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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 764-770, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the anatomical variations of the motor branches of the radial nerve in the elbow region. The origin, course, length, branches, motor points and relationships with neighboring structures were evaluated. Materials and Methods Thirty limbs from15 adult cadavers were dissected and prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% glycerin and formaldehyde solution. Results The first branch of the radial nerve in the forearm went to the brachioradialis muscle (BR), originating proximally to the division of the radial nerve into superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) in all limbs. The branches to the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (ECRL) detached from the proximal radial nerve to its division into 26 limbs, in 2, at the dividing points, in other 2, from the PIN. In six limbs, the branches to the BR and ECRL muscles originated from a common trunk. We identified the origin of the branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (ECRB) in the PIN in 14 limbs, in the SBRN in 12, and in the radial nerve in only 4. The branch to the supinator muscle originated from the PIN in all limbs. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomy of the motor branches of the radial nerve is important when performing surgical procedures in the region (such as the approach of the proximal third and the head of the radius, release of compressive syndromes of the posterior interosseous nerve and radial tunnel, and distal nerve transfers) in order to understand the order of recovery of muscle function after a nerve injury.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar as variações anatômicas dos ramos motores do nervo radial na região do cotovelo. Foram avaliadas a origem, curso, comprimento, ramificações, pontos motores e relações com estruturas vizinhas. Materiais e Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados O primeiro ramo do nervo radial no antebraço foi para o músculo braquiorradial (BR), que se origina proximalmente à divisão do nervo radial em ramo superficial do nervo radial (RSNR) e nervo interósseo posterior (NIP) em todos os membros. Os ramos para o músculo extensor radial longo do carpo (ERLC) se desprenderam do nervo radial proximalmente à sua divisão em 26 membros, em 2, nos pontos de divisão, em outros 2, do NIP. Em seis, os ramos para os músculos BR e ERLC originavam-se de um tronco comum. Identificamos a origem do ramo para o músculo extensor radial curto do carpo (ERCC) no NIP em 14 membros, no RSNR em 12, e no nervo radial em apenas 4. O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do NIP em todos os membros. Conclusão O conhecimento da anatomia dos ramos motores do nervo radial é importante quando se realizam procedimentos cirúrgicos na região, como a abordagem do terço proximal e da cabeça do rádio, a liberação das síndromes compressivas do nervo interósseo posterior e do túnel radial, as transferências nervosas distais, e para entender a ordem de recuperação da função muscular após uma lesão nervosa.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Radius , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wrist , Cadaver , Nerve Transfer , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Elbow , Extremities , Forearm , Forearm Injuries , Glycerol , Head , Anatomy , Injections, Intra-Arterial
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(6): e201900604, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019261

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose In view of the principal role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in mediating sterile inflammatory response contributing to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known TLR4 activator, to clarify whether modulation of TLR4 contributed to the protective actions of intra-articular administration of curcumin in a classical rat OA model surgically induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). Methods The rats underwent ACLT and received 50μl of curcumin at the concentration of 1 mg mL-1 and 10 μg LPS by intra-articular injection once a week for 8 weeks. Morphological changes of the cartilage and synovial tissues were observed. Apoptotic chondrocytes were detected using TUNEL assay. The concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-ɑ in synovial fluid were determined using ELISA kits. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results Intra-articular administration of curcumin significantly improved articular cartilage injury, suppressed synovial inflammation and down-regulated the overexpression of TLR4 and its downstream NF-κB caused by LPS-induced TLR4 activation in rat osteoarthritic knees. Conclusion The data suggested that the inhibition of TLR4 signal might be an important mechanism underlying a protective effect of local curcumin administration on OA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoarthritis/prevention & control , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery , Curcumin/pharmacology , Osteoarthritis/chemically induced , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lipopolysaccharides , Blotting, Western , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lymphotoxin-alpha/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 4/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Injections, Intra-Arterial
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763506

ABSTRACT

Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood. Diagnosis is currently made by ophthalmologists under general anesthesia as it is the gold standard for intraocular assessment. However, evaluations for extraocular disease are also necessary. Treatment strategies vary according to the disease status. If a single eye is involved, the treatment goal is oriented to the removal of the tumor and prevention of relapse. In bilateral retinoblastoma, the main treatment goal is to save monocular vision and save life. This article will explore the available treatment options for retinoblastoma including enucleation, radiotherapy, local therapy, intravenous chemotherapy, intra-arterial injection and intra-vitreal injections. There were recent advances in our understanding on the genetic pathophysiology of the retinoblastoma protein gene in tumorigenesis, which may help developing future treatment. Early detection of retinoblastoma is important for prolonging survival and improving quality of life.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Carcinogenesis , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retinoblastoma Protein , Retinoblastoma , Stem Cell Transplantation , Vision, Monocular
4.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 333-336, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762229

ABSTRACT

The authors report a rare variation of the vasculature in the upper limbs of an 84-year-old male cadaver. A high bifurcation of the brachial artery occurred bilaterally at the proximal one-third of each arm. The radial arteries were larger than the ulnar arteries and gave origin to the common interosseous arteries. At the cubital fossa, the ulnar arteries traversed medial to the median nerves, continuing superficial to all forearm muscles except the palmaris longus tendon, characteristic of superficial brachioulnar arteries. The aforementioned variations have rarely been reported in previous literature and demonstrate important clinical significance in relation to accidental intra-arterial injections, errors in blood pressure readings, as well as orthopedic, plastic, and vascular surgeries of the upper limbs.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Arm , Arteries , Blood Pressure , Brachial Artery , Cadaver , Forearm , Humans , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Male , Median Nerve , Muscles , Orthopedics , Plastics , Radial Artery , Reading , Tendons , Ulnar Artery , Upper Extremity
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(11): 765-773, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827664

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of a knee osteoarthritis model through functional, radiological and microscopic changes of the synovial membrane. METHODS: Forty eight rats were divided randomly into two groups. The first received 0.9% saline in the joint and corresponded to the control group. The second was submitted to experimental osteoarthritis of the right knee induced by monosodium iodoacetate and corresponded to the osteoarthritis group. All animals were subjected to comparative tests of forced ambulation and joint movements, inability to articulate and tactile allodynia on day 1 post-experiment by forced ambulation (Roto-rod test), joint assessment of disability (weight bearing test) and assessment of tactile allodynia (Von Frey test). After inflammatory induction they were divided into four sub-groups corresponding to the scheduled death in 7, 14, 21 and 28 days when they were submitted to radiographic examination of the knee, arthrotomy and collection of the synovial membrane. RESULTS: The osteoarthritis group showed significant differences compared to control group on days 7 and 14 in Roto-rod, in weight bearing and Von Frey tests in all days, and in radiological evaluation. Microscopic examination of the synovial membrane showed abnormalities of inflammatory character at all stages. CONCLUSION: The osteoarthritis induced by intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate in rats knee is a good model to be used in related research, because it provides mensurable changes on joint movements, tactile allodynia, progressive radiological degeneration and microscopic inflammation of the synovial membrane, that represent markers for osteoarthritis evaluation


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Synovial Membrane/pathology , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Osteoarthritis, Knee/chemically induced , Iodoacetic Acid/adverse effects , Knee Joint/physiopathology , Synovial Membrane/diagnostic imaging , Rats, Wistar , Osteoarthritis, Knee/physiopathology , Osteoarthritis, Knee/pathology , Iodoacetic Acid/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperalgesia/physiopathology , Hyperalgesia/chemically induced , Hyperalgesia/pathology , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Knee Joint/physiology , Movement
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(5): 456-464, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794812

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Intra-arterial injection of medications may cause acute and severe ischemia and result in morbidity and mortality. There is no information in the literature evaluating the arterial endothelial effects of sugammadex and dexmedetomidine. The hypothesis of our study is that sugammadex and dexmedetomidine will cause histological changes in arterial endothelial structure when administered intra-arterially. Methods: Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group Control (n = 7); no intervention performed. Group Catheter (n = 7); a cannula inserted in the central artery of the ear, no medication was administered. Group Sugammadex (n = 7); rabbits were given 4 mg/kg sugammadex into the central artery of the ear, and Group Dexmedetomidine (n = 7); rabbits were given 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine into the central artery of the ear. After 72 h, the ears were amputated and histologically investigated. Results: There was no significant difference found between the control and catheter groups in histological scores. The endothelial damage, elastic membrane and elastic fiber damage, smooth muscle hypertrophy and connective tissue increase scores in the dexmedetomidine and sugammadex groups were significantly higher than both the control and the catheter groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference found between the dexmedetomidine and sugammadex groups in histological scores. Conclusion: Administration of sugammadex and dexmedetomidine to rabbits by intra-arterial routes caused histological arterial damage. To understand the histological changes caused by sugammadex and dexmedetomidine more clearly, more experimental research is needed.


Resumo Justificativa: A injeção intra-arterial de medicamentos pode causar isquemia aguda e grave e resultar em morbidade e mortalidade. Não há informações na literatura que avaliem os efeitos endoteliais arteriais de sugamadex e dexmedetomidina. A hipótese de nosso estudo foi que dexmedetomidina e sugamadex causariam alterações histológicas na estrutura endotelial arterial quando administrados por via intra-arterial. Método: Os coelhos foram randomicamente divididos em quatro grupos: grupo controle (n = 7), sem intervenção; grupo cateter (n = 7), uma cânula foi inserida na artéria central da orelha e medicamentos não foram administrados; grupo sugamadex (n = 7), receberam 4 mg/kg de sugamadex na artéria central da orelha; grupo dexmedetomidina (n = 7), receberam 1 µg/kg de dexmedetomidina na artéria central da orelha. Após 72 horas, as orelhas foram amputadas e histologicamente examinadas. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos controle e cateter referente aos escores histológicos. Os escores do dano causado ao endotélio e à membrana e fibra elásticas, da hipertrofia do músculo liso e do aumento do tecido conjuntivo foram significativamente maiores nos grupos dexmedetomidina e sugamadex do que nos grupos controle e cateter (p < 0,05). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos dexmedetomidina e sugamadex nos escores histológicos. Conclusão: A administração de sugamadex e dexmedetomidina a coelhos por via intra-arterial causou danos arteriais histológicos. Para entender as alterações histológicas causadas por sugamadex e dexmedetomidina com mais clareza, estudos experimentais adicionais são necessários.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , gamma-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Arteries/anatomy & histology , Arteries/drug effects , Rabbits , Endothelium, Vascular/anatomy & histology , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , gamma-Cyclodextrins/administration & dosage , Ear, External/blood supply , Sugammadex , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(9): 602-607, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795993

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To compare two different experimental models of osteoarthritis in rabbits: intra-articular collagenase injection and anterior cruciate ligament transection. METHODS: Ten adult rabbits were randomly divided in two groups: COLL (collagenase group) and ACLT (anterior cruciate ligament transection). The COLL group was treated with 0.5 ml collagenase solution (2mg collagenase/0.5 ml sterile PBS), and the ACTL group was subjected to anterior cruciate ligament. After six and twelve weeks, respectively, the animals in the COLL and ACTL groups were euthanized. The gross appearance and histological examinations conducted in the cartilage articular surface was blindly scored according to the criteria developed by Yoshimi et al. (1994) and Mankin et al. (1971), respectively. RESULTS: The gross morphologic observation, macroscopic score and histological examinations have demonstrated that the ACTL group presented the highest scores, and lesions more severe than those in the COLL group. CONCLUSIONS: Both methods, anterior cruciate ligament transection and collagenase, applied to the stifle joint of the rabbits have effectively induced degenerative changes in the cartilage tissue, through statistically significant analysis (p≤0.05). The ACTL method has presented more severe lesions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Collagenases , Disease Models, Animal , Osteoarthritis/etiology , Cartilage, Articular/drug effects , Random Allocation , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/pathology , Collagenases/administration & dosage , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Knee Joint/drug effects , Knee Joint/pathology , Ligaments/pathology
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1095-1105, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34056

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Appropriate animal models of atherosclerotic plaque are crucial to investigating the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, as well as for the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of vascular devices. We aimed to develop a novel animal model that would be suitable for the study of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Atherosclerotic plaque was induced in 24 iliac arteries from 12 rabbits by combining a high cholesterol diet, endothelial denudation, and injection into the vessel wall with either saline (n=5), olive oil (n=6), or inflammatory proteins [n=13, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) n=8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α n=5] using a Cricket™ Micro-infusion catheter. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to detect plaque characteristics after 4 weeks, and all tissues were harvested for histological evaluation. RESULTS: Advanced plaque was more frequently observed in the group injected with inflammatory proteins. Macrophage infiltration was present to a higher degree in the HMGB1 and TNF-α groups, compared to the oil or saline group (82.1±5.1% and 94.6±2.2% compared to 49.6±14.0% and 46.5±9.6%, p-value<0.001), using RAM11 antibody staining. On OCT, lipid rich plaques were more frequently detected in the inflammatory protein group [saline group: 2/5 (40%), oil group: 3/5 (50%), HMGB1 group: 6/8 (75%), and TNF-α group: 5/5 (100%)]. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that this rabbit model of atherosclerotic lesion formation via direct injection of pro-inflammatory proteins into the vessel wall is useful for in vivo studies investigating atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholesterol, Dietary/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelium/surgery , HMGB1 Protein/adverse effects , Iliac Artery/diagnostic imaging , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Macrophages , Male , Olive Oil/adverse effects , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/chemically induced , Rabbits , Sodium Chloride/adverse effects , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/adverse effects
9.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 18(214): 955-960, set.2015. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-789988

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a ocorrência do erro no processo de preparo de medicação intravenosa em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. Trata-se de um estudo observacional de abordagem quantitativa, realizado em hospital universitário de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. A coleta dos dados ocorreu no mês de fevereiro de 2014, por meio de observação de 70 doses de medicações intravenosas. Destacaram-se como principais resultados inadequações do ambiente de preparo: local inadequado para higiene das mãos, não desinfecção de bancadas e interrupções durante o preparo; os erros devido às técnicas de preparo: não rotulação dos medicamentos, não utilização de máscara e não desinfecção de ampolas; e os erros de preparo, entre eles, erro de horário, não utilização da prescrição e não conferência dos cálculos de diluição. As falhas no preparo das medicações sinalizam a necessidade de educação permanente e sensibilização dos profissionais de enfermagem para a questão dos erros de medicação...


The objective of this study was to analyze the occurrence of the error in the process of intravenous medication preparation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. This is an observational study with a quantitative approach, conducted at a university hospital in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. Data collection occurred in February 2014, through observation of 70 doses of intravenous medications. Key findings included the physical environment inadequacies: inappropriate location for hand hygiene, absence of disinfecting countertops and interruptions during preparation; errors due to preparation techniques: absence of drug labeling, absence of mask usage and lack of disinfecting medication vial; and preparation errors, including time error, failure to use the prescription and failure to check dilution calculations. The flaws in the preparation of medications indicate the need for continuing education and awareness of nursing professionals related to medication errors...


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la incidencia dei error en el proceso de preparación de la medicación intravenosa en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales. Se trata de un estudio observacional con enfoque cuantitativo, realizado en hospital universitario en Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. La recolección de datos ocurrió en febrero de 2014, mediante la observación de 70 dosis de medicamentos por vía intravenosa. Se destacaron como principales resultados, las insuficiencias entorno de ensayo: lugar inapropiado para la higiene de manos, no la desinfección encimeras e interrupciones durante la preparación; errores debido a las técnicas de preparación: no etiquetado de los medicamentos, la falta de uso de la máscara y no desinfección bombillas; y los errores de preparación, entre ellos error de tiempo, no utilización de la prescripción y fuera de las conferencias de los cálculos de dilución. Las falias en la preparación de medicamentos senalan la necesidad de la educación y la sensibilización de los profesionales de enfermería la cuestión de los errores de medicación en curso...


Subject(s)
Humans , Nursing Care/methods , Medication Errors , Infusions, Intravenous/nursing , Injections, Intra-Arterial/nursing , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
11.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 122-125, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189320

ABSTRACT

For a small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver resection shows most favorable outcome in case which liver transplantation is not available, although it has also substantial recurrence rate. Here, we report a case of recurred HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastasis at 5 months after surgical resection for small HCC was done. A 55-year-old man with chronic HBV infection received subsegmentectomy for HCC less than 2 cm. A follow-up computed tomography (CT) at 5 months from operation revealed that there were multiple enhancing nodules in entire remnant liver. Intra-arterial injections of adriamycin mixed lipiodol and gelfoam particles were instituted through hepatic artery. We assume that poorly differentiated cellular feature would be attributable to this kind of very early and aggressive recurrence of HCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Doxorubicin , Ethiodized Oil , Follow-Up Studies , Gelatin Sponge, Absorbable , Hepatic Artery , Humans , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Liver , Liver Transplantation , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence
13.
Rev. Soc. Colomb. Oftalmol ; 48(3): 223-231, 2015. tab. graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-915237

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la tendencia de uso de medicamentos AntiVEGF en las patologías oftalmológicas en la Clínica de Oftalmología de Cali y comparar con otros escenarios nacionales. Metodología: se realizó un estudio descriptivo que determinó la tendencia de uso de AntiVEGF en la Clínica de Oftalmología de Cali. Se construyeron indicadores sobre el número de inyecciones ordenadas por cada 100 consultas de oftalmología y se determinó la tendencia de aplicación por cada tipo de AntiVEGF, en el periodo 2013-2014. Basados en los datos de ventas por Lucentis por ciudad, se construyeron indicadores proxy similares para las otras ciudades, teniendo en cuenta las poblaciones mayores de 35 años proyectadas para las ciudades por el DANE. Los datos se expresan en tasas por 100.000 habitantes. La comparación de tasas se realizó por el método indirecto. Adicionalmente se realizó una revisión documental sobre los costos de los medicamentos AntiVEGF y las disposiciones legales y normativas sobre su uso en Colombia. Estos se presentan de forma descriptiva. Resultados: se encontró que la tendencia de uso de AntiVEGF está en aumento, con una frecuencia de 8 indicaciones de AntiVEGF por cada 100 consultas por retinólogo. En 2013 fue de 7 por cada 100 consultas que aumentó a 9 por cada 100 consultas en el año 2014. Existe una tendencia creciente de aplicar 2 inyecciones más de AntiVEGF por cada mes transcurrido El Avastin mantiene una tendencia estable con escasas variaciones Existe una variación importante en la tasa de inyecciones por 100.000 habitantes entre las diferentes ciudades en Colombia. Conclusiones: hay una tendencia al aumento del uso de medicamentos AntiVEGF intravitreos, con el consecuente gasto en salud asociado. Esto necesariamente afecta los recursos del Sistema general de Seguridad Social en Salud de Colombia, por lo que es importante conocer adecuadamente las indicaciones y el costo-beneficio del tratamiento, no sólo en términos del individuo, sino en términos de la comunidad.


Objective: to determine trend of use of anti VEGF in eye diseases in an ophthalmology clinic in Cali and compare with other national settings. Methodology: a descriptive study that determined the use of anti-VEGF trend in Clínica de Oftalmología de Cali was conducted. Indicators on the number of injections per 100 ophthalmology visits and trend of application for each type of anti-VEGF was determined, in the period 2013-2014. Based in sales data by a pharmacological company, proxy indicators were built to compare with other cities, considering population above 35 years old acording to DANE projections. Data are expressed in rates per 100,000 inhabitants rates comparison was performed by the indirect method. Additionally a literature review on the costs of the anti-VEGF drugs and the laws and regulations on its use in Colombia was made. These are presented descriptively. Results: It was found that the anti-VEGF's trend is increasing, with a frequency of 8 indications of antiVEGF per 100 consultations by retina specialist. In 2013 it was 7 indications per 100 consultations and increased to 9 indications per 100 consultations in 2014. There is a growing tendency to apply two more injections of anti-VEGF for each month elapsed. Avastin maintained a stable trend with few variations There is considerable variation injection rate per 100,000 among different cities in Colombia. Conclusions: There is a trend towards increased use of intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs, with consequent associated health spending. This necessarily affects the resources of the General System of Social Security in Health of Colombia, so it is important to properly understand the indications and the cost-benefit of treatment, not only in terms of the individual, but in terms of the community.


Subject(s)
Eye Diseases/therapy , Injections, Intra-Arterial/trends , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations/standards , Retinal Diseases/therapy
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788539

ABSTRACT

Retinoblastoma is a rare disease, but most common tumor which arises in eye. It can affect one or both eyes, and the main pathophysiology is explained by the "Two-hit theory" - the germline mutation of the RB1 gene. Most common clinical symptoms are leuocoria, strabismus, poor visual tracking, glaucoma, and orbital cellulitis. Diagnosis is made by ophthalmologist through fundoscopic examination; Examination under General Anesthesia (EUA) is recommended until the age 3. Orbital CT and MRI can detect the tumor invasion on optic nerve, central nervous system. CSF studies, examination of bone is helpful if the distant metastasis is suspected. Biopsy is rarely done unless in the case of enucleation. Enucleated eye should be explored for the invasion to the optic nerve, choroid, anterior chamber, iris and pupil. Treatment strategies can be different according to the disease status. If the single eye is involved, the treatment goal will be the removal of tumor and prevention of relapse. Local therapies include cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, thermotherapy can be the choice, and if the tumor is too large for the local therapy, enucleation should be concerned. Nowadays, chemo-reduction combined with local therapy, intra-arterial and intravitreous chemotherapeutic agent injections are studied to avoid enucleation. In bilateral retinoblastoma, multidisciplinary treatments include chemoreduction, external beam radiotherapy, local therapy and other experimental therapies are needed: like intra-arterial injection, intra-vitreal injection, and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation. Early detection of retinoblastoma is important to save the vision and eyeball.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Anterior Chamber , Biopsy , Central Nervous System , Choroid , Cryotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Eye Enucleation , Germ-Line Mutation , Glaucoma , Hyperthermia, Induced , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Intravitreal Injections , Iris , Light Coagulation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Optic Nerve , Orbit , Orbital Cellulitis , Pupil , Radiotherapy , Rare Diseases , Recurrence , Retinoblastoma , Stem Cell Transplantation , Strabismus , Therapies, Investigational
15.
Neurointervention ; : 22-27, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730305

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We present our experiences of intra-arterial tirofiban injection through a deployed Solitaire stent as a rescue therapy after failed mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 18 patients treated with adjunctive tirofiban injection through a temporarily deployed Solitaire stent after failed mechanical thrombectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Solitaire stent was used as a primary thrombectomy device in 16 of 18 patients. Two patients received manual aspiration thrombectomy initially. If initial mechanical thrombectomy failed, tirofiban was injected intra-arterially through the deployed Solitaire stent and then subsequent Solitaire thrombectomy was performed. RESULTS: Fourteen patients had occlusions in the middle cerebral artery, 2 in the distal internal carotid artery, and 2 in the basilar artery. Successful recanalization was achieved in 14 patients (77.7%) after intra-arterial injection of tirofiban and subsequent Solitaire thrombectomy. Three patients without successful recanalization after rescue method received angioplasty with stenting. Overall, successful recanalization (TICI grades 2b and 3) was achieved in 17 (94.4%) of 18 patients. Periprocedural complications occurred in 5 patients: distal migration of emboli in 5 patients and vessel perforation in 1. Three patients died. Good functional outcome (mRS < or = 2) was achieved in 9 patients (50.0%) at 3 months. CONCLUSION: Rescue intra-arterial injection of tirofiban through a temporarily deployed Solitaire stent may facilitate further recanalization in cases of failed mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty , Basilar Artery , Carotid Artery, Internal , Humans , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Mechanical Thrombolysis , Middle Cerebral Artery , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Stroke , Thrombectomy
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13545

ABSTRACT

Retinoblastoma is a rare disease, but most common tumor which arises in eye. It can affect one or both eyes, and the main pathophysiology is explained by the "Two-hit theory" - the germline mutation of the RB1 gene. Most common clinical symptoms are leuocoria, strabismus, poor visual tracking, glaucoma, and orbital cellulitis. Diagnosis is made by ophthalmologist through fundoscopic examination; Examination under General Anesthesia (EUA) is recommended until the age 3. Orbital CT and MRI can detect the tumor invasion on optic nerve, central nervous system. CSF studies, examination of bone is helpful if the distant metastasis is suspected. Biopsy is rarely done unless in the case of enucleation. Enucleated eye should be explored for the invasion to the optic nerve, choroid, anterior chamber, iris and pupil. Treatment strategies can be different according to the disease status. If the single eye is involved, the treatment goal will be the removal of tumor and prevention of relapse. Local therapies include cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, thermotherapy can be the choice, and if the tumor is too large for the local therapy, enucleation should be concerned. Nowadays, chemo-reduction combined with local therapy, intra-arterial and intravitreous chemotherapeutic agent injections are studied to avoid enucleation. In bilateral retinoblastoma, multidisciplinary treatments include chemoreduction, external beam radiotherapy, local therapy and other experimental therapies are needed: like intra-arterial injection, intra-vitreal injection, and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation. Early detection of retinoblastoma is important to save the vision and eyeball.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Anterior Chamber , Biopsy , Central Nervous System , Choroid , Cryotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Eye Enucleation , Germ-Line Mutation , Glaucoma , Hyperthermia, Induced , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Intravitreal Injections , Iris , Light Coagulation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Optic Nerve , Orbit , Orbital Cellulitis , Pupil , Radiotherapy , Rare Diseases , Recurrence , Retinoblastoma , Stem Cell Transplantation , Strabismus , Therapies, Investigational
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35498

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hydrofluoric acid (HFA) causes injury via tissue penetration by the free fluoride ion. Methods for treatment of HFA burns include continuous intra-arterial infusion of calcium gluconate, which is especially useful for patients with dermal burns of the digits caused by HFA. However, no comparative study of tissue injury grade with clinical factors among patients with HFA burns treated with continuous intra-arterial infusion of calcium gluconate has been conducted in Korea. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study at the emergency department of a university teaching hospital between January 2011 and June 2013. The subjects enrolled in this study consisted of 33 patients with HFA burns. After completion of treatment, we divided the patients into three groups according to the type of skin lesions. Patients requiring a skin graft or surgical flap were included in the poor outcome group, those who had to undergo incision and drainage in the moderate outcome group, and those who did not require further treatment in the good outcome group. RESULTS: After completion of all treatments, 22 of the 33 patients were included in the good outcome group and seven in the moderate outcome group; the remaining four patients were included in the poor outcome group, as they met the above-mentioned criteria, experienced longer-lasting pain, and were more frequently treated with injection in comparison with the other patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with HFA burns with long-term pain who need frequent arterial injections despite undergoing intra-arterial calcium gluconate treatment are likely to have poor outcome; therefore, they require more proactive interventions.


Subject(s)
Burns , Calcium Gluconate , Drainage , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fluorides , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Hydrofluoric Acid , Infusions, Intra-Arterial , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Korea , Prospective Studies , Skin , Surgical Flaps , Transplants
18.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 32(3): 186-190, set. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719979

ABSTRACT

O vasoespasmo cerebral é uma complicação relativamente frequente após episódios de hemorragia subaracnóidea de etiologia aneurismática. É responsável pela mortalidade de aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes e por sequelas neurológicas em 50% dos sobreviventes. Revisão de literatura realizada em julho de 2012. Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados PubMed e BVS e selecionados 37 artigos em português e inglês. A terapia do triplo H, largamente utilizada, diminui complicações isquêmicas, mas pode piorar comorbidades. A nimodipina ainda é a única droga que melhora comprovadamente o prognóstico do paciente. O tratamento endovascular pode ser baseado em angioplastia por balão, que dilata mecanicamente os vasos estreitados, ou em administração intra-arterial de agentes vasodilatadores, como a papaverina. Angioplastia profilática em determinados segmentos arteriais pode reduzir em até 10,4% as complicações isquêmicas. A angioplastia terapêutica tem melhores resultados quando realizada nas duas primeiras horas após a instalação do vasoespasmo sintomático. A papaverina induz melhora angiográfica em até 66% dos pacientes, mas pode estar relacionada à neurotoxicidade. A terapia endovascular parece ter resultados muito positivos para o tratamento do vasoespasmo cerebral. Pela falta de evidências, no entanto, deve ainda ser reservada para pacientes refratários ao tratamento clínico ou com complicações que o impeçam.


Cerebral vasospasm is a relatively frequent complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages. It leads to a 30% mortality rate of patients who survived the hemorrhage and the development of neurologic deficits for 50% of the remaining. This is a literature review performed in July, 2012. Two databases were surveyed: PubMed and VHL. Thirty-seven articles in English and Portuguese were selected. ?Triple-H? therapy, widely employed, reduces ischemic complications, but can deteriorate patient?s comorbidities. Nimodipine still the only certified drug for the treatment of vasospasm. Endovascular treatment can be performed through percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA), which enlarges vessels mechanically, or intra-arterial administration of vasodilating agents, such as papaverine. Prophylactic angioplasty in selected arterial segments can reduce ischemic complications in until 10.4%. Therapeutic angioplasty presents better outcome when performed in the first two hours after the development of symptomatic vasospasm. Papaverine induces angiographic improvement in 66% of patients, but can be related with neurotoxicity. Endovascular therapy seems to present very positive results for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. However, due to the lack of evidences, it should be reserved for when clinical treatment fails or cannot be performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Angioplasty , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/therapy , Injections, Intra-Arterial
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