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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1003-1009, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124889

ABSTRACT

This study was set to investigate the effect of gum Arabic (G.A.) on diabetic kidney disease. We divided sixty male Sprague rats randomly into six groups. Normal control, normal rats treated with G.A., untreated diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with insulin, diabetic rats treated with G.A., and diabetic rats treated with both insulin and G.A. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Forty eight hr post injections. Insulin was injected subcutaneously (1.6/IU/100g/day). We provided G.A. in drinking water (10 %w/ v).). At the end of the twelve weeks, blood was drawn for measurement of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), serum lipids, serum creatinine, and blood urea. Renal tissue oxidative stress (O.S.) was assessed by measuring the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). For histological assessments, sections from segments of kidneys were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for assessment under the light microscope. STZinduced diabetes caused an elevation of blood glucose, HbA1c, urea and creatinine, triglycerides LDL and cholesterol, MDA with reduction of HDL, GSH level, and CAT and SOD activities. Histologically, kidneys from diabetic rats showed marked glomerular and tubular changes. Administration of G.A. alone to diabetic rats had a significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effect, although the levels achieved remained significantly abnormal compared with the untreated group with no effect on urea and creatinine levels. Co-administration of G.A. with insulin reversed the impact of D.M. on all parameters evaluated including the histological changes and led to normal urea and creatinine levels. We concluded that G.A., in combination with insulin, improves chemically-induced diabetes and its renal complications, possibly by modulation of oxidative stress.


En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la goma arábiga (GA) en la enfermedad renal diabética. Dividimos sesenta ratas macho Sprague Dawley al azar en seis grupos. Control normal, ratas normales tratadas con GA, ratas diabéticas no tratadas, ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina, ratas diabéticas tratadas con GA y ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina y GA. La diabetes fue inducida por una sola inyección intraperitoneal de STZ. Cuarenta y ocho horas después se inyectó insulina por vía subcutánea (1,6 / UI / 100 g / día). A los animales se les dió GA en agua potable (10 % p / v)). Al final de las doce semanas, se extrajo sangre para medir la glucosa, la hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C), los lípidos en suero, la creatinina en suero y la urea en sangre. El estrés oxidativo del tejido renal (SO) se evaluó midiendo las actividades de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y la catalasa (CAT), y las concentraciones de glutatión reducido (GSH) y malondialdehído (MDA). Para las evaluaciones histológicas, se procesaron secciones de segmentos de riñones y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina (H & E) para análisis bajo microscopio óptico. La diabetes inducida por STZ causó una elevación de la glucosa en sangre, HbA1c, urea y creatinina, triglicéridos LDL y colesterol, MDA con reducción de las actividades de HDL, GSH y CAT y SOD. Histológicamente, los riñones de ratas diabéticas mostraron marcados cambios glomerulares y tubulares. La administración de GA solo en las ratas diabéticas tuvo un efecto hipoglucémico, hipolipidémico y antioxidante significativo, aunque los niveles alcanzados permanecieron significativamente anormales en comparación con el grupo no tratado, sin ningún efecto sobre los niveles de urea y creatinina. La dministración conjunta de GA con insulina revirtió el impacto de DM en todos los parámetros evaluados, incluidos los cambios histológicos y condujeron a niveles normales de urea y creatinina. Concluimos que GA en combinación con insulina, mejora la diabetes inducida químicamente y sus complicaciones renales, posiblemente mediante la modulación del estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Gum Arabic/pharmacology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
2.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e166204, mai. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1122176

ABSTRACT

Medical management of abdominal abscesses in horses requires prolonged antibiotic therapy and presents varied success rates. A 6-year-old male horse with a history of colic and multiple abdominal punctures to relieve gas was attended. At admission, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia, mucosal congestion, dehydration, and rigid gait were observed. The association of physical examination, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings allowed the diagnoses of peritonitis and abdominal abscess. Supporting treatment plus broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was performed: daily intraperitoneal ceftriaxone (25 mg/kg, 7 days); daily intravenous gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg, 7 days); per os metronidazole three times a day (15 mg/kg 12 days), followed by the same dose twice a day (15 mg/kg 33 days), totaling 45 days of treatment. Plasma fibrinogen and ultrasonographic examination were the most effective tools to evaluate abscess evolution. There was normalization of the physical examination 24 h after beginning the treatment, consecutive regression of the nucleated cell count in the peritoneal fluid, and regression of plasma fibrinogen and size of the abscess. On the 10th treatment day, the animal was discharged from the hospital, maintaining oral therapy with metronidazole every 12 h (15 mg / kg). When the animal returned on the 30th day, an abscess size regression was observed. However, there was no resolution, and therapy with metronidazole was maintained. On the 45th day of treatment, a new hospital evaluation was performed, where the abscess resolved, and metronidazole was suspended. It is highlighted that the therapeutic association used in the treatment of abdominal infection and abscess resulted in a rapid clinical response.(AU)


O tratamento conservativo dos abscessos abdominais em equinos requer antibioticoterapia prolongada e apresenta variadas taxas de sucesso. Foi atendido um cavalo de seis anos de idade, com histórico de cólica e múltiplas punções abdominais por agulha para esvaziamento de gás. Na admissão, foram observados taquicardia, taquipnéia, hipertermia, congestão mucosa, desidratação e marcha rígida. A associação do exame físico, achados laboratoriais e ultrassonográficos permitiu o diagnóstico de peritonite e abscesso abdominal. Foi realizado tratamento suporte e antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro: ceftriaxona intraperitoneal diária (25 mg/kg, 7 dias); gentamicina intravenosa diária (6,6 mg/kg, 7 dias); metronidazol oral três vezes ao dia (15 mg/kg, 12 dias), seguido de mesma dose duas vezes ao dia, por mais 33 dias, totalizando 45 dias de tratamento. O fibrinogênio plasmático e o exame ultrassonográfico foram os recursos mais eficazes para a avaliação da evolução do abscesso. Após 24 horas do início do tratamento foi constatada a normalização do exame fisico, regressão progressiva da contagem de células nucleadas no líquido peritoneal, do fibrinogênio plasmático e do tamanho do abscesso. No 10° dia de tratamento o animal recebeu alta hospitalar, mantendo-se a terapia oral com metronidazol a cada 12 horas (15 mg/Kg). Em retorno, ao 30° dia, observou-se regressão do tamanho do abscesso, entretanto, não houve resolução, tendo sido mantida a terapia com metronidazol. No 45º dia de tratamento, realizou-se nova avaliação hospitalar, onde foi observada a resolução do abscesso e a admnistração do metronidazol foi suspensa. Destaca-se, que a associação terapêutica utilizada no tratamento de infecção abdominal e abscesso resultou em rápida resposta clínica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peritonitis/veterinary , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Abdominal Abscess/veterinary , Horses , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Ultrasonics , Fibrinogen , Injections, Intraperitoneal/veterinary
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is required for renal fibrosis, which is a characteristic of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous study demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) prevented DN associated with the suppressing renal connective tissue growth factor expression, a key marker of renal fibrosis. Therefore, the effects of FGF21 on renal fibrosis in a DN mouse model and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in this study.METHODS: Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in C57BL/6J mice by intraperitoneal injections of multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Then, diabetic and non-diabetic mice were treated with or without FGF21 in the presence of pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) or 10-[4′-(N,N-Diethylamino)butyl]-2-chlorophenoxazine hydrochloride (10-DEBC) hydrochloride (Akt inhibitor) for 4 months.RESULTS: DN was diagnosed by renal dysfunction, hypertrophy, tubulointerstitial lesions, and glomerulosclerosis associated with severe fibrosis, all of which were prevented by FGF21. FGF21 also suppressed the diabetes-induced renal EMT in DN mice by negatively regulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-induced nuclear translocation of Smad2/3, which is required for the transcription of multiple fibrotic genes. The mechanistic studies showed that FGF21 attenuated nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 by inhibiting renal activity of its conjugated protein p53, which carries Smad2/3 into the nucleus. Moreover pifithrin-α inhibited the FGF21-induced preventive effects on the renal EMT and subsequent renal fibrosis in DN mice. In addition, 10-DEBC also blocked FGF21-induced inhibition of renal p53 activity by phosphorylation of mouse double minute-2 homolog (MDM2).CONCLUSION: FGF21 prevents renal fibrosis via negative regulation of the TGF-β/Smad2/3-mediated EMT process by activation of the Akt/MDM2/p53 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Hypertrophy , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney , Mice , Phosphorylation , Streptozocin , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200016, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101450

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity, and inflammatory response and oxidative stress play major roles underlying its pathophysiology. Here, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal etanercept administration on oxidative stress and inflammation indicators in the kidney and blood of experimental sepsis-induced rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult Sprague Dawley rats were classified into Control (Group 1), Sepsis (Group 2), Sepsis+Cefazolin (Group 3), and Sepsis+Cefazolin+Etanercept (Group 4) groups. Kidney tissue and serum samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigations and examined for the C reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-α, TREM, and MDA in serum and kidney samples were significantly higher in rats from sepsis group than in rats from control group (p < 0.05). Group 3 showed a significant reduction in serum levels of TNF-α, CRP, and TREM as compared with Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α, CRP, TREM, and MDA levels and kidney TNF-α and TREM levels were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and TREM levels in Group 4 were significantly lower than those in Group 3, and histopathological scores were significantly lower in Group 3 and Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Histopathological scores of Group 4 were significantly lower than those of Group 3 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Etanercept, a TNF-α inhibitor, may ameliorate sepsis-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and histopathological damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Sepsis/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Etanercept/administration & dosage , Inflammation/prevention & control , Kidney/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Etanercept/pharmacology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 267-274, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011617

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cisplatin is an antineoplastic agent widely used in the treatment of a variety of cancers. Ototoxicity is one of the main side-effects restricting the use of cisplatin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective efficacy of gallic acid, in biochemical, functional and histopathological terms, against ototoxicity induced by cisplatin. Methods: Twenty-eight female Sprague Dawley rats were included. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups of seven animals each. Cisplatin group received a single intraperitoneal dose of 15 mg/kg cisplatin. Gallic acid group received intraperitoneal gallic acid at 100 mg/kg for five consecutive days. Cisplatin + gallic acid group received intraperitoneal gallic acid at 100 mg/kg for five consecutive days and a single intraperitoneal dose of 15 mg/kg cisplatin at 3rd day. A control group received 1 mL intraperitoneal saline solution for five consecutive days. Prior to drug administration, all rats were exposed to the distortion product otoacoustic emissions test. The test was repeated on the 6th day of the study. All rats were then sacrificed; the cochleas were removed and set aside for biochemical and histopathological analyses. Results: In cisplatin group, Day 6 signal noise ratio values were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Also, malondialdehyde levels in cochlear tissues were significantly higher, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly lower compared to the control group. Histopathologic evaluation revealed erosion in the stria vascularis, degeneration and edema in the connective tissue layer in endothelial cells, impairment of outer hair cells and a decrease in the number of these calls. In the cisplatin + gallic acid group, this biochemical, histopathological and functional changes were reversed. Conclusion: In the light of our findings, we think that gallic acid may have played a protective role against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats, as indicated by the distortion product otoacoustic emissions test results, biochemical findings and immunohistochemical analyses.


Resumo Introdução: A cisplatina é um agente antineoplásico amplamente usado no tratamento de vários tipos de câncer. A ototoxicidade é um dos principais efeitos colaterais que restringem o uso da cisplatina. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a eficácia protetora do ácido gálico, em termos bioquímicos, funcionais e histopatológicos, contra a ototoxicidade induzida por cisplatina. Método: Vinte e oito ratas Sprague-Dawley foram incluídas. As ratas foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos de sete animais cada. O grupo cisplatina recebeu uma única dose intraperitoneal de 15 mg/kg de cisplatina. O grupo ácido gálico recebeu ácido gálico via intraperitoneal a uma dose de 100 mg/kg durante cinco dias consecutivos. O grupo cisplatina + ácido gálico recebeu ácido gálico via intraperitoneal a uma dose de 100 mg/kg durante cinco dias consecutivos e uma única dose intraperitoneal de 15 mg/kg de cisplatina no terceiro dia. O grupo controle recebeu 1 mL de solução salina via intraperitoneal por cinco dias consecutivos. Antes da administração do fármaco, todos os ratos foram expostos ao teste de emissões otoacústicas - produto de distorção. O teste foi repetido no sexto dia do estudo. Todos os ratos foram então sacrificados; as cócleas foram removidas e reservadas para análises bioquímicas e histopatológicas. Resultados: No grupo cisplatina, os valores da relação sinal-ruído do dia 6 foram significativamente mais baixos aos dos outros grupos. Além disso, os níveis de malondialdeído nos tecidos cocleares foram significativamente mais altos, e as atividades de superóxido dismutase e glutatione peroxidase foram significativamente mais baixas em comparação com o grupo controle. A avaliação histopatológica revelou erosão na estria vascular, degeneração e edema na camada de tecido conjuntivo em células endoteliais, comprometimento das células ciliadas externas e diminuição do número dessas células. No grupo cisplatina + ácido gálico, estas alterações bioquímicas, histopatológicas e funcionais foram revertidas. Conclusão: Tendo em vista os nossos achados, consideramos que o ácido gálico pode ter desempenhado um papel protetor contra a ototoxicidade induzida por cisplatina em ratas, conforme indicado pelos resultados do teste emissões otoacústicas - produto de distorção, achados bioquímicos e análises imuno-histoquímicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Cisplatin/toxicity , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/drug effects , Cochlea/drug effects , Cochlea/pathology , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Gallic Acid/administration & dosage , Acoustic Stimulation , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Injections, Intraperitoneal
6.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 21(1): 53-66, Jan.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091471

ABSTRACT

Abstract 19. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In animals, intraperitoneal administration of LPS, stimulates innate immunity and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. LPS provides an inflammatory stimulus that activates the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine systems resulting in a set of responses termed sickness behavior. The purpose of this protocol is to describe step-by-step the preparation and procedure of application of intraperitoneal injection of LPS in rats, as a guide for those researchers that want to use this assay to mount an inflammatory response. LPS intraperitoneal challenge in rats has been widely used to evaluate antiinflammatory reagents and to address basic scientific questions.


Resumen 23. El lipopolisacárido (LPS) es un componente de la membrana externa de las bacterias Gram negativas. En animales, la administración intraperitoneal de LPS estimula la inmunidad innata y la producción de citoquinas proinflamatorias. El LPS proporciona un estímulo inflamatorio que activa el sistema neuroinmunológico y el sistema neuroendocrino, lo que da como resultado un conjunto de respuestas denominadas conductas de enfermedad. El propósito de este protocolo es describir paso a paso la preparación y el procedimiento de aplicación de la inyección intraperitoneal de LPS en ratas, como una guía para aquellos investigadores que desean utilizar este método para estimular una respuesta inflamatoria en el animal. La estimulación con LPS en ratas, aplicada intraperitonealmente, se ha utilizado ampliamente para evaluar reactivos antiinflamatorios y para abordar preguntas básicas de investigación científica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Injections, Intraperitoneal/methods , Endotoxins/analysis , Gram-Negative Bacteria
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study was designed to evaluate hematological disorders and the orchestrating roles of hepcidin and IL-6 in rat models of thioacetamide (TAA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) hepatotoxicity.@*METHODS@#Rats were intraperitoneally injected with TAA (10 mg/100 g rat weight dissolved in isosaline) or CCl4 (100 μL/100 g rat weight diluted as 1:4 in corn oil) twice weekly for eight consecutive weeks to induce subchronic liver fibrosis. Blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#CCl4 but not TAA significantly decreased the RBCs, Hb, PCV, and MCV values with minimal alterations in other erythrocytic indices. Both hepatotoxins showed leukocytosis, granulocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. By the end of the experiment, the erythropoietin level increased in the CCl4 model. The serum iron, UIBC, TIBC, transferrin saturation%, and serum transferrin concentration values significantly decreased, whereas that of ferritin increased in the CCl4 model. TAA increased the iron parameters toward iron overload. RT-PCR analysis revealed increased expression of hepatic hepcidin and IL-6 mRNAs in the CCl4 model and suppressed hepcidin expression without significant effect on IL-6 in the TAA model.@*CONCLUSION@#These data suggest differences driven by hepcidin and IL-6 expression between CCl4 and TAA liver fibrosis models and are of clinical importance for diagnosis and therapeutics of liver diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Chemical Analysis , Carbon Tetrachloride , Toxicity , Hepcidins , Pharmacology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interleukin-6 , Pharmacology , Iron , Blood , Metabolism , Leukocytosis , Therapeutics , Liver Cirrhosis , Therapeutics , Male , Rats , Thioacetamide , Toxicity , Thrombocytopenia , Therapeutics , Transferrin , Metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 161-165, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771617

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To investigate whether dexmedetomidine (Dex) can reduce the production of inflammatory factor IL-1β by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in hippocampal microglia, thereby alleviating the inflammatory response of the central nervous system induced by surgical injury.@*METHODS@#Exploratory laparotomy was used in experimental models in this study. Totally 48 Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 12 for each), respectively sham control (group A), laparotomy only (group B); and Dex treatment with different doses of 5 μg/kg (group D1) or 10 μg/kg (group D2). Rats in groups D1 and D2 were intraperitoneally injected with corresponding doses of Dex every 6 h. The rats were sacrificed 12 h after operation; the hippocampus tissues were isolated, and frozen sections were made. The microglia activation was estimated by immunohistochemistry. The protein expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC and IL-1β were detected by immunoblotting. All data were presented as mean ± standard deviation, and independent sample t test was used to analyze the statistical difference between groups.@*RESULTS@#The activated microglia in the hippocampus of the rats significantly increased after laparotomy (group B vs. sham control, p < 0.01). After Dex treatment, the number was decreased in a dose-dependent way (group D1 vs. D2, p < 0.05), however the activated microglia in both groups were still higher than that of sham controls (both p < 0.05). Further Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC and downstream cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus from the laparotomy group were significantly higher than those of the sham control group (all p < 0.01). The elevated expression of these proteins was relieved after Dex treatment, also in a dose-dependent way (D2 vs. D1 group, p < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Dex can inhibit the activation of microglia and NLRP3 inflammasome in the hippocampus of rats after operation, and the synthesis and secretion of IL-1β are also reduced in a dose-dependent manner by using Dex. Hence, Dex can alleviate inflammation activation on the central nervous system induced by surgical injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dexmedetomidine , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammasomes , Metabolism , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interleukin-1beta , Metabolism , Laparotomy , Male , Microglia , Metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Time Factors
9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 154-164, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786408

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the effects of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on novel object recognition, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampus. To facilitate penetration into the blood–brain barrier and neuronal plasma membrane, we created a Tat-HSP70 fusion protein. Eight-week-old mice received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (10% glycerol), control-HSP70, or Tat-HSP70 protein once a day for 21 days. To elucidate the delivery efficiency of HSP70 into the hippocampus, western blot analysis for polyhistidine was conducted. Polyhistidine protein levels were significantly increased in control-HSP70- and Tat-HSP70-treated groups compared to the control or vehicle-treated group. However, polyhistidine protein levels were significantly higher in the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control-HSP70-treated group. In addition, immunohistochemical study for HSP70 showed direct evidences for induction of HSP70 immunoreactivity in the control-HSP70- and Tat-HSP70-treated groups. Administration of Tat-HSP70 increased the novel object recognition memory compared to untreated mice or mice treated with the vehicle. In addition, the administration of Tat-HSP70 significantly increased the populations of proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus compared to those in the control or vehicle-treated group based on the Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) was significantly enhanced in the dentate gyrus of the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. Western blot study also demonstrated the increases of DCX and pCREB protein levels in the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. In contrast, administration of control-HSP70 moderately increased the novel object recognition memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. These results suggest that Tat-HSP70 promoted hippocampal functions by increasing the pCREB in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Membrane , Cell Proliferation , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dentate Gyrus , Heat-Shock Proteins , Hippocampus , Hot Temperature , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Memory , Mice , Neurons , Phosphorylation
10.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 107-113, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786397

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most common antipyretic analgesic worldwide. However, APAP overdose causes severe liver injury, especially centrilobular necrosis, in humans and experimental animals. At therapeutic dosage, APAP is mainly metabolized by sulfation and glucuronidation, and partly by cytochrome P450–mediated oxidation. However, APAP overdose results in production of excess reactive metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), by cytochromes P450; NAPQI overwhelms the level of glutathione (GSH), which could otherwise detoxify it. NAPQI binds covalently to proteins, leading to cell death. A number of studies aimed at the prevention and treatment of APAP-induced toxicity are underway. Rats are more resistant than mice to APAP hepatotoxicity, and thus mouse models are mainly used. In the present study, we compared the toxic responses induced by APAP overdose in the liver of ICR mice obtained from three different sources and evaluated the usability of the Korl:ICR stock established by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation in Korea. Administration of APAP (300 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice enhanced CYP2E1 protein expression and depleted hepatic GSH level 2 h after treatment accompanied with significantly increased level of hepatic malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Regardless of the source of the mice, hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by activity of serum alanine aminotransferase, increased from 8 h and peaked at 24 h after APAP treatment. In summary, hepatotoxicity was induced after the onset of oxidative stress by overdose of APAP, and the response was the same over time among mice of different origins.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Cell Death , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Cytochromes , Glutathione , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Korea , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Necrosis , Oxidative Stress , Rats
11.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 132-139, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786394

ABSTRACT

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) acts as an endotoxin, releases inflammatory cytokines, and promotes an inflammatory response in various tissues. This study investigated whether LPS modulates neuroglia activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex. Adult male mice were divided into control animals and LPS-treated animals. The mice received LPS (250 µg/kg) or vehicle via an intraperitoneal injection for 5 days. We confirmed a reduction of body weight in LPS-treated animals and observed severe histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we elucidated increases of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress levels in LPS-treated animals. LPS administration led to increases of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Iba-1 and GFAP are well accepted as markers of activated microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Moreover, LPS exposure induced increases of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Increases of these inflammatory mediators by LPS exposure indicate that LPS leads to inflammatory responses and tissue damage. These results demonstrated that LPS activates neuroglial cells and increases NF-κB-mediated inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex. Thus, these findings suggest that LPS induces neurotoxicity by increasing oxidative stress and activating neuroglia and inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Astrocytes , Body Weight , Cerebral Cortex , Cytokines , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Male , Mice , Microglia , Necrosis , Neuroglia , NF-kappa B , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible progressive disease that destroys exocrine parenchyma, which are replaced by fibrous tissue. As pancreatic fibrosis is a key feature of CP, reducing fibrotic protein content in the pancreas is crucial for preventing CP. Studies suggest that NF-κB facilitates the expression of fibrotic mediators in pancreas and protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ) regulates NF-κB activation in stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid having anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. It has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activity in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells which is a cellular model of CP. In the present study, we investigated if DHA inhibits expression of fibrotic mediators by reducing PKC-δ and NF-κB expression in mouse pancreatic tissues with CP.METHODS: For six weeks, mice were weekly induced for acute pancreatitis to develop CP. Furthermore, acute pancreatitis was induced by hourly intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 μg/kg × 7). Mice were administered DHA (10 μM) via drinking water before and after CP induction.RESULTS: Cerulein-induced pancreatic damages like decreased pancreatic weight/total body weight, leukocyte infiltration, necrosis of acinar cells, and vacuolization were found to be inhibited by DHA. Additionally, DHA inhibited cerulein-induced fibrotic mediators like alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin in pancreas. DHA reduced expression of PKC-δ and NF-κB p65 in pancreatic tissues of cerulein-treated mice.CONCLUSIONS: DHA may be beneficial in preventing CP by suppressing pancreatic expression of fibrotic mediators.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Actins , Animals , Body Weight , Ceruletide , Drinking Water , Fibronectins , Fibrosis , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leukocytes , Mice , Necrosis , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Protein Kinases
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739661

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of excitatory neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is widely used to model neurobehavioral pathologies and underlying mechanisms. There is ample evidence that overstimulation of NMDA-dependent neurotransmission may induce neurobehavioral abnormalities, such as repetitive behaviors and hypersensitization to nociception and cognitive disruption, pharmacological modeling using NMDA has been limited due to the induction of neurotoxicity and blood brain barrier breakdown, especially in young animals. In this study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal NMDA-administration on nociceptive and repetitive behaviors in ICR mice. Intraperitoneal injection of NMDA induced repetitive grooming and tail biting/licking behaviors in a dose- and age-dependent manner. Nociceptive and repetitive behaviors were more prominent in juvenile mice than adult mice. We did not observe extensive blood brain barrier breakdown or neuronal cell death after peritoneal injection of NMDA, indicating limited neurotoxic effects despite a significant increase in NMDA concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that the observed behavioral changes were not mediated by general NMDA toxicity. In the hot plate test, we found that the latency of paw licking and jumping decreased in the NMDA-exposed mice especially in the 75 mg/kg group, suggesting increased nociceptive sensitivity in NMDA-treated animals. Repetitive behaviors and increased pain sensitivity are often comorbid in psychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder). Therefore, the behavioral characteristics of intraperitoneal NMDA-administered mice described herein may be valuable for studying the mechanisms underlying relevant disorders and screening candidate therapeutic molecules.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Autistic Disorder , Blood-Brain Barrier , Cell Death , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Grooming , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mass Screening , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Nociception , Pathology , Synaptic Transmission , Tail
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside were compared in galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatitic ICR mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male ICR mice (6 weeks old) were divided into 4 groups: normal control, GalN/LPS, luteolin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside groups. The latter two groups were administered luteolin or luteolin-7-O-glucoside (50 mg/kg BW) daily by gavage for 3 weeks after which hepatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of GalN and LPS (1 g/kg BW and 10 µg/kg BW, respectively). RESULTS: GalN/LPS produced acute hepatic injury by a sharp increase in serum AST, ALT, and TNF-α levels, increases that were ameliorated in the experimental groups. In addition, markedly increased expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its transcription factors, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein (AP)-1, were also significantly attenuated in the experimental groups. Compared to luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin more potently ameliorated the levels of inflammatory mediators. Phase II enzymes levels and NF-E2 p45-related factor (Nrf)-2 activation that were decreased by GalN/LPS were increased by luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside administration. In addition, compared to luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside acted as a more potent inducer of changes in phase II enzymes. Liver histopathology results were consistent with the mediator and enzyme results. CONCLUSION: Luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside protect against GalN/LPS-induced hepatotoxicity through the regulation of inflammatory mediators and phase II enzymes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Galactosamine , Hepatitis , Humans , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Liver , Luteolin , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , NF-kappa B , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Transcription Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760362

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that maintains homeostasis and cell integrity, under stress conditions. Although the involvement of autophagy in various conditions has been elucidated, the role of autophagy in renal structure is not completely clarified. Our aim was to investigate the cytoprotective effect of autophagy against acute kidney injury (AKI) through cisplatin deteriorative pathway, which leads to AKI via renal cell degradation. For in vivo experiments, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided in to 2 groups (n = 6/group) as control, Cis-5D. Following a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin, rats were sacrificed after 5 days. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and histological alterations were examined. Further, expression of key regulators of autophagy, light-clain 3 (LC3), p62, and Beclin1, was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The rats exhibited severe renal dysfunction, indicated by elevated BUN, Cr. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed histological damages in cisplatin-treated rats. Furthermore, IHC analysis revealed increased expression of LC3, Beclin1 and decreased expression of p62. Furthermore, expression of aforementioned autophagy markers was restricted to proximal tubule. Taken together, our study demonstrated that cisplatin can cause nephrotoxicity and lead to AKI. This phenomenon accelerated autophagy in renal proximal tubules and guards against AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Animals , Autophagy , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Cisplatin , Creatinine , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Homeostasis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1183-1195, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of heart failure (HF)-associated hospitalization and mortality in patients with diabetes. However, it is not clear whether SGLT2 inhibitors have a cardiovascular benefit in patients without diabetes. We aimed to determine whether empagliflozin (EMPA), an SGLT2 inhibitor, has a protective role in HF without diabetes. METHODS: Cardiomyopathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice using intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (Dox). Mice with HF were fed a normal chow diet (NCD) or an NCD containing 0.03% EMPA. Then we analyzed their phenotypes and performed in vitro experiments to reveal underlying mechanisms of the EMPA's effects. RESULTS: Mice fed NCD with EMPA showed improved heart function and reduced fibrosis. In vitro studies showed similar results. Phloridzin, a non-specific SGLT inhibitor, did not show any protective effect against Dox toxicity in H9C2 cells. SGLT2 inhibitor can cause increase in blood ketone levels. Beta hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), which is well known ketone body associated with SGLT2 inhibitor, showed a protective effect against Dox in H9C2 cells and in Dox-treated mice. These results suggest elevating βOHB might be a convincing mechanism for the protective effects of SGLT2 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2 inhibitors have a protective effect in Dox-induced HF in mice. This implied that SGLT2 inhibitor therapy could be a good treatment strategy even in HF patients without diabetes.


Subject(s)
3-Hydroxybutyric Acid , Animals , Cardiomyopathies , Diet , Doxorubicin , Doxycycline , Fibrosis , Heart Failure , Heart , Hospitalization , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice , Mortality , Phenotype , Phlorhizin
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidences from animal models seem to suggest that minimally invasive surgery may enhance cisplatin diffusion when the drug is administered in the context of post-operative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The present study evaluates the cisplatin pharmacokinetic profile in a prospective series of women with platinum sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer treated with open secondary cytoreductive surgery (O-SCS) or minimally-invasive secondary cytoreductive surgery (MI-SCS). METHODS: Cisplatin levels were assessed at 0, 20, 40, 60, and 120 minutes in: 1) blood samples, 2) peritoneal perfusate, and 3) peritoneal biopsies at the end of HIPEC. Median Cmax has been used to identify women with high and low drug levels. Progression-free survival (PFS) was calculated as the time elapsed between SCS+HIPEC and secondary recurrence or last follow-up visit. RESULTS: Nine (45.0%) women received MI-SCS, and 11 (55.0%) O-SCS. At 60 minutes, median cisplatin Cmax in peritoneal tissue was higher in patients treated with MI-SCS compared to O-SCS (Cmax=8.262 µg/mL vs. Cmax=4.057 µg/mL). Furthermore, median cisplatin plasma Cmax was higher in patients treated with MI-SCS compared to O-SCS (Cmax=0.511 vs. Cmax=0.254 µg/mL; p-value=0.012) at 120 minutes. With a median follow-up time of 24 months, women with higher cisplatin peritoneal Cmax showed a longer PFS compared to women with low cisplatin peritoneal levels (2-years PFS=70% vs. 35%; p-value=0.054). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate for the first time that minimally invasive route enhances cisplatin peritoneal tissue uptake during HIPEC, further evaluations are needed to confirm the correlation between peritoneal cisplatin levels after HIPEC and survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01539785


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Cisplatin , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Diffusion , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Endoscopy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Models, Animal , Ovarian Neoplasms , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Platinum , Prospective Studies , Recurrence
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Lurasidone is an antipsychotic drug that shows a relative lack of weight gain common to many antipsychotics. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone also show little weight gain and can reduce olanzapine-induced food intake and weight gain in animals, paralleling some clinical findings. We hypothesized that lurasidone would have similar actions. METHODS: Female Lister-hooded rats received intraperitoneal injection either 2× vehicle (saline), lurasidone (3 mg/kg) and vehicle, olanzapine (1 mg/kg) and vehicle, or olanzapine and lurasidone. Following drug administration food intake was measured for 60min. A further series of rats underwent a seven-day regime of once-daily administration of the above doses and free access to food and water. Weight gain over the course of the study was monitored. RESULTS: Olanzapine induced a significant increase in food intake while lurasidone showed no significant effect. Co-administration of lurasidone with olanzapine suppressed the increase in food intake. Repeated dosing showed an increase in body weight after seven days with olanzapine, and no significant effect observed with lurasidone, while repeated administration of lurasidone with olanzapine reduced the effect of olanzapine on the increase in body weight. CONCLUSION: These findings support our hypotheses in that lurasidone, in addition to a lack of effect on acute food intake and short term weight gain, can reduce olanzapine-induced food intake and weight gain in rats. This indicates the drug to have an active anti-hyperphagic mechanism, rather than solely the absence of a drug-induced weight gain that is such a severe limitation of drugs such as olanzapine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antipsychotic Agents , Aripiprazole , Body Weight , Eating , Female , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lurasidone Hydrochloride , Rats , Water , Weight Gain
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