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Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 584-588, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001478


Abstract The properties of maize pollen in the diet of Doru luteipes were determined by biological responses of the predator feeding on natural preys and artificial diet. The biological parameters of D. luteipes fed on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) eggs, maize pollen, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856) + maize pollen and R. maidis were assessed. The effect of pollen on artificial diet on the biological variables of the predator nymphs and adults were also evaluated. Time span of nymphal development was greater for D. luteipes exclusively fed on earwigs, with the lowest rate of nymph survival. However, maize pollen plus earwigs in the diet provided the predator´s highest survival rate, whilst percentage of fertile females was double when fed on diets composed of S. frugiperda and R. maidis eggs. Development period decreased when D. luteipes nymphs consumed artificial diet plus pollen but there were high fecundity rates (number of laying/female and total egg/female) and a greater percentage of fertile females when they were fed on maize pollen.

Resumo Os benefícios do pólen de milho na composição da dieta de Doru luteipes foram determinados por meio das respostas biológicas desse predador alimentado com presas naturais e dieta artificial. Inicialmente, avaliaram-se parâmetros biológicos de D. luteipes alimentados com: ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797), pólen de milho, pólen de milho e Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856) e R. maidis. Posteriormente, verificou-se o efeito da presença do pólen em dieta artificial nas variáveis ​​biológicas de ninfas e adultos do predador. O período de desenvolvimento ninfal foi maior para D. luteipes alimentado, exclusivamente, com pulgões, sendo esta dieta a que propiciou menor sobrevivência ninfal. No entanto, a adição de pólen de milho na dieta com pulgões proporcionou maior taxa de sobrevivência do predador e, o percentual de fêmeas que ovipositaram foi praticamente o dobro em relação às dietas compostas por ovos de S. frugiperda e R. maidis. Quando ninfas de D. luteipes consumiram a dieta artificial adicionada com pólen verificou-se redução no período de desenvolvimento ninfal e quando o pólen de milho foi fornecido apenas na fase adulta houve uma maior fecundidade (número de posturas/fêmea e total de ovos/fêmea) e porcentagem de fêmeas que ovipositaram.

Animals , Female , Pollen , Zea mays , Food Chain , Insecta/physiology , Brazil , Diet , Insecta/growth & development , Nymph/growth & development , Nymph/physiology
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 369-376, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001452


Abstract This study aimed to inventory the herbivore insects associated with Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong (Fabaceae) fruits and seeds and their primary and secondary parasitoids. Six samples collected between May and October 2013 yielded 210 fruits, from which 326 insects of six orders emerged: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera and Psocoptera. Coleoptera (five families) was represented by the seed consumers Merobruchus bicoloripes Pic, Stator sp. Bridwell (Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), two species of Silvanidae, one species of Scolytinae (Curculionidae), one species of Nitidulidae and one species of Cerambycidae. The cerambycid was also observed forming galleries on fruit mesocarp. Immature individuals of Lepidoptera were observed consuming the fruits and seeds. From the seven Hymenoptera families, only two species were associated with Coleoptera, being Horismenus Walker sp. (Eulophidae) as parasitoid of M. bicoloripes, and Neoheterospilus falcatus (Marsh) (Braconidae) as parasitoid of Scolytinae. The Lepidoptera parasitoids represented four genera: Pseudophanerotoma Zetel, Chelonus Panzer (Braconidae), Orgilus Nees (Braconidae) and Goniozus Forster (Bethylidae). The host associations for the reared parasitoids Bracon Fabricius (Braconidae), Pimplinae sp. (Ichneumonidae) and Perilampus Forster (Perilampidae) were not confirmed. We obtained a single representative of Diptera (Tachinidae) associated with Lepidoptera hosts in this food web.

Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo inventariar os insetos herbívoros associados a frutos e sementes de Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong (Fabaceae) e seus parasitoides primários e secundários. De seis amostras coletadas entre maio e outubro de 2013, obteve-se 210 frutos, dos quais emergiram 326 insetos pertencentes a seis ordens: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera e Psocoptera. Coleoptera (cinco famílias) foi representada pelos consumidores de sementes: Merobruchus bicoloripes Pic, Stator sp. Bridwell (Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), Silvanidae sp. 1 e sp. 2, Scolytinae sp. (Curculionidae), Nitidulidae sp. e Cerambycidae sp. A última espécie também foi observada formando galerias no mesocarpo do fruto. Indivíduos imaturos de Lepidoptera também foram observados consumindo os frutos e sementes. Dos Hymenoptera (sete famílias), duas espécies foram associadas a Coleoptera, sendo Horismenus Walker sp. (Eulophidae) parasitoide de M. bicoloripes e Neoheterospilus falcatus (Marsh) (Braconidae) parasitoide de Scolytinae. Os parasitoides de Lepidoptera foram totalizados em quatro gêneros: Pseudophanerotoma Zetel e Chelonus Panzer (Braconidae), Orgilus Nees (Braconidae) e Goniozus Forster (Bethylidae). As interações para os parasitoides Bracon Fabricius (Braconidae), Pimplinae sp. (Ichneumonidae) e Perilampus Forster (Perilampidae) não foram confirmadas. Nós encontramos apenas um único representante de Diptera (Tachinidae) como parasitoide de Lepidoptera nesta rede trófica.

Animals , Food Chain , Herbivory , Host-Parasite Interactions , Insecta/physiology , Insecta/parasitology , Fabaceae/growth & development , Coleoptera/growth & development , Coleoptera/physiology , Coleoptera/parasitology , Brazil , Diptera/physiology , Fruit/physiology , Insecta/growth & development , Larva/growth & development
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 435-443, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008258


Volatiles compounds are involved in defensive induction against insects, playing an important role in insect-plant interaction being induced by response to mechanical damage. However, they could decrease according to the domestication degree in cultivated plants. Currently, it has been established that secondary metabolites are reduced due to the domestication process in murtilla. Hence, the follow question emerges: Are volatile organic compounds induced by mechanical damage reduced in cultivated murtilla plants in relation to wild plants? Two cultivated ecotypes and their respective wild counterparts were sampled. Volatiles compounds were obtained using Porapak-Q columns and analyzed by gas chromatography. Results showed that compounds as 2-hexanone, α-pinene, 2-thujene, 3-thujene and 1,8- cineole were more abundant in wild plants exposed to a mechanical damage than cultivated plants. Hence, these compounds have been associated to induced defense, these results suggest that domestication reduced the induction of defensive volatiles in cultivated murtilla in response to mechanical damage.

Los compuestos volátiles están implicados en la defensa inducida contra insectos, desempeñando un papel importante en esta interacción. Sin embargo, estos compuestos podrían disminuir según el grado de domesticación. Actualmente, se ha reportado que algunos metabolitos secundarios son reducidos en plantas de murtilla domesticadas. Por lo tanto, surge la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿Los compuestos orgánicos volátiles inducidos por el daño mecánico son reducidos en plantas cultivadas de murtilla en comparación con plantas silvestres? Para dos ecotipos cultivados y sus respectivas contrapartes silvestres, los compuestos volátiles fueron capturados usando columnas de Porapak-Q y las muestras analizadas por cromatografía gaseosa. Los resultados mostraron que compuestos tales como 2- hexanona, α-pineno, 2-tujeno, 3-tujeno y 1,8-cineol fueron más abundantes en plantas silvestres expuestas a daño mecánico que en cultivadas. Debido a que estos compuestos se han asociado a defensa inducida, estos resultados sugieren que la domesticación reduce la inducción de volátiles en plantas cultivadas sometidas a daño mecánico.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Myrtaceae/metabolism , Myrtaceae/microbiology , Domestication , Insecta/physiology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Wilderness , Larva/physiology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 22-28, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983991


Abstract Macroinvertebrate shredders consume preferably leaves conditioned by fungi and bacteria which offer greater palatability to them. Plant species in Cerrado present high concentration of chemical elements such as lignin and cellulose, phenols and tanins thus making them less attractive for shredders consumption and limiting the palatability. This study aimed to evaluate the feeding preference of a macroinvertebrate shredder of the genus Phylloicus for plant material from two different biomes (Cerrado and Mata Atlântica), after conditioning in a stream of Mata Atlântica and observing their physical and chemical characteristics. Senescent leaves were collected, monthly from the litterfall of riparian vegetation in a 500 m stretch of a stream in each biome from August 2014 to January 201. The most abundant species in each stream was selected for the experiment. The experimental design consisted in with two treatments. The first (T1) comprised leaf discs from Chrysophyllum oliviforme (Cerrado species) together with leaf discs of Miconia chartacea (Atlantic Forest species) which were conditioned in the Atlantic Forest stream. The second treatment (T2) involved leaf discs of Miconia chartacea conditioned in Mata Altlântica and Cerrado streams. Both tests had showed significant differences between the two treatments (T1 and T2). For T1, there was consumption of M. chartacea leaf discs by Phylloicus sp., but there was no consumption of C. oliviforme discs. For T2, there was preference for M. chartaceae leaves conditioned in a stream of Mata Atlântica than in Cerrado stream. The results showed that Phylloicus sp., had presented preference for food detritus of the Mata Antlântica biome and rejection to the one from Cerrado biome.

Resumo Macroinvertebrados fragmentadores consomem folhas preferencialmente condicionadas por fungos e bactérias que lhes oferece uma maior palatabilidade. Nas espécies do cerrado esse condicionamento está também associado às altas concentrações de elementos químicos limitantes à palatabilidade como alto teor de lignina e celulose, que tornam as folhas menos atrativas para os fragmentadores. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a preferência alimentar de macroinvertebrados fragmentador ( Phylloicus sp.) por material vegetal de dois diferentes biomas (Cerrado e Mata Atlântica), após condicionamento em riacho de Mata Atlântica, observando suas características físicas e químicas. Foram coletadas folhas senescentes do aporte vegetal (AV) de espécies nativas da vegetação ripária nesses dois biomas, com periodicidade mensal em um trecho de 500 m de um córrego em cada bioma. O experimento foi delineado com dois tratamentos. O primeiro (T1) compreendeu discos de folhas do Cerrado (Chrysophyllum oliviforme) mais discos de folhas da Mata Atlântica (Miconia chartacea) que foram condicionadas em córrego de Mata Atlântica. O segundo tratamento (T2) envolveu discos de folhas da Mata Atlântica condicionadas em córrego da Mata Atlântica mais discos de folhas da Mata Atlântica condicionadas em córrego do Cerrado. Os dois testes apontaram diferenças significativas entre os dois tratamentos (T1 e T2). Para T1 houve consumo de discos de folha de M. chartacea por Phylloicus sp, mas não houve consumo dos discos de C. oliviforme , de Cerrado. Para T2, houve o consumo, porém a preferência pelas folhas de M. chartaceae condicionadas no córrego da Mata Atlantica foi consideravelmete maior. Os resultados apontam que Phylloicus sp, apresentou preferência alimentar pelo detrito de bioma de Mata Atlântica e rejeição pelo detrito do bioma Cerrado.

Animals , Plant Leaves/classification , Plant Leaves/physiology , Melastomataceae/physiology , Rivers/chemistry , Herbivory , Insecta/physiology , Trees/classification , Trees/physiology , Brazil , Sapotaceae/physiology , Diet , Food Preferences
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 636-643, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951591


Abstract In this study, we report the first records and morphological characterization of galls in a Cerrado area in western Bahia, Brazil. The data were collected monthly over two hours between March and September 2015. Fifteen gall morphotypes were found in twelve plant species distributed among seven families. The plant family with the greatest richness of galls was Fabaceae (n = 8). The following gall morphologies were found: globoid, lenticular, marginal leaf roll, conical, cylindrical, fusiform, spherical and pocket shaped. Cecidomyiidae induced globoid, lenticular, conical, fusiform, spherical and cylindrical morphotypes. In addition, species of microhymenoptera belonging to the Eulophidae, Eurytomidae and Encyrtidae families were found. Marginal leaf roll and pocket-shaped galls induced by Thysanoptera were also verified. Springtails were also identified as a successor. Undescribed species of Schizomyia and Lopesia were recorded in B. cupulata and Andira humilis, respectively.

Resumo Nesse trabalho são apresentadas informações sobre a ocorrência e a caracterização morfológica de galhas induzidas por insetos em uma área de Cerrado do Oeste da Bahia, Brasil. Os materiais foram coletados mensalmente durante duas horas entre Março e Setembro de 2015. Foram encontrados quinze morfotipos de galhas em doze espécies vegetais, distribuídas em sete famílias. A família de planta com maior riqueza de galhas foi Fabaceae (n = 8). Com relação à morfologia externa, foram encontradas galhas com forma globoide, lenticular, enrolamento marginal, cônica, cilíndrica, fusiforme, esférica e bolso. Quanto à fauna associada às galhas, os morfotipos globoide, cônico, lenticular, fusiforme, esférico e cilíndrico foram induzidos por Cecidomyiidae. Além disso, espécies de microhimenópteros pertencentes às famílias Eulophidae, Eurytomidae e Encyrtidae foram encontrados. A indução de galhas por Thysanoptera, nos morfotipos enrolamento marginal e formato de bolso, também foi detectada. Espécies de colembôlos foram identificadas como sucessoras. Espécies não descritas de Schizomyia e Lopesia foram registradas em Bauhinia cupulata e Andira humilis, respectivamente.

Animals , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Brazil , Insecta/classification
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 731-744, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888811


Abstract Simplified environments characterize agroecosystems, reducing the diversity of associated plants, which are not cultivated for economic purposes, causing unbalances that can promote the emergence of cultivated plants pests, as well as the reduction of their natural enemies. Management systems that increase diversity in agroecosystems can extend the action of natural enemies of pests. Studies to understand the diversity of insects associated with rice cultivation and determine their ecological guilds can provide information about the composition and structure of such ecosystems, which can be applied to integrated pest management. Therefore, the study aimed to describe and compare groups of insects in irrigated rice fields, with organic management using two different systems of levees vegetation management, and relate them to the phenological states of rice cultivation (seedling, vegetative, and reproductive). Samples were taken in a plantation located in Águas Claras district of Viamão, RS. The total area of 18 ha was divided into two. A subarea called not cut (NC), where wild vegetation of levees was maintained, and the subarea named cut (C), where monthly cuts were made to levees vegetation, from the beginning of soil preparation until the harvest. From October 2012 to March 2013 were held weekly collections in quadrats randomly located in both the rice fields and the levees. A total of 800 insects were collected, 429 in the C subarea and 371 in the NC. There were identified 97 morphospecies in the C and 108 in NC, being 54 shared between the subareas. The captured insects were grouped into guilds: saprophages (C = 38.2%; NC = 27.5%), phytophagous (C = 28.5%; NC = 33.2%), entomophagous (grouping parasitoids and predators) (C = 29.4%; NC = 35%) and finally other insects (C = 4 %; NC = 4.3%). The peak abundance of phytophagous and entomophagous was registered in the vegetative stage of rice. At the same stage the UPGMA analysis showed that similarity in species composition was greater than 90% in the groups obtained in the paddy fields of C and NC subareas. The vegetation of levees can positively influence the presence of entomophagous in the field. Although the abundance did not change clearly, the greatest diversity in the NC areas of all the groups, may contribute to the maintenance of ecological services expanding the system resilience.

Resumo Os agroecossistemas se caracterizam por ambientes simplificados, com redução da diversidade de plantas associadas, que não são as cultivadas para fins econômicos, causando desequilíbrios que podem levar ao surgimento de insetos nocivos, assim como a diminuição de seus inimigos naturais. Sistemas de manejo que priorizem o aumento da diversidade no agroecossistema podem ampliar a ação de inimigos naturais de pragas. Estudos que busquem entender a diversidade de insetos associados ao cultivo de arroz irrigado, bem como determinar as guildas ou grupos ecológicos aos quais pertencem, podem trazer informações sobre a composição e estrutura dos ecossistemas que possam ser aplicadas no manejo integrado de pragas. Neste sentido, o estudo objetivou conhecer e comparar a diversidade de insetos entre áreas de cultivo orgânico de arroz irrigado, diferenciadas pelo manejo da vegetação das taipas e relacionar com os estádios fenológicos da cultura. As amostragens foram realizadas no distrito de Águas Claras, município de Viamão, RS. A área total de 18 ha foi subdividida em duas. Numa subárea, denominada não roçada (NR) a vegetação espontânea das taipas foi mantida, na outra, roçada (R), foram feitas roçadas mensais das taipas, desde o início do preparo do solo, até a colheita. Entre outubro de 2012 a março de 2013 realizaram-se coletas semanais, em quadrats, situados aleatoriamente tanto nas quadras de arroz quanto nas taipas. Foi coletado um total de 800 insetos, 429 na R e 371 na NR. Foram identificadas 97 morfoespécies na R e 108 na NR, das quais 54 foram compartilhadas entre as subáreas. As guildas registradas foram: saprófagos (R = 38,2%; NR = 27,5%), fitófagos (R = 28,5%; NR = 33,2%), entomófagos (reunindo parasitoides e predadores) (R = 29,4%; NR = 35%) e outros (R = 4%; NR = 4,3%). O pico de abundância de fitófagos e entomófagos foi registrado na fase vegetativa do arroz. Nesta mesma fase, a análise de UPGMA apontou que a similaridade na composição de espécies foi superior a 90% nos grupos obtidos nas lavouras das subáreas R e NR. A vegetação das taipas pode influenciar positivamente a presença de insetos entomófagos no campo. Embora a abundância não tenha variado significativamente entre as áreas, a maior diversidade na área não roçada em todos os grupos, pode contribuir na manutenção de serviços ecológicos aumentando a resiliência dos sistemas.

Animals , Oryza/growth & development , Biodiversity , Agriculture/methods , Insecta/physiology , Brazil , Environment
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 787-795, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785051


Abstract Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).

Resumo Foram encontrados 31 morfotipos de galhas de insetos e dois danos em flores em 16 famílias, 22 gêneros e 24 espécies de plantas, na Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae e Myrtaceae foram as famílias de plantas com maior riqueza de galhas (4 e 6 morfotipos, respectivamente) e maior número de espécies com galhas (quatro e três espécies, respectivamente). As galhas predominaram nas folhas e caules (77% e 10%, respectivamente). Os insetos galhadores estão representados por Diptera, Lepidoptera e Hemiptera. A maioria das galhas (81%) foi induzida por Cecidomyiidae (Diptera).

Animals , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Plants/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Plant Tumors/classification , Brazil , Plant Stems/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Myrtaceae/parasitology , Diptera/classification , Diptera/physiology , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/physiology , Insecta/classification , Fabaceae/parasitology , Lepidoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/physiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 763-777, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843311


AbstractHuman pressure on natural habitats increases the importance of agroforests for biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of cacao traditional cultivation system (CTCS) on the conservation of the herbivorous insect community when compared with a monodominant rubber agroforest, a type of agricultural system for cacao cultivation. The insects were sampled in three habitats in Southeastern Bahia, Brazil: native forests, CTCS and rubber agroforests. In each habitat, 18 plots of 10 m2 were established, and the structural measures were collected and herbivorous insects were sampled with a Malaise/window trap. The diversity of folivorous decreased with the simplification of vegetation structure, but species composition was similar among habitats. In addition to a decrease in the availability of resources in monodominant rubber agroforests, the latex present in these systems have limited the occurrence of species that cannot circumvent latex toxicity. The diversity of sap-sucking insects was similar among habitats, but species composition was similar only in the CTCS and native forest, and it was different in the rubber agroforest. We observed turnover and a higher frequency of individuals of the family Psyllidae in the rubber agroforest. The biology and behavior of Psyllids and absence of natural enemies enable their diversity to increase when they are adapted to a new host. We observed a shift in the composition of xylophagous insects in the rubber agroforest compared to that in other habitats. Moreover, this agroforest has low species richness, but high individual abundance. Latex extraction is likely an important additional source of volatile compounds discharged into the environment, and it increases the attraction and recruitment of coleoborers to these sites. We concluded that CTCS has an herbivorous insect community with a structure similar to the community found in native forests of the region, and they present a more interesting conservation strategy when compared to rubber agroforests. We also emphasized the potential risk of local pest outbreaks in rubber agroforests for both the rubber and associated cacao trees. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 763-777. Epub 2016 June 01.

ResumenLa presión humana sobre los hábitats naturales aumenta la importancia de los sistemas agroforestales para la conservación de la biodiversidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el papel del sistema tradicional de cultivo de cacao en la conservación de la comunidad de insectos herbívoros en comparación con el agrobosque monodominante de caucho, un tipo de sistema agrícola para el cultivo de cacao. Los insectos fueron muestreados en tres hábitats en el sureste de Bahia, Brasil: bosque nativo, sistema tradicional de cultivo de cacao y agrobosque de caucho. En cada hábitat, se establecieron 18 parcelas de 10 m2, se tomaron medidas estructurales y se muestrearon los insectos herbívoros con una trampa tipo Malaise. La diversidad de folívoros disminuyó con la simplificación de la estructura de la vegetación, pero la composición de especies fue similar entre hábitats. Además se presentó una disminución de la disponibilidad de recursos en agrobosques de caucho, el látex presente en estos sistemas han limitado la aparición de especies que no pueden evadir la toxicidad de látex. La diversidad de insectos chupadores de savia fue similar entre los hábitats, pero la composición de especies fue similar sólo en el sistema tradicional de cultivo de cacao y el bosque nativo, y diferente en el agrobosque de caucho. Hemos observado que hay una mayor frecuencia de individuos de la familia Psyllidae en el agrobosque de caucho. La biología y el comportamiento de los psílidos y ausencia de enemigos naturales permiten que su diversidad aumente cuando se adaptan a un nuevo huésped. Hemos observado un cambio en la composición de los insectos xilófagos en el agrobosque de caucho en comparación con la de otros hábitats. Por otra parte, este agrobosque tiene una baja riqueza de especies, pero gran abundancia individual. La extracción de látex probablemente es una fuente adicional importante de compuestos volátiles que son vertidos en el ambiente, y aumenta la atracción y el reclutamiento de curculiónidos en estos sitios. Hemos llegado a la conclusión de que el sistema tradicional de cultivo de cacao tiene una comunidad de insectos herbívoros con una estructura similar a la comunidad que se encuentra en los bosques nativos de la región, y presenta una estrategia de conservación más interesante si se compara con los sistemas agroforestales de caucho. También hicimos hincapié en el riesgo potencial de aparición de plagas locales en sistemas agroforestales de caucho, tanto para el caucho como para los árboles de cacao asociados.

Animals , Cacao/parasitology , Ecosystem , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insecta/classification , Trees , Insecta/physiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 507-520, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843294


AbstractPlants have limited resources to invest in reproduction, vegetative growth and defense against herbivorous. Trade-off in resources allocation promotes changes in plant traits that may affect higher trophic levels. In this study, we evaluated the trade-off effect between years of high and low fruiting on the investment of resources for growth and defense, and their indirect effects on herbivory in Copaifera langsdorffii. Our questions were: (i) does the resource investment on reproduction causes a depletion in vegetative growth as predicted by the Carbon/Nutrient Balance hypothesis (CNBH), resulting in more availability of resources to be allocated for defense?, (ii) does the variation in resource allocation for growth and defense between years of high and low fruiting leads to indirect changes in herbivory? Thirty-five trees located in a Cerrado area were monitored during 2008 (year of high fruiting) and 2009 (year of no fruiting) to evaluate the differential investment in vegetative traits (biomass, growth and number of ramifications), plant defense (tannin concentration and plant hypersensitivity) and herbivory (galling attack and folivory). According to our first question, we observed that in the fruiting year, woody biomass negatively affected tannin concentration, indicating that fruit production restricted the resources that could be invested both in growth as in defense. In the same way, we observed an inter-annual variation in herbivorous attack, and found that plants with higher leaf biomass and tannin concentration, experienced higher galling attack and hypersensitive reaction, regardless years. These findings suggested that plants’ resistance to herbivory is a good proxy of plant defense and an effective defense strategy for C. langsdorffii, besides the evidence of indirect responses of the third trophic level, as postulated by the second question. In summary, the supra-annual fruiting pattern promoted several changes on plant development, demonstrating the importance of evaluating different plant traits when characterizing the vegetative investment. As expected by theory, the trade-off in resource allocation favored changes in defense compounds production and patterns of herbivory. The understanding of this important element of insect-plant interactions will be fundamental to decipher coevolutionary life histories and interactions between plant species reproduction and herbivory. Besides that, only through long-term studies we will be able to build models and develop more accurate forecasts about the factors that trigger the bottom-up effect on herbivory performance, as well the top-down effect of herbivores on plant trait evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 507-520. Epub 2016 June 01.

ResumenLas plantas tienen recursos limitados para invertir en reproducción, crecimiento vegetativo y defensa contra herbívoros. El cambio en la distribución de recursos promueve variaciones en rasgos vegetales, que pueden afectar los niveles tróficos superiores. Durante dos años consecutivos de alta y baja inversión reproductiva se evaluó el cambio de recursos entre crecimiento vegetativo y defensa, y su efecto indirecto sobre la herbivoría en Copaifera langsdorffii. Nos preguntamos: i) ¿La inversión de recursos para la reproducción causa reducción del crecimiento vegetativo, como predice la hipótesis de equilibrio carbono/nutrientes, haciendo posible gastar más recursos en defensa? ii) ¿La variación en distribución de recursos para crecimiento y defensa entre años de alta y baja fructificación modifica indirectamente la herbivoría? Se monitorearon treinta y cinco árboles durante 2008 (gran fructificación) y 2009 (sin fructificación) en un área de vegetación de cerrado (Brasil), para evaluar la inversión diferencial en rasgos vegetativos (biomasa, crecimiento y No. de ramificaciones), defensa (concentración de taninos e hipersensibilidad vegetal) y herbivoría. De acuerdo a nuestra primera pregunta, se observó que en el año de fructificación la biomasa leñosa afectó negativamente la concentración de taninos, indicando que la producción de frutos redujo los recursos que podían invertirse en crecimiento y defensa. Además, la resistencia de las plantas y el ataque de agallas fueron influidos positivamente por la concentración de taninos y la biomasa foliar, lo que sugiere que la resistencia de los árboles a la herbivoría es un buen indicador de defensa vegetal y una estrategia efectiva de defensa de C. langsdorffii, además hay evidencia de respuesta trófica indirecta, como se postula en la segunda pregunta. En resumen, el patrón de fructificación supra-anual provoca varios efectos en el desarrollo de las plantas, mostrando la importancia de evaluar diversos rasgos vegetales al caracterizar la inversión de recursos de una especie. Como se esperaba, el cambio en la distribución de recursos modifica la producción de compuestos de defensa y los patrones de herbivoría. El entendimiento de este elemento importante de las interacciones insecto-planta será fundamental para descifrar la historia natural coevolutiva y las interacciones entre reproducción vegetal y ataque herbívoro. Además de eso, solo a través de estudios a largo plazo vamos a ser capaces de construir modelos y desarrollar pronósticos más precisos acerca de los factores que desencadenan el efecto de abajo hacia arriba en el rendimiento de la herbivoría, así el efecto de arriba hacia abajo de los herbívoros sobre la evolución de las plantas.

Animals , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Herbivory/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Fabaceae/physiology , Plant Tumors , Herbivory/classification , Insecta/classification , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/parasitology
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 52-59, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768247


Abstract Streams may exhibit differences in community structure of invertebrate drift, which may be a reflex of variation in environmental factors, able to change in conditions of anthropogenic interventions. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in two neotropical streams under different land use and to identify the environmental factors involved in determining such patterns. 54 taxa of aquatic insects were identified in urban and rural streams. The results indicated significant differences in species composition due to the replacement of specialist species by generalist species in the urban stream. Higher diversity of taxa was recorded in the rural stream, with high levels of dissolved oxygen and high water flow, which favored the occurrence of sensitive groups to environmental disturbances, such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera taxa, that living mainly in clean and well oxygenated waters. On the other hand, a higher density of insects drifting, especially Chironomidae, was observed in the urban stream, where high values of pH, electrical conductivity and nitrogen were observed. These larvae are able to explore a wide range of environmental conditions, owing to their great capacity for physiological adaptation. Despite observing the expected patterns, there were no significant differences between streams for the diversity and abundance of species. Thus, the species composition can be considered as the best predictor of impacts on the drifting insect community.

Resumo Riachos podem exibir diferenças na estrutura das comunidades de invertebrados à deriva, o que pode ser um reflexo da variação nos fatores ambientais, capazes de se alterar em condições de intervenções antrópicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a composição, diversidade e abundância de insetos à deriva em dois riachos neotropicais sob diferentes usos do solo, além de identificar os fatores ambientais intervenientes na determinação de tais padrões. Foram registrados 54 táxons de insetos aquáticos nos riachos urbano e rural. Os resultados evidenciaram diferenças significativas na composição de espécies, devido à substituição de espécies especialistas por espécies generalistas no riacho urbano. Maior diversidade de táxons foi registrada no riacho rural, com altos níveis de oxigênio dissolvido e elevado fluxo hídrico, que favoreceram a ocorrência de grupos sensíveis a perturbações ambientais, como táxons das ordens Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Coleoptera, que vivem principalmente em águas limpas e bem oxigenadas. Por outro lado, maior densidade de insetos a deriva, especialmente Chironomidae, foi observada no riacho urbano, onde foram registrados elevados valores de pH, condutividade elétrica e nitrogênio. Estas larvas são capazes de explorar uma vasta gama de condições ambientais, consequência da sua grande capacidade de adaptação fisiológica. Apesar de ter encontrado os padrões esperados, não foram contatadas diferenças significativas na diversidade e abundância de espécies entre os riachos. Assim, a composição de espécies pode ser considerada como melhor preditora de impactos sobre a comunidade de insetos à deriva.

Animals , Agriculture , Biodiversity , Insecta/physiology , Urbanization , Brazil , Insecta/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Larva/physiology , Population Density , Rivers
Braz. j. biol ; 74(4): 787-794, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732330


Planning the artificial pollination of agricultural crops requires knowledge of the floral biology and reproductive system of the crop in question. Many studies have shown that rapeseed (Brassica napus Linnaeus) is self-compatible and self-pollinated, but its productivity may be increased by insect visitation. In the present study, the floral biology and the response of productivity to insect visitation of two rapeseed cultivars (Hyola 420 and Hyola 61) were analyzed and compared in three regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The rapeseed flowers presented three stages during anthesis, with the time periods varying between the cultivars. Both cultivars are self-compatible, but free visitation of insects increased productivity by 17% in the Hyola 420 cultivar and by approximately 30% in the Hyola 61 cultivar. Therefore, it is concluded that the cultivar Hyola 61 is more dependent on insect pollination than Hyola 420.

O planejamento de polinização dirigida nas culturas agrícolas requer o conhecimento da biologia floral e do sistema reprodutivo da cultura em questão. Muitos estudos mostram que a canola (Brassica napus Linnaeus) é auto compatível e auto polinizada, no entanto, sua produtividade pode ser aumentada pela visita por insetos. Nesse estudo, a biologia floral e a resposta da produtividade à visita por insetos de duas cultivares de canola (Hyola 420 e Hyola 61) foram analisadas e comparadas em três regiões do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As flores de canola apresentaram três fases durante a antese, havendo variação no período de tempo de acordo com a cultivar. Ambas as cultivares são auto compatíveis, mas a livre visita por insetos aumentou a produtividade em 17% na cultivar Hyola 420 e cerca de 30% na cultivar Hyola 61. Dessa maneira, concluímos que a cultivar Hyola 61 é mais dependente da polinização entomófila que a Hyola 420.

Animals , Brassica napus/growth & development , Brassica napus/parasitology , Flowers/growth & development , Insecta/physiology , Pollination/physiology , Brazil , Insecta/classification , Time Factors
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 543-550, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715451


The trophic ecology of the aquatic insect fauna has been widely studied for the Northern temperate zone. However, the taxa originally classified within a given particular trophic group in temperate ecosystems, do not necessarily exhibit the same dietary profile beyond its geographic limits. Since, the trophic ecology of caddisfly larvae is largely incomplete in the Neotropical Region, the present work aims to describe feeding habits inferred from quantitative analysis of data taxonomically resolved at the species level. For this, the feeding habits of three Trichoptera species Marilia cinerea, M. elongata and M. flexuosa were recorded in the Yungas forests of Argentina and Bolivia. A total of 15 larvae of each species were sampled from 13 different streams were selected for gut content analysis. The ingested material was extracted from the foregut and midgut by using ventral dissection of thorax. For each species, mandibles were dissected, mounted in glycerin and illustrated in order to highlight morphological differences between these mouth pieces purportedly associated to the dietary behavior of individuals, and their habitats. The niche overlap was estimated through Schoener’s method. The diet analysis revealed that M. cinerea, M. elongata and M. flexuosa feed on the same food items, but through different patterns of preferences. Larvae of M. cinerea were collected on both emerging surfaces of rocks on which a thin layer of running water flows and streams sliding areas with stony bottoms attached to the rock surfaces. They displayed a gut content consisting predominantly of invertebrate vestiges and have strong mouthparts provided of large molar areas; this allowed us to allocate the species within the functional group of predators. M. elongata feeds mainly on fine particulate material, its mouthparts are scoop-shaped and occurs in areas of low flow; this set of features is linked to a collector-gatherer strategy. Finally, larvae of M. flexuosa have been primarily assigned to the functional group of shredders and secondarily to the collector-gatherer class. They inhabit sandy bottoms of mountain streams, have strong scoop-shaped mouthparts and show a diet dominated by leaf litter and fine particulate material. We concluded that the functional group assignment to the genus level for Marilia is not recommended, and further studies at species level are necessary. Rev. Biol. Trop.62 (2): 543-550. Epub 2014 June 01.

La ecología trófica de insectos acuáticos ha sido desarrollada en zonas templadas. Sin embargo, la asignación de un taxón a un grupo trófico no representa necesariamente el mismo en otras regiones. En la Región Neotropical, el conocimiento sobre la ecología trófica de larvas de tricópteros es incompleta y la literatura sobre este tema rara vez se ocupa del análisis de los hábitos alimentarios de larvas con datos cuantitativos a nivel de especie. Este trabajo aporta al conocimiento de las características tróficas de la trichopterofauna del Neotrópico. Se describen los hábitos alimentarios de tres especies de Trichoptera registrados en arroyos de Yungas de Argentina y Bolivia: Marilia cinerea, M. elongata y M. flexuosa. Se seleccionaron 15 larvas de cada especie en 13 arroyos de Yungas surandinas para analizar las piezas bucales y el contenido estomacal. El solapamiento de nicho trófico se estimó mediante el índice de Schoener. El análisis de la dieta reveló que las especies difieren en la preferencia de los ítems registrados, hábitat y forma de sus mandíbulas. Las larvas de M. cinerea habitan en superficies de rocas emergentes. Poseen mandíbulas fuertes con grandes zonas molares y consumen principalmente invertebrados. Esta evidencia permite asignarle el grupo funcional depredador. M. elongata consume material fino, sus mandíbulas tienen forma de cuchara y su ubicación en zonas de bajo flujo permite asignarle una estrategia colectora-recolectora. Las larvas de M. flexuosa habitan en fondos arenosos de arroyos de montaña, tienen fuertes piezas bucales en forma de cuchara y una dieta dominada por hojarasca y material fino. Pertenecen al grupo funcional triturador, secundariamente colector-recolector. Sugerimos que la asignación de grupo funcional a nivel de género no es recomendable para Marilia. Se recomiendan mayores estudios a nivel de especie.

Animals , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Argentina , Bolivia , Insecta/anatomy & histology , Insecta/classification
Braz. j. biol ; 74(3): 623-631, 8/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723872


Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.

Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) é uma árvore encontrada em florestas tropicais secas do Brasil que mantém as suas folhas durante a estação seca. Baseado neste fato, nós levantamos a seguinte questão: i) como a diversidade de insetos herbívoros (sugadores e mastigadores), herbivoria foliar e características defensivas (taninos e esclerofilia foliar) variam em G. marginata entre as estações seca e chuvosa. A abundância de insetos sugadores foi maior na estação seca, entretanto, a riqueza e abundância de insetos mastigadores não diferiram entre as estações. A herbivoria foliar foi maior na estação chuvosa, enquanto a esclerofilia foliar foi maior na estação seca. Não foi observado efeito significativo da esclerofilia sobre os níveis de herbivoria foliar. Insetos herbívoros reduzem a sua atividade de consumo foliar durante a estação seca, fato este devido à sua história natural e/ou mudança comportamental, provavelmente, entrando em diapausa durante este período. Nossos resultados demonstram que G. marginata atua como refúgio para fauna de insetos durante a estação seca, e que a presença desta espécie merece relevante destaque em estratégias de conservação deste ameaçado ecossistema.

Animals , Caesalpinia/parasitology , Ecosystem , Herbivory/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Brazil , Caesalpinia/classification , Forests , Insecta/classification , Seasons
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.2): 21-40, abr. 2014. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753754


Environmental factors associated with habitat preferences by caddisfly larvae in tropical dry forest watersheds (Tolima, Colombia). River ecosystems, mainly those draining tropical dry forests, are among the most endangered tropical ecosystems and a major conservation priority in South America, as elsewhere. In this study, we assessed the influence of environmental factors (e.g., precipitation) and riparian vegetation on Trichoptera larval assemblages colonizing four substrates (rock, gravel, sand, and litter) in the Venadillo and Opia watersheds (Tolima, Colombia). In each river, five 20m reaches nested into two 100m segments (one at ~550 and another at ~250masl), were surveyed for benthic invertebrates in the above mentioned substrates. In addition, water samples were collected for physicochemical analyses and the QBR index (“qualitat del bosc de ribera” or riparian forest quality) was applied in both rivers. A total of 6 282 larvae were collected, belonging to 11 families and 22 genera, representing 73.30% and 43.13% of the Trichoptera fauna reported to Colombia, respectively. The most abundant families were Hydropsychidae (49.86%) and Philopotamidae (25.44%) and the least abundant Odontoceridae (0.16%) and Hydrobiosidae (0.06%). The genera Smicridea, Chimarra, Protoptila, Neotrichia, and Leptonema, were common during dry and rainy seasons. The main factors related to changes in composition, richness, and abundance of larval Trichoptera were seasonality and riparian vegetation, which can influence organic matter supply, availability and stability of substrates, and colonization and population dynamics. Trichoptera assemblages showed no significant differences among substrates. However sampling points located at high elevation and in non-urbanized areas offered the largest variety of substrates and richness. Our results indicate that Trichoptera larvae are an important biotic element in freshwater ecosystems and that they are sensitive to environmental changes. Hence, our study suggests that caddisflies may be used as potential organisms for the biomonitoring of tropical dry forest rivers. The implementation of these studies is urgent, considering that degradation of freshwater ecosystems tends to be severe and persistent in dry forest. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 21-40. Epub 2014 April 01.

Los ríos de bosques secos tropicales están amenazados en todo el mundo, y en Suramérica son una de las prioridades en términos de conservación. En este estudio se determinó la influencia de variables ambientales (por ejemplo precipitación) y la vegetación ribereña sobre las comunidades del orden Trichoptera en cuatro sustratos (roca, grava, arena y hojarasca) en las cuencas Opia y Venadillo (Tolima, Colombia). En cada río, en dos segmentos de 100m (uno a ~550 y otro a ~250msnm), fueron evaluados los sustratos mencionados anteriormente. Se realizaron análisis físico-químicos, y se aplicó el índice QBR (calidad del bosque de ribera) en ambos ríos. Se recolectaron 6 282 larvas, pertenecientes a 11 familias y 22 géneros, que representan el 73.30% y 43.13% de la fauna Trichoptera registrada en Colombia, respectivamente. Las familias más abundantes fueron Hydropsychidae (49.86%) y Philopotamidae (25.44%). Los géneros Smicridea, Chimarra, Protoptila, Neotrichia y Leptonema fueron comunes en periodos de baja y alta precipitación. Las asociaciones de tricópteros no mostraron diferencias significativas a nivel de sustrato. Los principales factores que determinaron la composición, riqueza y abundancia de tricópteros fueron la estacionalidad y la vegetación de ribera. Sin embargo, las localidades situadas a mayor altitud y no urbanizadas, ofrecen mayor variedad de sustratos y mayor riqueza de géneros. Nuestros resultados indican que a futuro las larvas de Trichoptera constituyen un elemento biótico relevante en los ecosistemas dulceacuícolas, debido a que son sensibles a disturbios ambientales. Por ende, sugerimos el uso de los tricópteros para biomonitoreo en ríos tropicales. La implementación de estos estudios es urgente, teniendo en cuenta que la degradación de los ecosistemas dulceacuícolas tiende a ser intensa y persistente.

Animals , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Insecta/physiology , Larva/physiology , Colombia , Insecta/classification , Larva/classification , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Rivers , Seasons , Trees , Tropical Climate
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.2): 41-51, abr. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753755


Interspecific interactions can play an important role in determining habitat selection and resource use between competing species. We examined interactions between an omnivorous shrimp and a grazing mayfly, two co-dominant taxa found in Puerto Rican headwater streams, to assess how predator presence may influence mayfly resource use and instantaneous growth in a tropical rainforest ecosystem. We conducted a series of behavioral and growth experiments to determine the effects of the freshwater shrimp, Xiphocaris elongata, on the growth rate and resource selection of mayfly nymphs in the family Leptophlebiidae. For resource choice assessments, we conducted a series of five day laboratory experiments where mayflies were given access to two resource substrate choices (cobble vs. leaves) in the presence or absence of shrimp. To assess for the effects of shrimp on mayfly fitness, we measured mayfly growth in laboratory aquaria after five days using four treatments (cobble, leaves, cobble + leaves, no resource) in the presence or absence of shrimp. In resource choice experiments, mayflies showed preference for cobble over leaf substrata (p<0.05) regardless of the presence of shrimps, however, the preference for cobble was significantly greater when shrimp were present in the leaf habitat. In growth experiments, there were no statistical differences in mayfly growth in the presence or absence of shrimp (p=0.07). However, we measured increased mayfly nymph growth in the absence of predators and when both cobble and leaves were available. Our results suggest that interspecific interactions between these taxa could potentially influence organic matter resource dynamics (e.g., leaf litter processing and export) in Puerto Rican streams. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 41-51. Epub 2014 April 01.

Las relaciones interespecíficas pueden jugar un papel importante en la determinación del uso de recursos y selección de hábitat entre especies que compiten. Hemos examinado las interacciones entre un camarón omnívoro y un efemeróptero que se alimenta de vegetación , dos taxones codominantes en las partes altas de arroyos de Puerto Rico, para evaluar el efecto de los depredadores en el uso de recursos del efemeróptero y el crecimiento instantáneo en un ecosistema de selva tropical. Examinamos experimentalmente el efecto del camarón Xiphocaris elongata sobre la tasa de crecimiento y selección de recursos en ninfas efemerópteras (Leptophlebiidae). Hicimos experimentos de laboratorio de 5 días, dando a los efemerópteros acceso a dos opciones de sustrato (piedrecillas u hojas) en presencia o ausencia del camarón. Para evaluar los efectos sobre el crecimiento probamos cuatro tratamientos (piedrecillas, hojas , piedrecillas + hojas, sin ambas), en presencia o ausencia del camarón. Los efemerópteros prefirieron las piedrecillas a las hojas ( p < 0,05 ) independientemente de la presencia de los camarones. Esta preferencia fue mayor cuando junto a las hojas había camarones. Los camarones no afectaron el crecimiento de los efemerópteros (p = 0,07). Las ninfas efemerópteras crecieron mejor sin camarones y en acuarios con piedrecillas y hojas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que las interacciones interespecíficas entre estos animales podrían influir en la dinámica de la materia orgánica (por ejemplo, procesamiento de la hojarasca y su exportación) en los arroyos puertoriqueños.

Animals , Decapoda/physiology , Ecosystem , Insecta/physiology , Nymph/growth & development , Decapoda/classification , Food Preferences , Insecta/classification , Life Cycle Stages , Nymph/classification , Puerto Rico
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.2): 155-167, abr. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753763


Aquatic macroinvertebrates are involved in numerous processes within aquatic ecosystems. They often have important effects on ecosystem processes such as primary production (via grazing), detritus breakdown, and nutrient mineralization and downstream spiraling. The functional feeding groups (FFG) classification was developed as a tool to facilitate the incorporation of macroinvertebrates in studies of aquatic ecosystems. This classification has the advantage of combining morphological characteristics (e.g., mouth part specialization) and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., way of feeding) used by macroinvertebrates when consuming resources. Although recent efforts have greatly advanced our ability to identify aquatic macroinvertebrates, there is limited information on FFG assignment. Furthermore, there has been some variation in the use of the FFG classification, in part due to an emphasis on using gut content analysis to assign FFG, which is more appropriate for assigning trophic guilds. Thus, the main goals of this study are to (1) provide an overview of the value of using the FFG classification, (2) make an initial attempt to summarize available information on FFG for aquatic insects in Latin America, and (3) provide general guidelines on how to assign organisms to their FFGs. FFGs are intended to reflect the potential effects of organisms in their ecosystems and the way they consume resources. Groups include scrapers that consume resources that grow attached to the substrate by removing them with their mouth parts; shredders that cut or chew pieces of living or dead plant material, including all plant parts like leaves and wood; collectors-gatherers that use modified mouth parts to sieve or collect small particles (<1mm) accumulated on the stream bottom; filterers that have special adaptations to remove particles directly from the water column; and predators that consume other organisms using different strategies to capture them. In addition, we provide details on piercers that feed on vascular plants by cutting or piercing the tissue using sharp or chewing mouth parts and consume plant liquids. We also provide a list of families of aquatic insects in Latin America, with an initial assignment to FFGs. We recommended caution when assigning FFGs based on gut contents, as it can provide misleading information. Overall, FFG is a very useful tool to understand the role of aquatic macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystems and comparisons among studies will benefit from consistency in their use. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 155-167. Epub 2014 April 01.

Animals , Food Chain , Fresh Water , Insecta/classification , Insecta/physiology , Latin America , Seasons
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.2): 169-178, abr. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753764


Feeding habits of immature individuals of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera from middle reaches of a tropical mountain stream. Morphological and behavioral aspects of insects allow their grouping in trophic guilds and represent their dependence on food resources. We determined the feeding habits of immature organisms of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) from the middle reaches of Gaira stream (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia), using gut content analysis. We identified 13 EPT genera, but only ten were analyzed for a total of 100 organisms. We describe six food items: animal parts (AP), vascular plant tissue (VPT), microalgae (M), fungi (F), coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) and fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). Baetodes was determined to be a collector-scraper, since FPOM represented 46.6% of food content, followed by F (38.4%). Chimarra, Leptohyphes, Lachlania, and Thraulodes were categorized as collectors with average proportions of FPOM 86.8%, 93.1%, 93.1% and 93.7%, respectively. Phylloicus, Smicridea and Leptonema were main consumers of VPT and CPOM with proportions of 76.3%, 54.6%, and 62.4%, respectively; while ratios of FPOM were 22.3%, 38.8%, and 32.9%, respectively. While all are detritivores, Phylloicus is functionally classified as shredders and Smicridea and Leptonema as collectors. Atopsyche and Anacroneuria were the only taxa in which AP were observed in high proportions, 57.9% and 58.2%, respectively, for that reason they were classified as predators. The organisms examined consume a wide variability of resources. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 169-178. Epub 2014 April 01.

Los aspectos morfológicos y de comportamiento de insectos permiten agruparlos en gremios, y representar la dependencia de la comunidad lotica hacia recursos alimentarios particulares. Se evaluó los hábitos alimentarios de organismos inmaduros de Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera y Trichoptera (EPT) de la parte media del río Gaira (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia), por medio del análisis del contenido estomacal. Se identificaron 13 géneros de EPT, pero solo a diez de éstos se les revisó el contenido estomacal, para un total de 100 organismos analizados. Se describieron seis ítems alimentarios: restos animales (RA), tejido de plantas vasculares (TPV), Microalgas (MA), hongos (HN), materia orgánica particulada gruesa (MOPG) y materia orgánica particulada fina (MOPF). Baetodes se registró como Recolector-Raspador, ya que su principal ítem alimentario fue MOPF (46.6%) seguido de HN (38.4%). Chimarra, Leptohyphes, Thraulodes y Lachlania, se categorizaron como Recolectores con proporciones promedio de 86.8%, 93.1%, 93.1% y 93.7% de MOPF, respectivamente. En los géneros Phylloicus, Leptonema y Smicridea se observó principalmente TPV y MOPG con 76.3%, 54,6% y 62.4% junto con proporciones de MOPF de 22.3%, 38.8% y 32.9%, respectivamente. Categorizado como Detritívoro, Phylloicus es funcionalmente clasificado como Fragmentador y Leptonema y Smicridea como Recolectores. Los géneros Anacroneuria y Atopsyche fueron clasificados como Depredadores y fueron los únicos taxones en los que se observó RA en altas proporciones (57.9% y 58.2%). Nuestro estudio sugiere que los organismos examinados ingieren una amplia variabilidad de recursos.

Animals , Environmental Monitoring , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insecta/classification , Insecta/physiology , Colombia , Rivers
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(1): 125-137, Mar. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674066


Species diversity of insect herbivores associated to canopy may vary local and geographically responding to distinct factors at different spatial scales. The aim of this study was to investigate how forest canopy structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance depending on feeding guilds´ specificities. We tested the hypothesis that habitat structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance differently to sap-sucking and chewing herbivore guilds. Two spatial scales were evaluated: inside tree crowns (fine spatial scale) and canopy regions (coarse spatial scale). In three sampling sites we measured 120 tree crowns, grouped in five points with four contiguous tree crowns. Insects were sampled by beating method from each crown and data were summed up for analyzing each canopy region. In crowns (fine spatial scale) we measured habitat structure: trunk circumference, tree height, canopy depth, number of ramifications and maximum ramification level. In each point, defined as a canopy region (coarse spatial scale), we measured habitat structure using a vertical cylindrical transect: tree species richness, leaf area, sum of strata heights and maximum canopy height. A principal component analysis based on the measured variables for each spatial scale was run to estimate habitat structure parameters. To test the effects of habitat structure upon herbivores, different general linear models were adjusted using the first two principal components as explanatory variables. Sap-sucking insect species richness and all herbivore abundances increased with size of crown at fine spatial scale. On the other hand, chewer species richness and abundance increased with resource quantity at coarse scale. Feeding specialization, resources availability, and agility are discussed as ecological causes of the found pattern.

La diversidad de especies de insectos herbívoros asociados con el dosel puede variar geográficamente y responder a distintos factores a diferentes escalas espaciales. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la estructura del dosel afecta la riqueza de especies de insectos herbívoros y la abundancia en función la especialización alimenticia. Se evaluó la hipótesis que propone que la estructura del hábitat afecta en forma diferente la riqueza y abundancia de especies de insectos que se alimentan de savia y la de especies herbívoras masticadoras. Dos escalas espaciales fueron evaluadas: el interior de las copas de árboles (escala fina) y regiones del dosel (escala gruesa). En tres sitios de muestreo medimos 120 copas de árboles, agrupadas en cinco puntos con cuatro copas de árboles contiguas. Los insectos fueron muestreados golpeando las copas y los datos fueron sumados para analizar cada región del dosel. En las copas (escala espacial fina) medimos la estructura del hábitat: circunferencia del tronco, altura del árbol, profundidad del dosel, número de ramificaciones y máximo nivel de ramificación. En cada punto, definiendo una región del dosel (escala gruesa), medimos la estructura del hábitat usando un transecto cilíndrico vertical: riqueza de especies árboles, área foliar, sumatoria de altura de los estratos y máxima altura del dosel. Fue realizado un análisis de componentes principales basado en las variables medidas para cada escala espacial para estimar los parámetros de la estructura del hábitat. Para probar los efectos de la estructura del hábitat sobre los herbívoros, se ajustaron diferentes modelos lineares generales usando estos componentes principales como variables causales. La riqueza de especies chupadoras de savia y la abundancia de todas las especies herbívoras se incrementaron con el tamaño de la copa en la escala espacial final. Por otro lado, la riqueza y abundancia de especies masticadoras incrementaron con la complejidad de la estructura del hábitat en la escala más gruesa. La especialización alimenticia, la disponibilidad de recursos y la movilidad son propuestas como los factores ecológicos que explican los patrones observados.

Animals , Ecosystem , Herbivory/classification , Insecta/classification , Biodiversity , Herbivory/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Population Density , Trees
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(3): 1065-1073, Sept. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659570


Simplification of natural habitats leads to a modification of the community associated with a host plant. Pequi trees (Caryocar brasiliense) are common to find in central Brazil, especially in the middle of monocultures, such as soy, corn, pasturelands or Eucalyptus plantations. On this scenario we hypothesized that habitat modification differentially affects the diversity of ants and herbivore insects associated with this species. The aim of the work was to test if C. brasiliense trees located in human modified habitats, support a lower species richness and abundance of ants, and a greater species richness and abundance of insect herbivores, compared to preserved cerrado habitats. The study was conducted in a Cerrado area located in Northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ants and herbivore insects were collected monthly during 2005 using beating technique. The results showed that ant species richness was higher in pequi trees located in preserved Cerrado, followed by trees in pastureland and Eucalyptus plantation, respectively. The ant abundance was lower in the Eucalyptus plantation but no difference in ant abundance was observed between trees in pastureland and the preserved Cerrado. Moreover, herbivore insects exhibited lower number of species and individuals in trees located in the preserved Cerrado than in the pastureland and Eucalyptus plantation. We concluded that habitats simplified by human activities may result in diversity loss and may change species interactions.

La simplificación de los hábitats naturales conduce a una modificación de la comunidad asociada con una planta huésped. En la región central de Brasil es muy común encontrar árboles aislados de “pequi” (Caryocar brasiliense) en medio de monocultivos de soya, maíz, pastos o plantaciones de eucalipto. Bajo este escenario, nosotros predecimos que la modificación del hábitat afecta diferencialmente la diversidad de hormigas y herbívoros asociados a árboles de “pequi”. El objetivo de este artículo fue determinar que árboles de “pequi” localizados en hábitats modificados por actividades humanas (i.e. pastizales y plantaciones de Eucalyptus), soportan una menor abundancia y riqueza de especies de hormigas. Por el contrario, se espera una mayor abundancia y riqueza de especies de herbívoros en hábitats modificados. Este estudio fue realizado en un área de Cerrado (sabana brasileña) localizado en el Norte del estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Las hormigas y los herbívoros fueron muestreados usando técnicas de golpe. La riqueza de especies de hormigas fue mayor en árboles de “pequi” localizados en áreas preservadas de Cerrado, seguida por árboles de pastizales y finalmente por árboles de plantaciones de Eucalyptus. La abundancia de hormigas fue menor en plantaciones de Eucalyptus, pero no hubo diferencias en la abundancia de hormigas entre árboles de pastizales y áreas preservadas de cerrado. Por otra parte, el número de especies de insectos herbívoros fue menor en árboles de áreas preservadas de Cerrado que en pastizales y plantaciones de Eucalyptus. Concluimos que las actividades humanas reducen la complejidad del hábitat resultando en la pérdida de la diversidad de insectos y procesos ecológicos.

Animals , Ants/physiology , Biodiversity , Ecosystem , Herbivory , Ericales/parasitology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Insecta/classification , Insecta/physiology , Population Density
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(3): 1205-12016, Sept. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659581


The knowledge about population structure and dynamics of some neotropical species, especially those living in lotic systems is still barely studied. This study had the aim to assess if the conservation status of some lotic systems, is related to some demographic variables of P. gigantea, so this may be used as a model for ecological monitoring. For this, we evaluated the population structure of P. gigantea three times per month (almost one sampling event every eight days) in four streams of the state of Antioquia, Colombia, from March-June 2009. The specimens were collected using entomological nets along a transect of 200m in the littoral zone of each stream. The insects were marked on the wings and the population size was estimated with the mark-recapture method. Our results showed that the largest population size was recorded for the stream “La Catedral” with aprox 299 individuals, followed by the stream “La Doctora” with 218 individuals. Nevertheless, no significant differences in population size among the evaluated streams were found; and no statistical relationships were found between vegetation variables and the population size of P. gigantea. However, taking into account the limited dispersal capacity of P. gigantea, its survival in the studied streams was considered to be at risk, due to the continuous modification of large riparian forest areas, which cause the increase of forest patches, with different levels of interconnection, and hinder long-term permanence of populations.

Evaluar si el estado de conservación de algunos sistemas lóticos, se relaciona con algunas variables demográficas de P. gigantea puede ser un modelo útil para el monitoreo ecológico. Se evaluó la estructura poblacional de P. gigantea en cuatro sistemas lóticos del Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Para cada quebrada, se emplearon tres eventos mensuales, repartidos en un evento cada ocho días, es decir, un total de 12 eventos para los cuatro sistemas lóticos, de marzo - junio de 2009. La metodología empleada fue marcaje y recaptura a lo largo de un transecto de 200m en la zona litoral de cada quebrada. El mayor tamaño poblacional promedio estimado por medio de Jolly, fue para la quebrada La Catedral con 299.4 individuos, seguida de la quebrada la Doctora con 218.3 individuos; sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en el tamaño poblacional entre quebradas. No se encontraron relaciones estadísticas entre algunas variables estructurales de la vegetación con el tamaño poblacional de la especie en las cuatro quebradas. No obstante, teniendo en cuenta la limitada capacidad de dispersión de P. gigantea, esta constituye una especie con alto riesgo supervivencia en las quebradas evaluadas, a causa de la permanente modificación de extensas áreas de bosque por parte de los habitantes, que ocasionan la formación de numerosos fragmentos boscosos con diferente grado de interconexión y dificultan la permanencia a largo plazo de las poblaciones.

Animals , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Insecta/classification , Colombia , Conservation of Natural Resources , Insecta/physiology , Life Expectancy , Population Density , Rivers , Sex Ratio , Trees