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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200218, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Southeast Brazil has recently experienced a Yellow Fever virus (YFV) outbreak where the mosquito Haemagogus leucocelaenus was a primary vector. Climatic factors influence the abundance of mosquito vectors and arbovirus transmission. OBJECTIVES We aimed at describing the population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus in a county touched by the recent YFV outbreak. METHODS Fortnightly egg collections with ovitraps were performed from November 2012 to February 2017 in a forest in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The effects of mean temperature and rainfall on the Hg. leucocelaenus population dynamics were explored. FINDINGS Hg. leucocelaenus eggs were continuously collected throughout the study, with a peak in the warmer months (December-March). The climatic variables had a time-lagged effect and four weeks before sampling was the best predictor for the positivity of ovitraps and total number of eggs collected. The probability of finding > 50% positive ovitraps increased when the mean temperature was above 24ºC. The number of Hg. leucocelaenus eggs expressively increase when the mean temperature and accumulated precipitation surpassed 27ºC and 100 mm, respectively, although the effect of rainfall was less pronounced. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Monitoring population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus and climatic factors in YFV risk areas, especially mean temperature, may assist in developing climate-based surveillance procedures to timely strengthening prophylaxis and control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Yellow Fever , Yellow fever virus/isolation & purification , Forests , Population Dynamics , Insect Vectors/virology , Culicidae/virology , Seasons , Temperature , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Brazil , Insect Vectors/classification , Culicidae/classification
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200012, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135267

ABSTRACT

In Argentina, many Flavivirus were recognised including West Nile virus (WNV). During 2009 several strains of Culex Flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific flavivirus, were isolated in the same region where circulation of WNV was detected. Hence, the objective of this study was to analyse the effect of co-infection in vitro assays using CxFV and WNV Argentinean strains in order to evaluate if CxFV could affect WNV replication. Our results showed that WNV replication was suppressed when multiplicity of infection (MOI) for CxFV was 10 or 100 times higher than WNV. Nevertheless, in vivo assays are necessary in order to evaluate the superinfection exclusion potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , West Nile virus/pathogenicity , Superinfection/virology , Culex/virology , Flavivirus/physiology , Insect Vectors/virology , Argentina , Viral Plaque Assay , Cell Line , Aedes/virology
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 257-272, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974229

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dengue, the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide, is caused by any of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes that co-circulate constantly in hyperendemic areas such as Medellin (Colombia), and these serotypes are transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. In this study, we evaluated the replicative capacity of strains isolated in Medellin between 2003 and 2007 in C6/36 cells and in colonies of Aedes aegypti collected during 2010-2011 from high or low-incidence areas within the same city. The phylogenetic analysis grouped isolates according to the predominant genotypes found in the Americas, and the in vitro characterization showed differences in the morphological changes induced by the isolates of each of the isolated serotypes compared to the reference serotypes. In vitro replicative capacity studies demonstrated that genomic copy number increased at four days post-infection and that cell viability decreased significantly compared to the control for all serotypes. The largest number of genomic copies in C6/36 was produced by DENV-2, followed by DENV-1 and DENV-4; DENV-3 produced the smallest number of genomic copies and had the smallest negative effect on cell viability. Finally, differences in the in vivo replication of intercolonial serotypes between the Rockefeller colony and the field colonies and among the intracolonial serotypes were found. The replication of DENV-2 at 7 and 14 days in both high- and low-incidence colonies was higher than that of the other serotypes, and replication of DENV-3 in the mosquito colonies was the most stable on the days evaluated. Our results support the notion that replication and, possibly, DENV transmission and severity depend on many factors, including serotype and vector characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Virus Replication , Aedes/virology , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/physiology , Insect Vectors/virology , Phylogeny , Urban Population , Colombia , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Serogroup
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 71-76, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041446

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: the Building Infestation Index (BII) uses the Rapid Assay of the Larval Index for Aedes aegypti (LIRAa) to express the relationship between positive and surveyed properties. We evaluated LIRAa and the relationship between the BII and climate variables for dengue cases in Foz do Iguaçu municipality, Paraná. METHODS: Spearman's correlations for mean precipitation, mean temperature, BII, and dengue cases (time lag). RESULTS: positive correlations between BII and cases, and mean temperature and cases at two months. Weak correlation between precipitation and cases at three months. CONCLUSIONS: LIRAa and climate variables correlate with dengue cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes/virology , Dengue/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/virology , Seasons , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Population Density , Aedes/classification , Dengue/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(12): 829-837, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Dengue viruses (DENV) are considered one of the most important emerging pathogens and dengue disease is a global health threat. The geographic expansion of dengue viruses has led to co-circulation of all four dengue serotypes making it imperative that new DENV control strategies be devised. OBJECTIVES Here we characterize dengue serotype-specific innate immune responses in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus using DENV from Puerto Rico (PR). METHODS Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were infected with dengue serotype 1 and 2 isolated from Puerto Rico. DENV infected mosquito samples were collected and temporal change in expression of selected innate immune response pathway genes analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. FINDINGS The Toll pathway is involved in anti-dengue response in Ae. aegypti, and Ae. albopictus. Infections with PR DENV- 1 elicited a stronger response from genes of the Toll immune pathway than PR DENV-2 in Ae. aegypti but in infected Ae. albopictus expression of Toll pathway genes tended to be similar between the serotypes. Two genes (a ribosomal S5 protein gene and a nimrod-like gene) from Ae. albopictus were expressed in response to DENV. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These studies revealed a role for antiviral genes in DENV serotype-specific interactions with DENV vectors, demonstrated that infections with DENV-2 can modulate the Toll immune response pathway in Ae. aegypti and elucidated candidate molecules that might be used to interfere with serotype specific vector-virus interactions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/classification , Aedes/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/immunology , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(11): 957-961, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896318

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Global climate changes directly affect the natural environment and contribute to an increase in the transmission of diseases by vectors. Among these diseases, dengue is at the top of the list. The aim of our study was to understand the consequences of temporal variability of air temperature in the occurrence of dengue in an area comprising seven municipalities of the Greater São Paulo. Method: Characterization of a temporal trend of the disease in the region between 2010 and 2013 was performed through analysis of the notified number of dengue cases over this period. Our analysis was complemented with meteorological (temperature) and pollutant concentration data (PM10). Results: We observed that the months of January, February, March, April and May (from 2010 to 2013) were the ones with the highest number of notified cases. We also found that there is a statistical association of moisture and PM10 with the reported cases of dengue. Conclusion: Although the temperature does not statistically display an association with recorded cases of dengue, we were able to verify that temperature peaks coincide with dengue outbreak peaks. Future studies on environmental pollution and its influence on the development of Aedes aegypti mosquito during all stages of its life cycle, and the definition of strategies for better monitoring, including campaigns and surveillance, would be compelling.


Resumo Objetivo: As alterações globais que têm ocorrido interferem no ambiente natural, influenciando diretamente no crescimento da transmissão de doenças ocasionadas por vetores, das quais se destaca a dengue. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender as consequências da variabilidade temporal das condições climáticas em relação à ocorrência de dengue na população da região metropolitana de São Paulo, constituída por sete municípios. Método: A caracterização da tendência temporal da dengue foi realizada por meio da análise dos números de casos de dengue notificados nos anos de 2010 a 2013, de dados meteorológicos (umidade e temperatura) e dados de concentração de poluentes (PM10). Resultados: Observou-se que os meses de janeiro a abril (de 2010 a 2013) foram os que apresentaram maior número de casos notificados de dengue, com associação estatística entre a umidade e PM10 com os casos de dengue notificados. Conclusão: Embora a temperatura não assuma, estatisticamente, uma associação com os casos de dengue registrados, foi possível verificar que os picos de temperatura coincidem com os picos epidêmicos de dengue. Seriam interessantes futuros estudos referentes à poluição ambiental e a sua influência no desenvolvimento do mosquito Aedes aegypti em todas as suas fases do ciclo de vida e definição de estratégias para melhor monitoração, campanhas e vigilância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dengue/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cities/epidemiology , Aedes , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Air Pollution , Insect Vectors/virology , Meteorological Concepts
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 457-463, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888895

ABSTRACT

Abstract The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Recently, Zika and Chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. Without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. This article is focused on reviewing vector control strategies, their effectiveness, viability and economical impact. Among all, the Sterile Insect Technique is highlighted as the best option to be adopted in Brazil, once it is largely effectively used in the USA and Mexico for plagues related to agribusiness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Insect Vectors/virology , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(2): 123-126, Feb. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838867

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp), which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. The increased number of infected individuals has contributed to the rise of neurological manifestations including encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital malformations such as microcephaly. In this narrative review, we characterize the impact of the geographic expansion of the vector on the appearance of neurological complications, and highlight the lack of highly accurate laboratory tests for nervous system infections. This represents a challenge for public health in the world, considering the high number of travelers and people living in endemic areas.


RESUMO Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya são arbovírus emergentes e importante causa de doença febril aguda em áreas tropicais. Embora a dengue não represente uma doença nova, houve uma expansão geográfica ao longo do tempo, com o aparecimento de complicações neurológicas graves. A negligência desta situação permitiu a propagação do vetor (Aedes spp) em todo o mundo, que também é responsável pela transmissão de outras infecções pelos vírus Zika e Chikungunya. O grande número de casos infectados contribui para o aumento de manifestações neurológicas incluindo encefalite, mielite, meningite, síndrome de Guillain-Barré e má formações congênitas, como microcefalia. Nesta revisão narrativa, destaca-se o impacto da expansão geográfica do vetor no aparecimento de complicações neurológicas e a falta de testes laboratoriais de elevada acurácia para o diagnóstico da infecção neurológica. Estes aspectos representam desafio para a saúde pública mundial, considerando o grande número de indivíduos que moram ou viajam para áreas endêmicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dengue/complications , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Insect Vectors/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 104-109, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041395

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION Currently, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, and zika virus represent serious public health issues in Brazil, despite efforts to control the vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito. METHODS: This was a descriptive and ecological study of dengue deaths occurring from 2002 to 2013 in São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil. Geoprocessing software was used to draw maps, linking the geo-referenced deaths with urban/social data at census tract level. RESULTS: There were 74 deaths, concentrated in areas of social vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: The use of geo-technology tools pointed to a concentration of dengue deaths in specific intra-urban areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Disease Outbreaks , Dengue/mortality , Dengue Virus/genetics , Vulnerable Populations , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Aedes/virology , Dengue/virology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Insect Vectors/virology
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(supl.1): 38-50, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Arboviruses pose a serious threat to public health worldwide, overloading the healthcare system and causing economic losses. These viruses form a very diverse group, and in Brazil, arboviruses belonging to the families Flaviviridae and Togaviridae are predominant. Unfortunately, the number of arboviruses increases in proportion with factors such as deforestation, poor sanitation, climate changes, and introduction of new viruses like Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. In Brazil, dengue is endemic, along with the presence of other arboviruses. The situation is complicated by the scarcity of diagnostic infrastructure and the absence of approved vaccines for these diseases. Disease control, thus, relies solely on vector control. Therefore, enhanced clinical knowledge and improved general awareness about these arboviruses are indispensable to tackle diagnostic inadequacies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Insect Vectors/virology , Culicidae/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/virology , Alphavirus/classification , Alphavirus/physiology , Dengue/transmission , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/virology
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 698-702, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829670

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The sandfly fauna is well studied globally. In Brazil, sandfly fauna is very diverse in the Northeast region, especially in states such as Maranhão, Ceará, and Bahia. However, in the State of Pernambuco, the distribution of these insects is still not well known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the different species that constitute the sandfly fauna in an urban area in the Northeast region of Brazil, where an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recently reported. METHODS: The sandflies were collected from an urban area endemic for VL, at five collection points. The collection of samples was carried out from November 2014 to December 2015, using CDC light traps installed in intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary fashion. RESULTS: The collected sandflies (n = 297) belonged to eight species: Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia capixaba, Lutzomyia carmelinoi, and Lutzomyia whitmani. Most of the specimens collected were peridomiciliary (247/297, 83%). L. lenti (154/297, 52%) was the most frequently sampled species, followed by L. longipalpis (88/297, 29.6%), and L. sallesi (42/297, 14.1%), which together accounted for over 90% of the collected sandfly specimens. CONCLUSIONS: The continued presence of L. longipalpis in urban areas, including that in intradomiciliary areas, with a predominance of females, is crucial because of the high possibility of them causing VL outbreaks, since this species is the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Psychodidae/virology , Seasons , Urban Population , Brazil , Population Density , Insect Vectors/virology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(5): 537-543, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798115

ABSTRACT

Abstract Zika virusis an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family with two major strains, an Asian and an African strain. The main vectors involved in the transmission of Zika virus are the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Despite its identification, discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda, only isolated and sporadic occurrences of human infection were reported within a largely asymptomatic proportion of individuals. The first reported outbreak occurred in 2007 in the Yap Island, which belongs to the Federated States of Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean, and in French Polynesia, where high attack rates occurred and the first cases of associated Guillain-Barré syndrome were reported. From November 2014 to early 2015, the Northeast states of Brazil reported the first outbreaks of Zika virus infection, with laboratory confirmation of Zika virus circulation in April 2015. In the second quarter of 2015, the association between Zika virus infection and neurological symptoms was confirmed in adults. Moreover, in October 2015 a novel suspicion was raised based on clinical and epidemiological observations: that an association between Zika virus infection and neonatal microcephaly may exist. A year after the first reports on Zika virus in Brazil, many hypotheses and much evidence on the patterns of involvement of the disease and its complications have been produced, both in this country and others; other hypotheses still need to be clarified. This review is a synthesis of a new chapter in the history of medicine; it outlines the main results produced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Microcephaly/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Aedes/virology , Insect Vectors/virology , Microcephaly/epidemiology
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(9): 559-560, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794729

ABSTRACT

The Americas are presently experiencing the most serious known outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here, we present a novel set of analyses using environmental characteristics, vector mosquito distributions, and socioeconomic risk factors to develop the first map to detail global ZIKV transmission risk in multiple dimensions based on ecological niche models. Our model predictions were tested against independent evaluation data sets, and all models had predictive ability significantly better than random expectations. The study addresses urgent knowledge gaps regarding (1) the potential geographic scope of the current ZIKV epidemic, (2) the global potential for spread of ZIKV, and (3) drivers of ZIKV transmission. Our analysis of potential drivers of ZIKV distributions globally identified areas vulnerable in terms of some drivers, but not for others. The results of these analyses can guide regional education and preparedness efforts, such that medical personnel will be better prepared for diagnosis of potential ZIKV cases as they appear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes/virology , Global Health , Insect Vectors/virology , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Models, Biological , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(4): 452-454, ago. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042622

ABSTRACT

Dengue was first diagnosed on Easter Island on year 2002 and thereafter recurrent outbreaks have occurred involving different serotypes of dengue virus. Its vector, Aedes aegypti has not been eliminated despite the small size of the island. Conditions at the local hospital preclude adequate management of severe and hemorrhagic cases due to the absence of a Critical Care Unit as well as no availability of platelets, or plasma units for transfusion. Besides, transfer, of severely affected patients to continental Chile is cumbersome, slow and expensive. In this scenario, it is advisable to implement selective vaccination of Easter Island habitants with an available quadrivalent attenuated dengue vaccine with the aim to reduce hemorrhagic and severe dengue cases. This strategy should not replace permanent efforts to control waste disposal sites, water sources, maintain vector surveillance and increase education of the population.


El dengue surgió el año 2002 en Isla de Pascua y se ha presentado en brotes intercurrentes desde entonces con aparición de diferentes serotipos. El vector Aedes aegypti no ha logrado ser eliminado a pesar del pequeño tamaño de la isla y las condiciones del hospital local no permiten el manejo de casos graves por ausencia de una unidad de cuidados intensivos y disponibilidad de transfusiones de plaquetas o plasma fresco congelado. Además, el traslado de pacientes graves hacia el continente no es inmediato y es muy costoso. En este escenario, es aconsejable vacunar selectivamente a la población residente con la vacuna cuadrivalente atenuada para disminuir la probabilidad de dengue grave. Esta estrategia no debe reemplazar los esfuerzos para el control de basurales, fuentes de agua, vigilancia del vector y educación de la población.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vaccination , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Polynesia/epidemiology , Advisory Committees , Dengue/transmission , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Insect Vectors/virology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(4): 233-240, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779001

ABSTRACT

The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Aedes/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/virology , Colombia , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue/transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Rural Population , Serogroup
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 91-98, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776458

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito bites. A viral mutation has allowed Aedes albopictus to become the preferred vector extending the geographic spread of the condition. The virus causes an acute febrile illness occasionally followed by a chronic rheumatic condition causing severe impairment. The diagnosis is usually confirmed with serology. No specific treatment is currently available. This article reviews the condition with emphasis on his dissemination in the Americas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Aedes/virology , Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Insect Vectors/virology , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Global Health/statistics & numerical data
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes/virology , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Insect Vectors/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Aedes/classification , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/classification
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(1): 20-29, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771080

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two ofCx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiabá has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Alphavirus/isolation & purification , Culicidae/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/virology , Alphavirus/genetics , Brazil , Culicidae/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Genotype , Insect Vectors/classification , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seasons
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