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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) may be effective for vector control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Their efficacy, however, has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the large-scale efficacy of LLINs on Lutzomyia longiflocosa entomological parameters up to two years post-intervention in the sub-Andean region of Colombia. METHODS A matched-triplet cluster-randomised study of 21 rural settlements, matched by pre-intervention L. longiflocosa indoor density was used to compare three interventions: dip it yourself (DIY) lambda-cyhalothrin LLIN, deltamethrin LLIN, and untreated nets (control). Sand fly indoor density, feeding success, and parity were recorded using CDC light trap collections at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. FINDINGS Both LLINs reduced significantly (74-76%) the indoor density and the proportion of fully engorged sand flies up to two years post-intervention without differences between them. Residual lethal effects of both LLINs and the use of all nets remained high throughout the two-year evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Anopheles/drug effects , Rural Population , Insecticide Resistance , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Colombia , Mosquito Vectors
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/genetics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/virology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170377, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There is little information on the effect of using deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated collars (Scalibor®) in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis by comparing populations in intervention and non-intervention areas. METHODS Phlebotomine flies were captured over 30 months in four neighbourhoods with intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Fortaleza and Montes Claros. We calculated the rates of domicile infestation, relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis, and Lu. longipalpis distribution in each site, capture location (intra- and peridomestic locations) and area (intervention and non-intervention areas). FINDINGS In the control area in Fortaleza, the relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis was 415 specimens at each capture site, whereas in the intervention area it was 159.25; in Montes Claros, the relative abundance was 5,660 specimens per capture site in the control area, whereas in the intervention area it was 2,499.4. The use of dog collars was associated with a reduction in captured insects of 15% (p = 0.004) and 60% (p < 0.001) in Montes Claros and Fortaleza, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We observed a lower vector abundance in the intervention areas, suggesting an effect of the insecticide-impregnated collars.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Psychodidae , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Insect Control/instrumentation , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles/administration & dosage
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 687-692, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829677

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The significant increase in dengue, Zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing Piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. METHODS: Piper nigrum extract was produced by maceration, standardized in piperine, and incorporated into cotton threads, which were inserted into hydrogel cylinders manufactured by the extrusion of carrageenan and carob. The piperine content of the extract and thread reservoirs was quantified by chromatography. The release profile from the device was assessed in aqueous medium and the larvicidal and residual activities of the standardized extract as well as of the controlled-release device were examined in Aedes aegypti larvae. RESULTS The standardized extract contained 580mg/g of piperine and an LC50 value of 5.35ppm (24h) and the 3 cm thread reservoirs contained 13.83 ± 1.81mg of piperine. The device showed zero-order release of piperine for 16 days. The P. nigrum extract (25ppm) showed maximum residual larvicidal activity for 10 days, decreasing progressively thereafter. The device had a residual larvicidal activity for up to 37 days. CONCLUSIONS: The device provided controlled release of Piper nigrum extract with residual activity for 37 days. The device is easy to manufacture and may represent an effective alternative for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae in small water containers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Aedes/drug effects , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Delayed-Action Preparations , Dengue/transmission , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 693-697, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829668

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti Linn. (1792) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito, which is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Alternative methods for the control of the vector include botanical insecticides, which offer advantages such as lower environmental contamination levels and less likelihood of resistant populations. Thus, in this study, the ability of botanical insecticide formulations to inhibit the activity of the liver enzymes serum cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase was evaluated. METHODS: Inhibition profiles were assessed using in vitro assays for cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase activity and quantitated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at 410nm to 340nm. RESULTS Insecticide products formulated from cashew nutshell liquid [A] and ricinoleic acid [B] showed cholinesterase activity levels of 6.26IU/mL and 6.61IU/mL, respectively, while the control level for cholinesterase was 5-12IU/mL. The products did not affect the level of 0.44IU/mL established for malate dehydrogenase, as the levels produced by [A] and [B] were 0.43IU/mL and 0.45IU/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that in vitro testing of the formulated products at concentrations lethal to A. aegypti did not affect the activity of cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase, indicating the safety of these products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Ricinoleic Acids/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cholinesterases/drug effects , Anacardium/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Malate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , In Vitro Techniques , Ricinoleic Acids/isolation & purification , Aedes , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/isolation & purification
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(5): 311-321, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782049

ABSTRACT

The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Temefos/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Brazil , Larva/drug effects , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 629-635, Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755896

ABSTRACT

Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers ofClusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone), against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L), however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L) isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Clusia/chemistry , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Time Factors
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(4): 380-389, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755970

ABSTRACT

Abstract

In the last 15 years, different types of Triatominae resistance to different insecticides have been reported; thus, resistance may be more widespread than known, requiring better characterization and delimitation, which was the aim of this review. This review was structured on a literature search of all articles from 1970 to 2015 in the PubMed database that contained the keywords Insecticide resistance and Triatominae . Out of 295 articles screened by title, 33 texts were selected for detailed analysis. Insecticide resistance of Triatomines is a complex phenomenon that has been primarily reported in Argentina and Bolivia, and is caused by different factors (associated or isolated). Insecticide resistance of Triatominae is a characteristic inherited in an autosomal and semi-dominant manner, and is polygenic, being present in both domestic and sylvatic populations. The toxicological profile observed in eggs cannot be transposed to different stages of evolution. Different toxicological profiles exist at macro- and microgeographical levels. The insecticide phenotype has both reproductive and developmental costs. Different physiological mechanisms are involved in resistance. Studies of Triatomine resistance to insecticides highlight three deficiencies in interpreting the obtained results: I) the vast diversity of methodologies, despite the existence of a single guiding protocol; II) the lack of information on the actual impact of resistance ratios in the field; and III) the concept of the susceptibility reference lineage. Research on the biological and behavioral characteristics of each Triatominae species that has evolved resistance is required in relation to the environmental conditions of each region.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Triatominae/drug effects , Chagas Disease/transmission
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 310-318, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745973

ABSTRACT

House re-invasion by native triatomines after insecticide-based control campaigns represents a major threat for Chagas disease vector control. We conducted a longitudinal intervention study in a rural section (Area III, 407 houses) of Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, and used wing geometric morphometry to compare pre-spray and post-spray (re-infestant bugs) Triatoma infestans populations. The community-wide spraying with pyrethroids reduced the prevalence of house infestation by T. infestans from 31.9% to < 1% during a four-year follow-up, unlike our previous studies in the neighbouring Area I. Two groups of bug collection sites differing in wing shape variables before interventions (including 221 adults from 11 domiciles) were used as a reference for assigning 44 post-spray adults. Wing shape variables from post-spray, high-density bug colonies and pre-spray groups were significantly different, suggesting that re-infestant insects had an external origin. Insects from one house differed strongly in wing shape variables from all other specimens. A further comparison between insects from both areas supported the existence of independent re-infestation processes within the same district. These results point to local heterogeneities in house re-infestation dynamics and emphasise the need to expand the geographic coverage of vector surveillance and control operations to the affected region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Pyrethrins/administration & dosage , Triatoma/drug effects , Argentina , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Longitudinal Studies , Rural Population , Triatoma/anatomy & histology , Wings, Animal
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(8): 1064-1069, 12/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732595

ABSTRACT

In sandflies, the absence of the peritrophic matrix (PM) affects the rate of blood digestion. Also, the kinetics of PM secretion varies according to species. We previously characterised PpChit1, a midgut-specific chitinase secreted in Phlebotomus papatasi (PPIS) that is involved in the maturation of the PM and showed that antibodies against PpChit1 reduce the chitinolytic activity in the midgut of several sandfly species. Here, sandflies were fed on red blood cells reconstituted with naïve or anti-PpChit1 sera and assessed for fitness parameters that included blood digestion, oviposition onset, number of eggs laid, egg bouts, average number of eggs per bout and survival. In PPIS, anti-PpChit1 led to a one-day delay in the onset of egg laying, with flies surviving three days longer compared to the control group. Anti-PpChit1 also had a negative effect on overall ability of flies to lay eggs, as several gravid females from all three species were unable to lay any eggs despite having lived longer than control flies. Whereas the longer survival might be associated with improved haeme scavenging ability by the PM, the inability of females to lay eggs is possibly linked to changes in PM permeability affecting nutrient absorption.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Chitinases/immunology , Immune Sera , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Insect Proteins/drug effects , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Phlebotomus/drug effects , Chitinases , DNA, Complementary , Digestion/drug effects , Feeding Behavior , Gastrointestinal Absorption/drug effects , Hemoglobins , Immune Sera/immunology , Insect Proteins , Insect Vectors/physiology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mosquito Control/methods , Oviposition/drug effects , Plasmids , Phlebotomus/physiology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 964-966, 11/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728807

ABSTRACT

The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 μM). The best result in the series was obtained with the addition of verapamil (40 μM), which led to a 2x increase in the toxicity of temephos, suggesting that ABC transporters may be partially involved in conferring resistance to the populations evaluated.


Subject(s)
Animals , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/physiology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Temefos/pharmacology , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/drug effects , Aedes/metabolism , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacokinetics , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/metabolism , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacokinetics , Larva/drug effects , Larva/metabolism , Temefos/pharmacokinetics , Verapamil/pharmacokinetics , Verapamil/pharmacology
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 411-419, Jul-Aug/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683327

ABSTRACT

Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae) and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae) against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM) extracts and liquid culture media (LCM) from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Basidiomycota/chemistry , Endophytes/chemistry , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Biological Assay , Larva/drug effects
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 420-425, Jul-Aug/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683334

ABSTRACT

Introduction Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of the dengue and yellow fever viruses. This study evaluated the effects of extracts from Cnidosculos phyllacanthus, Ricinus communis, and Coutarea hexandra on the developmental periods of A.aegypti larvae and pupae. Crude extracts of C. phyllacanthus and C. hexandra and oil from R. communis and C. phyllacanthus were used. Methods Bioassays of the larvicidal and pupicidal effects of these products at different concentrations and times of exposure were evaluated. The lethal and sublethal effects were determined using different concentrations in larvicidal tests. Mortality data were evaluated by Probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 values. Results The vegetable oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater efficiency for larval control with an LC50=0.28µl/mL and an LC90=1.48µl/mL and LC50=0.029µl/mL and a LC90=0.26µl/mL, respectively. In pupal tests toxic effects for all insects were verified after exposure to the products at significant LC50 and LC90 values for 24 and 48h. The effects of sublethal concentrations of C. phyllacanthus (oil) were more effective on the insects. Conclusions The vegetables oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater potential from the control of different developmental periods in the life cycle of this insect. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Aedes/drug effects , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Rubiaceae/chemistry , Biological Assay , Larva/drug effects , Pupa/drug effects , Time Factors
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 84-87, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666800

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to analyze the larvicidal activity of different crude extracts of Larrea cuneifolia and its most abundant lignan, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), against Culex quinquefasciatus. METHODS: Chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts from L. cuneifolia and NDGA were tested against larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The chloroform extract showed the highest larvicidal effect, with an estimated LC50 of 0.062 mg/ml. NDGA also demonstrated significant larvicidal activity with an estimated LC50 of 0.092 mg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the chloroform extract of L. cuneifolia and NDGA are promising insecticides of botanical origin that could be useful for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex/drug effects , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larrea/chemistry , Masoprocol/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Masoprocol/isolation & purification
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(1): 91-97, Feb. 2013. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666050

ABSTRACT

The presence of Triatoma infestans in habitats treated with insecticides constitutes a frequent problem in endemic areas. Basing our study on the hypothesis that descendants of a residual population should be more similar to the pre-treatment population than to any other, we compared the indications of two quantitative morphological approaches. This study seeks to find the origin of 247 T. infestans from three populations found in two chicken coops and a goat corral after treatment with insecticides. The results obtained by quantitative morphology suggest that the T. infestans found between three-34 months after the application of insecticides formed mixed populations with insects derived from residual foci and neighbouring habitats. Our analyses also showed the presence of a phenotype which does not resemble neither the pre-treatment phenotype nor the one from neighbouring populations, suggesting the presence of a particular post-treatment phenotype. The heads size showed some variations in males from different populations and remained unchanged in females, which reinforces the hypothesis of an intraspecific competition for food with priority for females. This article presents, for the first time, the combined analysis of geometric morphometry of heads and antennal phenotypes to identify the composition of reinfesting populations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Triatoma/anatomy & histology , Argentina , Chickens , Chagas Disease/transmission , Goats , Housing, Animal , Insecticides , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics , Phenotype , Pyrazoles , Pyrethrins , Triatoma/drug effects , Triatoma/genetics
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(7): 916-922, Nov. 2012. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656049

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, decades of dengue vector control using organophosphates and pyrethroids have led to dissemination of resistance. Although these insecticides have been employed for decades against Aedes aegypti in the country, knowledge of the impact of temephos resistance on vector viability is limited. We evaluated several fitness parameters in two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, both classified as deltamethrin resistant but with distinct resistant ratios (RR) for temephos. The insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain was used as an experimental control. The population presenting the higher temephos resistance level, Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás (RR95 of 19.2), exhibited deficiency in the following four parameters: blood meal acceptance, amount of ingested blood, number of eggs and frequency of inseminated females. Mosquitoes from Boa Vista, state of Roraima, the population with lower temephos resistance level (RR95 of 7.4), presented impairment in only two parameters, blood meal acceptance and frequency of inseminated females. These results indicate that the overall fitness handicap was proportional to temephos resistance levels. However, it is unlikely that these disabilities can be attributed solely to temephos resistance, since both populations are also resistant to deltamethrin and harbour the kdr allele, which indicates resistance to pyrethroids. The effects of reduced fitness in resistant populations are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Aedes/drug effects , Genetic Fitness/drug effects , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Temefos/pharmacology , Aedes/physiology , Biological Assay , Brazil , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/physiology
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 32(1): 1-8, July 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of increasing larval rearing temperatures on the resistance status of Trinidadian populations of Aedes aegypti to organophosphate (OP) insecticides. METHODS: In 2007-2008, bioassays and biochemical assays were conducted on A. aegypti larvae collected in 2006 from eight geographically distinct areas in Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago). Larval populations were reared at four temperatures (28 ± 2ºC, 32ºC, 34ºC, and 36ºC) prior to bioassays with OP insecticides (fenthion, malathion, and temephos) and biochemical assays for esterase enzymes. RESULTS: Most larval populations reared at 28 ± 2ºC were susceptible to fenthion (>98% mortality) but resistant to malathion and temephos (< 80% mortality). A positive association was found between resistance to OP insecticides and increased activities of α- and β-esterases in larval populations reared at 28 ± 2ºC. Although larval populations reared at higher temperatures showed variations in resistance to OPs, there was a general increase in susceptibility. However, increases or decreases in activity levels of enzymes did not always correspond with an increase or decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals reared at higher temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: Although global warming may cause an increase in dengue transmission, based on the current results, the use of insecticides for dengue prevention and control may yet be effective if temperatures increase as projected.


OBJETIVO: Examinar los efectos del aumento de las temperaturas de desarrollo larvario sobre el estado de resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados de las poblaciones de Aedes aegypti en Trinidad. MÉTODOS: En 2007 y 2008 se llevaron a cabo ensayos biológicos y bioquímicos en larvas de A. aegypti recogidas en el 2006 de ocho áreas geográficamente separadas en Trinidad (Trinidad y Tabago). Las poblaciones larvarias se desarrollaron en cuatro temperaturas (28 ± 2 ºC, 32 ºC, 34 ºC y 36 ºC) antes de los ensayos biológicos con insecticidas organofosforados (fentión, malatión y temefós) y los análisis bioquímicos para las enzimas de esterasa. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a 28 ± 2 ºC fueron susceptibles al fentión (mortalidad > 98%) pero resistentes al malatión y al temefós (mortalidad < 80%). Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados y la mayor actividad de αy β-esterasas en las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a 28 ± 2 ºC. Aunque las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a temperaturas mayores mostraron variaciones en la resistencia a los organofosforados, hubo un aumento general de la sensibilidad. Sin embargo, los aumentos o las disminuciones en los niveles de actividad de las enzimas no siempre se correspondieron con un aumento o disminución en la proporción de individuos resistentes desarrollados a las temperaturas más altas. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque el recalentamiento del planeta puede causar un aumento de la transmisión del dengue, según los resultados de este estudio el uso de insecticidas para la prevención y el control del dengue todavía puede ser eficaz si las temperaturas aumentan según lo proyectado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Fenthion/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malathion/pharmacology , Temperature , Temefos/pharmacology , Aedes/enzymology , Aedes/growth & development , Dengue/prevention & control , Esterases/analysis , Esterases/physiology , Global Warming , Hot Temperature , Insect Proteins/analysis , Insect Proteins/physiology , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Insecticide Resistance/physiology , Larva/drug effects , Larva/enzymology , Species Specificity , Trinidad and Tobago
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 387-395, May 2012. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624021

ABSTRACT

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main focus of dengue control campaigns. Because of widespread resistance against conventional chemical insecticides, chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) are considered control alternatives. We evaluated the resistance status of four Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations to both the organophosphate temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin, which are used in Brazil to control larvae and adults, respectively. All vector populations exhibited high levels of temephos resistance and varying rates of alterations in their susceptibility to pyrethroids. The effect of the CSI novaluron on these populations was also investigated. Novaluron was effective against all populations under laboratory conditions. Field-simulated assays with partial water replacement were conducted to evaluate novaluron persistence. Bioassays were continued until an adult emergence inhibition of at least 70% was attained. We found a residual effect of eight weeks under indoor conditions and novaluron persisted for five-six weeks in assays conducted in an external area. Our data show that novaluron is effective against the Ae. aegypti populations tested, regardless of their resistance to conventional chemical insecticides.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/enzymology , Chitin Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Mosquito Control/methods , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Brazil , Chitin Synthase/biosynthesis , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Temefos
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139006

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Conventional insecticides are generally used as larvicides to control Culex quinquefasciatus, vector of lymphatic filariasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal activity of some potential larvicidal plants leaf extracts against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Methods: The toxic effects of petroleum ether leaf extracts of plants viz., Argemone mexicana (Mexican prickly poppy), Clausena dentata (Dentate), Cipadessa baccifera (Rana bili), Dodonaea angustifolia (Hop bush) and Melia dubia (Pride of India) were evaluated under laboratory conditions in individual and in combination against 3rd - 4th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results: The results indicated that among the selected plants, A. mexicana showed maximum larvicidal activity with an LC50 value of 48.89 ppm. Its toxicity was enhanced when the extract was mixed (1:1) with that of C. dentata as the LC50 value became 28.60 ppm indicating synergistic action of A. mexicana. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed high larvicidal potential in A. mexicana leaf extract, and it also showed additive effect when mixed with C. dentata extract.


Subject(s)
Animals , Clausena/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Culex/parasitology , Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology , Elephantiasis, Filarial/prevention & control , Elephantiasis, Filarial/transmission , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Larva/drug effects , Larva/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
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