showed the most potent cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cell line with IC₅₀ value of 2.75 ± 0.32 µg/mL. To the best of our knowledge, guangsangon E (1) and sorocein I (3) were reported for the first time from the tissue cultures of M. macroura.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leukemia , Methods , Morus
13.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 122-129, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760554

ABSTRACT

The roots of Phlomis umbrosa (Turcz.) (Phlomidis Radix) have been traditionally used to treat cold, reduce swelling and staunch bleeding. Four iridoids (1 – 3 and 5) and six phenylethanoid derivatives (4, and 6 – 10) were isolated from the roots of P. umbrosa. A simple, sensitive, and reliable analytical HPLC/PDA method was developed, validated, and applied to determine 10 marker compounds in Phlomidis Radix. Furthermore, the isolates were evaluated for cytotoxic and anti-oxidant activities as well as DPPH-HPLC method. Among them, compounds 4 and 6 – 9 displayed potent anti-oxidant capacities using DPPH assay with IC50 values of 27.7 ± 2.4, 10.2 ± 1.1, 18.0 ± 0.8, 19.1 ± 0.3, and 19.9 ± 0.6 µM, and compounds 6, 8, and 9 displayed significant cytotoxic activity against HL-60 with IC50 values of 35.4 ± 3.1, 18.6 ± 2.0, and 42.9 ± 3.0 µM, respectively.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhage , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Iridoids , Methods , Phlomis
14.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 130-135, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760553

ABSTRACT

The purification of the MeOH extract from Impatiens balsamina by repeated column chromatography led to the isolation of one new tetrahydronaphthalene (1), together with eleven known compounds (2 – 12). The structure of the new compound (1) was determined by spectral data analysis (1H and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, and HR-ESI-MS). Isolated compounds (1 – 12) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-activated murine microglial BV-2 cells and their effects on NGF secretion from C6 glioma cells. Compounds 3, 7, and 10 reduced NO levels in LPS-activated murine microglial cells with IC50 values of 26.89, 25.59, and 44.21 µM, respectively. Compounds 1, 5, and 9 upregulated NGF secretion to 153.09 ± 4.66, 156.88 ± 8.86, and 157.34 ± 3.30%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Balsaminaceae , Chromatography , Glioma , Impatiens , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Nerve Growth Factor , Neuroprotective Agents , Statistics as Topic
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719643

ABSTRACT

The apoptotic effects of shikonin (5,8-dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methylpent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione) on the human colon cancer cell line SNU-407 were investigated in this study. Shikonin showed dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against SNU-407 cells, with an estimated IC50 value of 3 µM after 48 h of treatment. Shikonin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by apoptotic body formation, sub-G1 phase cells, and DNA fragmentation. Shikonin induced apoptotic cell death by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase family members, and the apoptotic process was mediated by the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to activation of the PERK/elF2α/CHOP apoptotic pathway, and mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Shikonin increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization and altered the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, with a decrease in B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein, and subsequently, increased expression of cleaved forms of caspase-9 and -3. Taken together, we suggest that these mechanisms, including MAPK signaling and the ER-and mitochondria-mediated pathways, may underlie shikonin-induced apoptosis related to its anticancer effect.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , DNA Fragmentation , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Membranes , Protein Kinases
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 382-386, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041466

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION This study assessed the activity of compounds from Piper tuberculatum against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania guyanensis. METHODS The effects of compounds from P. tuberculatum fruits on P. falciparum and L. guyanensis promastigote growth in vitro were determined. Hemolytic action and cytotoxicity in HepG2 and J774 cells were measured. RESULTS Three compounds showed strong antiplasmodial activity and one compound showed strong antileishmanial activity. Two compounds were non-toxic to HepG2 cells and all were toxic to J774 cells. The compounds showed no hemolytic activity. CONCLUSIONS The tested compounds from P. tuberculatum exhibited antiparasitic and cytotoxic effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Leishmania guyanensis/drug effects , Piper/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Toxicity Tests , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(2): 102-110, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood), is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1), 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2), 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3), piliformic acid (4), hydroheptelidic acid (5), xylaric acid D (6), and cytochalasin D (7). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V.) braziliensis than to mammalian cells.


Subject(s)
Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Toxicity Tests , Caesalpinia/microbiology , Cell Survival , Chlorocebus aethiops , Inhibitory Concentration 50
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812431

ABSTRACT

The underground cane of Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) has long been used by Chinese ethnic minority as a constituent of anti-cancer formulae. Saponins are abundant secondary metabolic products located in the underground cane of this plant. The potential therapeutic effects of total saponins isolated from Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) (SSPH) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were tested in vitro in human liver cancer cell lines, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7404. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined using flow cytometry, caspase activation was determined by ELISA, and PARP, cleaved PARP, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression and phosphorylation were measured using Western blotting analysis. In vivo anti-HCC effects of SSPH were verified in nude mouse xenograft model. SSPH exerted markedly inhibitory effect on HCC cell proliferation in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, SSPH significantly induced apoptosis through caspase-dependent signaling and arrested cell cycle at G/M phase. These anti-proliferation effects of SSPH were associated with up-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (Erk1/2) and c-jun-NH2-kinase-1/2 (JNK1/2) and reduced phosphorylation of p38MAPK. Furthermore, inhibitors of ERK, UO126, and JNK, SP600125 inhibited the anti-proliferation effects by SSPH, suggesting that Erk and JNK were the effector molecules in SSPH induced anti-proliferative action. During in vivo experiments, SSPH was found to inhibit xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, with a similar mechanism in vitro. Our study confirmed that SSPH exerted antagonistic effects on human liver cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Molecular mechanisms underlying SSPH action might be closely associated with MAPK signaling pathways. These results indicated that SSPH has potential therapeutic effects on HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Apoptosis , Caspases , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Dioscoreaceae , Chemistry , Heterografts , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Liver Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , Mice, Nude , Phosphorylation , Plant Tubers , Chemistry , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 , Metabolism , Saponins , Pharmacology , Toxicity
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812380

ABSTRACT

Two previously undescribed steroidal compounds, 16, 23-epoxy-22, 26-epimino-cholest-22(N), 23, 25(26)-trien-3β-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furost-20(22)-en-3β, 26-diol (2), together with 7 known ones including 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5, 20(22)-dien-furost-3β, 26-diol (3), (25R)-5-en-spirost-3β-ol-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhmanopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (4), funkioside D (5), aspidistrin (6), tigogenin-3-O-β-D-lucotrioside (7), desglucolanatigonin II (8), and degalactotigonin (9), were isolated from Solanum lyratum Thunb. Their cytotoxic activities were tested in two cancer cell lines by MTT method. One of the steroidal glycosides (6) showed significant cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer SGC7901 and liver cancer BEL-7402 cells.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Toxicity , Antineoplastic Agents , Chemistry , Toxicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Glycosides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Structure , Phytosterols , Chemistry , Toxicity , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Toxicity , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Solanum , Chemistry , Sterols , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812375

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to develop a practical strategy to tackle the problem of lacking standard compounds and limited references for identifying structure-related compounds in Streptocaulon griffithii Hook. f., especially those in trace concentrations, with a focus on antitumor activity. The cardiac glycosides (CGs)-enriched part was determined using in vitro bioactive assays in three cancer cell lines and then isolated using macroporous resins. The MS and MS/MS data were acquired using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS) system. To acquire data of trace compound in the extract, a multiple segment program was applied to modify the HPLC-Q-TOF-MS method. A mass defect filter (MDF) approach was employed to make a primary MS data filtration. Utilizing a MATLAB program, the redundant peaks obtained by imprecise MDF template calculated with limited references were excluded by fragment ion classification, which was based on the ion occurrence number in the MDF-filtered total ion chromatograms (TIC). Additionally, the complete cleavage pathways of CG aglycones were proposed to assist the structural identification of 29 common fragment ions (CFIs, ion occurrence number ≥ 5) and diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs, ion occurrence number < 5). As a result, 30 CGs were filtered out from the MDF results, among which 23 were identified. This newly developed strategy may provide a rapid and effective tool for identifying structure-related compounds in herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Animals , Apocynaceae , Chemistry , Cardiac Glycosides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Computational Biology , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , MCF-7 Cells , Mice , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Workflow
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