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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190299, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057264

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatomine bugs are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. METHODS: Triatomine bugs were collected and identified following established protocols. In addition, infection with T. cruzi was detected by microscopic and molecular analysis. RESULTS: We captured an adult male specimen of the Eratyrus cuspidatus species that has not been reported in the state of Campeche. CONCLUSIONS: This finding provides new information on the distribution of E. cuspidatus in Mexico. However, more studies are needed to determine their epidemiological significance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Triatominae/anatomy & histology , Triatominae/classification , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Insect Vectors/classification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Mexico
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190436, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092194

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatomines are hematophagous insects of epidemiological importance because they are vectors of Chagas disease. We present here the first report of Rhodnius montenegrensis in Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were collected from Attalea butyracea palm trees in the municipality of Guajará. RESULTS: Two adult female R. montenegrensis specimens were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms that the number of triatomine species within the Amazon has increased from 10 to 11, and the number of Brazilian states with R. montenegrensis has increased from two to three.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rhodnius/anatomy & histology , Rhodnius/classification , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Insect Vectors/classification , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190503, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101448

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The genus Rhodnius in the subfamily Triatominae comprises 20 species, which can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. Due to the development of molecular techniques, Triatominae species can now be characterized by mitochondrial and nuclear markers, making it possible to verify and/or correct the existing data on these species. The results achieved in this study provide a more detailed and accurate differentiation of the Rhodnius species, helping the establishment of a more appropriate classification. Methods: Data collection was performed by DNA analysis, morphological and morphometric studies to distinguish four populations of R. neglectus and four of R. prolixus. Phylogenetic data were compared to morphological and morphometric data. Results: The analysis of Cytb fragments suggests that the four colonies designated to Rhodnius neglectus as well as those of R. prolixus were correctly identified. Conclusions: The morphological characters observed in the specimens of the colonies originally identified as R. prolixus and R. neglectus, such as the presence or absence of collar in the eggs, the patterns of the median process of the pygophore, and anterolateral angle, are consistent with the species. Geometric morphometrics also show an intraspecific variability in R. prolixus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rhodnius/classification , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Phylogeny , Rhodnius/anatomy & histology , Rhodnius/genetics , Species Specificity , Chagas Disease/transmission , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/genetics
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190538, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101455

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis constitutes a serious but neglected tropical disease. Recently, socio-environmental, biological and physical changes have altered the range of leishmaniasis, causing it to spread into urban areas. In Minas Gerais, the disease is endemic, exhibiting regional differences and reaching urban centers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate entomological aspects related to the ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Itaúna. METHODS: Monthly catches with HP traps were carried out from June 2017 to May 2018, in three ecological areas (urban, rural, and forest). The adaptability of the species to anthropic environments was assessed using the synanthropy index (SI). RESULTS: We collected 1306 specimens of phlebotomine sand flies. Of the species of medical importance, Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum, represented 90.4% of the specimens identified at species level (n=1260). Nyssomyia whitmani, the vector of Leishmania braziliensis, represented 1.6% of the total. Lu. longipalpis displayed an SI of +95.8, a value that denotes a marked preference for human environments. For Ny. whitmani, the SI was -25, expressing the tendency of this species to occupy uninhabited areas. The population of the three most numerous species captured increased with rain, high temperatures, and high relative humidity. Although captured at low numbers, Ny. whitmani showed a different profile concerning the climate variables analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the epidemiology of the disease may assist the health services in formulating effective control measures for improving community health and contributing to the establishment of a dynamic relationship and a global awareness of the health/disease process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Rural Population , Seasons , Urban Population , Brazil , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Animal Distribution
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200067, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136897

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Culicoides transmit a variety of pathogens. Our aim was to survey the Culicoides species occurring in an Amazonian rural settlement, comparing abundance, richness, and diversity in different environments. METHODS: Culicoides were captured using CDC light traps. The Shannon-Wiener (H') and Rényi indices were used to compare species diversity and evenness between environments, the equitability (J') index was used to calculate the uniformity of distribution among species, and similarity was estimated using the Jaccard similarity index. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance was applied to assess the influence of environment on species composition. A non-metric dimensional scale was used to represent the diversity profiles of each environment in a multidimensional space. RESULTS: 6.078 Culicoides were captured, representing 84 species (45 valid species/39 morphotypes). H' values showed the following gradient: forest > capoeira > peridomicile > forest edge. The equitability J' was greater in capoeira and forests compared to peridomiciles and the forest edge. The population compositions of each environment differed statistically, but rarefaction estimates indicate that environments of the same type possessed similar levels of richness. Species of medical and veterinary importance were found primarily in peridomiciles: C. paraensis, vector of Oropouche virus; C. insignis and C. pusillus, vectors of Bluetongue virus; C. filariferus, C. flavivenula, C. foxi, and C. ignacioi, found carrying Leishmania DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that diversity was higher in natural environments than in anthropized environments, while abundance and richness were highest in the most anthropized environment. These findings suggest that strictly wild Culicoides can adapt to anthropized environments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Ceratopogonidae/classification , Biodiversity , Insect Vectors/classification , Rural Population , Seasons , Brazil , Population Density
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200218, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Southeast Brazil has recently experienced a Yellow Fever virus (YFV) outbreak where the mosquito Haemagogus leucocelaenus was a primary vector. Climatic factors influence the abundance of mosquito vectors and arbovirus transmission. OBJECTIVES We aimed at describing the population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus in a county touched by the recent YFV outbreak. METHODS Fortnightly egg collections with ovitraps were performed from November 2012 to February 2017 in a forest in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The effects of mean temperature and rainfall on the Hg. leucocelaenus population dynamics were explored. FINDINGS Hg. leucocelaenus eggs were continuously collected throughout the study, with a peak in the warmer months (December-March). The climatic variables had a time-lagged effect and four weeks before sampling was the best predictor for the positivity of ovitraps and total number of eggs collected. The probability of finding > 50% positive ovitraps increased when the mean temperature was above 24ºC. The number of Hg. leucocelaenus eggs expressively increase when the mean temperature and accumulated precipitation surpassed 27ºC and 100 mm, respectively, although the effect of rainfall was less pronounced. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Monitoring population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus and climatic factors in YFV risk areas, especially mean temperature, may assist in developing climate-based surveillance procedures to timely strengthening prophylaxis and control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Yellow Fever , Yellow fever virus/isolation & purification , Forests , Population Dynamics , Insect Vectors/virology , Culicidae/virology , Seasons , Temperature , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Brazil , Insect Vectors/classification , Culicidae/classification
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200157, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In Acre state, Brazil, the dissemination of cutaneous leishmaniasis has increased in recent years, with limited knowledge of the potential Leishmania spp. vectors involved. OBJECTIVES Here, data concerning the sandfly fauna of Brasiléia municipality, Leishmania DNA-detection rates and the identification of blood meal sources of insects captured in 2013-2015 are presented. METHODS Parasite detection in female sandflies was performed individually by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Leishmania kDNA/sandfly cacophony-gene), with the identification of Leishmania spp. by hsp70-PCR and sequencing. The identification of blood gut-content from fed females was performed by cyt b-PCR and sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 4,473 sandflies were captured. A subgroup of 864 non-blood-fed females evaluated for the presence of Leishmania DNA showed 2.9% positivity for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. The identification of blood meal sources was performed in 96 blood-fed females, allowing the identification of 13 vertebrate species. In nine/96 fed females, DNA from L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and Endotrypanum sp. was detected. MAIN CONCLUSIONS In Brumptomyia sp. and Evandromyia termitophila, the first report of Leishmania DNA-detection is provided in Acre; Nyssomyia shawi is implicated as potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis for the first time in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Psychodidae/parasitology , DNA/analysis , Insect Vectors/genetics , Leishmania/genetics , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 569-573, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058005

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phlebotomines of the genus Lutzomyia are important vector for species of Leishmania, the etiological agent of leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of sandflies in an endemic area for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Sampling was performed in four localities on the coast of the municipality of Goiana, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly on three consecutive nights, from November 2017 to October 2018. CDC light traps were installed at a height of 1.5 m above the ground, in two ecotypes (i.e. tree and animal facility), both in peridomestic areas. A total of 5,205 sandflies were collected, among which the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (99.85%; 5,197/5,205) was the most common, followed by Lutzomyia evandroi (0.13%; 07/5,205) and Lutzomyia whitmani (0.02%; 01/5,205). Specimens of L. longipalpis were collected throughout the study period and most of them were found near to the animal facilities. The findings from this research indicate that vectors for Leishmania infantum are present in the study area throughout the year, along with occurrences of vectors relating to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Preventive vector control measures need to be implemented in Goiana to reduce the risk of infection for the human and animal populations.


Resumo Flebotomíneos do gênero Lutzomyia são importantes vetores de espécies de Leishmania, agente etiológico das leishmanioses. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a diversidade de flebotomíneos em área endêmica para Leishmaniose Visceral (LV). As coletas foram realizadas em quatro localidades do litoral do município de Goiana, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Os espécimes foram coletados mensalmente em três noites consecutivas de novembro de 2017 a outubro de 2018. Foram instaladas armadilhas luminosas modelo CDC a uma altura de 1,5 m acima do solo em dois ecótopos (ex. árvore e instalações de animais), ambos em áreas peridomiciliares. Um total de 5.205 flebotomíneos foi coletado, sendo Lutzomyia longipalpis (99,85%; 5.197/5.205) a mais comum, seguida por Lutzomyia evandroi (0,13%; 07/5.205) e Lutzomyia whitmani (0,02%; 01/5.205). L. longipalpis foi coletada durante todo o período do estudo. A maioria dos espécimes foi detectada perto das instalações dos animais. Os achados deste estudo indicam a presença de vetores de Leishmania infantum na área avaliada ao longo do ano, bem como a ocorrência de vetores relacionados à Leishmaniose Cutânea (LC). Medidas preventivas de controle vetorial devem ser implementadas em Goiana para reduzir o risco de infecção à população humana e animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Seasons , Brazil , Population Density , Endemic Diseases , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 744-749, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058001

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania parasite that is disseminated by some species of sandflies and hosted by a variety of reservoirs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in the municipalities of the Mato Grosso Pantanal. Human data were obtained from the Information System of Notifiable Diseases, and the canine and vector results from the State Department of Health of Mato Grosso. Between 2007 and 2016, 10 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and 499 cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis were identified in the Pantanal region. The surveillance studies regarding the canine reservoir demonstrated that the parasite was present in six of the seven municipalities. Vectors of visceral leishmaniasis were present in five municipalities and vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in six. Enhancement of services aimed at controlling this disease is fundamental to prevent an increase in the number of cases in the region.


Resumo As leishmanioses são doenças causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania disseminadas por algumas espécies de flebotomíneos e participação de uma variedade de reservatórios. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a situação epidemiológica das leishmanioses nos municípios abrangentes do Pantanal de Mato Grosso. Os dados humanos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação e os resultados caninos e vetoriais junto à Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso. A região do Pantanal registrou no período de 2007 a 2016, dez casos da forma visceral e 499 casos da forma tegumentar. As ações de vigilância para o reservatório canino demonstraram a circulação do parasito em seis dos sete municípios. A presença dos vetores de leishmaniose visceral ocorreu em cinco municípios e os da leishmaniose tegumentar em seis. O fortalecimento dos serviços voltados para controle desse agravo é fundamental para evitar o aumento no número de casos da região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/veterinary , Insect Vectors/classification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1483-1493, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001766

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se descrever os principais indicadores entomológicos relacionados aos triatomíneos na mesorregião Oeste do Rio Grande do Norte. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, transversal e retrospectivo, desenvolvido com base em análise histórica de informações sobre a captura de triatomíneos realizada pelo Programa de Controle de doença de Chagas, no período de 2008 a 2013. Foram capturadas cinco espécies, das quais se destacaram a Triatoma brasiliensis e a Triatoma pseudomaculata, pela ocupação do ambiente domiciliar e peridomiciliar, sequencialmente, e a Panstrongylus lutzi, pelo maior índice de infecção natural. Observou-se prevalência de ninfas dentre os exemplares capturados, maior densidade triatomínica no peridomicílio, índices de infestação, colonização e infecção natural de 5,6%, 49,6% e 0,8%, respectivamente, diferença significativa na distribuição de espécimes entre os municípios investigados e ausência de declínio dos índices de infestação e colonização entre os anos de 2009 e 2012. Os achados sugerem a necessidade de vigilância contínua, possibilitada pela associação entre as equipes de campo e as comunidades, com ênfase na proposta de educação em saúde para o reconhecimento e notificação dos triatomíneos pela população.


Abstract This study aimed to describe the main entomological triatomine-related indicators in the western mesoregion of Rio Grande do Norte. This is a descriptive cross-sectional retrospective study developed on a historical analysis of information on the triatomine capture carried out by the Chagas Disease Control Program, from 2008 to 2013. Five species were captured, of which the Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata, by occupying the domestic and peridomestic environment, sequentially, and Panstrongylus lutzi by the highest rate of natural infection. A prevalence of nymphs among the captured specimens, a higher triatominal density in the peridomicile, infestation, colonization and natural infection rates of 5.6%, 49.6% and 0.8%, respectively, a significant difference in the distribution of specimens between the municipalities investigated and lack of declining infestation and colonization rates between 2009 and 2012 was observed. Findings suggest the need for continuous surveillance, facilitated by the association between field teams and communities, with emphasis on the proposal of health education for the recognition and notification of triatomines by the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Panstrongylus/classification , Triatoma/classification , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Insect Vectors/classification , Brazil , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180307, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041549

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This communication reports the first occurrence of Panstrongylus lignarius in the State of Acre, Brazil. METHODS: A specimen of P. lignarius was collected from a residence in a rural area of the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre, Western Amazon. RESULTS: This new report of P. lignarius extends the distribution of this species to eight Brazilian states, and also increases the number of species of Triatominae described from the state of Acre from nine to ten. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of P. lignarius deserves attention, since this species has the potential for domiciliation and transmitting Trypanosoma cruzi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Panstrongylus/anatomy & histology , Rural Population , Brazil , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190061, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013319

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The ecoepidemiological situation in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil is characterized by frequent invasion and colonization of domiciliary units (DUs) by several triatomine species, with high rates of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: We evaluated the possibility of vector transmission of T. cruzi based on records of the occurrence of domiciled triatomines collected by the Secretariat of State for Public Health from 2005 to 2015. During this period, 67.7% (113/167) of municipalities conducted at least one active search and 110 recorded the presence of insects in DUs. These activities were more frequent in municipalities considered to have a high and medium-level risk of T. cruzi transmission. RESULTS Of 51,569 captured triatomines, the most common species were Triatoma brasiliensis (47.2%) and T. pseudomaculata (40.2%). Colonies of T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. petrocchiae, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus were also recorded in the intradomicile and peridomicile. Natural infection by trypanosomatids was detected in 1,153 specimens; the highest rate was found in R. nasutus (3.5%), followed by T. brasiliensis (2.5%) and T. pseudomaculata (2.4%). There have been high levels of colonization over the years; however, not all infested DUs have been sprayed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of intradomicile and peridomicile colonization by P. lutzi. These results demonstrate the risk of new cases of infection by T. cruzi and reinforce the need for continuous entomological surveillance in the State of Rio Grande do Norte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Brazil , Triatominae/classification , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Entomology , Spatial Analysis , Insect Vectors/classification
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180357, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977113

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The domestic and peridomestic presence of Triatoma infestans depends on several factors, such as human behavior, vector behavior, ecology, and the environment. METHODS: This work was conducted in 139 domiciliary units, where triatomines were captured and risk factors in domiciles and peridomicilies were recorded. Household dwellers were interviewed to obtain information about practices regarding this disease and entomological indicators were calculated. RESULTS: Infestation indices were 59.7% for house compounds, 4.3% for domestic areas and 58.3% for the peridomestic areas. Intradomicile infestation was significantly associated with housing characteristics. The presence of chicken coops in peridomicilies was associated with an increased risk of infestation. Of the respondents, 80% did not recognize the importance of the peridomiciliary structures for triatomine control and had infested peridomicilies. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the importance of peridomiciles as refuge sites for Triatominae bugs; however, household dwellers do not perceive peridomiciles as areas that favor the presence of vectors. Actions for raising awareness about factors that favor the presence of triatomines are needed to improve the conditions of peridomiciliary environments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Triatominae/classification , Housing , Insect Vectors/classification , Argentina , Rural Population , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/transmission , Middle Aged
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8224, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019569

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that affects a large part of the world population. Knowing the sand fly fauna of a region is of fundamental importance for guiding health surveillance actions related to the prevention and control of leishmaniasis. A total of 86 specimens of sand flies (60 females and 26 males) were collected. Using the classification proposed by Galati (2003), the following species were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912), Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920), Evandromyia cortelezzi (Brethes, 1923), Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), Nyssomyia whitmani (Atunes & Coutinho, 1939), Psathyromyia lutziana (Costa Lima, 1932), Ev. lenti (Mangabeira, 1938), Brumptomyia sp. (França and Parrot, 1921), and Pressatia sp. (Mangabeira, 1942). Using PCR with internal transcribed spacer target to identify infected sand flies, five Lu. longipalpis females were infected with Leishmania spp. Despite the small number of specimens collected, considerable species diversity was found in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/parasitology , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Brazil , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Leishmania/genetics
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190278, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057244

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease (CD), a zoonotic infection transmitted by triatomine bug vectors to human beings. Although the story of this parasitic infection was born in Brazil and here this has made major step forward information, the same cannot be said about the actual distribution of the triatomine vector in several areas of this country. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of triatomine species in an endemic region for CD in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using data obtained from 2008 to 2017. All information was provided by the V Gerência Regional de Saúde of the state of Pernambuco. The spatial distribution of triatomine species was analyzed by drawing a map using the Quantum geographic information system. RESULTS: A total of 4,694 triatomine specimens (469.4 ± 221.2 per year) were collected during the period 2008-2017, with 94.5% (4,434/4,694) at the intradomicile and 5.5% (260/4,694) at peridomicile environment. Of all arthropods collected, 92.5% (4,340/4,694) and 7.5% (354/4,694) were adults and nymphs, respectively. The species most frequently detected were Panstrongylus lutzi (30.36%), Triatoma brasiliensis (26.12%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (22.43%), and Panstrongylus megistus (20.54%). CONCLUSIONS: These data contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of T. cruzi infection in the Northeastern region of Brazil. Preventive measures based on vector control should be implemented in the study area in order to reduce the burden this neglected tropical disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatominae/classification , Animal Distribution , Insect Vectors/classification , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission , Endemic Diseases
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180177, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041597

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study describes the occurrence of triatomines, and their positivity for trypanosomatids, in a residential complex in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were collected through direct capture in a home environment. Positivity analysis for trypanosomatids was performed by PCR assays. RESULTS Collected insects consisted of 31 Rhodnius robustus, 4 Rhodnius montenegrensis, and 1 Panstrongylus geniculatus specimens. All were adults, with no presence of domiciliation, and with an infection rate of 30.6%. CONCLUSIONS Future studies are recommended in other locations of Rio Branco in order to develop a georeference database of the occurrence of triatomines in urban areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/classification , Rhodnius/classification , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/classification , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma/classification , Urban Population , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180388, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041596

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study aimed to confirm the occurrence of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus in the state of Acre, Brazil. METHODS The four specimens of P. rufotuberculatus were obtained from the entomological collection of the Zoobotanical Park of the Federal University of Acre (UFAC). RESULTS Confirmation of the occurrence of this species in the state of Acre increases the number of species already registered, from nine to ten. CONCLUSIONS The necessity to develop further studies was verified, especially with the domiciliary process of P. rufotuberculatus, resulting in tracing prophylactic measures against the vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Panstrongylus/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190063, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041569

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The present study reports the presence of triatomines in natural, peridomestic, and intradomicile environments in Itacoatiara municipality, state of Amazonas, a non-endemic region for Chagas disease. METHODS Active search was performed inside tree trunks, and palm trees, residences, and peridomiciles localized near the forest area. RESULTS: Twenty adults and ten triatomines nymphs were collected, fifteen of which were from natural forests, thirteen from intradomiciles, and two from peridomicile areas. CONCLUSIONS: The new records of adults and nymphs of triatomines in the intra- and peridomiciles suggest the adoption of prophylactic measures for vector surveillance in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Triatominae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Forests , Triatominae/classification , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission , Animal Distribution , Housing , Insect Vectors/classification
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190184, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040604

ABSTRACT

American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has two main scenarios of transmission as follows: scattered cases in rural areas and urban outbreaks. Urban AVL is in active dispersion from the northeastern border of Argentina-Paraguay-Brazil to the South. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was initially reported in urban environments in the northwestern border of the country. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, environmental variables associated with its distribution, and its genetic diversity were assessed in Salvador Mazza, Argentina, on the border with Bolivia. The genetic analysis showed high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and low nucleotide polymorphism index. We discuss the hypothesis of an expanding urban population with introgressive hybridisation of older haplogroups found in their path in natural forest or rural environments, acquiring a new adaptability to urban environments, and the possibility of changes in vector capacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Psychodidae/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Animal Distribution , Insect Vectors/genetics , Argentina , Psychodidae/classification , Bolivia , Haplotypes , Brazil , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Genes, Insect/genetics , Phylogeography , Insect Vectors/classification
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190034, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040606

ABSTRACT

Six Phlebotominae sand fly species are incriminated as biological vectors of human pathogens in Panama, but molecular corroboration is still needed. We aim at confirming the identity of Phlebotominae species documented as anthropophilic in Panama. Adult sandflies were collected from August 2010 to February 2012 in Central Panama using CDC light traps. Species confirmation was accomplished through molecular barcodes and allied sequences from GenBank. A total of 53,366 sand fly specimens representing 18 species were collected. Five species were validated molecularly as single phylogenetic clusters, but Psychodopygus thula depicted two genetically divergent lineages, which may be indicative of cryptic speciation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Psychodidae/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Panama , Phylogeny , Psychodidae/classification , Biodiversity , Insect Vectors/genetics
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