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Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(2): 186-189, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248783


Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the case of a 19-year-old male presenting with bradycardia and hypotension after a honeybee sting making a review of the literature and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular and electrocardiogram (EKG) changes after a bee sting. Methods: The patient's airway was inspected and secured. Electrocardiogram with an idioventricular rhythm at 41' bpm. Oxygen was administered, an intravenous access was established, and the transcutaneous pacemaker leads were placed on the chest of the patient, then published guidelines management was induced. Results: The EKG showed idioventricular rhythm at a rate of 41 beats/min that resolved to a normal sinus rhythm after treatment. Conclusions: A full and prompt cardiovascular evaluation should be performed in all patients presenting to the emergency department after a bee sting, and published guidelines regarding the management of bradycardia and anaphylaxis should be followed to achieve successful outcomes.

Resumen Objetivo: Describir el caso de un paciente masculino de 19 años que presenta bradicardia e hipotensión después de una picadura de abeja haciendo una revisión de la literatura y fisiopatología de los cambios cardiovasculares y electrocardiográficos después de una picadura de abeja. Métodos: Se inspeccionó y aseguró la vía aérea del paciente. Un rastreo de ECG realizado al ingreso reveló ritmo idioventricular a una ritmo de 41 latidos por minuto. Se administró oxígeno, se estableció un acceso IV y se colocaron los cables del marcapasos transcutáneo en el tórax del paciente, luego se indujo el manejo de las guías publicadas. Resultados: El electrocardiograma mostró un ritmo idioventricular a una frecuencia de 41 latidos por minuto que se resolvió a un ritmo sinusal normal después del tratamiento. Conclusiones: Se debe realizar una evaluación cardiovascular completa y rápida en todos los pacientes que se presentan al departamento de emergencias después de una picadura de abeja, y se deben seguir las pautas publicadas sobre el manejo de la bradicardia y la anafilaxia para lograr resultados exitosos.

Humans , Animals , Male , Pacemaker, Artificial , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Shock , Bees , Bradycardia/etiology , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Bradycardia/therapy , Electrocardiography , Heart Rate/physiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200319, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143888


Abstract Bee venom is a natural toxin composed of several peptides. Massive envenoming causes severe local and systemic reactions. We report two cases of severe bee envenomation, of which one was fatal. We also describe clinical characteristics and immune markers. Both victims suffered from respiratory distress, renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and shock. They required invasive mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drugs, and renal replacement therapy. Moreover, serum levels of chemokines, cytokines, and cell-free circulating nucleic acids demonstrated an intense inflammatory process. Massive envenoming produced systemic injury in the victims, with an uncontrolled inflammatory response, and a more significant chemotactic response in the fatal case.

Animals , Rhabdomyolysis/diagnosis , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Bee Venoms , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Bees , Brazil , Biomarkers
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(4): 498-501, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154640


ABSTRACT Minimal change disease accounts for up to 25% of the cases of nephrotic syndrome in adult population. The allergic mechanism has been associated with minimal change disease and allergens have been implied, namely insect stings. We present a case report of a woman with new onset of nephrotic syndrome after a non-hymenoptera insect sting, with biopsy-proven minimal change disease, that was accompanied by a pulmonary thromboembolism process. Complete remission with glucocorticoid therapy was observed, with sustained response for 6 months after discontinuation. A new exposure to insect sting in the same geographical region and season triggered a nephrotic syndrome relapse. Subsequent avoidance of the place resulted in a sustained remission for more than 4 years.

RESUMO A doença de lesões mínimas é responsável por até 25% dos casos de síndrome nefrótica na população adulta. O mecanismo alérgico tem sido associado à doença de lesão mínima a associada a alérgenos, como picadas de insetos. Apresentamos um caso de uma mulher com início recente de síndrome nefrótica após picada de inseto não himenóptero, com doença de lesões mínimas comprovada por biópsia, acompanhada por um processo de tromboembolismo pulmonar. A paciente teve remissão completa com glicocorticoides, com resposta sustentada por 6 meses após a interrupção do tratamento. Uma nova exposição à picada de inseto na mesma região geográfica e estação do ano provocou uma recaída da síndrome nefrótica. Evitar o local subsequentemente resultou em remissão sustentada por mais de 4 anos.

Humans , Female , Adult , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , Biopsy , Remission Induction
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 724-727, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142124


Abstract Insect bites and bite wounds are quite common and most often have mild repercussions in humans. Statistics on the incidence of accidents caused by insects are not available, and the skin reactions after the bites are not always known. The authors present two cases of patients with hemorrhagic blisters on their hands after tabanidae bites and discuss the factors that cause the problem and the importance of the differential diagnosis of blisters with hemorrhagic content on human skin.

Humans , Prurigo , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Insect Bites and Stings/diagnosis , Skin , Allergens
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 6-11, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098365


Resumen Los himenópteros es una de las clasificaciones de los insectos, constituida por principalmente tres tipos, la abeja, la avispa y la hormiga de fuego, que provocan picaduras con veneno, generando desde efectos locales hasta sistémicos, con repercusiones leves o mortales sino reciben una atención médica oportuna. Las reacciones sistémicas son dependientes de la respuesta inmunológica, así como de la cantidad de las picaduras. Se presentaran dos casos de fallecimiento a causa de accidente por himenópteros tipo abejas, diagnosticados por la historia médicolegal, hallazgos de autopsia relacionado al efecto sistémico del veneno de las abejas y circunstancias relacionadas a la muerte.

Abstract Hymenoptera is one of the classifications of insects, consisting mainly of three types, the bee, the wasp and the fire ant, which cause pitting with venom generating from local to systemic effects, with slight or fatal repercussions but receive timely medical attention. Systemic reactions are dependent on the immune response, as well as the number of bites. There will be two cases of death due to an accident by hymenopterans type bees, diagnosed by medical-legal history, autopsy findings related to the systemic effect of bee venom and circumstances related to death will be presented.

Humans , Aged , Wasp Venoms , Wasps , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Costa Rica , Hymenoptera
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200005, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092620


ABSTRACT: Introduction: In the American continent, accidents caused by honeybees are a public health problem due to the high incidence and severity of the cases. Despite its medical importance, there are few epidemiological studies on this topic in Brazil, especially referring to the Northeastern states. The present study aims to describe the epidemiological features of honeybee envenomation cases in the state of the Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2014. Methods: Data were collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte. Results: We analyzed a total of 2,168 cases. Cases occurred in all months of the years studied, reaching higher frequencies from June to October. Most incidents happened in urban areas and involved men, with victims aged between 20 and 39 years. Victims were mainly stung on the head and hand, and they received medical care predominantly within 3 hours after the injury. Local manifestations were more frequent than systemic ones. Clinically, most cases were mild and progressed to cure. Conclusion: The high number of honeybee sting cases shows that Rio Grande do Norte may be an important risk area for such injury.

RESUMO: Introdução: No continente americano, os acidentes causados por abelhas são um problema de saúde pública devido à alta incidência e severidade dos casos. Apesar de sua importância médica, há poucos estudos epidemiológicos sobre esse tema no Brasil, especialmente referentes aos estados do Nordeste. O presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever as características epidemiológicas dos casos de envenenamento por abelhas no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, no Nordeste do Brasil, de 2007 a 2014. Metodologia: Os dados foram coletados da base de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde do Rio Grande do Norte. Resultados: Um total de 2.168 casos foram analisados. Os casos mostraram distribuição em todos os meses dos anos estudados, com maior frequência de junho a outubro. A maioria dos casos ocorreu em áreas urbanas e envolveu homens, com vítimas entre 20 e 39 anos de idade. As vítimas foram principalmente picadas na cabeça e na mão, e receberam assistência médica predominantemente dentro de 3 horas após serem picadas. As manifestações locais eram mais frequentes do que as sistêmicas. Clinicamente, a maioria dos casos foi leve e progrediu para cura. Conclusão: O alto número casos de picadas de abelhas mostra que o Rio Grande do Norte pode ser uma importante área de risco para tal incidente.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Spatial Analysis , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180425, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003129


Abstract This study describes the isolation of a leech following the presentation of unusual vaginal bleeding. Vaginal bleeding in children due to a leech bite is very rare. This is the first report of severe bleeding in a virgin 14-year-old girl from Mashhad, Iran due to the presence of a leech in the vagina.

Humans , Animals , Female , Adolescent , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology , Vagina/injuries , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Leeches
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 560-562, July-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957438


Abstract Accidents related to Africanized honey bees are growing globally and are associated with multiple stings owing to the aggressive behavior of this species. The massive inoculation of venom causes skin necrosis and rhabdomyolysis leading to renal failure. Anaphylactic manifestations are more common and are treated using well-defined treatment protocols. However, bee venom-induced toxic reactions may be serious and require a different approach. We report the case of a 3-year-old child, which would help clinicians to focus on the treatment approach required after an incident involving multiple bee stings.

Humans , Animals , Male , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Bees , Eye Infections/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Insect Bites and Stings/complications
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(4): 582-584, July-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949921


Abstract: Sclerodermus sp. is an aculeate insect (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), measuring 2-4 mm in length. It is a parasitoid and needs termites as hosts to complete its life cycle. It is found in a wide variety of woods and may accidentally sting humans who come near affected wooden objects. A 50-year-old woman presented two episodes of intense pruritic lesions. Clinical diagnosis of insect bite was doubtful since there were no pets at home, lesions had not started during summer and the patient denied rural activities. During a night episode of itching, the patient examined her bed and found 8 insects likely to be responsible for the bites. Scanning electron microscopy revealed typical features of a female of the genus (wingless and with multiple stingers at the lower end of the abdomen).

Humans , Animals , Female , Middle Aged , Pruritus/etiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/complications , Hymenoptera/ultrastructure , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Insect Bites and Stings/parasitology
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(4): 570-572, July-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949929


Abstract: A 59-year-old atopic man referred to for the onset of a diffused itching papular-purpuric eruption involving his trunk and legs but without systemic symptoms. History revealed that he started feeling itching after spending few hours in his basement. Direct examination of the environmental dust ( showed high level of infestation of Solenopsis fugax, a small Myrmicinae ant. The skin eruption completely healed without scarring in 2 weeks. Specific disinfestation measures were performed and the patient did not comply of any recurrence during a 6-months follow-up.

Humans , Animals , Male , Middle Aged , Ants/classification , Pruritus/etiology , Purpura/etiology , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Pruritus/diagnosis , Purpura/diagnosis , Insect Bites and Stings/diagnosis
Medisan ; 21(10)oct.2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-996150


En el presente artículo se expone lo relacionado con la labor preventiva, que constituye una vía pedagógica encaminada a potenciar la preparación del futuro médico general integral en la comunidad ante enfermedades trasmitidas por vectores; escenario propicio para adquirir las habilidades necesarias para su formación bajo la guía del profesor y del personal médico de cada área de salud y lograr un proceso consecuente con la excelencia académica, lo que a su vez genera un alto impacto social.

The preventive work which constitutes a pedagogic way aimed at potentiating the preparation of future comprehensive general doctors when facing diseases transmitted by vectors in the community is exposed in this work; favorable scenario to acquire the necessary skills for their training-under the professor's guide and medical staff of each health area-and to achieve a consistent process with the academic excellence, which in turn generates a high social impact.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Health Education/methods , Disease Vectors , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Students , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mandatory Testing , Needs Assessment
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842778


ABSTRACT Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. The poison components are melitin, apamin, peptide 401, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, with melitin being the main lethal component. Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be observed in patients suffering from bee stings and this is due to multiple factors, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension and direct toxicity of the venom components to the renal tubules. Arterial hypotension plays an important role in this type of AKI, leading to ischemic renal lesion. The most commonly identified biopsy finding in these cases is acute tubular necrosis, which can occur due to both, ischemic injury and the nephrotoxicity of venom components. Hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis reported in many cases in the literature, were demonstrated by elevated serum levels of indirect bilirubin and creatine kinase. The severity of AKI seems to be associated with the number of stings, since creatinine levels were higher, in most cases, when there were more than 1,000 stings. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of AKI associated with bee stings, including the currently advised clinical approach.

Humans , Animals , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Bee Venoms/chemistry
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3,supl.1): 22-25, May-June 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755782



Ants are social insects with species of medical interest, such as the fi re ants (Solenopsis sp.). The sting causes inflammation, vesicles and sterile pustules, which may cause allergic phenomena and even anaphylactic shock. We describe a patient who suffered a large number of stings and an episode of syncope with fall in blood pressure and complete regression of symptoms after resuscitation and medication for anaphylaxis. Considering the clinical manifestations and images of wheals and blisters on the patient’s feet at the time of syncope, this report should serve as a warning for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition and even for counseling and prevention regarding patients exposed to this risk.


Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Ants , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Ant Venoms/poisoning , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Insect Bites and Stings/physiopathology , Syncope/etiology , Time Factors
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(2): 240-243, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741082


Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention.

Animals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bedbugs , Dermatitis/etiology , Dermatitis/pathology , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Brazil , Bedding and Linens/parasitology , Skin/pathology
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 21: 1-6, 31/03/2015. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741605


Background Rove beetles of the genus Paederus cause dermatitis when they come in contact with human skin. This condition is prevalent in some tropical and subtropical regions, such as in northern Pakistan, where it was recorded for the first time by US troops. Despite much research from other countries on this subject, few studies, mostly clinical, have been performed in a Pakistani context. A survey was carried out in villages, towns and cities of Punjab province, Pakistan, to explore the rove beetle population dynamics and to develop a model to elucidate the symptoms, preventive measures and treatment strategies for this dermatitis. Methods The prospective observational and patient surveys were performed bimonthly over a period of two years, in different districts of Punjab province. Collection was carried out in fields, gardens and houses during every visit with the aid of a pitfall trap, light trap, flight intercept trap, Berlese funnel trap and sweep netting. These traps were installed for four days during every visit. Interviews of ten individuals of different ages and sexes from each site were recorded during each visit. Results Out of 980 individuals, 26.4% were found to suffer from Paederus dermatitis. Lesions were most commonly found on the neck followed by the face. In July-August during the rainy season, this skin irritation was most prevalent and the population of these beetles peaked (36.2%). During May-June, the beetle population was lowest (7.85%) due to soil dryness. About 70% of such irritation cases were from individuals living in farming villages or in farmhouses. Their houses typically (80%) had broken doors and screen-less windows while 97% of the residents were unaware of how they may have come into contact with these beetles. In most cases (91% from villages/small towns and 24% from cities and adjoining areas) the local residents were unaware of modern treatment strategies. Paederus dermatitis is extremely frequent in villages with poor housing facilities and could be avoided via community awareness.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Coleoptera , Dermatitis/etiology , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Dermatitis/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Skin/pathology
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(2): 241-250, abr.-jun. 2013. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-689561


Introducción. Anopheles darlingi es el principal vector de la malaria, o paludismo, en el neotrópico. Esta especie es reconocida por presentar un comportamiento antropofílico y variabilidad en sus hábitos de picadura a lo largo de su rango de distribución. Objetivo. Caracterizar el comportamiento de picadura de An. darlingi y establecer su relación con la transmisión de la malaria en Villavicencio. Materiales y métodos. Entre 2008 y 2009 se llevaron a cabo un estudio de tipo transversal y uno longitudinal, en cinco localidades de Villavicencio con transmisión de malaria. Estos incluyeron recolección de ejemplares inmaduros y de adultos en las viviendas. Se utilizó la prueba ELISA para la detección de infección con Plasmodium spp. Resultados. Se recolectaron 2.772 mosquitos. Anopheles darlingi fue la especie predominante en las capturas con atrayente humano. Los criaderos identificados para esta especie fueron pantanos, caños, lagunas y estanques piscícolas. Anopheles darlingi estuvo presente durante todo el año, con densidades mensuales promedio entre 2,2 y 55,5 mosquitos por persona por noche. Presentó actividad hematofágica durante toda la noche en el intradomicilio y en el peridomicilio. De las 18:00 a las 22:00, se registraron entre el 47 % y el 81 % de los mosquitos capturados en 12 horas de observación. Se encontró una tasa de infección con Plasmodium falciparum de 0,05 % y se estimó una tasa entomológica de inoculación de 2,9 picaduras infecciosas por persona al año. Conclusión. Anopheles darlingi se encontró infectado con P. falciparum, estuvo presente durante todo el año y exhibió características en su comportamiento de picadura que favorecen el contacto entre humano y vector, lo cual es un riesgo permanente para la transmisión de la malaria en Villavicencio.

Introduction: Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria vector in the neotropics. This species is recognized by its anthropophilic behavior and its high variability in biting activity throughout its distribution range. Objective: To characterize the biting behavior of An. darlingi and to establish its association with malaria transmission in Villavicencio. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2009, a cross sectional and a longitudinal entomological study were carried out in 5 localities with malaria transmission in Villavicencio. Mosquito collections included breeding sites search and human landing catches in houses. Collected mosquitoes were analyzed for Plasmodium using the ELISA standard protocol. Results: A total of 2,772 mosquitoes were collected in the study. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant anopheline species. The most common breeding sites for this species were marshes, streams, lakes and fish ponds. Anopheles darlingi was found at all times during the year with monthly average human biting rates between 2.2 y 55.5 mosquitos/person/night. This species was collected throughout the night, indoors and outdoors, and 47 to 81% of An. darling captured during twelve hours of observation (18:00 to 06:00) were collected between18:00 and 22:00. Anopheles darlingi was found positive for P. falciparum with a 0.05% rate and the entomological inoculation rate was estimated at 2.9 infective bites/person per year. Conclusion: Anopheles darlingi was infected with P. falciparum, it was found all year long and it exhibited characteristics in biting behavior that favor human-vector contact, being a permanent risk for malaria transmission in Villavicencio.

Animals , Humans , Anopheles/physiology , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Malaria/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Malaria/epidemiology
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(1): 61-64, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-661104


Envenoming syndrome from Africanized bee stings is a toxic syndrome caused by the inoculation of large amounts of venom from multiple bee stings, generally more than five hundred. The incidence of severe toxicity from Africanized bee stings is rare but deadly. This report reveals that because of the small volume of distribution, having fewer stings does not exempt a patient from experiencing an unfavorable outcome, particularly in children, elderly people or underweight people.

A síndrome de envenenamento por ferroadas de abelhas africanizadas é causada pela inoculação de uma grande quantidade de peçonha por múltiplas ferroadas de abelhas, geralmente acima de quinhentas. A incidência de uma intoxicação severa por ferroadas de abelhas africanizadas é rara, porém letal. Este relato de caso aponta que, devido a um menor volume de distribuição do veneno, um número menor de ferroadas por abelhas africanizadas não exime o paciente de apresentar envenenamentos com desfecho desfavorável, principalmente em crianças, idosos e pessoas com baixo peso.

Aged , Animals , Humans , Male , Bees , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Insect Bites and Stings/therapy , Syndrome