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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247676, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of insecticides resistance mainly hinge with managements techniques for the control of Jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Five insecticides were applied against field collected and laboratory rared jassid populations during the years of 2017 to 2019 to profile their resistance level against field population of jassid through leaf dip method. Very low resistance level was found in jassid against confidor whereas high level of resistance was observed by pyriproxyfen against other test insecticides. Gradual resistance was observed against diafenthiuron. It is concluded that for the management of Jassid repetition of same insecticide should be avoided. The use of confidor may be reduced to overcome resistance against Jassid.


Resumo Desenvolvimento da resistência a inseticidas principalmente em dobradiça com técnicas de manejo para o controle de jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Cinco inseticidas foram aplicados contra populações de jassídeos coletados em campo e em laboratório durante os anos de 2017 a 2019 para traçar o perfil de seu nível de resistência contra populações de jassídeos em campo através do método de imersão nas folhas. Nível de resistência muito baixo foi encontrado em jassid contra confidor, enquanto alto nível de resistência foi observado por piriproxifeno contra outros inseticidas de teste. Resistência gradual foi observada contra o diafenthiuron. Conclui-se que, para o manejo do jassid, a repetição do mesmo inseticida deve ser evitada. O uso de confidor pode ser reduzido para superar a resistência contra jassid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera , Insecticides/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance , Laboratories
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 98-116, maio 05,2022. ilus, fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370749

ABSTRACT

Introdução: cerca de quatro bilhões de pessoas residem em áreas com risco de dengue, uma arbovirose transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Insecta, Diptera, Culicidae). Na tentativa de combater esse vetor e reduzir a disseminação da dengue, o meio de controle vetorial frequentemente utilizado são os inseticidas. Entretanto, o uso indiscriminado destes no controle do mosquito está relacionado aos mecanismos de resistência desse vetor. Objetivo: mapear as evidências científicas relacionadas à resistência do mosquito A. aegypti aos inseticidas utilizados para o controle populacional. Metodologia: revisão de escopo, segundo metodologia Instituto Joana Briggs, em bases de dados indexadas: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Através do mnemônico PCC (população, conceito e contexto), elaborou-se a estratégia de busca utilizando descritores do Decs e Mesh. Resultados: foram encontrados 1.631 estudos sobre a temática. Após critérios de elegibilidade e seleção, foram incluídos 30 estudos específicos sobre resistência do Aedes aegypti a inseticidas foram incluídos na revisão. A maior parte tratou de forma experimental e 28 (93,3%) estudos trabalharam o controle químico. Em relação à resistência a inseticidas, em 20 estudos (66,6%) constatou-se resistência metabólica e em 9 (30%) a resistência mediada pela alteração da variabilidade genética. Os estudos que observaram mutação não deixam claro se a mutação gênica é especificamente devido à ação mutagênica aos inseticidas. Conclusões:o A. aegypti desenvolve adaptações que lhe conferem resistência aos inseticidas, sendo que esses mecanismos de resistência estão relacionados à variabilidade genética e a adaptações metabólicas, que são transmitidas a seus descendentes ao longo das gerações. Assim, torna-se necessário um avanço nos estudos visando não apenas identificar e explicar os mecanismos de resistência, mas encontrar meios alternativos de manejo que possam controlar o inseto sem ocasionar resistência aos mesmos.


Introduction: about four billion people live in areas at risk of dengue, an arbovirus transmitted by the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Insecta, Diptera, Culicidae). To combat this vector and reduce the spread of dengue, the means of vector control often used are insecticides. However, their indiscriminate use in mosquito control is related to the resistance mechanisms of this vector. Objective: to map the scientific evidence related to the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to the insecticides used to control dengue. Methodology: scope review, according to the Joana Briggs Institute methodology, in indexed databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library. Using the mnemonic PCC (population, concept and context), a search strategy was developed using Decs and Mesh descriptors. Results: 1,631 studies on the subject were found. After eligibility and selection criteria, 30 specific studies on Aedes aegypti resistance to insecticide were included in the review . Most treated experimentally and 28 (93.3%) studies worked on chemical control. Regarding the resistance to insecticide, in 20 studies (66.6%) there was found metabolic resistance and in 9 (30%) resistance mediated by modification on the genetic variability. Studies that have looked at mutation do not make it clear whether the gene mutation is specifically due to mutagenic action of insecticides. Conclusions: Aedes aegypti develops adaptations that gives them resistance to insecticides, and these resistance mechanisms are related to genetic variability and to metabolic adaptations, which are transmitted to its descendants over generations. Thus, it is necessary to perform advance in studies aiming not only to identify and explain the resistance mechanisms, but to find alternative means of management that can control the insect without causing resistance to them.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides , Dengue/prevention & control
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1809-1823, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927819

ABSTRACT

Bacillus thuringiensis is widely used as an insecticide which is safe and environmentally friendly to humans and animals. One of the important insecticidal mechanisms is the binding of Bt toxins to specific toxin receptors in insect midgut and forming a toxin perforation which eventually leads to insect death. The resistance of target pests to Bt toxins is an important factor hampering the long-term effective cultivation of Bt crops and the continuous use of Bt toxins. This review summarizes the mechanism of insect resistance to Bt toxins from the perspective of important Bt toxin receptors in midgut cells of Lepidopteran insects, which may facilitate the in-depth study of Bt resistance mechanism and pest control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Endotoxins/metabolism , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Insecta/metabolism , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Pest Control, Biological
5.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 67 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391603

ABSTRACT

O mosquito Aedes aegypti é vetor competente para a transmissão dos vírus dengue, chikungunya, Zika e febre amarela. O controle químico do vetor é amplamente utilizado, mas vem sendo ameaçado pela disseminação da resistência a inseticidas (RI), caracterizando-se pela seleção de alterações no comportamento ou na fisiologia do mosquito, que fazem com que o inseticida não atinja ou não encontre seu alvo no organismo do inseto. A disseminação da RI ocorre usualmente pelo fluxo gênico entre populações, que no caso do Ae. aegypti é facilitado pela dispersão passiva de seus ovos aderidos a mercadorias. A estruturação genética das populações naturais é, portanto, um fator fundamental que facilita ou dificulta a disseminação de alelos de resistência. Entre os principais mecanismos de RI estão as alterações no gene do canal de sódio regulado por voltagem (NaV), que causam resistência ao efeito knockdown de piretroides, sendo conhecidas como mutações kdr. Populações de Ae. aegypti das localidades de Macapá e Oiapoque, no estado do Amapá, eram geneticamente distintas e apresentavam alelos kdr diferenciados, muito provavelmente devido ao baixo fluxo gênico entre essas duas populações, dificultado pelo acesso terrestre entre essas duas localidades, feito por uma única rodovia que cruza a densa Floresta Amazônica. Não se conhecia, no entanto, como seria a estruturação genética entre as populações de localidades ao longo daquela rodovia e, tampouco sobre ocorrência de mutações kdr. Por isso, avaliamos a frequência das principais mutações kdr em três sítios polimórficos (V410L, V1016I e F1534C) no gene NaV de populações de Ae. aegypti de seis localidades do estado do Amapá (Oiapoque, Calçoene, Porto Grande, Ferreira Gomes, Tartarugalzinho e Macapá), através de genotipagem por qPCR em tempo real. Adicionalmente, investigamos a diversidade e a estruturação genética destas populações via genotipagem de 12 loci de microssatélites. Os alelos kdr R1 (mutante no sítio 1534) e R2 (mutante nos três sítios) foram observados nas seis populações, sendo que a de Oiapoque apresentou a maior frequência do kdr R2, enquanto o kdr R1 foi mais frequente na de Macapá. Genótipos kdr raros em demais regiões do Brasil, sugestivos de duplicações gênicas, foram encontrados em Ae. aegypti de Oiapoque e Calçoene. As análises de microssatélites mostraram baixa ou moderada diferenciação genética par-a-par, sendo que Oiapoque foi a população geneticamente mais distinta das demais e formou praticamente um único grupo genético em uma das análises de estruturação genética. Análise de Componentes Principais (DAPC) também sugeriu a população de Calçoene geneticamente diferenciada das demais, enquanto as outras populações mostraram-se mais similares entre si, sugerindo alto fluxo gênico entre elas. Ainda que a população de Oiapoque seja a mais diferenciada e estruturada, nosso estudo indica que há fluxo gênico entre esta e as demais ao longo da estrada BR-156 (AP), colaborando com a disseminação de alelos vindos da população da Guiana Francesa. Idealmente, medidas de controle químico do vetor devem ser pensadas conjuntamente entre as autoridades de ambos os lados da fronteira binacional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pyrethrins , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes , Dengue , Genotype , Insecticides , Culicidae
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e07072021, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351608

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Since 2013, major Cimex lectularius infestations have been detected in public shelters in Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Due to this, insecticide resistance has been investigated as one of the possible causes for the failure to control bedbugs. METHODS: Cimicids were subjected to bioassays according to the World Health Organization recommendations using deltamethrin and all commercial insecticides available for control of Cimex in Brazil. RESULTS: Cimicids were deltamethrin resistant and presented indicative of resistance to other insecticides, except for propoxur 1%. CONCLUSIONS: The commercial insecticides have a limited effect on bedbug populations, which may justify the unsatisfactory control observed in the shelters studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bedbugs , Ectoparasitic Infestations , Insecticides/pharmacology , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance
7.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 18, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289991

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate locomotor activity in four field populations of Ae. aegypti with different insecticide resistance profiles from the state of São Paulo for two years. METHODS: This study comprised the susceptible Rockefeller strain and four populations from São Paulo, Brazil: two considered populations with "reduced susceptibility" to pyrethroids (Campinas and Marília), and two "resistant populations" (Santos and Ribeirão Preto). First, 2016 and 2017 eggs from these five populations were hatched in laboratory. Virgin females underwent experiments under laboratory conditions at 25°C, with 12:12h light/dark (LD) photoperiod; 24-hour individual activity was recorded using a locomotor activity monitor (LAM). RESULTS: In females from 2016 field populations, both resistant populations showed significant more locomotor activity than the two reduced susceptibility populations and the Rockefeller strain (p < 0.05). As for females from 2017 field populations, reduced susceptibility populations showed a significant increased locomotor activity than the Rockefeller strain, but no significant difference when compared to Santos resistant population (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations show increased locomotor activity, which may affect the transmission dynamics of their arboviruses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Aedes , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance , Locomotion
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/genetics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/virology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190489, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057274

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brasilia, pyriproxyfen (PPF; 0.01 mg/L) has been used for the larval control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes since 2016. Information on the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to PPF, and the development of resistance in populations from the Federal District of Brazil (FD) is limited. It is essential to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides in order to improve vector control strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti populations from five areas of Brasilia to PPF. METHODS: We performed dose-response tests to estimate the emergence inhibition and resistance ratio of each field population, including the Rockefeller reference population. We also analyzed egg positivity, and the density and mortality of larvae and pupae. RESULTS: Populations from Vila Planalto (RR50=1.7), Regiment Guards Cavalry (RR50=2.5), and Sub-secretary of Justice Complex (RR50=3.7) presented high susceptibility to PPF, while the RR values of populations from Lago Norte (RR50=7.7) and Varjão (RR50=5.9) were moderately high, suggesting the emergence of insipient resistance to PPF in Brasilia. At 30 ng/mL, the highest larvae mortality rate was 2.7% for the population from Lago Norte, while that of pupae was 92.1% for Varjão and Vila Planalto. CONCLUSIONS: The five populations of Ae. aegypti from the FD are susceptible to PPF and there is a need to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti in new areas of the FD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyridines/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Brazil , Larva/drug effects
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) may be effective for vector control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Their efficacy, however, has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the large-scale efficacy of LLINs on Lutzomyia longiflocosa entomological parameters up to two years post-intervention in the sub-Andean region of Colombia. METHODS A matched-triplet cluster-randomised study of 21 rural settlements, matched by pre-intervention L. longiflocosa indoor density was used to compare three interventions: dip it yourself (DIY) lambda-cyhalothrin LLIN, deltamethrin LLIN, and untreated nets (control). Sand fly indoor density, feeding success, and parity were recorded using CDC light trap collections at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. FINDINGS Both LLINs reduced significantly (74-76%) the indoor density and the proportion of fully engorged sand flies up to two years post-intervention without differences between them. Residual lethal effects of both LLINs and the use of all nets remained high throughout the two-year evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Anopheles/drug effects , Rural Population , Insecticide Resistance , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Colombia , Mosquito Vectors
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0062019, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1100114

ABSTRACT

The soybean looper (Chrysodeixis includens) is an important defoliation pest in crops such as soybean and cotton in Brazil. Its main control tactic is chemical insecticides. Considering the importance of chemical control for this pest, monitoring the susceptibility of C. includens populations is strategic for an efficient Insect Resistance Management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility levels of C. includens populations in the state of Mato Grosso - Brazil to lufenuron and spinosad. Seven populations were collected in soybean fields around the state. For the bioassays, early L3 larvae were exposed to insecticides using the diet-overlay method. Although the compounds have distinct modes of action, Tangará da Serra population had the highest resistance ratios for lufenuron (11.62) and spinosad (7.84), compared to laboratory population (susceptibility reference). Even with low resistance levels, it is necessary to maintain regional monitoring of C. includens susceptibility to the evaluated insecticides, as well as to extend the range of molecules monitored.(AU)


A lagarta falsa-medideira (Chrysodeixis includens) é uma importante praga desfolhadora em culturas como soja e algodão no Brasil e seu principal método de controle é o uso de inseticidas químicos. Considerando a importância do controle químico para essa praga, o monitoramento da suscetibilidade de populações de C. includens é estratégico para um eficiente programa de Manejo da Resistência de Insetos. Portanto, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os níveis de suscetibilidade de populações de C. includens no estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil, aos inseticidas lufenurom e espinosade. Sete populações foram coletadas em cultivos de soja ao longo do estado. Para os bioensaios, lagartas em terceiro ínstar foram expostas aos inseticidas utilizando o método de contaminação superficial de dieta. Embora os compostos apresentem modos de ação distintos, a população de Tangará da Serra obteve as maiores razões de resistência para lufenurom (11,62) e espinosade (7,84) em relação à população de laboratório (referência de suscetibilidade). Apesar dos níveis de resistência terem sido baixos, é necessário manter a manutenção do monitoramento dos níveis de suscetibilidade aos inseticidas avaliados, assim como ampliar a gama de moléculas monitoradas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Lepidoptera , Soybeans , Agricultural Pests , Gossypium , Insecta
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 79 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145916

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti é um mosquito de grande interesse para saúde pública, pois é o vetor de arbovírus, como dengue, chikungunya e Zika. Para o controle desse vetor, são utilizados o controle biológico, mecânico e o controle químico, com utilização de inseticidas e repelentes. Os repelentes são considerados uma das melhores formas de se evitar as picadas das fêmeas, sendo os mais comercializados aqueles que possuem N,N-dietilmetilbenzamida (DEET) na fórmula, além de serem um dos mais estudados atualmente. Entretanto a resitência a alguns inseticidas como o piretroide, pode levar à alteração na atividade locomotora dos mosquitos. Deste modo, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar aspectos relacionados à tolerância ao DEET e à resistência a xenobióticos em cepas Ae. aegypti de campo (Laranjeiras) e de laboratório (Rockefeller). Foram realizados testes de repelência com Ae. aegypti para a resposta ao odor humano. Em cada teste, foram utilizadas 50 fêmeas, totalizando 700 fêmeas da população Laranjeiras e 1500 fêmeas para a população Rockefeller. As fêmeas foram colocadas em gaiolas de teste por cerca de duas horas, a fim de se adaptarem ao ambiente. Posteriormente, foi realizado o teste de repelência, que consistiu na exposição do mosquito a 0,5 mL de DEET (10% em etanol), este foi aplicado uniformemente pelo antebraço humano. Para diagnosticar a presença da mutação kdr na população de Laranjeiras foram analisadas 32 fêmeas dessa população. Para avaliar a atividade locomotora das fêmeas de Ae. aegypti Rockefeller e de Laranjeiras, foi utilizado o Drosophila Activity Monitor - Trikinetics. No período de setembro a novembro de 2019, foram instaladas 290 ovitrampas no município de Laranjeiras - SE, tendo sido verificado um total de 80,3% de palhetas com presença de ovos de Aedes, contabilizando 15.940 ovos. Após a realização dos bioensaios, foi possivel observar maior sensibilidade ao DEET nas fêmeas provinientes do campo. Além disso, também foi possivel observar a presença da mutação kdr e uma maior atividade locomotora nessa população. Dessa forma, nossos resultados sugerem que mosquitos resistentes podem ser mais suceptíveis ao DEET.


Aedes aegypti is a mosquito of great interest for public health, as it is the vector of arboviruses, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Biological, mechanical and chemical control, with the use of insecticides and repellents, are used against this vector. Repellents are considered one of the best ways to avoid female bites, being those that have N, N-diethylmethylbenzamide (DEET) in the formula the most commercialized, as well as the most studied today. However, resistance to some insecticides such as pyrethroid, can lead to changes in the locomotor activity of mosquitoes. Thus, this study aims to evaluate aspects related to DEET tolerance and resistance to xenobiotics in field Ae. aegypti (Laranjeiras) and laboratory (Rockefeller) strains. Repellency tests were performed with Ae. aegypti for the response to human odor. In each test, 50 females were used, totaling 700 females from the Laranjeiras population and 1500 females from the Rockefeller population. The females were placed in test cages for about two hours in order to adapt to the environment. Subsequently, the repellency test was performed, which consisted of exposing the mosquito to 0.5 mL of DEET (10% in ethanol), which was applied evenly to the human forearm. To diagnose the presence of the kdr mutation in the population of Laranjeiras, 32 females from that population were analyzed. To evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti Rockefeller and Laranjeiras females,, the Drosophila Activity Monitor - Trikinetics was used. In the period from September to November 2019, 290 ovitraps were installed in the municipality of Laranjeiras - SE, with a total of 80.3% of reeds with the presence of Aedes eggs, accounting for 15,940 eggs. After conducting the bioassays, it was possible to observe greater sensitivity to DEET in females from the field. In addition, it was also possible to observe the presence of the kdr mutation and greater locomotor activity in this population. Thus, our results suggest that resistant mosquitoes may be more susceptible to DEET.


Subject(s)
Insecticide Resistance , Aedes , DEET , Insect Repellents
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 802-806, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057988

ABSTRACT

Abstract Population explosions of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) have become a serious concern for livestock producers near sugarcane mills in some regions of Brazil due to the insect's massive reproduction on sugarcane byproducts and waste. Despite the limited efficiency of insecticides for controlling stable fly outbreaks, producers still rely on chemical control to mitigate the alarming infestations in affected areas. This study evaluated the susceptibility of S. calcitrans populations to cypermethrin in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Stable flies were tested from three field populations and two colonies, established from flies previously collected at sugarcane mills. Wild flies were collected with Nzi traps in areas of sugarcane plantations. Both wild and colonized flies were exposed to eleven concentrations of cypermethrin in impregnated filter paper bioassays. All the populations proved to be resistant to cypermethrin, with resistance factors among field populations ranging from 6.8 to 38.6. The intensive use of insecticides has led to the development of pyrethroid resistance in stable fly populations in the proximities of sugarcane mills in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.


Resumo Explosões populacionais da mosca-dos-estábulos (Stomoxys calcitrans) tornaram-se uma séria preocupação para a pecuária próxima a usinas de cana-de-açúcar em algumas regiões do Brasil, devido à massiva reprodução da mosca em resíduos e subprodutos do processamento da cana. Apesar da limitada eficiência dos inseticidas no controle dos surtos desta mosca, produtores dependem do controle químico para mitigar as alarmantes infestações nas áreas afetadas. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a suscetibilidade de populações de S. calcitrans a piretroides no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Moscas-dos-estábulos de três populações de campo e duas colônias, estabelecidas a partir de moscas previamente coletadas em usinas de cana-de-açúcar, foram testadas. Moscas selvagens foram coletadas com armadilhas Nzi em áreas de cana. Moscas coletadas foram expostas a onze concentrações de cipermetrina em bioensaios com papel de filtro impregnado. Todas as populações testadas mostraram-se resistentes ao piretroide, com fatores de resistência variando de 6,8 a 38,6 nas populações de campo. O uso intensivo de inseticidas tem levado ao desenvolvimento de resistência da mosca-dos-estábulos a piretroides em populações próximas a usinas de cana-de-açúcar no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Muscidae/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance , Lethal Dose 50
14.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 28(1): 15-24, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013972

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Determinar la resistencia de una cepa de Aedes. aegypti de Orotina a insecticidas organofosforados (temefós y malatión), y a piretroides (deltametrina, lambda cialotrina y cipermetrina). Métodos: La evaluación de la resistencia se efectuó mediante bioensayos larvarios. A partir de cada uno de los insecticidas se calculó la concentración letal 50% (CL50). También se calculó el factor de resistencia 50% (FR50) con respecto a la cepa Rockefeller, que sirvió como control susceptible. En casos de resistencia, la evaluación se repitió exponiendo previamente las larvas a butóxido de piperonilo (BP), S, S, S tributilfosforotritionato (DEF) y ácido etacrínico (AE) para establecer los mecanismos de detoxificación asociados con la resistencia. En cada caso se calculó un factor de sinergismo 50% (FS50). Resultados: La cepa Orotina mostró susceptibilidad a temefós, malatión, deltametrina y lambda cialotrina, pero mostró resistencia incipiente a cipermetrina (CL50= 0,01103 mg/L, FR50 = 5,32). Sólo el BP revertió la resistencia a este insecticida (FS50 =10,92), lo que representa un mecanismo de detoxificación asociado con el sistema citrocromo P450 monooxigenasa. Discusión: Aunque la cepa de Ae. aegyptide Orotina mostró resistencia a cipermetrina, existen otros insecticidas para los cuales fue susceptible, que brindan opciones a las autoridades de salud para su implementación en el control químico del vector. Conclusiones: El monitoreo de la resistencia es requerido para asegurar la efectividad de los insecticidas que se utilizan en el control químico.


Abstract Objectives: To determine the resistance to organophosphate (temephos and malathion) and pyrethroid (deltamethrin, lambda cyhalothrin, and cypermethrin) insecticides in a strain of Aedes aegypti from Orotina. Methods: The evaluation of the resistance was carried out by larval bioassays. Lethal concentration 50% (LC50) was calculated for each insecticide. A factor of resistance 50% (FR50) was also calculated with respect to the Rockefeller strain, which served as susceptible control. In cases of resistance, the evaluation was replicated by exposing the larvae to piperonyl butoxide (PB), S, S, S tributylphosphorotritionate (DEF), and ethacrynic acid (AE), in order to establish the detoxification mechanisms associated with the resistance. In these cases, a factor of synergism 50% (FS50) was also calculated. Results: The Orotina strain of Ae. aegyptiwas susceptible to temephos, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda cyhalothrin, but showed incipient resistance to cypermethrin (LC50 = 0.01103 mg/L, FR50 = 5.32). Only PB reversed the state of resistance (FS50 = 10.92), which suggests a detoxification mechanism associated with the citochrome P450 monooxygenase system. Discussion: Although the Ae. aegyptistrain from Orotina showed resistance to cypermethrin, it was susceptible to other insecticides, which can be used as alternative options for chemical control of the vector. Conclusions: Monitoring of resistance is required to ensure the effectiveness of insecticides used in chemical control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes/immunology , Chikungunya virus , Public Health , Costa Rica , Dengue , Zika Virus
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180544, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil have been subjected to insecticide selection pressures with variable levels and sources since 1967. Therefore, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) coordinated the activities of an Ae. aegypti insecticide resistance monitoring network (MoReNAa) from 1999 to 2012. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to consolidate all information available from between 1985 and 2017 regarding the resistance status and mechanisms of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations against the main insecticide compounds used at the national level, including the larvicide temephos (an organophosphate) and the adulticide deltamethrin (a pyrethroid). METHODS Data were gathered from two sources: a bibliographic review of studies published from 1985 to 2017, and unpublished data produced by our team within the MoReNAa between 1998 and 2012. A total of 146 municipalities were included, many of which were evaluated several times, totalling 457 evaluations for temephos and 274 for deltamethrin. Insecticide resistance data from the five Brazilian regions were examined separately using annual records of both the MoH supply of insecticides to each state and the dengue incidence in each evaluated municipality. FINDINGS Ae. aegypti resistance to temephos and deltamethrin, the main larvicide and adulticide, respectively, employed against mosquitoes in Brazil for a long time, was found to be widespread in the country, although with some regional variations. Comparisons between metabolic and target-site resistance mechanisms showed that one or another of these was the main component of pesticide resistance in each studied population. MAIN CONCLUSIONS (i) A robust dataset on the assessments of the insecticide resistance of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations performed since 1985 was made available through our study. (ii) Our findings call into question the efficacy of chemical control as the sole methodology of vector control. (iii) It is necessary to ensure that sustainable insecticide resistance monitoring is maintained as a key component of integrated vector management. (iv) Consideration of additional parameters, beyond the supply of insecticides distributed by the MoH or the diverse local dynamics of dengue incidence, is necessary to find consistent correlations with heterogeneous vector resistance profiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insecticide Resistance/immunology , Temefos/analysis , Aedes , Vector Control of Diseases , Brazil/epidemiology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190120, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In recent years, South America has suffered the burden of continuous high impact outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Aedes aegypti is the main mosquito vector of these arboviruses and its control is the only solution to reduce transmission. OBJECTIVES In order to improve vector control it is essential to study mosquito population genetics in order to better estimate the population structures and the geneflow among them. METHODS We have analysed microsatellites and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations from a trans-border region in Amazonia between the state of Amapá (Brazil) and French Guiana (overseas territory of France), to provide further knowledge on these issues. These two countries have followed distinct vector control policies since last century. For population genetic analyses we evaluated variability in 13 well-established microsatellites loci in Ae. aegypti from French Guiana (Saint Georges and Cayenne) and Brazil (Oiapoque and Macapá). The occurrence and frequency of kdr mutations in these same populations were accessed by TaqMan genotype assays for the sites 1016 (Val/Ile) and 1534 (Phe/Cys). FINDINGS We have detected high levels of gene flow between the closest cross-border samples of Saint-Georges and Oiapoque. These results suggest one common origin of re-colonisation for the populations of French Guiana and Oiapoque in Brazil, and a different source for Macapá, more similar to the other northern Brazilian populations. Genotyping of the kdr mutations revealed distinct patterns for Cayenne and Macapá associated with their different insecticide use history, and an admixture zone between these two patterns in Saint Georges and Oiapoque, in accordance with population genetic results. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The present study highlights the need for regional-local vector surveillance and transnational collaboration between neighboring countries to assess the impact of implemented vector control strategies, promote timely actions and develop preparedness plans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Aedes/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Biodiversity , French Guiana , Genotype
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180542, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990438

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Brazil, malaria is an important public health problem first reported in 1560. Historically, fluctuations in malaria cases in Brazil are attributed to waves of economic development; construction of railroads, highways, and hydroelectric dams; and population displacement and land occupation policies. Vector control measures have been widely used with an important role in reducing malaria cases. In this review article, we reviewed the vector control measures established in the Brazilian territory and aspects associated with such measures for malaria. Although some vector control measures are routinely used in Brazil, many entomological and effectiveness information still need better evidence in endemic areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates. Herein, we outlined some of the needs and priorities for future research: a) update of the cartography of malaria vectors in Brazil, adding molecular techniques for the correct identification of species and complexes of species; b) evaluation of vector competence of anophelines in Brazil; c) strengthening of local entomology teams to perform vector control measures and interpret results; d) evaluation of vector control measures, especially use of insecticide-treated nets and long-lasting insecticidal nets, estimating their effectiveness, cost-benefit, and population acceptance; e) establishment of colonies of malaria vectors in Brazil, i.e., Anopheles darlingi, to understand parasite-vector interactions better; f) study of new vector control strategies with impacts on non-endophilic vectors; g) estimation of the impact of insecticide resistance in different geographical areas; and h) identification of the relative contribution of natural and artificial breeding sites in different epidemiological contexts for transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Mosquito Vectors , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Anopheles
18.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e1112018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1009457

ABSTRACT

Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the main pests in maize crop with developing resistance to chemical products and Bt technology. Therefore, alternative control methods such as essential oils are important steps in the implementation management strategies for this pest. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of essential oils (EOs) of Corymbia citriodora, Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae), Lippia microphylla (Verbenaceae) and Piper umbelattum (Piperaceae) in controlling S. frugiperda. The OEs were extracted and mortality tests were conducted with topic and volatile applications, in 30 second-instar caterpillars originated from insect rearing and artificial diet. As a control, we conducted tests with distilled water and acetone. EOs that provided mortality rates above 80% were submitted to chemical analysis for constituent identification. The efficient EOs were only those of C. citriodora and L. microphylla. For EO of C. citriodora, the LD80 was 7.06 ± 0.73 mg.g-1 in topical application and 5.85 ± 0.75 µL via volatile application. On the other hand, for EO of L. microphylla, DL80 was 9.95 ± 1.25 mg.g-1 in topical application and 18.56 ± 3.55 µL via volatile application. Chemical analysis showed that the main constituents were citronella for the EO of C. citriodora and (E)-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol to the EO of L. microphylla. EOs of C. citriodora and L. microphylla are promising for controlling S. frugiperda, with emphasis on the volatile effect of C. citriodora oil.(AU)


A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepdoptera: Noctuidae), é uma das principais pragas na cultura do milho e nos últimos anos vem desenvolvendo resistência a produtos químicos e à tecnologia Bt. Métodos alternativos de controle, como o emprego de óleos essenciais, são um passo importante na implementação de estratégias de manejo para essa praga. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência dos óleos essenciais de Corymbia citriodora, Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae), Lippia microphylla (Verbenaceae) e Piper umbelattum (Piperaceae) no controle de S. frugiperda. Os óleos essenciais foram extraídos e testes de mortalidade com aplicação tópica e de voláteis foram conduzidos com 30 lagartas de segundo instar provenientes de criação massal e em dieta artificial. Como testemunha, foram conduzidos testes com água destilada e acetona. Os óleos essenciais que proporcionaram taxas de mortalidade acima de 80% foram submetidos à análise química para identificação de seus constituintes. Entre os óleos essenciais, mostraram-se eficientes apenas os de C. citriodora e L. microphylla. Para o óleo essencial de C. citriodora, a DL80 foi de 7,06 ± 0,73 mg.g-1 em aplicação tópica e 5,85 ± 0,75 µL via aplicação do volátil. Já para o óleo essencial de L. microphylla, a DL80 foi de 9,95 ± 1,25 mg.g-1 em aplicação tópica e 18,56 ± 3,55 µL via aplicação do volátil. A análise química demonstrou que os principais constituintes foram citronelal para o óleo essencial de C. citriodora, e (E)-cariofileno e (E)-nerolidol para o de L. microphylla. Os óleos essenciais de C. citriodora e L. microphylla são promissores para o controle de S. frugiperda, com destaque para o efeito volátil do óleo de C. citriodora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Spodoptera/parasitology , Zea mays , Insecticide Resistance , Pest Control , Lippia
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 284-290, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957420

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The organophosphate temephos was first used in Brazil in the 1960s for the control of Aedes aegypti. Because of its extensive and longstanding use worldwide, selection for mosquito populations resistant to the chemical has been observed not only in different regions of Brazil but also in several parts of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to the organophosphate temephos, a larvicide used in vector control activities in Sergipe/Northeast Brazil. METHODS This study included mosquito populations from seven municipalities of Sergipe and was carried out from October 2010 to August 2011. Qualitative bioassays of diagnostic dose and dose responses were performed. The resistance ratio was calculated based on lethal concentrations for mosquitoes of the susceptible Rockefeller strain. RESULTS: All populations were classified as resistant to temephos. The resistance ratio ranged from 22.2 to 297.9, the lowest being seen in Aracaju, a coastal area of the state, and the highest in Pinhão, a semi-arid region, 96.6km from Aracaju. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of temephos resistance were observed in the Ae. aegypti populations of Sergipe. The variation between regions indicates that there have been different regimes of insecticide use and also points to the potential of small cities to generate and spread insecticide resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Assay , Temefos , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes , Mosquito Vectors , Insecticides , Brazil
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