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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 625-633, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440306

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: One of the reasons for acute kidney damage is renal ischemia. Nevertheless, there are limited protective and therapeutic approaches for this problem. Diacerein is an anti-inflammatory drug characterized by numerous biological activities. We aimed to determine the ameliorative impact of diacerein on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) condition, exploring the underlying mechanisms. Twenty-four male rats were allotted into four groups (n= 6): sham group; Diacerein (DIA) group; I/R group, in which a non-crushing clamp occluded the left renal pedicle for 45 min, and the right kidney was nephrectomized for 5 min before the reperfusion process; I/R + diacerein group, injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg diacerein/kg i.m 30 minutes prior to I/R operation. Ischemia/ reperfusion was found to affect renal function and induce histopathological alterations. The flow cytometry analysis demonstrated an elevated expression of innate and mature dendritic cells in I/R renal tissues. Moreover, upregulation in the expression of the inflammatory genes (TLR4, Myd88, and NLRP3), and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β), apoptotic (caspase-3) and pyroptotic (caspase-1) markers were observed in I/R-experienced animals. The aforementioned deteriorations were mitigated by pre-I/R diacerein treatment. Diacerein alleviated I/R-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, it could be a promising protective agent against I/R.


La isquemia renal es una de los motivos del daño renal agudo. Sin embargo, los enfoques protectores y terapéuticos para este problema son limitados. La diacereína es un fármaco antiinflamatorio caracterizado por numerosas actividades biológicas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el impacto de mejora de la diacereína en la condición de lesión por isquemia/ reperfusión renal (I/R), explorando los mecanismos subyacentes. Veinticuatro ratas macho se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos (n= 6): grupo simulado; grupo de diacereína (DIA); grupo I/R, en el que una pinza no aplastante ocluyó el pedículo renal izquierdo durante 45 min, y el riñón derecho fue nefrectomizado durante 5 min antes del proceso de reperfusión; Grupo I/R + diacereína, inyectado por vía intraperitoneal con 50 mg de diacereína/kg i.m. 30 min antes de la operación I/R. Se encontró que la isquemia/ reperfusión afecta la función renal e induce alteraciones histopatológicas. El análisis de citometría de flujo demostró una expresión elevada de células dendríticas innatas y maduras en tejidos renales I/R. Además, se observó una regulación positiva en la expresión de los genes inflamatorios (TLR4, Myd88 y NLRP3) y una sobreexpresión de las citoquinas proinflamatorias (IL-1β), marcadores apoptóticos (caspasa-3) y piroptóticos (caspasa-1) en animales con experiencia en I/R. Los deterioros antes mencionados fueron mitigados por el tratamiento previo a la diacereína I/R. La diacereína alivió la inflamación y la apoptosis inducidas por I/R. Por lo tanto, podría ser un agente protector prometedor contra I/R.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/immunology , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Anthraquinones/immunology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney Diseases/immunology
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 40-45, maio 05,2022. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370563

ABSTRACT

Introduction: dengue is a most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the Americas and tropical countries. Objective: in this work, mice were hyperimmunized with DENV 4 antigen to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Methodology: DENV 4 (GenBank KC806069) was inoculated in C6/36 cell monolayers cultivated in Leibovitz's 15 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum and incubated at 28 oC. The virus stock was submitted to concentration and ultracentrifugation and stored at -80 oC until use (VC DENV 4). Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 50µg of DENV-4 and successive intraperitoneal injections of 25 µg of VCDENV 4 with Freund's incomplete adjuvant were performed. The spleen cells were fused to SP2/0 myeloma cells with PEG 1540 and distributed in 96-well microplates with Iscove's modified medium with Hipoxantina­Aminopterina­Timidina. Hybridoma screening by indirect ELISA showed positive results for six mAbs, and their characterization was performed by Western blotting and Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFI) techniques. Results: the six mAbs showed strong recognition of prM (24/29 kDa), and minor reaction to E protein (66 kDa), E/E protein dimer (105 kDa), and NS1 (49 kDa) protein in two mAbs. The use of mAbs anti-prM as a diagnostic tool using IFI has been demonstrated to detect DENV-4 antigen in infected cells or tissues. Conclusion: DENV 4 generate mAbs with strong reactivity to prM with potential use to confirm the presence of DENV 4 antigen in tissues or infected cells.


Introdução: a dengue é uma doença viral transmitida por mosquitos comumente das Américas e países tropicais. Objetivo: neste trabalho, camundongos foram hiperimunizados com antígeno DENV 4 para produzir anticorpos monoclonais (mAbs). Metodologia: DENV 4 (GenBank KC806069) foi inoculado em monocamadas de células C6 / 36 cultivadas em meio Leibovitz 15 suplementado com 5% de soro fetal bovino e incubadas a 28oC. O estoque viral foi submetido à concentração, ultracentrifugação e armazenado a -80 oC (VC DENV 4). Camundongos Balb / c foram injetados intraperitonealmente com 50 µg de VC DENV-4 e injeções intraperitoneais sucessivas de 25 µg de antigeno com adjuvante incompleto de Freund. As células do baço foram misturadas a células SP2/0 com PEG 1540 e distribuídas em microplacas de 96 poços com meio Iscove Modificado em presença de Hipoxantina ­ Aminopterina ­ Timidina. A triagem de hibridomas por ELISA indireto apresentou resultados positivos para seis mAbs, e sua caracterização foi realizada por técnicas de Western blotting e Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI). Resultados: os seis mAbs mostraram forte reconhecimento de prM (24/29 kDa) e reação menor à proteína E (66 kDa), dímero de proteína E / E (105 kDa) e proteína NS1 (49 kDa) em dois mAbs. O uso de mAbs anti-prM como uma ferramenta de diagnóstico utilizando IFI demonstrou eficacia em detectar o antígeno DENV-4 em células ou tecidos infectados. Conclusão: o mAbs produzidos para DENV 4 demonstraram uma forte reatividade contra prM, e poderiam ser uma ferramenta de uso potencial no diagnóstico de DENV 4 .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Antigens, Viral/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1003-1009, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124889

ABSTRACT

This study was set to investigate the effect of gum Arabic (G.A.) on diabetic kidney disease. We divided sixty male Sprague rats randomly into six groups. Normal control, normal rats treated with G.A., untreated diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with insulin, diabetic rats treated with G.A., and diabetic rats treated with both insulin and G.A. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Forty eight hr post injections. Insulin was injected subcutaneously (1.6/IU/100g/day). We provided G.A. in drinking water (10 %w/ v).). At the end of the twelve weeks, blood was drawn for measurement of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), serum lipids, serum creatinine, and blood urea. Renal tissue oxidative stress (O.S.) was assessed by measuring the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). For histological assessments, sections from segments of kidneys were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for assessment under the light microscope. STZinduced diabetes caused an elevation of blood glucose, HbA1c, urea and creatinine, triglycerides LDL and cholesterol, MDA with reduction of HDL, GSH level, and CAT and SOD activities. Histologically, kidneys from diabetic rats showed marked glomerular and tubular changes. Administration of G.A. alone to diabetic rats had a significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effect, although the levels achieved remained significantly abnormal compared with the untreated group with no effect on urea and creatinine levels. Co-administration of G.A. with insulin reversed the impact of D.M. on all parameters evaluated including the histological changes and led to normal urea and creatinine levels. We concluded that G.A., in combination with insulin, improves chemically-induced diabetes and its renal complications, possibly by modulation of oxidative stress.


En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la goma arábiga (GA) en la enfermedad renal diabética. Dividimos sesenta ratas macho Sprague Dawley al azar en seis grupos. Control normal, ratas normales tratadas con GA, ratas diabéticas no tratadas, ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina, ratas diabéticas tratadas con GA y ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina y GA. La diabetes fue inducida por una sola inyección intraperitoneal de STZ. Cuarenta y ocho horas después se inyectó insulina por vía subcutánea (1,6 / UI / 100 g / día). A los animales se les dió GA en agua potable (10 % p / v)). Al final de las doce semanas, se extrajo sangre para medir la glucosa, la hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C), los lípidos en suero, la creatinina en suero y la urea en sangre. El estrés oxidativo del tejido renal (SO) se evaluó midiendo las actividades de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y la catalasa (CAT), y las concentraciones de glutatión reducido (GSH) y malondialdehído (MDA). Para las evaluaciones histológicas, se procesaron secciones de segmentos de riñones y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina (H & E) para análisis bajo microscopio óptico. La diabetes inducida por STZ causó una elevación de la glucosa en sangre, HbA1c, urea y creatinina, triglicéridos LDL y colesterol, MDA con reducción de las actividades de HDL, GSH y CAT y SOD. Histológicamente, los riñones de ratas diabéticas mostraron marcados cambios glomerulares y tubulares. La administración de GA solo en las ratas diabéticas tuvo un efecto hipoglucémico, hipolipidémico y antioxidante significativo, aunque los niveles alcanzados permanecieron significativamente anormales en comparación con el grupo no tratado, sin ningún efecto sobre los niveles de urea y creatinina. La dministración conjunta de GA con insulina revirtió el impacto de DM en todos los parámetros evaluados, incluidos los cambios histológicos y condujeron a niveles normales de urea y creatinina. Concluimos que GA en combinación con insulina, mejora la diabetes inducida químicamente y sus complicaciones renales, posiblemente mediante la modulación del estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Gum Arabic/pharmacology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e166204, mai. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122176

ABSTRACT

Medical management of abdominal abscesses in horses requires prolonged antibiotic therapy and presents varied success rates. A 6-year-old male horse with a history of colic and multiple abdominal punctures to relieve gas was attended. At admission, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia, mucosal congestion, dehydration, and rigid gait were observed. The association of physical examination, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings allowed the diagnoses of peritonitis and abdominal abscess. Supporting treatment plus broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was performed: daily intraperitoneal ceftriaxone (25 mg/kg, 7 days); daily intravenous gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg, 7 days); per os metronidazole three times a day (15 mg/kg 12 days), followed by the same dose twice a day (15 mg/kg 33 days), totaling 45 days of treatment. Plasma fibrinogen and ultrasonographic examination were the most effective tools to evaluate abscess evolution. There was normalization of the physical examination 24 h after beginning the treatment, consecutive regression of the nucleated cell count in the peritoneal fluid, and regression of plasma fibrinogen and size of the abscess. On the 10th treatment day, the animal was discharged from the hospital, maintaining oral therapy with metronidazole every 12 h (15 mg / kg). When the animal returned on the 30th day, an abscess size regression was observed. However, there was no resolution, and therapy with metronidazole was maintained. On the 45th day of treatment, a new hospital evaluation was performed, where the abscess resolved, and metronidazole was suspended. It is highlighted that the therapeutic association used in the treatment of abdominal infection and abscess resulted in a rapid clinical response.(AU)


O tratamento conservativo dos abscessos abdominais em equinos requer antibioticoterapia prolongada e apresenta variadas taxas de sucesso. Foi atendido um cavalo de seis anos de idade, com histórico de cólica e múltiplas punções abdominais por agulha para esvaziamento de gás. Na admissão, foram observados taquicardia, taquipnéia, hipertermia, congestão mucosa, desidratação e marcha rígida. A associação do exame físico, achados laboratoriais e ultrassonográficos permitiu o diagnóstico de peritonite e abscesso abdominal. Foi realizado tratamento suporte e antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro: ceftriaxona intraperitoneal diária (25 mg/kg, 7 dias); gentamicina intravenosa diária (6,6 mg/kg, 7 dias); metronidazol oral três vezes ao dia (15 mg/kg, 12 dias), seguido de mesma dose duas vezes ao dia, por mais 33 dias, totalizando 45 dias de tratamento. O fibrinogênio plasmático e o exame ultrassonográfico foram os recursos mais eficazes para a avaliação da evolução do abscesso. Após 24 horas do início do tratamento foi constatada a normalização do exame fisico, regressão progressiva da contagem de células nucleadas no líquido peritoneal, do fibrinogênio plasmático e do tamanho do abscesso. No 10° dia de tratamento o animal recebeu alta hospitalar, mantendo-se a terapia oral com metronidazol a cada 12 horas (15 mg/Kg). Em retorno, ao 30° dia, observou-se regressão do tamanho do abscesso, entretanto, não houve resolução, tendo sido mantida a terapia com metronidazol. No 45º dia de tratamento, realizou-se nova avaliação hospitalar, onde foi observada a resolução do abscesso e a admnistração do metronidazol foi suspensa. Destaca-se, que a associação terapêutica utilizada no tratamento de infecção abdominal e abscesso resultou em rápida resposta clínica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peritonitis/veterinary , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Abdominal Abscess/veterinary , Horses , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Ultrasonics , Fibrinogen , Injections, Intraperitoneal/veterinary
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is required for renal fibrosis, which is a characteristic of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous study demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) prevented DN associated with the suppressing renal connective tissue growth factor expression, a key marker of renal fibrosis. Therefore, the effects of FGF21 on renal fibrosis in a DN mouse model and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in this study.METHODS: Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in C57BL/6J mice by intraperitoneal injections of multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Then, diabetic and non-diabetic mice were treated with or without FGF21 in the presence of pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) or 10-[4′-(N,N-Diethylamino)butyl]-2-chlorophenoxazine hydrochloride (10-DEBC) hydrochloride (Akt inhibitor) for 4 months.RESULTS: DN was diagnosed by renal dysfunction, hypertrophy, tubulointerstitial lesions, and glomerulosclerosis associated with severe fibrosis, all of which were prevented by FGF21. FGF21 also suppressed the diabetes-induced renal EMT in DN mice by negatively regulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-induced nuclear translocation of Smad2/3, which is required for the transcription of multiple fibrotic genes. The mechanistic studies showed that FGF21 attenuated nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 by inhibiting renal activity of its conjugated protein p53, which carries Smad2/3 into the nucleus. Moreover pifithrin-α inhibited the FGF21-induced preventive effects on the renal EMT and subsequent renal fibrosis in DN mice. In addition, 10-DEBC also blocked FGF21-induced inhibition of renal p53 activity by phosphorylation of mouse double minute-2 homolog (MDM2).CONCLUSION: FGF21 prevents renal fibrosis via negative regulation of the TGF-β/Smad2/3-mediated EMT process by activation of the Akt/MDM2/p53 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Hypertrophy , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney , Phosphorylation , Streptozocin , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200016, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101450

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity, and inflammatory response and oxidative stress play major roles underlying its pathophysiology. Here, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal etanercept administration on oxidative stress and inflammation indicators in the kidney and blood of experimental sepsis-induced rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult Sprague Dawley rats were classified into Control (Group 1), Sepsis (Group 2), Sepsis+Cefazolin (Group 3), and Sepsis+Cefazolin+Etanercept (Group 4) groups. Kidney tissue and serum samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigations and examined for the C reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-α, TREM, and MDA in serum and kidney samples were significantly higher in rats from sepsis group than in rats from control group (p < 0.05). Group 3 showed a significant reduction in serum levels of TNF-α, CRP, and TREM as compared with Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α, CRP, TREM, and MDA levels and kidney TNF-α and TREM levels were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and TREM levels in Group 4 were significantly lower than those in Group 3, and histopathological scores were significantly lower in Group 3 and Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Histopathological scores of Group 4 were significantly lower than those of Group 3 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Etanercept, a TNF-α inhibitor, may ameliorate sepsis-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and histopathological damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Sepsis/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Etanercept/administration & dosage , Inflammation/prevention & control , Kidney/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Etanercept/pharmacology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 267-274, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011617

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cisplatin is an antineoplastic agent widely used in the treatment of a variety of cancers. Ototoxicity is one of the main side-effects restricting the use of cisplatin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective efficacy of gallic acid, in biochemical, functional and histopathological terms, against ototoxicity induced by cisplatin. Methods: Twenty-eight female Sprague Dawley rats were included. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups of seven animals each. Cisplatin group received a single intraperitoneal dose of 15 mg/kg cisplatin. Gallic acid group received intraperitoneal gallic acid at 100 mg/kg for five consecutive days. Cisplatin + gallic acid group received intraperitoneal gallic acid at 100 mg/kg for five consecutive days and a single intraperitoneal dose of 15 mg/kg cisplatin at 3rd day. A control group received 1 mL intraperitoneal saline solution for five consecutive days. Prior to drug administration, all rats were exposed to the distortion product otoacoustic emissions test. The test was repeated on the 6th day of the study. All rats were then sacrificed; the cochleas were removed and set aside for biochemical and histopathological analyses. Results: In cisplatin group, Day 6 signal noise ratio values were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Also, malondialdehyde levels in cochlear tissues were significantly higher, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly lower compared to the control group. Histopathologic evaluation revealed erosion in the stria vascularis, degeneration and edema in the connective tissue layer in endothelial cells, impairment of outer hair cells and a decrease in the number of these calls. In the cisplatin + gallic acid group, this biochemical, histopathological and functional changes were reversed. Conclusion: In the light of our findings, we think that gallic acid may have played a protective role against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats, as indicated by the distortion product otoacoustic emissions test results, biochemical findings and immunohistochemical analyses.


Resumo Introdução: A cisplatina é um agente antineoplásico amplamente usado no tratamento de vários tipos de câncer. A ototoxicidade é um dos principais efeitos colaterais que restringem o uso da cisplatina. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a eficácia protetora do ácido gálico, em termos bioquímicos, funcionais e histopatológicos, contra a ototoxicidade induzida por cisplatina. Método: Vinte e oito ratas Sprague-Dawley foram incluídas. As ratas foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos de sete animais cada. O grupo cisplatina recebeu uma única dose intraperitoneal de 15 mg/kg de cisplatina. O grupo ácido gálico recebeu ácido gálico via intraperitoneal a uma dose de 100 mg/kg durante cinco dias consecutivos. O grupo cisplatina + ácido gálico recebeu ácido gálico via intraperitoneal a uma dose de 100 mg/kg durante cinco dias consecutivos e uma única dose intraperitoneal de 15 mg/kg de cisplatina no terceiro dia. O grupo controle recebeu 1 mL de solução salina via intraperitoneal por cinco dias consecutivos. Antes da administração do fármaco, todos os ratos foram expostos ao teste de emissões otoacústicas - produto de distorção. O teste foi repetido no sexto dia do estudo. Todos os ratos foram então sacrificados; as cócleas foram removidas e reservadas para análises bioquímicas e histopatológicas. Resultados: No grupo cisplatina, os valores da relação sinal-ruído do dia 6 foram significativamente mais baixos aos dos outros grupos. Além disso, os níveis de malondialdeído nos tecidos cocleares foram significativamente mais altos, e as atividades de superóxido dismutase e glutatione peroxidase foram significativamente mais baixas em comparação com o grupo controle. A avaliação histopatológica revelou erosão na estria vascular, degeneração e edema na camada de tecido conjuntivo em células endoteliais, comprometimento das células ciliadas externas e diminuição do número dessas células. No grupo cisplatina + ácido gálico, estas alterações bioquímicas, histopatológicas e funcionais foram revertidas. Conclusão: Tendo em vista os nossos achados, consideramos que o ácido gálico pode ter desempenhado um papel protetor contra a ototoxicidade induzida por cisplatina em ratas, conforme indicado pelos resultados do teste emissões otoacústicas - produto de distorção, achados bioquímicos e análises imuno-histoquímicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Cisplatin/toxicity , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/drug effects , Cochlea/drug effects , Cochlea/pathology , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Gallic Acid/administration & dosage , Acoustic Stimulation , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Injections, Intraperitoneal
8.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 21(1): 53-66, Jan.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091471

ABSTRACT

Abstract 19. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In animals, intraperitoneal administration of LPS, stimulates innate immunity and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. LPS provides an inflammatory stimulus that activates the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine systems resulting in a set of responses termed sickness behavior. The purpose of this protocol is to describe step-by-step the preparation and procedure of application of intraperitoneal injection of LPS in rats, as a guide for those researchers that want to use this assay to mount an inflammatory response. LPS intraperitoneal challenge in rats has been widely used to evaluate antiinflammatory reagents and to address basic scientific questions.


Resumen 23. El lipopolisacárido (LPS) es un componente de la membrana externa de las bacterias Gram negativas. En animales, la administración intraperitoneal de LPS estimula la inmunidad innata y la producción de citoquinas proinflamatorias. El LPS proporciona un estímulo inflamatorio que activa el sistema neuroinmunológico y el sistema neuroendocrino, lo que da como resultado un conjunto de respuestas denominadas conductas de enfermedad. El propósito de este protocolo es describir paso a paso la preparación y el procedimiento de aplicación de la inyección intraperitoneal de LPS en ratas, como una guía para aquellos investigadores que desean utilizar este método para estimular una respuesta inflamatoria en el animal. La estimulación con LPS en ratas, aplicada intraperitonealmente, se ha utilizado ampliamente para evaluar reactivos antiinflamatorios y para abordar preguntas básicas de investigación científica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Injections, Intraperitoneal/methods , Endotoxins/analysis , Gram-Negative Bacteria
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761787

ABSTRACT

Fumigaclavine C (FC), an active indole alkaloid, is obtained from endophytic Aspergillus terreus (strain No. FC118) by the root of Rhizophora stylosa (Rhizophoraceae). This study is designed to evaluate whether FC has anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether it ameliorates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. FC notably increased the levels of glycerol in the culture supernatants and markedly reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FC differentially inhibited the expressions of adipogenesis-related genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor proteins, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins, and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. FC markedly reduced the expressions of lipid synthesis-related genes, such as the fatty acid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and fatty acid synthase. Furthermore, FC significantly increased the expressions of lipolysis-related genes, such as the hormone-sensitive lipase, Aquaporin-7, and adipose triglyceride lipase. In HFD-induced obese mice, intraperitoneal injections of FC decreased both the body weight and visceral adipose tissue weight. FC administration significantly reduced lipid accumulation. Moreover, FC could dose-dependently and differentially regulate the expressions of lipid metabolism-related transcription factors. All these data indicated that FC exhibited anti-obesity effects through modulating adipogenesis and lipolysis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipocytes , Adipogenesis , Aspergillus , Body Weight , Carrier Proteins , Diet, High-Fat , Glycerol , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Lipase , Lipolysis , Lipoprotein Lipase , Mice, Obese , Peroxisomes , Rhizophoraceae , Sterol Esterase , Transcription Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761730

ABSTRACT

Malarial infection induces tissue hypoxia in the host through destruction of red blood cells. Tissue hypoxia in malarial infection may increase the activity of HIF1α through an intracellular oxygen-sensing pathway. Activation of HIF1α may also induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to trigger angiogenesis. To investigate whether malarial infection actually generates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, we analyzed severity of hypoxia, the expression of hypoxia-related angiogenic factors, and numbers of blood vessels in various tissues infected with Plasmodium berghei. Infection in mice was performed by intraperitoneal injection of 2×10⁶ parasitized red blood cells. After infection, we studied parasitemia and survival. We analyzed hypoxia, numbers of blood vessels, and expression of hypoxia-related angiogenic factors including VEGF and HIF1α. We used Western blot, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry to analyze various tissues from Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. In malaria-infected mice, parasitemia was increased over the duration of infection and directly associated with mortality rate. Expression of VEGF and HIF1α increased with the parasitemia in various tissues. Additionally, numbers of blood vessels significantly increased in each tissue type of the malaria-infected group compared to the uninfected control group. These results suggest that malarial infection in mice activates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis by stimulation of HIF1α and VEGF in various tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Hypoxia , Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Erythrocytes , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immunohistochemistry , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Malaria , Mortality , Parasitemia , Plasmodium , Plasmodium berghei , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of aroma oils dates back to at least 3000 B.C., where it was applied to mummify corpses and treat the wounds of soldiers. Since the 1920s, the term “aromatherapy” has been used for fragrance therapy with essential oils. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the essential oil of Eucalyptus (EOE) affects pain pathways in various pain conditions and motor coordination. METHODS: Mice were subjected to inhalation or intraperitoneal injection of EOE, and its analgesic effects were assessed by conducting formalin, thermal plantar, and acetic acid tests; the effects of EOE on motor coordination were evaluated using a rotarod test. To determine the analgesic mechanism, 5′-guanidinonaltrindole (κ-opioid antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist, 5 mg/kg), glibenclamide (δ-opioid antagonist, 2 mg/kg), and naloxone (μ-opioid antagonist, 4, 8, 12 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally. RESULTS: EOE showed an analgesic effect against visceral pain caused by acetic acid (EOE, 45 mg/kg); however, no analgesic effect was observed against thermal nociceptive pain. Moreover, it was demonstrated that EOE did not have an effect on motor coordination. In addition, an anti-inflammatory effect was observed during the formalin test. CONCLUSIONS: EOE, which is associated with the μ-opioid pain pathway, showed potential effects against somatic, inflammatory, and visceral pain and could be a potential therapeutic agent for pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Acetic Acid , Analgesics , Aromatherapy , Cadaver , Eucalyptus , Formaldehyde , Glyburide , Inhalation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Military Personnel , Naloxone , Narcotic Antagonists , Nociceptive Pain , Oils , Oils, Volatile , Pain Measurement , Rotarod Performance Test , Visceral Pain , Wounds and Injuries
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Acetylcholine , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside were compared in galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatitic ICR mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male ICR mice (6 weeks old) were divided into 4 groups: normal control, GalN/LPS, luteolin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside groups. The latter two groups were administered luteolin or luteolin-7-O-glucoside (50 mg/kg BW) daily by gavage for 3 weeks after which hepatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of GalN and LPS (1 g/kg BW and 10 µg/kg BW, respectively). RESULTS: GalN/LPS produced acute hepatic injury by a sharp increase in serum AST, ALT, and TNF-α levels, increases that were ameliorated in the experimental groups. In addition, markedly increased expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its transcription factors, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein (AP)-1, were also significantly attenuated in the experimental groups. Compared to luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin more potently ameliorated the levels of inflammatory mediators. Phase II enzymes levels and NF-E2 p45-related factor (Nrf)-2 activation that were decreased by GalN/LPS were increased by luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside administration. In addition, compared to luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside acted as a more potent inducer of changes in phase II enzymes. Liver histopathology results were consistent with the mediator and enzyme results. CONCLUSION: Luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside protect against GalN/LPS-induced hepatotoxicity through the regulation of inflammatory mediators and phase II enzymes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Galactosamine , Hepatitis , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Liver , Luteolin , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , NF-kappa B , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Transcription Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760362

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that maintains homeostasis and cell integrity, under stress conditions. Although the involvement of autophagy in various conditions has been elucidated, the role of autophagy in renal structure is not completely clarified. Our aim was to investigate the cytoprotective effect of autophagy against acute kidney injury (AKI) through cisplatin deteriorative pathway, which leads to AKI via renal cell degradation. For in vivo experiments, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided in to 2 groups (n = 6/group) as control, Cis-5D. Following a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin, rats were sacrificed after 5 days. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and histological alterations were examined. Further, expression of key regulators of autophagy, light-clain 3 (LC3), p62, and Beclin1, was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The rats exhibited severe renal dysfunction, indicated by elevated BUN, Cr. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed histological damages in cisplatin-treated rats. Furthermore, IHC analysis revealed increased expression of LC3, Beclin1 and decreased expression of p62. Furthermore, expression of aforementioned autophagy markers was restricted to proximal tubule. Taken together, our study demonstrated that cisplatin can cause nephrotoxicity and lead to AKI. This phenomenon accelerated autophagy in renal proximal tubules and guards against AKI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Acute Kidney Injury , Autophagy , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Cisplatin , Creatinine , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Homeostasis , Immunohistochemistry , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1183-1195, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of heart failure (HF)-associated hospitalization and mortality in patients with diabetes. However, it is not clear whether SGLT2 inhibitors have a cardiovascular benefit in patients without diabetes. We aimed to determine whether empagliflozin (EMPA), an SGLT2 inhibitor, has a protective role in HF without diabetes. METHODS: Cardiomyopathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice using intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (Dox). Mice with HF were fed a normal chow diet (NCD) or an NCD containing 0.03% EMPA. Then we analyzed their phenotypes and performed in vitro experiments to reveal underlying mechanisms of the EMPA's effects. RESULTS: Mice fed NCD with EMPA showed improved heart function and reduced fibrosis. In vitro studies showed similar results. Phloridzin, a non-specific SGLT inhibitor, did not show any protective effect against Dox toxicity in H9C2 cells. SGLT2 inhibitor can cause increase in blood ketone levels. Beta hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), which is well known ketone body associated with SGLT2 inhibitor, showed a protective effect against Dox in H9C2 cells and in Dox-treated mice. These results suggest elevating βOHB might be a convincing mechanism for the protective effects of SGLT2 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2 inhibitors have a protective effect in Dox-induced HF in mice. This implied that SGLT2 inhibitor therapy could be a good treatment strategy even in HF patients without diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid , Cardiomyopathies , Diet , Doxorubicin , Doxycycline , Fibrosis , Heart Failure , Heart , Hospitalization , In Vitro Techniques , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mortality , Phenotype , Phlorhizin
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible progressive disease that destroys exocrine parenchyma, which are replaced by fibrous tissue. As pancreatic fibrosis is a key feature of CP, reducing fibrotic protein content in the pancreas is crucial for preventing CP. Studies suggest that NF-κB facilitates the expression of fibrotic mediators in pancreas and protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ) regulates NF-κB activation in stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid having anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. It has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activity in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells which is a cellular model of CP. In the present study, we investigated if DHA inhibits expression of fibrotic mediators by reducing PKC-δ and NF-κB expression in mouse pancreatic tissues with CP.METHODS: For six weeks, mice were weekly induced for acute pancreatitis to develop CP. Furthermore, acute pancreatitis was induced by hourly intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 μg/kg × 7). Mice were administered DHA (10 μM) via drinking water before and after CP induction.RESULTS: Cerulein-induced pancreatic damages like decreased pancreatic weight/total body weight, leukocyte infiltration, necrosis of acinar cells, and vacuolization were found to be inhibited by DHA. Additionally, DHA inhibited cerulein-induced fibrotic mediators like alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin in pancreas. DHA reduced expression of PKC-δ and NF-κB p65 in pancreatic tissues of cerulein-treated mice.CONCLUSIONS: DHA may be beneficial in preventing CP by suppressing pancreatic expression of fibrotic mediators.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acinar Cells , Actins , Body Weight , Ceruletide , Drinking Water , Fibronectins , Fibrosis , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leukocytes , Necrosis , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Protein Kinases
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739661

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of excitatory neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is widely used to model neurobehavioral pathologies and underlying mechanisms. There is ample evidence that overstimulation of NMDA-dependent neurotransmission may induce neurobehavioral abnormalities, such as repetitive behaviors and hypersensitization to nociception and cognitive disruption, pharmacological modeling using NMDA has been limited due to the induction of neurotoxicity and blood brain barrier breakdown, especially in young animals. In this study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal NMDA-administration on nociceptive and repetitive behaviors in ICR mice. Intraperitoneal injection of NMDA induced repetitive grooming and tail biting/licking behaviors in a dose- and age-dependent manner. Nociceptive and repetitive behaviors were more prominent in juvenile mice than adult mice. We did not observe extensive blood brain barrier breakdown or neuronal cell death after peritoneal injection of NMDA, indicating limited neurotoxic effects despite a significant increase in NMDA concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that the observed behavioral changes were not mediated by general NMDA toxicity. In the hot plate test, we found that the latency of paw licking and jumping decreased in the NMDA-exposed mice especially in the 75 mg/kg group, suggesting increased nociceptive sensitivity in NMDA-treated animals. Repetitive behaviors and increased pain sensitivity are often comorbid in psychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder). Therefore, the behavioral characteristics of intraperitoneal NMDA-administered mice described herein may be valuable for studying the mechanisms underlying relevant disorders and screening candidate therapeutic molecules.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Mice , Autistic Disorder , Blood-Brain Barrier , Cell Death , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Grooming , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mass Screening , Mice, Inbred ICR , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Nociception , Pathology , Synaptic Transmission , Tail
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Lurasidone is an antipsychotic drug that shows a relative lack of weight gain common to many antipsychotics. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone also show little weight gain and can reduce olanzapine-induced food intake and weight gain in animals, paralleling some clinical findings. We hypothesized that lurasidone would have similar actions. METHODS: Female Lister-hooded rats received intraperitoneal injection either 2× vehicle (saline), lurasidone (3 mg/kg) and vehicle, olanzapine (1 mg/kg) and vehicle, or olanzapine and lurasidone. Following drug administration food intake was measured for 60min. A further series of rats underwent a seven-day regime of once-daily administration of the above doses and free access to food and water. Weight gain over the course of the study was monitored. RESULTS: Olanzapine induced a significant increase in food intake while lurasidone showed no significant effect. Co-administration of lurasidone with olanzapine suppressed the increase in food intake. Repeated dosing showed an increase in body weight after seven days with olanzapine, and no significant effect observed with lurasidone, while repeated administration of lurasidone with olanzapine reduced the effect of olanzapine on the increase in body weight. CONCLUSION: These findings support our hypotheses in that lurasidone, in addition to a lack of effect on acute food intake and short term weight gain, can reduce olanzapine-induced food intake and weight gain in rats. This indicates the drug to have an active anti-hyperphagic mechanism, rather than solely the absence of a drug-induced weight gain that is such a severe limitation of drugs such as olanzapine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Rats , Antipsychotic Agents , Aripiprazole , Body Weight , Eating , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lurasidone Hydrochloride , Water , Weight Gain
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidences from animal models seem to suggest that minimally invasive surgery may enhance cisplatin diffusion when the drug is administered in the context of post-operative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The present study evaluates the cisplatin pharmacokinetic profile in a prospective series of women with platinum sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer treated with open secondary cytoreductive surgery (O-SCS) or minimally-invasive secondary cytoreductive surgery (MI-SCS). METHODS: Cisplatin levels were assessed at 0, 20, 40, 60, and 120 minutes in: 1) blood samples, 2) peritoneal perfusate, and 3) peritoneal biopsies at the end of HIPEC. Median Cmax has been used to identify women with high and low drug levels. Progression-free survival (PFS) was calculated as the time elapsed between SCS+HIPEC and secondary recurrence or last follow-up visit. RESULTS: Nine (45.0%) women received MI-SCS, and 11 (55.0%) O-SCS. At 60 minutes, median cisplatin Cmax in peritoneal tissue was higher in patients treated with MI-SCS compared to O-SCS (Cmax=8.262 µg/mL vs. Cmax=4.057 µg/mL). Furthermore, median cisplatin plasma Cmax was higher in patients treated with MI-SCS compared to O-SCS (Cmax=0.511 vs. Cmax=0.254 µg/mL; p-value=0.012) at 120 minutes. With a median follow-up time of 24 months, women with higher cisplatin peritoneal Cmax showed a longer PFS compared to women with low cisplatin peritoneal levels (2-years PFS=70% vs. 35%; p-value=0.054). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate for the first time that minimally invasive route enhances cisplatin peritoneal tissue uptake during HIPEC, further evaluations are needed to confirm the correlation between peritoneal cisplatin levels after HIPEC and survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01539785


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Biopsy , Cisplatin , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Diffusion , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Models, Animal , Ovarian Neoplasms , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Platinum , Prospective Studies , Recurrence
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study was designed to evaluate hematological disorders and the orchestrating roles of hepcidin and IL-6 in rat models of thioacetamide (TAA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) hepatotoxicity.@*METHODS@#Rats were intraperitoneally injected with TAA (10 mg/100 g rat weight dissolved in isosaline) or CCl4 (100 μL/100 g rat weight diluted as 1:4 in corn oil) twice weekly for eight consecutive weeks to induce subchronic liver fibrosis. Blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#CCl4 but not TAA significantly decreased the RBCs, Hb, PCV, and MCV values with minimal alterations in other erythrocytic indices. Both hepatotoxins showed leukocytosis, granulocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. By the end of the experiment, the erythropoietin level increased in the CCl4 model. The serum iron, UIBC, TIBC, transferrin saturation%, and serum transferrin concentration values significantly decreased, whereas that of ferritin increased in the CCl4 model. TAA increased the iron parameters toward iron overload. RT-PCR analysis revealed increased expression of hepatic hepcidin and IL-6 mRNAs in the CCl4 model and suppressed hepcidin expression without significant effect on IL-6 in the TAA model.@*CONCLUSION@#These data suggest differences driven by hepcidin and IL-6 expression between CCl4 and TAA liver fibrosis models and are of clinical importance for diagnosis and therapeutics of liver diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Chemical Analysis , Carbon Tetrachloride , Toxicity , Hepcidins , Pharmacology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interleukin-6 , Pharmacology , Iron , Blood , Metabolism , Leukocytosis , Therapeutics , Liver Cirrhosis , Therapeutics , Thioacetamide , Toxicity , Thrombocytopenia , Therapeutics , Transferrin , Metabolism
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