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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200070, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Nyssorhynchus deaneorum is a potential malaria vector because it has been shown to be competent to transmit Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and because it exhibits antropophilic and endophilic behaviors in some regions of the Amazon. This profile makes Ny. deaneorum a useful mosquito for experiments that model Plasmodium-vector interactions in the Amazon. OBJECTIVE Herein we describe how a free-mating colony of Ny. deaneorum has been established using an automated light stimulation system. METHODS Mosquitoes were captured in São Francisco do Guaporé, Rondônia. The F1 generation was reared until adult emergence at which point copulation was induced using an automatic copulation induction system (ACIS). FINDINGS After four generations, natural mating and oviposition began to occur without light stimulation. The number of pupae and adult mosquitoes increased from the F5 to F10 generations. The new Ny. deaneorum colony exhibited susceptibility to P. vivax. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Automated light stimulation is an effective method for establishing an Ny. deaneorum colony under laboratory conditions as it produces enough adults to create a stenogamic colony. The establishment of a stable, P. vivax-susceptible colony of Ny. deaneorum makes it possible to model parasite-vector interactions and to test novel drug therapies that target parasite development in mosquitoes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition , Copulation/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Malaria , Anopheles/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Brazil , Insect Vectors/physiology , Anopheles/physiology
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180482, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040621

ABSTRACT

The leishmaniases are caused by Leishmania parasites and transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During parasite development inside the vector's midgut, promastigotes move towards the stomodeal valve, a mechanism that is crucial for transmission. It has been reported that the sugar meal acquired by sand flies during feeding between bloodmeals is essential for the development and migration of parasites. We demonstrated that the distribution of Leishmania mexicana parasites was affected by the sugar meals obtained by the sand flies. Promastigote migration towards the cardia region seems to be only partially based on the stimuli provided by sugar molecules. In the absence of sugars, significant amounts of parasites developed in the hindgut. In addition, sugar meals were important for the survival of sand flies, especially during blood digestion, presumably supporting their energy requirements.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania mexicana/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Sugars/metabolism , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Psychodidae/physiology , Leishmania mexicana/growth & development , Insect Vectors/physiology , Longevity
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180474, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990440

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a complex vector-borne infectious diseases caused by protozoan parasites in the genus Leishmania and spread by hematophagous phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae). The aim of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine fauna, endophily and exophily of the species found, and possible influence of climatic factors on their populations. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve (XIR) in the municipality of São João das Missões in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Insects were collected over three consecutive nights in the last week of each month for 12 months from July 2015 to May 2016 from four houses in four different villages. Two traps were set up in each house: one in the intra-domicile and another in the peri-domicile. RESULTS: A total of 2,012 phlebotomine sand fly specimens representing 23 species and belonging to 10 different genera were captured and identified. Among the studied villages, Riacho do Brejo showed the highest density and diversity of phlebotomine sand flies. The species Lutzomyia longipalpis (80.3%) and Nyssomyia intermedia (7.3%), which are major vectors of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively, had the highest population densities, both in the intra- and peri-domicile. No correlation was observed between climatic factors and the density of phlebotomine sand flies. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study may contribute to a better understanding and targeting of the measures for preventing and controlling leishmaniasis by the authorities responsible for indigenous health.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/physiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Conservation of Natural Resources , Insect Vectors/physiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil , Analysis of Variance , Population Density , Sex Distribution , Ecosystem , Animal Distribution
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180464, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041572

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nyssomyia intermedia is an important vector of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Sand flies were captured in a Shannon trap and after landing on human collectors and retrieved monthly. Nocturnal activity was estimated using a log-linear model. RESULTS: Peak sand fly collection in the Shannon trap occurred in summer and winter, and peak fly collection on humans occurred in spring and summer. CONCLUSIONS: Ny. intermedia was captured in both the hottest and coldest months, indicating its adaptability to different seasons and the possibility of disease transmission at any time of the year in Campus Fiocruz Mata Atlântica, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Seasons , Activity Cycles/physiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/physiology , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/physiology , Brazil , Forests
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190020, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057255

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Different blood meal sources can affect biology of triatomines. METHODS: We studied the influence of two different blood meal sources (rabbits and hens) on five biological parameters in Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis and collected biological parameters. RESULTS: The cohort fed on rabbits had a shorter median life-cycle and lower mortality rate than that fed on hens. Both cohorts required a similar number of blood meals to reach adulthood. Median longevity and number of blood meals for adults were similar between both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS The studied parameters reflect the high grade of adaptation of M. p. pallidipennis feeding on different hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatominae/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Life Cycle Stages , Rabbits , Chickens , Chagas Disease/transmission
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(10): 698-708, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The eco-epidemiological status of Chagas disease in the Monte Desert ecoregion of western Argentina is largely unknown. We investigated the environmental and socio-demographic determinants of house infestation with Triatoma infestans, bug abundance, vector infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and host-feeding sources in a well-defined rural area of Lavalle Department in the Mendoza province. METHODS Technical personnel inspected 198 houses for evidence of infestation with T. infestans, and the 76 houses included in the current study were re-inspected. In parallel with the vector survey, an environmental and socio-demographic survey was also conducted. Univariate risk factor analysis for domiciliary infestation was carried out using Firth penalised logistic regression. We fitted generalised linear models for house infestation and bug abundance. Blood meals were tested with a direct ELISA assay, and T. cruzi infection was determined using a hot-start polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the kinetoplast minicircle (kDNA-PCR). FINDINGS The households studied included an aged population living in precarious houses whose main economic activities included goat husbandry. T. infestans was found in 21.2% of 198 houses and in 55.3% of the 76 re-inspected houses. Peridomestic habitats exhibited higher infestation rates and bug abundances than did domiciles, and goat corrals showed high levels of infestation. The main host-feeding sources were goats. Vector infection was present in 10.2% of domiciles and 3.2% of peridomiciles. Generalised linear models showed that peridomestic infestation was positively and significantly associated with the presence of mud walls and the abundance of chickens and goats, and bug abundance increased with the number of all hosts except rabbits. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We highlight the relative importance of specific peridomestic structures (i.e., goat corrals and chicken coops) associated with construction materials and host abundance as sources of persistent bug infestation driving domestic colonisation. Environmental management strategies framed in a community-based programme combined with improved insecticide spraying and sustained vector surveillance are needed to effectively suppress local T. infestans populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Triatoma/physiology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Argentina , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Goats , Cats , Chickens , Risk Factors , Population Density , Dogs
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(supl.2): 77-82, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888527

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Los híbridos de especies y subespecies de triatominos mexicanos exhiben características biológicas y de comportamiento sobresalientes comparadas con las de sus parentales, específicamente su vigor híbrido, lo cual puede incrementar el riesgo de transmisión de Trypanosoma cruzi a sus huéspedes humanos y animales. Objetivo. Describir y comparar los valores de los parámetros biológicos relacionados con el ciclo de vida de Triatoma recurva, de Meccus phyllosomus phyllosomus y de sus híbridos de laboratorio, para estimar su riesgo como transmisores de T. cruzi a las poblaciones humanas. Materiales y métodos. Se entrecruzaron ejemplares de T. recurva y de M. p. phyllosomus y se obtuvo una cohorte híbrida. Las tres cohortes se mantuvieron bajo condiciones similares de laboratorio. En las tres se compararon los datos de sus ciclos de vida, el número de alimentaciones necesarias para mudar, el porcentaje de mortalidad, el de eclosión de huevos y la fecundidad de las hembras. Resultados. La cohorte híbrida tuvo el menor tiempo promedio entre el primer instar o estadio y el adulto (136,6 ± 17,5 días). El número de alimentaciones para cambiar de instar (13,4 ± 1,7; 15,6 ± 5,2) fue mayor en la cohorte híbrida y en la de T. recurva. La cohorte híbrida registró la menor mortalidad (29 %) y el mayor porcentaje (70 %) de hembras al final del ciclo biológico. La fecundidad por hembra por día (rango: 1,1 ± 0,6 -1,6 ± 0,7) fue similar entre las poblaciones. El porcentaje de eclosión de huevos fue superior a 70 % en la cohorte híbrida y en la de M. p. phyllosomus. Conclusión. La cohorte híbrida presentó algunas características biológicas que implicarían un mayor poder transmisor de T. cruzi que el de sus grupos parentales.


Abstract Introduction: Hybrids from species and subspecies of Mexican triatomines have shown outstanding biological and behavioral characteristics as compared with their parental groups. This could lead to an increasing risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to human and animal reservoir hosts. Objective: To describe and compare biological parameters related to the life cycle of Triatoma recurva, Meccus phyllosomus phyllosomus and their laboratory hybrids and estimate their risk as transmitters of T. cruzi to humans. Materials and methods: We kept a cohort of each one of the three groups (T. recurva, M. p. phyllosomus and their hybrids) under similar laboratory conditions and then compared them to record the data related to their life cycles, number of blood meals to molt, mortality rates, egg eclosion rates and female fecundity. Results: The hybrid cohort showed the lowest mean time from first-instar nymph to adult (136.6 ± 17.5 days). The number of blood meals from molt to next instar (13.4 ± 1.7; 15.6 ± 5.2) was higher in the hybrid and T. recurva cohorts. The hybrid cohort showed the lowest mortality rate (29.5%) and the highest rate (70%) of adult females at the end of the biological cycle. Fecundity per day per female (range: 1.1 ± 0.6- 1.6 ± 0.7 eggs) was similar in the three cohorts. Egg hatching rate was higher than 70% in both hybrid and M. p. phyllosomus cohorts. Conclusion: The hybrid cohort showed some outstanding biological characteristics, which would entail a higher risk of transmission of T. cruzi to hosts than their parentals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Triatominae/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Triatoma/physiology , Molting , Crosses, Genetic , Feeding Behavior , Fertility , Hybridization, Genetic , Life Cycle Stages , Mexico
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(supl.2): 106-123, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888530

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Ante el desconocimiento del contexto espacio-temporal de las condiciones biofísicas (hidrometereológicas y de densidad de la cobertura vegetal) de las zonas con presencia deTriatoma dimidiata en Santander y Boyacá, es necesario dilucidar los patrones asociados con estas variables para determinar su distribución y control. Objetivo. Hacer el análisis espacio-temporal de las variables biofísicas relacionadas con la distribución de Triatoma dimidiata de los departamentos de Santander y Boyacá en la región nororiental de Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron las bases de datos de los registros de presencia de T. dimidiata y de factores hidrometereológicos del Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SrES) del Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC. Se estudiaron las variables de temperatura, humedad relativa, pluviosidad y densidad de la cobertura vegetal a nivel regional y local, se hizo el análisis espacial y el geoestadfstico, asf como el análisis estadfstico descriptivo y temporal de las series de Fourier. Resultados. En las áreas con mayor presencia de T. dimidiata, las temperaturas a dos metros del suelo y en suelo cubierto oscilaron entre 14,5 y 18,8 °C, y la temperatura ambiente fue de 30 a 32 °C. La densidad de la cobertura vegetal y la pluviosidad en las áreas de mayor presencia de T. dimidiata exhibieron patrones de picos anuales y bienales. Los valores de la humedad relativa fluctuaron entre 66,8 y 85,1 %. Conclusiones. Las temperaturas a nivel de superficie y a dos metros del suelo fueron las variables determinantes de la distribución espacio-temporal de T. dimidiata. La elevada humedad relativa incentivó la búsqueda de refugios e incrementó la distribución geográfica en los picos anual y bienal de pluviosidad a nivel regional. Las condiciones ecológicas y antrópicas sugieren que T. dimidiata es una especie de gran resiliencia.


Abstract Introduction: Due to the lack of information regarding biophysical and spatio-temporal conditions (hydrometheorologic and vegetal coverage density) in areas with Triatoma dimidiata in the Colombian departments of Santander and Boyacá, there is a need to elucidate the association patterns of these variables to determine the distribution and control of this species. Objective: To make a spatio-temporal analysis of biophysical variables related to the distribution of T. dimidiate observed in the northeast region of Colombia. Materials and methods: We used the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) data bases registering vector presence and hydrometheorologic data. We studied the variables of environmental temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and vegetal coverage density at regional and local levels, and we conducted spatial geostatistic, descriptive statistical and Fourier temporal series analyses. Results: Temperatures two meters above the ground and on covered surface ranged from 14,5°C to 18,8°C in the areas with the higher density of T. dimidiata. The environmental temperature fluctuated between 30 and 32°C. Vegetal coverage density and rainfall showed patterns of annual and biannual peaks. Relative humidity values fluctuated from 66,8 to 85,1%. Conclusions: Surface temperature and soil coverage were the variables that better explained the life cycle of T. dimidiata in the area. High relative humidity promoted the seek of shelters and an increase of the geographic distribution in the annual and biannual peaks of regional rainfall. The ecologic and anthropic conditions suggest that T. dimidiata is a highly resilient species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatoma/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Seasons , Triatoma/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Ecology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Animal Distribution , Geography, Medical , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Meteorological Concepts
9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(supl.2): 187-192, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038791

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Las técnicas de biología molecular han permitido ampliar el conocimiento sobre las fuentes de ingestión de sangre de los insectos vectores. Sin embargo, la utilidad de estas técnicas depende de la cantidad de sangre ingerida y del proceso de digestión en el insecto. Objetivo. Determinar el tiempo límite de detección del gen citocromo b (Cyt b) de humanos en hembras de Lutzomyia evansi alimentadas experimentalmente. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron ocho grupos de hembras de L. evansi alimentadas con sangre humana, las cuales fueron sacrificadas en intervalos de 24 horas desde el momento de la ingestión sanguínea. Se extrajo el ADN total de cada hembra y se amplificó un segmento de 358 pb del gen Cyt b. Los productos amplificados fueron sometidos a un análisis de polimorfismos en la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, RFLP), con el fin de descartar falsos positivos. Resultados. El segmento del gen Cyt b de humanos fue detectado en 86 % (49/57) de las hembras de L. evansi a partir de las 0 horas y hasta 168 horas después de la ingestión de sangre. En 7 % (4/57) de los individuos se amplificó el ADN del insecto y en el 7 % restante no se amplificó la banda de interés. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas en cuanto a la amplificación del segmento del gen Cyt b de humanos ni al número de muestras amplificadas entre los grupos de hembras sacrificadas a distintas horas después de la ingestión. Conclusión. El segmento del gen Cyt b de humanos fue detectable en hembras de L. evansi hasta 168 horas después de la ingestión de sangre.


Abstract Introduction: Molecular biology techniques have allowed a better knowledge of sources of blood meals in vector insects. However, the usefulness of these techniques depends on both the quantity of ingested blood and the digestion process in the insect. Objective: To identify the time limit for detection of the human cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene in experimentally fed females of Lutzomyia evansi. Materials and methods: Eight groups of L. evansi females were fed on human blood and sacrificed at intervals of 24 hours post-ingestion. Total DNA was extracted from each female and a segment of 358 bp of Cyt b was amplified. In order to eliminate false positives, amplification products were subjected to a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results: The human Cyt b gene segment was detected in 86% (49/57) of the females of L. evansi, from 0 to 168 hours after blood ingestion. In 7% (4/57) of the individuals we amplified insect DNA, while in the remaining 7%, the band of interest was not amplified. We did not find any statistical differences between groups of females sacrificed at different times post-blood meal regarding the amplification of the human Cyt b gene segment or the number of samples amplified. Conclusion: The human Cyt b gene segment was detectable in L. evansi females up to 168 hours after blood ingestion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Psychodidae/physiology , Blood Proteins/analysis , Cytochromes b/analysis , Insect Vectors/physiology , Time Factors , Computer Simulation , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , DNA/analysis , Blood Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Cytochromes b/pharmacokinetics , Digestion , Feeding Behavior , Limit of Detection , Genes
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 543-546, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041415

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Studying the feeding preferences of triatomines is an important entomological surveillance tool, since continuous surveillance of the disease is necessary. METHODS: The precipitin reaction was used to describe the feeding preferences of triatomines along with their natural infection by flagellates similar to Tyrpanosoma cruzi. Six hundred eighty-seven insects were examined, including Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and Panstrongylus lutzi. RESULTS: Sixty-nine (10%) of 687 triatomines examined tested positive for flagellates similar to T. cruzi, and 8 (1.2%) of these fed on human blood. CONCLUSIONS: This study found potential transmitters of Chagas disease both inside and outside the domiciliar environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Triatominae/physiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Gastrointestinal Contents , Insect Vectors/physiology , Brazil , Precipitin Tests , Triatominae/classification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 60-67, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839160

ABSTRACT

Abstract Crepuscular period is one of the factors that may influence the biting activity of mosquitoes. Many of these insects have a peak activity in this period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the afternoon crepuscular activity of Culicidae in a remaining area of Atlantic Forest in western Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Moreover, the possible influence of abiotic factors, the abundance and species richness were verified. In order to better analyze the influence of crepuscular period in specific composition and abundance of mosquitoes, the dusk was divided into three periods: pre-sunset, sunset and post-sunset. At the end of the study, nine hundred and eight four specimens distributed in 12 genera and 23 species were collected. Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905) (59.76%), Aedes crinifer (Theobald, 1903) (8.13%), Ae. scapularis (Rondani, 1848) (5.89%) were the most abundant species. Spring time presented the greatest abundance and species richness. During the study, among the three periods evaluated, pre-sunset had the greatest abundance and post-sunset the lowest. Pre-sunset and sunset had the greatest similarity between species. Regarding to the abiotic factors evaluated seven and 15 days before sampling, they did not present significant correlation for the three most abundant species. However, temperature had a positive correlation to these species. Moreover, the correlation between collected species and its possible role as vectors of etiological agents of diseases was discussed.


Resumo O período crepuscular é um dos fatores que pode influenciar na atividade hematofágica dos mosquitos. Muitos desses insetos iniciam ou terminam suas atividades nesse período. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os Culicidae que ocorrem no crepúsculo vespertino em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no oeste de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Além disso, foi analisada a possível influência de fatores abióticos, bem como abundância e riqueza de espécies. Para melhor avaliar a influência do período crepuscular na composição das espécies e na abundância destas, o crepúsculo foi dividido em três períodos: pré-crepúsculo, crepúsculo e pós-crepúsculo. Ao final do estudo foram coletados 984 exemplares distribuídos em 12 gêneros e 23 espécies. Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905) (59,76%), Aedes crinifer (Theobald, 1903) (8,13%) e Ae. scapularis (Rondani, 1848) (5,89%) foram as espécies mais abundantes. A maior abundância e riqueza de espécies se deram na primavera. Dentre os três períodos estudados, o pré-crepúsculo apresentou a maior abundância de mosquitos, em contrapartida, o pós-crepúsculo apresentou a menor abundância. Os períodos pré-crepuscular e crepuscular apresentaram maior similaridade entre si com relação à composição das espécies. Relacionando os fatores abióticos e as três espécies mais abundantes, não foi observada correlação significativa nos dados avaliados nos sete e 15 dias anteriores às coletas. Entretanto, a temperatura apresentou uma correlação positiva para estas três espécies. A relação entre as espécies coletadas e a potencial transmissão de agentes etiológicos causadores de doenças foi comentada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae/physiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Forests , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Culicidae/classification
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 121-125, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041398

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Panstrongylus herreri is a main Chagas disease vector, and its success as a vector stems from its ability to establish domiciliated colonies; we aimed to explore its biology and reproduction. METHODS: The average amount of blood ingested and the time from the beginning of a blood meal to the production of feces were recorded. RESULTS: Females exhibited a higher blood ingestion rate than males, but similar defecation times and frequencies were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the detected decrease in oviposition rates, P. herreri's potential as a Chagas disease vector in environments other than the Amazon forest cannot be discounted.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Panstrongylus/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Defecation/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Sex Factors , Chagas Disease/transmission
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(1): 19-30, Jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841751

ABSTRACT

The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142) than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52); similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105) than at the rear side (n = 37). Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2%) of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%). Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Behavior, Animal , Population Density , Colombia , Housing
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(10): 605-613, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796904

ABSTRACT

For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Diet , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Hemolymph , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Triatominae/growth & development , Cockroaches , Insect Vectors/physiology , Laboratories , Life Cycle Stages/physiology , Triatominae/physiology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(9): 561-569, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794724

ABSTRACT

In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. In 2012 and 2013, Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled outdoors at different seasons and in various time slots. The collected mosquitoes were identified and screened for Plasmodium infection. Data on human behaviour and malaria episodes were obtained from an interview. A total of 3,135 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected, of which Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species (96.2%). For the December 2012-February 2013 period, the Plasmodium vivax infection rate for An. darlingi was 7.8%, and the entomological inoculation rate was 35.7 infective bites per person per three-month span. In spite of high bednet usage (95.7%) in 2012 and 2013, 52.2% and 37.0% of the participants, respectively, had at least one malaria episode. An. darlingi displayed heterogeneous biting behaviour that peaked between 20:30 and 22:30; however, 27.6% of the inhabitants were not yet protected by bednets by 21:30. The use of additional individual and collective protective measures is required to limit exposure to infective mosquito bites and reduce vector densities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Anopheles/physiology , Insect Bites and Stings , Insect Vectors/physiology , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/parasitology , Forests , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Malaria, Vivax/transmission , Population Density , Seasons , Species Specificity
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(2): 93-97, abr. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841549

ABSTRACT

Los responsables de la actual pandemia de Chikungunya (alfavirus), dengue y Zika (flavivirus) son virus trasmitidos por artrópodos, arbovirus. Su importancia aumentó en las Américas en los últimos 20 años. Los vectores principales son Aedes aegypti y A. albopictus. La infección por dengue provee inmunidad duradera al serotipo específico y temporaria a otros tres. La posterior infección por otro serotipo determina mayor gravedad. Existe una vacuna contra dengue registrada, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Otras dos (Butantan y Takeda) comienzan la Fase III en 2016. La infección por Zika suele ser asintomática, o presentarse con exantema, conjuntivitis y fiebre no muy elevada. No existen vacunas ni tratamiento específico. Se puede transmitir por vía parental, sexual y por transfusión sanguínea. Se la ha asociado con microcefalia. Chikungunya causa artralgias prolongadas, con respuesta inmune persistente. Hay dos vacunas candidatas en Fase II. El diagnóstico directo del dengue se realiza por cultivo, RT-PCR y ELISA para detección del antígeno NS1; los métodos indirectos son ELISA-IgM (reacción cruzada con otros flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, y neutralización en placas, que diferencia los 4 serotipos DENV y otros flavivirus. Zika se diagnostica por RT-PCR y aislamiento del virus. El diagnóstico serológico presenta reacciones cruzadas con otros flavivirus. Para CHIKV se emplean cultivo y RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA y neutralización en placas. Contra Aedes se emplean larvicidas organofosforados (temefos), insecticidas organofosforados (malation y fenitrotion) y piretroides (permetrina y deltametrina). Puede haber resistencia. Los derivados vegetales son menos costosos y biodegradables, entre ellos el aceite de cetronela, que microencapsulado se preserva de la evaporación.


Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Americas/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Aedes/virology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Zika Virus/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Insect Vectors/physiology , Insecticides
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(6): 793-796, Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763090

ABSTRACT

The goal of this work was to explore the thermal relationship between foraging Triatoma brasiliensis and its natural habitat during the hottest season in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The thermal profiles were determined using infrared analysis. Although the daily temperature of rock surfaces varied in a wide range, T. brasiliensisselected to walk through areas with temperatures between 31.7-40.5ºC. The temperature of T. brasiliensisbody surface ranged from 32.8-34.4ºC, being higher in legs than the abdomen. A strong relationship was found between the temperature of the insect and the temperature of rock crevices where they were hidden (r: 0.96, p < 0.05). The species was active at full sunlight being a clear example of how the light-dark rhythm may be altered, even under predation risk. Our results strongly suggest a thermal borderline for T. brasiliensisforaging activity near 40ºC. The simultaneous determination of insect body and rock temperatures here presented are the only obtained in natural habitats for this or other triatomines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Temperature/physiology , Ecosystem , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Hot Temperature , Insect Vectors/classification , Triatoma/physiology , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Geologic Sediments/classification , Infrared Rays , Insect Vectors/physiology , Photoperiod , Rural Population , Seasons , Sunlight , Triatoma/classification
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 611-617, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755888

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the effects of Leishmaniaspp infection on several population parameters of Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato andLutzomyia pseudolongipalpis, vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, under experimental conditions during the first post-feeding period. Females of both species were allowed to feed and engorge on a suspension of fresh washed human red blood cells in foetal calf serum. These blood cells were either non-infected or infected with one of the fourLeishmaniaspp strains and were offered through a chicken skin membrane. The longevity, life expectancy and the fecundity of uninfected flies were similar in both species, but the fertility was significantly lower in uninfected Lu. longipalpis females. In all cases, the infection of Lu. longipalpis and Lu. pseudolongipalpis by the Leishmaniastrains resulted in significant detrimental effects, which exerted a fitness cost expressed by reduced survival and life expectancy, as well as decreased fertility and fecundity compared with the control groups. Nevertheless, differences in these parameters were observed between these vector species depending on whether they were infected with the autochthonous Venezuelan Leishmania infantum strain (NESA) or the Brazilian reference strain (PP75). The experimental data obtained agree with field data on the natural infection of these vector species and the significance of this scenario is discussed.

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Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Host-Parasite Interactions , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/physiology , Psychodidae/parasitology , Chickens , Fertility/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Life Expectancy , Psychodidae/physiology , Venezuela
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 669-676, Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755905

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16) was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed “favourite”, which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches.

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Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Aedes/anatomy & histology , Breeding , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Oviposition/physiology
20.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(4): 321-324, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761164

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYThe aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis(82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.


RESUMOO objetivo deste estudo foi identificar o repasto sanguíneo de fêmeas de flebotomíneos capturadas no município de Governador Valadares, área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral e tegumentar no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Entre maio de 2011 e janeiro 2012 foram realizadas capturas com armadilhas luminosas HP em quatro bairros. Foram capturados 2.614 exemplares (2.090 machos e 524 fêmeas). Noventa e sete fêmeas ingurgitadas foram identificadas como pertencentes às espécies Lutzomyia longipalpis(82,1%) e Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17,9%). Considerando a alimentação simples e a mista, o ensaio imunoenzimático revelou em Lutzomyia longipalpisuma predominância de sangue de galinhas (43,6%), mostrando o importante papel que galinhas podem exercer no peridomicílio, aumentando a chance de contato dos flebotomíneos com outros vertebrados e, consequentemente, o risco de transmissão da leishmaniose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Psychodidae/physiology , Brazil , Chickens , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insect Vectors/classification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/classification , Rodentia , Seasons
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