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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887733

ABSTRACT

Pathogens like bacteria and protozoa, which affect human and animal health worldwide, can be transmitted by vectors like ticks. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of bacteria and protozoans carried by ticks in Chengmai county of Hainan province, China, 285 adult hard ticks belonging to two species [


Subject(s)
Anaplasmataceae/isolation & purification , Animals , Chaperonin 60/genetics , China , Citrate (si)-Synthase/genetics , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Coxiellaceae/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Islands , Ixodidae/microbiology , Phylogeny , Piroplasmia/isolation & purification , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 206-214, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894901

ABSTRACT

Classical biological control has been used extensively for the management of exotic weeds and agricultural pests, but never for alien insect vectors of medical importance. This simple but elegant control strategy involves the introduction of coevolved natural enemies from the centre of origin of the target alien species. Aedes aegypti - the primary vector of the dengue, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses - is just such an invasive alien in the Americas where it arrived accidentally from its West African home during the slave trade. Here, we introduce the concept of exploiting entomopathogenic fungi from Africa for the classical biological control of Ae. aegypti in the Americas. Fungal pathogens attacking arthropods are ubiquitous in tropical forests and are important components in the natural balance of arthropod populations. They can produce a range of specialised spore forms, as well as inducing a variety of bizarre behaviours in their hosts, in order to maximise infection. The fungal groups recorded as specialised pathogens of mosquito hosts worldwide are described and discussed. We opine that similar fungal pathogens will be found attacking and manipulating Ae. aegypti in African forests and that these could be employed for an economic, environmentally-safe and long-term solution to the flavivirus pandemics in the Americas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aedes/microbiology , Biological Control Agents , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Americas , Fungi
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(9): 577-587, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794726

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mosquito midgut microbiota is a key component of vector competence, as gut bacteria can disturb pathogen development. In this study, we addressed the microbiota composition of Aedes aegypti during its lifespan, under field conditions. We also investigated the possible effects of environment, dietary regime and ageing on the gut community composition. We employed culture independent and dependent approaches to characterise vector microbiota. There was evidence of a lifelong stable core microbiota after mosquitoes were released into an urban settlement, where they presumably fed on a range of vertebrate hosts and carbohydrate sources. This core was formed mainly of bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Stenotrophomonas and to the families Oxalobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Comamonadaceae. We showed that both dietary regime and age were associated with the abundance of some bacterial groups in the Ae. aegypti microbiota. The majority of the bacterial groups we identified have been detected in the midgut of Ae. aegypti from laboratory and wild populations, indicating a possible core microbiota associated with this mosquito species. Our findings suggest that Ae. aegypti harbours a stable bacterial community during its adult life, similar to mosquito populations from distinct geographic areas, which may be further explored for arbovirus biocontrol strategies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Diet , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Microbiota/physiology
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 807-814, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755802

ABSTRACT

Lyme disease (LD) is a natural focal zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is mainly transmitted through infected Ixodes ricinus tick bites. The presence and abundance of ticks in various habitats, the infectivity rate, as well as prolonged human exposure to ticks are factors that may affect the infection risk as well as the incidence of LD. In recent years, 20% to 25% of ticks infected with different borrelial species, as well as about 5,300 citizens with LD, have been registered in the Belgrade area. Many of the patients reported tick bites in city’s grassy areas. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi in high-risk groups (forestry workers and soldiers) in the Belgrade area, and to compare the results with healthy blood donors. A two-step algorithm consisting of ELISA and Western blot tests was used in the study. Immunoreactivity profiles were also compared between the groups. The results obtained showed the seroprevalence to be 11.76% in the group of forestry workers, 17.14% in the group of soldiers infected by tick bites and 8.57% in the population of healthy blood donors. The highest IgM reactivity was detected against the OspC protein, while IgG antibodies showed high reactivity against VlsE, p19, p41, OspC, OspA and p17. Further investigations in this field are necessary in humans and animals in order to improve protective and preventive measures against LD.

.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Borrelia burgdorferi/immunology , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolation & purification , Lyme Disease/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Forestry , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Ixodes/microbiology , Lyme Disease/microbiology , Lyme Disease/transmission , Military Personnel , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Serbia/epidemiology
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(2): 112-119, 02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741142

ABSTRACT

Background: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been found to be a good predictor of future adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Changes in the QRS terminal portion have also been associated with adverse outcomes following STEMI. Objective: To investigate the relationship between ECG ischemia grade and NLR in patients presenting with STEMI, in order to determine additional conventional risk factors for early risk stratification. Methods: Patients with STEMI were investigated. The grade of ischemia was analyzed from the ECG performed on admission. White blood cells and subtypes were measured as part of the automated complete blood count (CBC) analysis. Patients were classified into two groups according to the ischemia grade presented on the admission ECG, as grade 2 ischemia (G2I) and grade 3 ischemia (G3I). Results: Patients with G3I had significantly lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction than those in G2I (44.58 ± 7.23 vs. 48.44 ± 7.61, p = 0.001). As expected, in-hospital mortality rate increased proportionally with the increase in ischemia grade (p = 0.036). There were significant differences in percentage of lymphocytes (p = 0.010) and percentage of neutrophils (p = 0.004), and therefore, NLR was significantly different between G2I and G3I patients (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only NLR was the independent variable with a significant effect on ECG ischemia grade (odds ratio = 1.254, 95% confidence interval 1.120–1.403, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We found an association between G3I and elevated NLR in patients with STEMI. We believe that such an association might provide an additional prognostic value for risk stratification in patients with STEMI when combined with standardized risk scores. .


Fundamento: A relação neutrófilos/linfócitos (N/L) tem sido descrita como boa preditora de eventos cardiovasculares adversos futuros em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST (IAMEST). Mudanças na porção terminal do complexo QRS também têm sido associadas a eventos adversos após IAMEST. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre o grau de isquemia no ECG e a relação N/L em pacientes com IAMEST para determinar fatores de risco convencionais adicionais na estratificação precoce de risco. Métodos: Pacientes com IAMEST foram investigados. O grau de isquemia foi analisado a partir do ECG obtido à admissão. A contagem de leucócitos e seus subtipos foi realizada a partir de hemograma automatizado. De acordo com o grau de isquemia presente no ECG de admissão, os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos, isquemia grau 2 (IG2) e isquemia grau 3 (IG3). Resultados: Pacientes com IG3 apresentaram valores médios significativamente menores de fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo do que os pacientes com IG2 (44,58 ± 7,23 versus 48,44 ± 7,61; p = 0,001). Como esperado, a taxa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar aumentou proporcionalmente com o aumento no grau de isquemia (p = 0,036). Houve diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de linfócitos (p = 0,010) e de neutrófilos (p = 0,004) e, portanto, a relação N/L diferiu significativamente entre pacientes com IG2 e IG3 (p < 0,001). À análise de regressão logística multivariada, apenas a relação N/L emergiu como variável independente com efeito significativo sobre o grau de isquemia no ECG (odds ratio = 1,254; intervalo de confiança de 95% 1,120-1,403; p < 0,001). Conclusão: Nós encontramos uma associação entre IG3 e relação N/L aumentada em pacientes com IAMEST. Acreditamos que esta associação possa oferecer um valor prognóstico adicional para estratificação de risco em pacientes com IAMEST quando usado em combinação com escores de risco padronizados. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Genome, Insect , Insect Proteins/genetics , Tsetse Flies/genetics , Blood , Feeding Behavior , Genes, Insect , Insect Proteins/physiology , Insect Vectors/genetics , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Microbiota , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Molecular Sequence Data , Reproduction/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Symbiosis , Salivary Glands/parasitology , Salivary Glands/physiology , Sensation/genetics , Trypanosoma/physiology , Trypanosomiasis, African/transmission , Tsetse Flies/microbiology , Tsetse Flies/parasitology , Tsetse Flies/physiology , Wolbachia/genetics , Wolbachia/physiology
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 716-722, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732980

ABSTRACT

Introduction The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control disease vectors has become relevant because traditional chemical control methods have caused damage to the environment and led to the development of resistance among vectors. Thus, this study assessed the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi in Triatoma dimidiata. Methods Preparations of 108 conidia/ml of Gliocladium virens, Talaromyces flavus, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were applied topically on T. dimidiata nymphs and adults. Controls were treated with the 0.0001% Tween-80 vehicle. Mortality was evaluated and recorded daily for 30 days. The concentration required to kill 50% of T. dimidiata (LC50) was then calculated for the most pathogenic isolate. Results Pathogenicity in adults was similar among B. bassiana, G. virens and T. flavus (p>0.05) and differed from that in triatomine nymphs (p=0.009). The most entomopathogenic strains in adult triatomines were B. bassiana and G. virens, which both caused 100% mortality. In nymphs, the most entomopathogenic strain was B. bassiana, followed by G. virens. The native strain with the highest pathogenicity was G. virens, for which the LC50 for T. dimidiata nymphs was 1.98 x108 conidia/ml ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Triatoma/microbiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Mexico , Time Factors
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 414-420, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678289

ABSTRACT

Individual, naturally occurring Phlebotomus mongolensis and Phlebotomus caucasicus from Iran were screened for infections with the maternally inherited intracellular Rickettsia-like bacterium Wolbachia pipientis via targeting a major surface protein gene (wsp). The main objective of this study was to determine if W. pipientis could be detected in these species. The sandflies were screened using polymerase chain reaction to amplify a fragment of the Wolbachia surface protein gene. The obtained sequences were edited and aligned with database sequences to identify W. pipientis haplotypes. Two strains of Wolbachia were found. Strain Turk 54 (accession EU780683) is widespread and has previously been reported in Phlebotomus papatasi and other insects. Strain Turk 07 (accession KC576916) is a novel strain, found for first time in the two sister species. A-group strains of W. pipientis occur throughout much of the habitat of these sandflies. It is possible that Wolbachia is transferred via horizontal transmission. Horizontal transfer could shed light on sandfly control because Wolbachia is believed to drive a deleterious gene into sandflies that reduces their natural population density. With regard to our findings in this study, we can conclude that one species of sandfly can be infected with different Wolbachia strains and that different species of sandflies can be infected with a common strain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Phlebotomus/microbiology , Wolbachia/genetics , Base Sequence , Iran , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Wolbachia/isolation & purification
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(8): 926-930, Dec. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610965

ABSTRACT

During 2006-2008, a total of 260 adult ticks were collected from domestic and wild animals in different regions of the state of Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil, including areas where human cases of Brazilian spotted fever have been reported. Collected ticks belonging to nine species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tigrinum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rickettsial infection. Overall, eight (3.1 percent) ticks were found to be infected with Rickettsia species. After sequencing the PCR products, we determined that the sequences generated from three A. aureolatum, one A. ovale and one R. sanguineus from the municipality of Blumenau, one A. ovale from the municipality of Águas Mornas and one A. ovale from the municipality of Urussanga were identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest. The sequence generated from one A. longirostre from Blumenau was 100 percent identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia amblyommii strain AL. Because R. parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest was recently shown to have caused two cases of human spotted fever in other states of Brazil, the role of this rickettsial agent as a possible etiological agent of spotted fever in SC is discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Ixodidae/microbiology , Rickettsia/classification , Animals, Domestic/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/transmission
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(6): 773-776, Sept. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602065

ABSTRACT

The use of Wolbachia as a tool to control insect vectors has recently been suggested. In this context, studies on the prevalence and diversity of this bacterium in wild populations are relevant. Here, we evaluated the diversity of two Wolbachiagenes (ftsZ and wsp) and the prevalence of this endosymbiont in wild Aedes albopictus. Using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction, our results showed that 99.3 percent of the individuals were superinfected with Wolbachia. In regards to genetic diversity, the two genes showed no variation within or among mosquito populations. An analysis of other Wolbachia markers may help to clarify the relationship between insect and endosymbiont.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/microbiology , Genetic Variation , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Wolbachia/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Wolbachia/isolation & purification
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135713

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Paramilitary operations along the Indo-Bangladesh border are adversely affected by malaria induced morbidity and mortality. Villages surrounding the paramilitary installations often serve as disease reservoirs. Malaria incidence in Tripura State Rifles (TSR) units in Dhalai District of Tripura was studied and the role of the village population in disease transmission was also assessed. Methods: Mass blood surveys were carried out among TSR personnel and villagers during 2007 to 2009. Malaria diagnosis through blood smear examination and rapid detection kits was done, and percentage parasitaemia was determined. Activity of malaria vectors was monitored using CDC light traps. Results: Slide positivity rates (SPR) in the neighbouring villages (51.4%) was significantly higher than that in TSR (27.7%) (P<0.0001). Malaria incidence in villages did not show seasonal variability while it was lowest during post-monsoon season in TSR (P<0.325; OR = 0.74). Per cent Pf parasitaemia was high in TSR (0.29) as compared to villagers (0.20) (P<0.0001). Anopheles minimus and An. dirus were the major malaria vectors observed. Interpretation & conclusions: Paramilitary and public health authorities should adopt targeted measures to reduce the malaria incidence in the villages surrounding the paramilitary installations as the village populations play a major role in disease transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Malaria/blood , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/transmission , Male , Mass Screening , Military Personnel , Parasitemia , Rural Population , Seasons
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135711

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus has recently been reported to have re-appeared in Keonjhar district of Orissa after a period of about 45 years of launching the malaria eradication programme. An. minimus and An. fluviatilis were the incriminated major malaria vectors in the district, endemic for falciparum malaria. The information on seasonal prevalence and resting behaviour of the vectors is crucial for implementing appropriate malaria control measures. Therefore, a study was undertaken on seasonal prevalence and resting behaviour of An. minimus and An. fluviatilis in this district. Methods: Seven randomly selected villages of Keonjhar district, Orissa, were studied during August 2005 to November 2007. Daytime resting collections indoors and outdoors were made covering three seasons of the year. The Anopheles mosquitoes obtained from different habitats were identified. Collections were maintained separately according to different sites as well as heights of the walls in human dwellings. Results: Among the indoor collections, the densities of An. minimus and An. fluviatilis were higher in human dwellings than cattle sheds. An. fluviatilis was the predominant (41.5%) species followed by An. minimus (26.3%) in human dwellings. The density of both the vector species in human dwellings peaked during rainy and winter seasons followed by summer. Walls were the most preferred site by these vectors for resting and the maximum number was collected at a height of 3 to 4 ft. Interpretation & conclusions: The resting behaviour of the vector species increases their contact with the sprayed walls and therefore, a quality residual spraying of human dwellings focusing indoor walls could interrupt the malaria transmission in this area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/microbiology , Anopheles/physiology , Cattle , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Male , Mosquito Control/methods , Seasons
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(5): 565-569, Sept.-Oct. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-532515

ABSTRACT

A presença de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em ambientes hospitalares pode constituir um problema de saúde pública, especialmente por serem vetores mecânicos de organismos patogênicos. O trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento de formigas e analisar a presença de bactérias a elas associadas em dois hospitais regionais de médio porte da cidade de Divinópolis, MG. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, durante um período de seis meses. Foram coletadas formigas Pheidole sp1 e sp2, Linepithema humile, Wasmannia auropunctata, Camponotus sp1 e sp2, Odontomachus sp, Solenopsis sp, Acromyrmex sp e Tapinoma melenocephalum. Observou-se que estas transportavam mecanicamente Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus patogênico e não patogênico e Escherichia coli. Tais resultados evidenciam a propensão à ocorrência de infecções hospitalares nesses locais pela transmissão mecânica de agentes patogênicos por formigas.


The presence of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in hospital environments may constitute a public health problem, especially since they are mechanical vectors for pathogenic organisms. This study aimed to survey the ant populations and analyze the presence of bacteria associated with them in two medium-sized regional hospitals in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Specimens were collected every monthly over a six-month period. The following ant species were found: Pheidole sp1 and sp2, Linepithema humile, Wasmannia auropunctata, Camponotus sp1 and sp2, Odontomachus sp, Solenopsis sp, Acromyrmex sp and Tapinoma melenocephalum. It was observed that these ants mechanically transported Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and non-pathogenic and pathogenic Staphylococcus. These results show the propensity for occurrences of hospital infections at these sites caused by mechanical transmission of pathogens by ants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Hospitals , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Ants/classification , Brazil , Insect Vectors/classification
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(5): 492-495, set.-out. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-496715

ABSTRACT

Existe preocupação sobre as reais possibilidades de agravos à saúde pública que possam ser causados pela veiculação de agentes patogênicos através de formigas urbanas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo isolar e identificar os microrganismos associados às formigas em ambiente hospitalar. Foram coletadas 125 formigas, da mesma espécie, em diferentes unidades de um Hospital Universitário. Cada formiga foi coletada com swab embebido em solução fisiológica e transferida para um tubo com caldo Brain Heart Infusion e incubados 35ºC por 24 horas. A partir de cada tubo, com crescimento, foram realizadas inoculações, em meios específicos, para isolamento dos microrganismos. As formigas apresentaram alta capacidade de veiculação de grupos de microrganismos, sendo que 63,5 por cento das cepas eram bacilos Gram positivos produtores de esporos, 6,3 por cento eram bacilos Gram negativos, cocos Gram positivos corresponderam a 23,1 por cento das cepas, 6,7 por cento eram fungos filamentosos e 0,5 por cento eram leveduras. Desta forma, pode-se inferir que as formigas podem ser um dos responsáveis pela disseminação de microrganismos em ambientes hospitalares.


Concern exists regarding the real possibility of public health threats caused by pathogenic agents that are carried by urban ants. The present study had the objective of isolating and identifying the microorganisms that are associated with ants in hospital environments. One hundred and twenty-five ants of the same species were collected from different units of a university hospital. Each ant was collected using a swab soaked with physiological solution and was transferred to a tube containing brain heart infusion broth and incubated at 35ºC for 24 hours. From each tube, with growth, inoculations were made into specific culturing media, to isolate any microorganisms. The ants presented a high capacity for carrying microorganism groups: spore-producing Gram-positive bacilli 63.5 percent, Gram-negative bacilli 6.3 percent, Gram-positive cocci 23.1 percent, filamentous fungi 6.7 percent and yeast 0.5 percent. Thus, it can be inferred that ants may be one of the agents responsible for disseminating microorganisms in hospital environments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Fungi/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Hospitals, University
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 50(5): 297-301, Sept.-Oct. 2008. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-495766

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the infection by spotted fever rickettsia in an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever (BSF; caused by Rickettsia rickettsii) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human, canine and equine sera samples, and Amblyomma cajennense adult ticks collected in a rural area of Itabira City, Minas Gerais State were tested for rickettsial infection. Through Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) we demonstrated the presence of antibodies anti-R. rickettsii in 8.2 percent, 81.3 percent and 100 percent of the human, canine and equine sera, respectively. None of the 356 tick specimens analyzed were positive for Rickettsia by the hemolymph test or Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR) for the htrA and the gltA genes. Our serological results on horses and dogs (sentinels for BSF) appoint for the circulation of a SFG Rickettsia in the study area, however in a very low infection rate among the A. cajennense tick population.


O presente estudo investigou a infecção por rickéttsias do grupo da febre maculosa (GFM) em área endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira (FMB; causada por Rickettsia rickettsii) no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Amostras de soros de humanos, cães e eqüídeos, e carrapatos Amblyomma cajennense adultos colhidos em um povoado rural em Itabira, Minas Gerais foram testados para infecção por Rickettsia. Pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) foram detectados anticorpos anti-R. rickettsii em 8,2 por cento dos soros humanos, 81,3 por cento dos cães e em 100 por cento dos eqüídeos. Nenhum dos 356 carrapatos se mostrou positivo para Rickettsia no teste de hemolinfa e na reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) objetivando amplificar fragmentos de DNA dos genes htrA and the gltA. Os resultados sorológicos em eqüinos e cães (sentinelas para FMB) apontam para a circulação de uma rickéttsia do GFM na área do estudo, porém, numa freqüência de infecção muito baixa na população do carrapato A. cajennense.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Endemic Diseases , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Rickettsia , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/epidemiology , Ticks/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Horses , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Surveillance , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia/immunology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/diagnosis , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/veterinary
16.
Neotrop. entomol ; 37(4): 472-477, July-Aug. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-492710

ABSTRACT

A comunidade de formigas da área externa ao hospital do Hospital Municipal de Morrinhos, GO, caracterizou-se pelos baixos índices de riqueza, diversidade, dominância e eqüidade de abundância das espécies. Pheidole sp.1, uma espécie poligínica, dominou esse ambiente apesar da coexistência com espécies potencialmente competitivas. A mesma espécie de formiga predominou no interior de praticamente todas as repartições do hospital e sua distribuição espaço-temporal aproximou-se da agregada (variância/média = 1.102, χ2 = 29.38, P < 0.01). Escherichia, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus e Klebsiella foram os gêneros de bactérias associados a essa espécie de formiga em praticamente todas as repartições do hospital. O unicolonialismo de Pheidole sp.1 tende a potencializar o processo de contaminação e disseminação de agentes infecto-contagiosos. O manejo e controle da espécie devem ser acompanhados de técnicas que reduzam o processo de colonização por novas rainhas e a quantidade de locais de nidificação no interior do hospital.


The external ant community of Hospital Municipal de Morrinhos, in Morrinhos, Goiás State, was characterized by the low rates of richness, diversity, dominance and equity of species abundance. Pheidole sp.1, a polygynic species was numerically dominant in this environment, although it coexists with potentially competitive species. This ant species prevailed within all hospital departments and its space-time distribution was a little aggregated (variance/mean ratio = 1.102, χ2 = 29.38, P < 0.01). Escherichia, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Klebsiella were the bacteria associated to this ant species in nearly all hospital annexes. The unicolonialism of Pheidole sp.1 tends to increase the contamination and dissemination process of infecto-contagious agents. The control and management of this ant species must be followed by practices that reduce the colonization process by other queens and the quantity of site nidification within the hospital.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Hospitals, Municipal , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Ants/classification , Brazil , Insect Vectors/classification , Population Density , Species Specificity
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31776

ABSTRACT

The field bioefficacy of a wettable granule (WG) formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), VectoBac WG (Bti strain AM65-52) against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus; was evaluated in a suburban residential area (TST) and in a temporary settlement site (KB) in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Pre-control ovitrap surveillance of the trial sites indicated a high population of both types of Aedes mosquitoes. The populations were monitored continuously by weekly ovitrapping. Bti was sprayed biweekly at a dosage of 500 g/ha by using a mist-blower. The spray application was targeted into outdoor larval habitats. If required, Bti formulation was also applied directly into indoor water-holding containers at 8 g/1,000 l. Based on ovitrap surveillance, a significant reduction in Aedes populations was evident 4 weeks after initiating the first Bti treatment. The ovitrap index (OI) and the larvae density decreased drastically in both trial sites. In TST, the indoor OI was significantly reduced from 57.50 +/- 7.50% to 19.13 +/- 5.49% (p<0.05), while the outdoor OI decreased from 38.89 +/- 11.11% to 15.36 +/- 5.93%. In KB, similarly, the OI was significantly reduced by more than half, from 66.66 +/- 6.67% to 30.26 +/- 2.99% (p< 0.05). In all cases, the reduction in OI was paralleled by reduction in larval density.


Subject(s)
Aedes/microbiology , Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/growth & development , Dengue/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Humans , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Insecticides , Larva , Malaysia/epidemiology , Mosquito Control/methods
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112118

ABSTRACT

A simple dual culture agar plating technique has been developed and evaluated for its efficiency in determining the relationship of gut bacteria of sandfly with Leishmania donovani promastigotes. There are about twenty morphologically distinct bacterial colonies have been isolated from the gut homogenate of Phlebotomus argentipes. In dual culture method, each bacterial isolate was inoculated in one half of the plate and the promastigotes of Leishmania was inculcated in the other half by streaking. After incubation, the type of association was determined based on the presence or absence of promastigotes colonies. The reliability of this method was compared with broth dilution method in 96 well plate.


Subject(s)
Agar , Animals , Bacteria/growth & development , Blood/microbiology , Culture Media , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Leishmania donovani/growth & development , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Phlebotomus/microbiology
19.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2008 Apr-Jun; 51(2): 292-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74338

ABSTRACT

Relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The high fevers of presenting patients spontaneously abate and then recur. Here we report a 50-year-old woman having relapsing fever associated with thrombocytopenia. Giemsa staining of peripheral blood smear revealed spiral organisms morphologically resembling Borrelia. A rare case of relapsing fever which was successfully treated with doxycycline is discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arachnid Vectors/microbiology , Borrelia/isolation & purification , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , India , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Phthiraptera/microbiology , Middle Aged , Ornithodoros/microbiology , Relapsing Fever/diagnosis
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(2): 214-215, Mar. 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-480630

ABSTRACT

The effect of relative humidity (43 percent, 75 percent, 86 percent and > 98 percent) on Aedes aegypti eggs treated with Metarhizium anisopliae or water only was tested for up to a six months exposure at 25ºC. Survival of larvae inside eggs was clearly affected by the lowest humidity (43 percent) tested, and eclosion diminished at all humidities after increasing periods of exposure. M. anisopliae showed to have a strong ovicidal activity only at humidity close to saturation. No difference of activity was found between conidia and hyphal bodies tested. This fungus affected larvae inside eggs and has potential as a control agent of this important vector in breeding sites with high moisture.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/microbiology , Humidity , Hypocreales/physiology , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Larva/microbiology , Ovum/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological , Time Factors
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