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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760893

ABSTRACT

Bacillus cereus causes serious central nervous system infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Successful treatment requires adequate antimicrobial concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid; however, in some cases, achieving this with systemic treatment alone is difficult. We treated intractable B. cereus ventriculitis with intraventricular vancomycin, with no major adverse events.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus , Bacillus , Central Nervous System Infections , Cerebral Ventriculitis , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Immunocompromised Host , Injections, Intraventricular , Pharmacokinetics , Vancomycin
2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 406-415, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714669

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Loss of cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus is a hallmark of many dementias. Administration of stem cells as a therapeutic intervention for patients is under active investigation, but the optimal stem cell type and transplantation modality has not yet been established. In this study, we studied the therapeutic effects of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) in dementia rat model using either intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intravenous (IV) injections and analyzed their mechanisms of therapeutic action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dementia modeling was established by intraventricular injection of 192 IgG-saporin, which causes lesion of cholinergic neurons. Sixty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, lesion, lesion+ICV injection of pMSCs, lesion+IV injection of pMSCs, and lesion+donepezil. Rats were subjected to the Morris water maze and subsequent immunostaining analyses. RESULTS: Both ICV and IV pMSC administrations allowed significant cognitive recovery compared to the lesioned rats. Acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly rescued in the hippocampus of rats injected with pMSCs post-lesion. Choline acetyltransferase did not co-localize with pMSCs, showing that pMSCs did not directly differentiate into cholinergic cells. Number of microglial cells increased in lesioned rats and significantly decreased back to normal levels with pMSC injection. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that ICV and IV injections of pMSCs facilitate the recovery of cholinergic neuronal populations and cognitive behavior. This recovery likely occurs through paracrine effects that resemble microglia function rather than direct differentiation of injected pMSCs into cholinergic neurons.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Animals , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Cholinergic Neurons , Dementia , Hippocampus , Humans , Injections, Intraventricular , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Microglia , Models, Animal , Negotiating , Placenta , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stem Cells , Therapeutic Uses , Water
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(1): 1-5, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricularly administered rocuronium bromide on the central nervous system, determine the seizure threshold dose of rocuronium bromide in rats, and investigate the effects of rocuronium on the central nervous system at 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100 dilutions of the determined seizure threshold dose. Methods: A permanent cannula was placed in the lateral cerebral ventricle of the animals. The study was designed in two phases. In the first phase, the seizure threshold dose of rocuronium bromide was determined. In the second phase, Group R 1/5 (n = 6), Group 1/10 (n = 6), and Group 1/100 (n = 6) were formed using doses of 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100, respectively, of the obtained rocuronium bromide seizure threshold dose. Results: The rocuronium bromide seizure threshold value was found to be 0.056 ± 0.009 µmoL. The seizure threshold, as a function of the body weight of rats, was calculated as 0.286 µmoL/kg-1. A dose of 1/5 of the seizure threshold dose primarily caused splayed limbs, posturing, and tremors of the entire body, whereas the dose of 1/10 of the seizure threshold dose caused agitation and shivering. A dose of 1/100 of the seizure threshold dose was associated with decreased locomotor activity. Conclusions: This study showed that rocuronium bromide has dose-related deleterious effects on the central nervous system and can produce dose-dependent excitatory effects and seizures.


Resumo Justificativa: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do brometo de rocurônio administrado intracerebroventricularmente sobre o sistema nervoso central, determinar a dose do limiar convulsivo de rocurônio em ratos e investigar os efeitos de rocurônio no sistema nervoso central em diluições de 1/5, 1/10 e 1/100 da dose do limiar convulsivo determinada. Métodos: Uma cânula permanente foi colocada no ventrículo lateral do cérebro dos animais. O estudo foi projetado em duas fases. Na primeira, a dose do limiar convulsivo do brometo de rocurônio foi determinada. Na segunda, o Grupo R 1/5 (n = 6), o Grupo 1/10 (n = 6) e Grupo 1/100 (n = 6) foram formados com doses de 1/5, 1/10 e 1/100, respectivamente, da dose do limiar convulsivo de brometo de rocurônio obtida. Resultados: Descobrimos que o valor do limiar convulsivo de brometo de rocurônio é 0,056 ± 0,009 µmoL. O limiar convulsivo, como uma função do peso corporal dos ratos, foi calculado como 0,286 µmoL/kg-1. Uma dose de 1/5 da dose do limiar convulsivo causou principalmente abertura postural dos membros e tremores em todo o corpo, enquanto uma dose de 1/10 da dose do limiar convulsivo causou agitação e tremores. Uma dose de 1/100 da dose do limiar convulsivo foi associada à diminuição da atividade locomotora. Conclusões: Este estudo mostrou que o brometo de rocurônio tem efeitos deletérios relacionados com a dose sobre o sistema nervoso central e pode produzir efeitos excitatórios dependentes da dose e convulsões.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Rocuronium , Injections, Intraventricular , Androstanols/administration & dosage , Locomotion/drug effects
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(9): e6275, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888991

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-contacting nucleus) mediates the transduction and regulation of pain signals. However, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Studies show that release of fractalkine (FKN) from neurons plays a critical role in nerve injury-related pain. We tested the hypothesis that release of FKN from the CSF-contacting nucleus regulates neuropathic pain, in a chronic constriction injury rat model. The results show that FKN is expressed by neurons, via expression of its only receptor CX3CR1 in the microglia. The levels of soluble FKN (sFKN) were markedly upregulated along with the increase in FKN mRNA level in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury. In addition, injection of FKN-neutralizing antibody into the lateral ventricle alleviated neuropathic pain-related behavior followed by reduction in microglial activation in the CSF-contacting nucleus. The results indicate that inhibition of FKN release by the CSF-contacting nucleus may ameliorate neuropathic pain clinically.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cerebrospinal Fluid/metabolism , Pain Threshold/physiology , Chemokine CX3CL1/metabolism , Chronic Pain/metabolism , Neuralgia/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Injections, Intraventricular
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(8): 520-526, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792414

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluated the long-term effect of scopolamine and sesame oil on spatial memory. METHODS: Memory impairment induced by Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of scopolamine hydrochloride (10 μg/ rat). Animals were gavaged for 4 weeks with saline, sesame oil (0.5, 1, or 2 mL/kg/day), or 3 weeks with memantine (30 mg/kg/day) in advance to induction of amnesia. Morris water maze (MWM) test was conducted 6 days after microinjection of scopolamine. Then, blood and brain samples were collected and evaluated for the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, and total antioxidant status (TAS) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). RESULTS: Scopolamine significantly decreased traveled distance and time spent in target quadrant in probe test. Pretreatment of rats with sesame oil (0.5 mg/kg) mitigated scopolamine-induced behavioral alterations. Measurement of MDA, SOD, and GPX in brain tissue, and FRAP and TAS in blood showed little changes in animals which had received scopolamine or sesame oil. CONCLUSIONS: Intracerebroventricular injection of scopolamine has a residual effect on memory after six days. Sesame oil has an improving effect on spatial memory; however this effect is possibly mediated by mechanisms other than antioxidant effect of sesame oil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Scopolamine/adverse effects , Sesame Oil/administration & dosage , Amnesia/drug therapy , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/chemistry , Ferric Compounds/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Maze Learning , Disease Models, Animal , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Glutathione Peroxidase/chemistry , Amnesia/chemically induced , Injections, Intraventricular , Memory/drug effects , Antioxidants/chemistry
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296540

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the role of RAS/PI3K pathway in the impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by acute aluminum (Al) treatment in rats in vivo.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>First, different dosages of aluminum-maltolate complex [Al(mal)3] were given to rats via acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. Following Al exposure, the RAS activity of rat hippocampus were detected by ELISA assay after the hippocampal LTP recording by field potentiation technique in vivo. Second, the antagonism on the aluminum-induced suppression of hippocampal LTP was observed after the treatment of the RAS activator epidermal growth factor (EGF). Finally, the antagonism on the downstream molecules (PKB activity and the phosphorylation of GluR1 S831 and S845) were tested by ELISA and West-blot assays at the same time.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>With the increasing aluminum dosage, a gradually decreasing in RAS activity of the rat hippocampus was produced after a gradually suppressing on LTP. The aluminum-induced early suppression of hippocampal LTP was antagonized by the RAS activator epidermal growth factor (EGF). And the EGF treatment produced changes similar to those observed for LTP between the groups on PKB activity as well as the phosphorylation of GluR1 S831 and S845.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The RAS→PI3K/PKB→GluR1 S831 and S845 signal transduction pathway may be involved in the inhibition of hippocampal LTP by aluminum exposure in rats. However, the mechanisms underlying this observation need further investigation.</p>


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Toxicity , Animals , Epidermal Growth Factor , Metabolism , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Injections, Intraventricular , Long-Term Potentiation , Male , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Receptors, AMPA , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , ras Proteins , Metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167779

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The LiquoGuard® system is a new ventricular-type monitoring device that facilitates intracranial pressure (ICP)-controlled or volume-controlled drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The purpose of this study is to report the authors' experience with the LiquoGuard® ICP monitoring system, as well as the clinical safety, usefulness, and limitations of this device in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Intraventricular ICP monitoring was performed on 10 patients with TBI using the LiquoGuard® monitoring system. ICP measurements, volume of drained CSF, and clinical outcomes were analyzed and discussed. RESULTS: ICP monitoring was performed on 10 patients for a mean duration of 6.9 days. With a mean 82,718 records per patient, the mean initial ICP was 16.4 mm Hg and the average ICP across the total duration of monitoring was 15.5 mm Hg. The mean volume of drained CSF was 29.2 cc/day, with no CSF drained in 4 patients. Seven of 10 patients showed 1 or 2 episodes of abnormal ICP measurements. No patient exhibited complications associated with ICP monitoring. CONCLUSION: The LiquoGuard® system is a versatile tool in the management of TBI patients. Its use is both reliable and feasible for ICP monitoring and therapeutic drainage of CSF. However, episodes of abnormal ICP measurements were frequently observed in patients with slit ventricles, and further study may be needed to overcome this issue.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drainage , Humans , Injections, Intraventricular , Intracranial Pressure , Monitoring, Physiologic
8.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 122-129, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity. .


OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura atual a respeito dos efeitos do exercício físico sobre diferentes variáveis metabólicas da obesidade infantil. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa foi feita nas bases de dados Pubmed e Web of Science. Os descritores usados foram: obesity, children obesity, childhood obesity, exercise e physical activity. A pesquisa eletrônica foi feita com base nos estudos publicados de abril de 2010 a dezembro de 2013, em idioma inglês. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O rastreamento dos estudos com os descritores encontrou 88.393. Após cruzamento entre os descritores, obtiveram-se 4.561. Desses, depois da análise dos títulos, foram cogitados 182 relevantes referências, submetidos então aos critérios de inclusão/exclusão, e totalizaram, no fim, 39. A maioria dos estudos relacionou a prática de exercícios físicos aeróbicos e resistidos à melhoria da composição corporal, à regulação do perfil lipídico e metabólico e ao estado inflamatório de crianças e adolescentes obesos. Entretanto, a magnitude dos efeitos está associada ao tipo, à intensidade e à duração da prática. CONCLUSÕES: O exercício físico, independentemente do tipo, mostra-se capaz de promover adaptações positivas sobre a obesidade infantil, principalmente por atuar na restauração da homeostase celular e sistema cardiovascular, na melhoria da composição corporal e também aumento da ativação metabólica. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Eating/drug effects , Opioid Peptides/pharmacology , Receptors, Opioid/agonists , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electric Stimulation , Injections, Intraventricular , Ligands , Molecular Conformation , Opioid Peptides/administration & dosage , Opioid Peptides/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1437-1455, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732514

ABSTRACT

In 1915 the Rockefeller Foundation took its hookworm eradication campaign to Suriname, but was soon disappointed because of opposition from its main target group: the Javanese. Moreover, authorities and planters objected to the construction of latrines because of the costs and their belief that the Javanese were “unhygienic”. In describing the labor migration from Java to Suriname, I show that this “lack of hygiene” was closely related to the system’s organization. I argue that uncleanliness was the consequence of harmful socio-economic and ecological conditions. Secondly I suggest that even though the Foundation did not manage to cleanse Suriname of hookworm, its educational efforts, its emphasis on prevention, and its training of local health workers probably had more impact than Rockefeller officials thought.


Em 1915, a Fundação Rockefeller levou sua campanha de erradicação da ancilostomíase ao Suriname, logo sofrendo a oposição de seu principal alvo, os javaneses. Autoridades e proprietários rurais também reagiram à instalação de latrinas devido aos custos implicados e à crença de que os javaneses eram “anti-higiênicos”. Ao descrever a migração de trabalhadores de Java para o Suriname, mostro que a “falta de higiene” ligava-se à organização do sistema. Argumento que a sujeira era consequência de condições ecológicas e socioeconômicas danosas. Sugiro ainda que, embora a Fundação não tenha livrado o Suriname da anciolostomíase, seus esforços educacionais, sua ênfase na prevenção e o treinamento de profissionais de saúde locais tiveram maior impacto do que o imaginado pelos funcionários da agência norte-americana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Analgesics/pharmacology , Dimaprit/analogs & derivatives , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Histamine Agonists/pharmacology , Histamine N-Methyltransferase/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dimaprit/administration & dosage , Dimaprit/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Folic Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine Agonists/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraventricular , Methylhistamines/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Postural Balance/drug effects , Psychomotor Performance/drug effects , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 667-674, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255988

ABSTRACT

The present study is aimed to investigated the firing activity of pyramidal neurons and interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rats with bilateral intraventricular injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) by using in vivo extracellular recording. The results showed that the injection of 5,7-DHT reduced the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the mPFC and dorsal raphe nucleus in the rats. The firing rate of mPFC pyramidal neurons in rats with 5,7-DHT injection was significantly higher than that of normal rats, and the firing pattern of these neurons also changed significantly towards a more burst-firing, while the injection decreased the firing rate of mPFC interneurons and changed the firing pattern of the interneurons towards a more irregular. These results indicate that the lesions of the serotonergic neurons lead to the changes in the firing activity of mPFC pyramidal neurons and interneurons, suggesting that serotonergic system plays an important role in the regulation of the neuronal activity in the mPFC.


Subject(s)
5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine , Pharmacology , Action Potentials , Animals , Dorsal Raphe Nucleus , Cell Biology , Injections, Intraventricular , Interneurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Cell Biology , Pyramidal Cells , Rats , Serotonin , Metabolism
11.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2014; 69 (2): 197-201
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-149820

ABSTRACT

Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system and plays a certain role in food intake in mammalian. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of glycine in central regulation of feed intake of broiler cockerels [Ross 308] during six sequential phases. At 1, 2 and 3 phases, glycine [50, 100 and 200 nmol], NFPS [inhibitor of glycine transporter at 25, 50 and 100 nmol] and hydrochloride strychnine [competitive antagonist of presynaptic of glycine at 10, 50 and 250 nmol] were injected intracerebroventriculary [ICV]. At 4, 5 and 6 phases, the effect of pretreatment of NFPS [100 nmol], strychnine [250 nmol] and DL-AP5 [antagonist of glutamate NMDA receptors, 5 nmol] on cumulative feed intake induced by glycine was evaluated. During this study, the control group was injected ICV by sterile physiological serum. Thereafter, Cumulative feed intake was measured at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after injection. According to the results, ICV injection of 200 nmol glycine significantly reduced the feed intake [p<0.05]. Moreover, the injection of NFPS at 50 and 100 nmol, significantly increased the feed intake [p<0.05], while strychnine had no effect. Additionally, pretreatment with NFPS and DL-AP5 significantly attenuated the feed intake induced by glycine [p<0.05], whereas strychnine had no effect [p>0.05]. These results showed that the inhibitory effect of glycine on feed intake is not associated with neurotransmitory function of glycine, but is due to its neuromodulatory effect which is probably mediated via NMDA glutamate receptors in birds


Subject(s)
Animals , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Receptors, Glutamate , Eating , Injections, Intraventricular , Birds
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(3): 250-255, Mar. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618045

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Adrenomedullin/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cholinergic Neurons/physiology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Vasopressins/drug effects , Adrenomedullin/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Central Nervous System/physiology , Cholinergic Neurons/drug effects , Consciousness/drug effects , Consciousness/physiology , Injections, Intraventricular , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/drug effects , Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/physiology , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Vasopressins/physiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267543

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors in the central nucleus of the amygdale (CeA) in food and water intake.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male Sprague-Dawley rats with stainless steel cannulae implanted unilaterally into the CeA were used. The prototypic NMDA receptor agonist NMDA, or the selective NMDA receptor antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP-5) was microinjected into the CeA of satiated and euhydrated rats.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Intra-CeA injection of 8.50, 17.00, or 34.00 nmol NMDA did not alter food intake but significantly increased water intake 0-1 h after the injection (F(3,32)=3.191, P=0.037) independent of food intake. Without affecting the food intake, injection of 6.34, 12.70, or 25.40 nmol D-AP-5 into the CeA significantly decreased water intake 0-1 h after the injection (F(3,28)=3.118, P=0.042) independent of food intake.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>NMDA receptors in the CeA may participate in the control of water intake rather than food intake.</p>


Subject(s)
2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate , Pharmacology , Amygdala , Animals , Drinking , Eating , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists , Pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists , Pharmacology , Injections, Intraventricular , Male , N-Methylaspartate , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65171

ABSTRACT

The current study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of SHU9119 [a nonselective melanocortin receptor (McR) antagonist] and MCL0020 (a selective McR antagonist) on the serotonin-induced eating and drinking responses of broiler cockerels deprived of food for 24 h (FD24). For Experiment 1, the chickens were intracerebroventricularly injected with 2.5, 5, and 10 microg serotonin. In Experiment 2, the chickens received 2 nmol SHU9119 before being injected with 10 microg serotonin. For Experiment 3, the chickens were given 10 microg serotonin after receiving 2 nmol MCL0020, and the level of food and water intake was determined 3 h post-injection. Results of this study showed that serotonin decreased food intake but increased water intake among the FD24 broiler cockerels and that these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of serotonin on food intake was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SHU9119 and MCL0020. However, the stimulatory effect of serotonin on water intake was not altered by this pretreatment. These results suggest that serotonin hypophagia and hyperdipsia were mediated by different mechanisms in the central nervous system, and that serotonin required downstream activation of McRs to promote hypophagia but not hyperdipsia in the FD24 chickens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drinking Behavior/drug effects , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Food Deprivation , Injections, Intraventricular/veterinary , Male , Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones/pharmacology , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 3/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4/antagonists & inhibitors , Serotonin/pharmacology
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(11): 1141-1147, Nov. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604272

ABSTRACT

This study examined the food intake changes evoked by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a selective agonist (BRL37344, 2 and 20 nmol) or antagonist (SR59230A, 10 and 50 nmol) of β3-adrenergic receptors in 24-h fasted rats (adult male Wistar rats, 200-350 g, N = 6/treatment). The animals were also pretreated with saline icv (SAL) or SR59230A (50 nmol) followed by BRL37344 (20 nmol) or SAL in order to determine the selectivity of the effects evoked by BRL37344 on food intake or the selectivity of the effects evoked by SR59230A on risk assessment (RA) behavior. The highest dose of BRL37344 (N = 7) decreased food intake 1 h after the treatment (6.4 ± 0.5 g in SAL-treated vs 4.2 ± 0.8 g in drug-treated rats). While both doses of SR59230A failed to affect food intake (5.1 ± 1.1 g for 10 nmol and 6.0 ± 1.8 g for 50 nmol), this treatment reduced the RA frequency (number/30 min) (4 ± 2 for SAL-treated vs 1 ± 1 for 10 nmol and 0.5 ± 1 for 50 nmol SR59230A-treated rats), an ethological parameter related to anxiety. While pretreatment with SR59230A (7.0 ± 0.5 g) abolished the hypophagia induced by BRL37344 (3.6 ± 0.9 g), BRL37344 suppressed the reduction in RA frequency caused by SR59230A. These results show that the hypophagia caused by BRL37344 is selectively mediated by β3-adrenergic receptors within the central nervous system. Moreover, they suggest the involvement of these receptors in the control of anxiety.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , /pharmacology , Eating/drug effects , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , /administration & dosage , /administration & dosage , /pharmacology , Anxiety/metabolism , Ethanolamines/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraventricular , Models, Animal , Propanolamines/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Risk Assessment
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(2b): 349-355, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-588097

ABSTRACT

Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been used to prevent seizures in eclampsia. This study examined the central effects of MgSO4 on different types of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Male Wistar rats were submitted to intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of MgSO4 at different doses followed by intraperitoneal administration of PTZ. The latency to the onset of the first seizure induced by PTZ was significantly increased by ICV administration of MgSO4 at a dose of 100 µg compared to the control treatment. In addition, the total period during which animals presented with seizures was significantly reduced at this dose of MgSO4. Furthermore, the latency to the onset of the first partial complex seizure was significantly increased by the lowest dose of MgSO4. However, a high dose of MgSO4 had no effect or even potentiated the effect of PTZ. These results suggest that, depending on the dose, MgSO4 may be important in prevention of epileptic seizures.


Sulfato de magnésio (MgSO4) é utilizado para prevenir crises epilépticas na eclampsia. Este estudo examina os efeitos do MgSO4 em diferentes tipos de crise induzidas por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ). Ratos Wistar foram submetidos à administração intracerebroventricular (ICV) de diferentes doses de MgSO4 seguida de administração intraperitoneal de PTZ. A latência para o início da primeira crise induzida por PTZ foi aumentada pela administração ICV de MgSO4 na dose de 100 µg quando comparada ao tratamento controle. Além disso, o período durante o qual os animais apresentaram crises foi reduzido com a mesma dose de MgSO4. A latência para o início da primeira crise parcial complexa também foi aumentada com a dose menor de MgSO4 (32 µg). No entanto, a maior dose (320 µg) de MgSO4 não foi efetiva ou até potencializou os efeitos do PTZ. Esses resultados sugerem que, dependendo da dose, o MgSO4 pode ser útil na prevenção de crises epilépticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Seizures/prevention & control , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Convulsants , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electroencephalography , Injections, Intraventricular , Magnesium Sulfate/administration & dosage , Pentylenetetrazole , Rats, Wistar , Seizures/chemically induced
17.
Clinics ; 65(12): 1339-1343, 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated the importance of oxidative stress on the cardiovascular system. In this study we evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiopulmonary reflex in conscious Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula in the fourth cerebral ventricle. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for mean arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and for drug infusion, respectively. After basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate recordings, the cardiopulmonary reflex was tested with a dose of phenylbiguanide (PBG, 8 μg/kg, bolus). Cardiopulmonary reflex was evaluated before and μl15 minutes after 1.0 μl 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, 0.01g/100μl)0.01 g/100 μl) injection into the fourth cerebral ventricle. Vehicle treatment did not change cardiopulmonary reflex responses. RESULTS: Central ATZ significantly increased hypotensive responses without influencing the bradycardic reflex. CONCLUSION: ATZ injected into the fourth cerebral ventricle increases sympathetic inhibition but does not change the parasympathetic component of the cardiopulmonary reflex in conscious Wistar rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Amitrole/pharmacology , Baroreflex/drug effects , Consciousness/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Fourth Ventricle/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Injections, Intraventricular , Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
18.
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2010; 15 (3): 1-12
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-122308

ABSTRACT

Chronic opiate administration induces tolerance to the analgesic effect. Despite extensive investigations in this ground, the precise cellular mechanisms underlying opioid tolerance and dependence remain controversial. Several studies have indicated that glutamatergic transmission and nitric oxide/ Nmethyl D-aspartate [NMDA] pathway could play an important role in morphineinduced tolerance. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intracerebro- ventricular [ICV] administration of minocycline [a second-generation tetracycline] on morphine-induced tolerance and elevation of glutamate level in cerebral cortex and lumbar region of spinal cord of rats after administration of morphine. Different groups of rats received either morphine [IP] and distilled water [ICV] or morphine [IP] and different doses of minocycline [ICV] or minocycline alone once per day. Nociception was assessed using a hot plate apparatus. The glutamate concentration in both regions was measured with a high performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] apparatus. The results indicated that ICV administration of minocycline with doses of 60, 120, 240 micro g/10micro l/rat attenuated the morphine-induced tolerance and decreased glutamate level in the cerebral cortex. But glutamate level in the lumbar spinal cord decreased after administration of minocycline with doses of 120, 240 micro g/10micro l/rat. We found that central administration of minocycline attenuated morphine-induced increase of glutamate level in the cortex and lumbar spinal cord of rats which can be regarded as a possible mechanism for effect of minocycline on morphine-induced tolerance


Subject(s)
Animals , Morphine/pharmacology , Drug Tolerance , Glutamic Acid/drug effects , Rats , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Injections, Intraventricular
19.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2010; 23 (2): 170-174
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-98349

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed to determine the effect of intracerebroventricular [ICV] administration of W- 7, a specific calmodulin inhibitor, on the development of tolerance to antinociceptive effect morphine administration. This study was carried out on male wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g. Morphine was administered daily [15 mg/kg for 8 days]. The threshold to thermal nociceptive stimuli was measured by tail-flick test. W-7 [0.25, 0.5 and 1 micro mol/rat] was injected through ICV. Maximal possible effect percentage [MPE%] was considered as analgesia index. Our result showed that chronic morphine exposure induced tolerance to its antinociceptive effect and administration of W-7 [0.5 and 1 micro mol/rat] decreased the development of tolerance to it. In conclusion these data showed that chronic injection of W-7 inhibited the development of morphine tolerance which indicates that calmodulin and its dependent pathways may play a role in the morphine tolerance processes


Subject(s)
Animals , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Calmodulin/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Morphine/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Injections, Intraventricular
20.
Clinics ; 65(2): 209-219, 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although schizophrenia affects both human genders, there are gender-dependent differences with respect to age of onset, clinical characteristics, course and prognosis of the disease. METHODS: To investigate sex-dependent differences in motor coordination and activity as well as in cognitive and social behavior, we repeatedly tested female (n = 14) and male (n = 12) Fisher rats (postnatal days, PD 56-174) that had received intracerebroventricular injections of kainic acid as well as female (n = 15) and male (n = 16) control animals. The hippocampus was examined histologically. RESULTS: Compared to male controls, in the alcove test both female controls and female animals with prenatal intervention spent less time in a dark box before entering an unknown illuminated area. Again, animals that received prenatal injection (particularly females) made more perseveration errors in the T-maze alternation task compared to controls. Female rats exhibited a higher degree of activity than males, suggesting these effects to be sex-dependent. Finally, animals that received prenatal intervention maintained longer lasting social contacts. Histological analyses showed pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area CA3 (in both hemispheres) of control animals to be longer than those found in treated animals. Sex-dependent differences were found in the left hippocampi of control animals and animals after prenatal intervention. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate important differences between males and females in terms of weight gain, response to fear, working memory and social behavior. We also found sex-dependent differences in the lengths of hippocampal neurons. Further studies on larger sample sets with more detailed analyses of morphological changes are required to confirm our data.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Hippocampus/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Social Behavior , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists , Hippocampus/embryology , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Injections, Intraventricular , Kainic Acid , Maze Learning/drug effects , Sex Factors , Schizophrenia/chemically induced
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