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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/genetics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/virology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190120, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In recent years, South America has suffered the burden of continuous high impact outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Aedes aegypti is the main mosquito vector of these arboviruses and its control is the only solution to reduce transmission. OBJECTIVES In order to improve vector control it is essential to study mosquito population genetics in order to better estimate the population structures and the geneflow among them. METHODS We have analysed microsatellites and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations from a trans-border region in Amazonia between the state of Amapá (Brazil) and French Guiana (overseas territory of France), to provide further knowledge on these issues. These two countries have followed distinct vector control policies since last century. For population genetic analyses we evaluated variability in 13 well-established microsatellites loci in Ae. aegypti from French Guiana (Saint Georges and Cayenne) and Brazil (Oiapoque and Macapá). The occurrence and frequency of kdr mutations in these same populations were accessed by TaqMan genotype assays for the sites 1016 (Val/Ile) and 1534 (Phe/Cys). FINDINGS We have detected high levels of gene flow between the closest cross-border samples of Saint-Georges and Oiapoque. These results suggest one common origin of re-colonisation for the populations of French Guiana and Oiapoque in Brazil, and a different source for Macapá, more similar to the other northern Brazilian populations. Genotyping of the kdr mutations revealed distinct patterns for Cayenne and Macapá associated with their different insecticide use history, and an admixture zone between these two patterns in Saint Georges and Oiapoque, in accordance with population genetic results. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The present study highlights the need for regional-local vector surveillance and transnational collaboration between neighboring countries to assess the impact of implemented vector control strategies, promote timely actions and develop preparedness plans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Aedes/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Biodiversity , French Guiana , Genotype
3.
Recife; s.n; 2016. 92 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871424

ABSTRACT

Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsp) e uma bacteria entomopatogena que produz a toxina Binaria (Bin) com atividade larvicida para culicideos. A sua acao em Culex quinquefasciatus depende da ligacao da toxina Bin a alfa-glicosidase (Aglu) Cqm1, que atua como receptor no epitelio intestinal de larvas. Na colonia R2362, foram caracterizados dois alelos de resistencia ao Lsp: cqm1REC e cqm1REC-2, cujas mutacoes impedem a expressao da Aglu Cqm1. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade catalitica da Cqm1 e comparar a atividade alfa-glicosidase e o desenvolvimento pre-imaginal de larvas de individuos susceptiveis (S) e resistentes (R) para cada alelo. Para isto, foram avaliados os seguintes parametros: atividade catalitica da Cqm1 recombinante; padrao de transcricao de outras Aglus paralogas a Cqm1; atividade de Aglus nativas em larvas; sobrevivencia de individuos frente a diferentes dietas. A Aglu Cqm1 mostrou atividade enzimatica otima a 37o C, pH 7,5-8,0 e utilizando o substrato sintetico pNalfaG. A atividade alfa-glicosidase total em larvas S e R foi similar, apesar da ausencia de expressao da Cqm1 nas larvas R. A investigacao in silico revelou 18 proteinas paralogas a Cqm1 e, dentre 11 investigadas, nove sao expressas em larvas S e R. A analise quantitativa de tres paralogas demonstrou que duas tem um padrao de transcricao mais elevado em larvas resistentes, sugerindo a existencia de um mecanismo de compensacao de expressao de alfa-glicosidases. O desenvolvimento pre-imaginal de larvas S foi decrescente nas seguintes dietas: racao de gatos, racao de peixes, leite desnatado, extrato de levedura e sacarose. De uma forma global, a taxa de sobrevivencia de larvas R foi inferior a S em todas as dietas testadas. Os dados obtidos mostram que as mutacoes ligadas aos alelos cqm1REC e cqm1REC-2 nao parecem impactar a atividade Aglu nas larvas e que o custo biologico observado poderia estar relacionado a outros genes e vias metabolicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , alpha-Glucosidases , Bacterial Toxins , Bacillus/pathogenicity , Culex , Culex/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Insecticide Resistance/genetics
4.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insects have developed resistance against Bt-transgenic plants. A multi-barrier defense system to weaken their resistance development is now necessary. One such approach is to use fusion protein genes to increase resistance in plants by introducing more Bt genes in combination. The locating the target protein at the point of insect attack will be more effective. It will not mean that the non-green parts of the plants are free of toxic proteins, but it will inflict more damage on the insects because they are at maximum activity in the green parts of plants. RESULTS: Successful cloning was achieved by the amplification of Cry2A, Cry1Ac, and a transit peptide. The appropriate polymerase chain reaction amplification and digested products confirmed that Cry1Ac and Cry2A were successfully cloned in the correct orientation. The appearance of a blue color in sections of infiltrated leaves after 72 hours confirmed the successful expression of the construct in the plant expression system. The overall transformation efficiency was calculated to be 0.7%. The amplification of Cry1Ac-Cry2A and Tp2 showed the successful integration of target genes into the genome of cotton plants. A maximum of 0.673 µg/g tissue of Cry1Ac and 0.568 µg/g tissue of Cry2A was observed in transgenic plants. We obtained 100% mortality in the target insect after 72 hours of feeding the 2nd instar larvae with transgenic plants. The appearance of a yellow color in transgenic cross sections, while absent in the control, through phase contrast microscopy indicated chloroplast localization of the target protein. CONCLUSION: Locating the target protein at the point of insect attack increases insect mortality when compared with that of other transgenic plants. The results of this study will also be of great value from a biosafety point of view.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Chloroplasts/genetics , Insect Control/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Lepidoptera , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Expression/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Phase-Contrast , Plants, Genetically Modified , Cloning, Molecular , DNA Primers , Plant Leaves/genetics , Transgenes/physiology , Endotoxins/analysis , Gene Fusion , Hemolysin Proteins/analysis , Insecticides , Larva
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Apr; 51(4): 273-279
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147592

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a complex disease that afflicts human today. Malaria epidemiology is associated with drug resistance in parasite and differential distribution and insecticide resistance in vector. Efforts are being made to eradicate malaria but burden of malaria is still increasing. Vector control is essential for malaria prevention strategies. Knowledge of population genetic structure is pre-requisite for determining prevention strategies, particularly using transgenic mosquitoes. Population genetic study can predict level of gene flow between different populations. Anopheles stephensi Liston is urban vector of malaria in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. About 12% of malaria cases of malaria in India are contributed by A. stephensi. Studies conducted on population genetics of A. stephensi using various markers in different parts of the world are discussed in this communication.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Genetic Markers/genetics , Genetics, Population , Geography , Humans , India , Insect Vectors/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/prevention & control , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Pakistan , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 3-10, 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697827

ABSTRACT

The increasing population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on Madeira Island (Portugal) resulted in the first autochthonous dengue outbreak, which occurred in October 2012. Our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4)] and knockdown resistance ( kdr ) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. We included mosquito populations from Brazil and Venezuela in the analysis as putative geographic sources. The Ae. aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. We also detected the presence of two important kdr mutations and the quasi-fixation of one of these mutations (F1534C). These results are consistent with a unique recent founder event that occurred on the island of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that carry kdr mutations associated with insecticide resistance. Finally, we also report the presence of the F1534C kdr mutation in the Brazil and Venezuela populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time this mutation has been found in South American Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Given the present risk of Ae. aegypti re-invading continental Europe from Madeira and the recent dengue outbreaks on the island, this information is important to plan surveillance and control measures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Mutation/genetics , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Animal Distribution , Brazil , Disease Outbreaks , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Dengue/epidemiology , Haplotypes/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Portugal/epidemiology , Venezuela
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(4): 437-449, June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626435

ABSTRACT

The use of chemical insecticides continues to play a major role in the control of disease vector populations, which is leading to the global dissemination of insecticide resistance. A greater capacity to detoxify insecticides, due to an increase in the expression or activity of three major enzyme families, also known as metabolic resistance, is one major resistance mechanisms. The esterase family of enzymes hydrolyse ester bonds, which are present in a wide range of insecticides; therefore, these enzymes may be involved in resistance to the main chemicals employed in control programs. Historically, insecticide resistance has driven research on insect esterases and schemes for their classification. Currently, several different nomenclatures are used to describe the esterases of distinct species and a universal standard classification does not exist. The esterase gene family appears to be rapidly evolving and each insect species has a unique complement of detoxification genes with only a few orthologues across species. The examples listed in this review cover different aspects of their biochemical nature. However, they do not appear to contribute to reliably distinguish among the different resistance mechanisms. Presently, the phylogenetic criterion appears to be the best one for esterase classification. Joint genomic, biochemical and microarray studies will help unravel the classification of this complex gene family.


Subject(s)
Animals , Esterases/classification , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Inactivation, Metabolic/genetics , Esterases/chemistry , Esterases/genetics , Phylogeny
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(1): 74-79, Feb. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612808

ABSTRACT

To study the potential for the emergence of resistance in Aedes aegypti populations, a wild colony was subjected to selective pressure with Cry11Aa, one of four endotoxins that compose the Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis toxin. This bacterium is the base component of the most important biopesticide used in the control of mosquitoes worldwide. After 54 generations of selection, significant resistance levels were observed. At the beginning of the selection experiment, the half lethal concentration was 26.3 ng/mL and had risen to 345.6 ng/mL by generation 54. The highest rate of resistance, 13.1, was detected in the 54th generation. Because digestive proteases play a key role in the processing and activation of B. thuringiensis toxin, we analysed the involvement of insect gut proteases in resistance to the Cry11Aa B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis toxin. The protease activity from larval gut extracts from the Cry11Aa resistant population was lower than that of the B. thuringiensisserovar israelensis susceptible colony. We suggest that differences in protoxin proteolysis could contribute to the resistance of this Ae. aegypti colony.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Culex/drug effects , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Culex/enzymology , Culex/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Selection, Genetic/drug effects
9.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 13(2): 63-69, dic 1, 2011. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-645168

ABSTRACT

La yuca se constituye en la base de la alimentación para más de mil millones de personas en el mundo. Una de las principales enfermedades de la yuca y que podría comprometer la seguridad alimentaria es la bacteriosis vascular ocasionada por la bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam). El gen candidato de resistencia RXam2 codifica para una proteína con dominios NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site) y LRR (Leucine Rich Repeats) y colocaliza con un QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) que explica el 61.6% de la resistencia a la cepa CIO151 de Xam. En este trabajo se secuenció parcialmente el gen RXam2 en tres variedades de yuca: MCOL2246, TMS60444 y SG107-35 con el objetivo de tener una visión preliminar del grado de polimorfismos tipo SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) que se presenta en este gen. La región secuenciada incluye 507 pb de la región promotora y 1309 pb de la secuencia codificante. Se logró identificar 5 y 31 SNPs al interior de las variedades MCOL2246 y TMS60444, respectivamente. Al mismo tiempo el número de SNPs entre las variedades fue de 44, 34 y 23 para MCOL2246-TMS60444, TMS60444-SG107-35 y MCOL2246-SG107-35, respectivamente. El mayor número de SNPs estuvieron localizados en la región -500 a -300 pb que corresponden a un fragmento de la región promotora del gen, aunque también se identificó un importante número de polimorfismos en la región codificante. Este estudio permitirá identificar el número de polimorfismos en este gen en un mayor grupo de variedades de yuca con el fin de asociar estos polimorfismos con el fenotipo de resistencia/susceptibilidad.


Cassava is a staple food for more than a billion people. One of the major diseases of cassava which could compromise food security is known as cassava bacterial blight, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam). The RXam2 resistance gene candidate encodes a protein with Nucleotide Binding Site and Leucine Rich Repeats domains, and colocalizes with a QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) that accounts for 61.6% of the resistance to the Xam strain CIO151. In this work we sequenced 1816 bp corresponding to a partial sequence of this gene in three cassava varieties with the aim of having a preliminary overview of the degree of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The sequenced regions included 507 bp of the promotor and 1309 bp of the coding sequence. It was possible to identify five and 31 intravarietal SNPs in MCOL2246 and TMS60444, respectively. In addition, the number of SNPs between varieties was 44, 34 and 23 for MCOL2246-TMS60444, TMS60444-SG107-35 and MCOL2246-SG107-35, respectively. The largest number of SNPs was located in the promoter region -500 to -300 bp. This study may help to develop alternatives to identify SNPs in a more diverse group of cassava varieties, and possibly associate them with resistance/susceptible phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Insecticide Resistance/radiation effects , Insecticide Resistance/physiology , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/physiology , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/immunology
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135578

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Under the national antimalaria programme DDT was introduced in early 1950s for vector control and later hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) followed by malathion and recently synthetic pyrethroids in 1990s to manage the insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies. Subsequent replacement led to development of multiple resistances in An. culicifacies in Surat district in Gujarat State. Indoor residual spray (IRS) was completely withdrawn in southern villages in Surat in 2002. This study was undertaken in these areas to study the persistence of resistance to DDT, malathion and deltamethrin after sequential withdrawal of IRS with these insecticides at different times. Methods: Susceptibility tests on An. culicifacies were conducted using standard WHO methods and kits. Mortality, knockdown time and lethal times were calculated for An. culicifacies exposed to WHO prescribed diagnostic concentrations of different insecticide impregnated papers. Results: Persistence of DDT-resistance was observed even after 30 yr of its withdrawal from IRS. Similarly, persistence of malathion resistance was also observed after 9 yr of its withdrawal from IRS, while reversal of deltamethrin-resistance was observed very fast within 2-3 yr after its withdrawal from IRS in 2002. Interpretation & conclusion: Present data indicate that the quantum of reversion of insecticide resistance in a population is relative and depends on the genetic stability of the respective resistance genes in the mosquitoes. In the present study withdrawal of pyrethroid-IRS resulted in increased susceptibility against pyrethroids alone and was independent of existence of resistance to insecticides of other groups. This study emphasizes that appropriate rotation of different insecticides; including carbamates may prevent or delay the onset of resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Anopheles/genetics , Anopheles/physiology , DDT/toxicity , Genetics, Population , India , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/toxicity , Malathion/toxicity , Mortality , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Regression Analysis , Time Factors
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(7): 1009-1011, Nov. 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-534167

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax control is now being hampered by drug resistance. Orthologous Plasmodium falciparum genes linked to chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine chemoresistance have been identified in P. vivax parasites, but few studies have been performed. The goal of the present work is to characterise pvmdr1 and pvdhfr genes in parasite isolates from a Brazilian endemic area where no molecular investigation had been previously conducted. The pvmdr1 analysis revealed the existence of single (85.7 percent) and double (14.3 percent) mutant haplotypes, while the pvdhfr examination showed the presence of double (57.2 percent) and triple (42.8 percent) mutant haplotypes. The implications of these findings are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Genes, Protozoan/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Brazil , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Mutation/drug effects , Mutation/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 18(3): 8-14, July-Sept. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606784

ABSTRACT

To investigate the kdr (knockdown resistance) resistance-associated gene mutation and determine its frequency in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Haematobia irritans) populations, a total of 1,804 horn flies of 37 different populations from all Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast, and South) were molecular screened through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The kdr gene was not detected in 87.08 percent of the flies. However, the gene was amplified in 12.92 percent of the flies, of which 11.70 percent were resistant heterozygous and 1.22 percent were resistant homozygous. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was found only in 1 ranch with an excess of heterozygous. When populations were grouped by region, three metapopulations showed significant deviations of HWE (Central-West population, South population and Southeast population). This indicates that populations are isolated one from another and kdr occurrence seems to be an independent effect probably reflecting the insecticide strategy used by each ranch. Although resistance to pyrethroids is disseminated throughout Brazil, only 48 percent of resistant populations had kdr flies, and the frequency of kdr individuals in each of these resistant populations was quite low. But this study shows that, with the apparent exception of the Northeast region, the kdr mechanism associated with pyrethroid resistance occurs all over Brazil.


Com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência e determinar a frequência da mutação kdr (knock down resistance) em populações de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres) resistentes aos piretróides, foram analisados 1.804 indivíduos de 37 populações de todas as Regiões do Brasil. Com exceção da Região Nordeste, o kdr (knock down resistance gene) foi encontrado em populações de todas as regiões. A mutação não foi detectada em 87,08 por cento dos indivíduos. Entretanto, o gene foi amplificado de 12,92 por cento das moscas, das quais 11,70 por cento se mostraram heterozigotas resistentes e 1,22 por cento homozigotas resistentes. Em todas as populações verificou-se equilíbrio de acordo com a Lei de Hardy e Weinberg, exceto uma com excesso de heterozigotos. Entretanto, quando agrupamos diferentes populações numa metapopulação de acordo com a região geográfica, é possível observar um desvio nas populações Centro-Oeste, Sul e Sudeste, indicando isolamento populacional e que a ocorrência do kdr é provavelmente um efeito independente, talvez refletindo a estratégia de uso do inseticida de cada produtor. Apesar da resistência aos piretróides estar disseminada por todo o país, apenas 48 por cento das populações resistentes apresentaram o kdr, e a frequência de indivíduos kdr nas populações resistentes se mostrou bastante baixa. À exceção da Região Nordeste, o mecanismo de resistência ligado ao kdr ocorre em todo o país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mutation , Muscidae/genetics , Pyrethrins , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance/genetics
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(5): 673-677, Aug. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528071

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the development and stage specificity of physiological resistance to insecticides in a colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, which are vectors of bancroftian filariasis in India, after selection with deltamethrin. Resistance was selected by exposing the larvae to the concentration of deltamethrin that caused 50 percent mortality in the tested population (i.e., LC50). Under continuous selection pressure, the LC50 increased steadily in subsequent generations. The estimated LC50 for the F0 generation was 0.409 μg/L; the LC50 first displayed a substantial increase in the F5 generation (5.616 μg/L) and reached 121.902 μg/L in the F10 generation. The objective of this study was to establish a deltamethrin-resistant colony to develop a research programme that will study the evolution of physiological resistance patterns and stage-specific resistance responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae and adults under laboratory conditions. An approximately 298-fold increase in resistance was recorded after 10 generations, as evidenced by the resistance ratio (RR50). The progress and effect of the selection pressure in the adult stage was monitored with the World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnostic test. The mortality, as observed using the WHO diagnostic test, declined significantly from the F5 generation (85 percent) onwards and the highest rate of survival (65 percent) was observed in the F10 generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Culex/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Selection, Genetic , Culex/genetics , Elephantiasis, Filarial/transmission , India , Insect Vectors/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Larva/drug effects , Larva/growth & development , Selection, Genetic/genetics
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(7): 736-740, Nov. 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498386

ABSTRACT

The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. L. longipalpis s.l. is a species complex but until recently the existence of cryptic sibling species among Brazilian populations was a controversial issue. A fragment of paralytic (para), a voltage dependent sodium channel gene associated with insecticide resistance and courtship song production in Drosophila, was isolated and used as a molecular marker to study the divergence between two sympatric siblings of the L. longipalpis complex from Sobral, Brazil. The results revealed para as the first single locus DNA marker presenting fixed differences between the two species in this locality. In addition, two low frequency amino-acid changes in an otherwise very conserved region of the channel were observed, raising the possibility that it might be associated with incipient resistance in this vector. To the best of our knowledge, the present study represents the first population genetics analysis of insecticide resistance genes in this important leishmaniasis vector.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Communication , Courtship , Genes, Insect/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Psychodidae/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution/genetics , Genetic Markers , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/physiology , Species Specificity , Sodium Channels/genetics
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 10(2): 240-251, Apr. 15, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-499177

ABSTRACT

Advanced generations of different transgenic lines of indica basmati rice (Basmati-370) expressing two unrelated Bt genes, cry1Ac and cry2A were evaluated for resistance to Yellow Stem Borer (YSB) and Rice Leaf Folder (RLF) under field conditions compared to control lines over three years (2003-2005). Homozygous lines were selected and analyzed for insect resistance, morphological, physiochemical properties and risk assessment studies. After artificial infestation of target insects, the transgenic plants showed significant resistance. Data were recorded in terms of dead hearts and white heads at vegetative and flowering stage respectively. Transgenic lines showed up to 100 and 96 percent resistance against yellow stem borer at vegetative and flowering stages, respectively. Natural damage of rice leaf folder was also observed during the year 2005. The transgenic plants were 98 percent more resistant as compared to untransformed control plants. Variations in some morphological characteristics, e.g., the average number of tillers, plant height and maturity were also observed. Transgenic lines produced 40 percent more grains than control plants. All these characteristics were stably inherited in advanced generations. The transgenic lines had no significant effect on non-target insects (insects belonging to orders other than Lepidoptera and Diptera) in field or under storage conditions. Chances of pollen-mediated gene flow were recorded at a rate of 0.14 percent.


Subject(s)
Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins , Oryza/genetics , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Bacterial Toxins , Insect Control , Larva , Moths/pathogenicity , Oryza/parasitology , Risk Assessment , Safety
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Jul; 44(7): 584-90
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61259

ABSTRACT

A strain of T. chilonis, an egg parasitoid of lepidopteran pests tolerant to the most commonly used cyclodiene insecticide--endosulfan was developed in the laboratory. Tolerance to endosulfan was induced by exposing adult parasitoids sequentially from a sub-lethal concentration (0.004%) to the field recommended concentration (0.09%). The strain acquired tolerance to the insecticide after 341 generation of continuous exposure with LC50 values of 1074.96 ppm as compared to LC50 of (70.91 ppm) in susceptible strain. The genetical study showed that F1 crosses exhibited a semi-dominant response to endosulfan with degree of dominance value (D) of 0.58. The resistant factor of tolerant strain was 15.1 folds and of F1 cross were 8.53 folds over susceptible strain. Under net house conditions, the tolerant strain parasitised 56% Helicoverpa armigera eggs on potted cotton plants immediately after an insecticide spray, compared to 3% by the susceptible strain. High percentage survival of the immature stages of the tolerant strain proved their ability to withstand the insecticide load. Breakdown of insecticide tolerance in the strain occurred after four generations in absence of insecticide load. Use of the tolerant strain as a component of bio-intensive IPM in various crops where insecticide use is higher is discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Crosses, Genetic , Endosulfan/pharmacology , Hymenoptera/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Lepidoptera/parasitology , Ovum/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34323

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti, at the larval stage, has been subjected to the temephos selection in laboratory. The level of temephos resistance was detected in a microplate by biochemical assay using WHO bioassay technique. The major enzyme-based resistance mechanisms involved in temephos resistance include elevated nonspecific esterase, oxidase and insensitive acetylcholinesterase. After 19 generations of temephos selection, the selected group showed resistance ratios of 4.64 and 16.92, when compared with a non-selected group and the WHO susceptible strain, respectively. The two seperated forms, type form and the pale form of Ae. aegypti showed low levels of resistance to temephos after 19 generations of selection, with resistance ratios of 4.82 and 4.07 for the type form and the pale form, respectively; when compared with the non-selected strain, 17.58 and 14.84, when compared with the WHO susceptible strain. This showed that the type form could develop higher level resistance than the pale form. The esterase inhibitor (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, DEF) or synergist implicated detoxifying esterase in all the temephos selected groups and the presence of elevated esterase were confirmed by biochemical assay. There were significant differences in elevated esterase activity between the temephos selected groups and the non-selected group. However no significant difference between the type form and the pale form was found. Besides the elevated esterase, there was no change in monooxygenase activity and no evidence of insensitive acetylcholinesterease for all temephos selected groups. These results suggest that temephos resistance could be developed in Ae. aegypti under selection pressure and that the main mechanism is based only on esterase detoxification.


Subject(s)
Aedes/drug effects , Animals , Severe Dengue/prevention & control , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Selection, Genetic , Temefos/pharmacology
19.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 32(3): 387-95, sept. 1998. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-235068

ABSTRACT

El surgimiento de resistencia en poblaciones de insectos es uno de los efectos indeseables asociados al uso de insecticidas, y es un buen ejemplo del modo en que ocurren los procesos microevolutivos. En 1908 se documentó por primera vez la existencia de insectos resistentes a insecticidas. Ahora se conocen casos de resistencia en más de 500 especies de artrópodos. Los principales mecanismos que confieren resistencia a insecticidas son penetración cuticular reducida, metabolismo degradativo aumentado y reducción en la susceptibilidad de los sitios de acción. Los métodos de la biología molecular permiten identificar las bases moleculares de esos mecanismos. El propósito de este artículo es reseñar el conocimiento disponible acerca de la biología molecular de la resistencia a insecticidas: mutaciones puntuales en genes de acetilcolinesterasa (Drosophila melanogaster) y del receptor de GABA (varias especies), inserciones en genes de transferasas (D. melanogaster) y del citocromo P450 (D. melanogaster), amplificación de genes de esterasas (Myzus persicae y Culex pipiens / quinquefasciatus complex), cambios que afectan la expresión del gen del citocromo P450 (Musca domestica), y una mutación ligada al gen del canal de sodio dependiente de voltaje (M. domestica)


Subject(s)
Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/adverse effects , Insecta/drug effects , Pest Control/standards , Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Acetylcholinesterase/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Culicidae/drug effects , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/drug effects , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Drosophila melanogaster/drug effects , Esterases/drug effects , Esterases/genetics , Insect Control/standards , Insect Control/trends , Insecticides/classification , Houseflies , Oxidoreductases/drug effects , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Receptors, GABA/drug effects , Receptors, GABA/genetics , Transferases/drug effects , Transferases/genetics
20.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 50(2): 129-132, Mayo-ago. 1998.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-629289

ABSTRACT

Se seleccionó una cepa de campo de Culex quinquefasciatus resistente al insecticida piretroide lambdacialotrina, con el objetivo de poder utilizarla como cepa de referencia en el laboratorio, en los estudios de bioquímica y genética de la resistencia; evaluar la utilidad de este insectivida para el control de mosquitos en Cuba y determinar la resistencia cruzada a insectividas organofosforados, piretroides y un carbamato. Se obtuvo una alta resistencia a lambdacialotrina después de 6 generaciones de presión de selección. Se observó baja o ninguna resistencia cruzada a otros piretroides (deltametrina y cipermetrina), a un carbamato (propoxur) y a los insecticidas organofosforados (clorpirifos y metil-pirimifos); sin embargo, se observó una alta resistencia cruzada a malatión (organofosforado).


A field strain of Culex quinquefasciatus resistant to pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide was selected to be used as a reference strain in the laboratory for conducting studies of biochemistry and genetics of resistance, to evaluate the utility of this insecticide for the control of mosquitoes in Cuba, and to determine the cross resistance to organophosphate insecticides, pyrethroids and a carbamate. A hig resistance to lambdacyhalothrin was obtained after 6 generations of selective pressure. Lowe or no cross resistance to other pyrethroids (deltamethrin and cyper-methrin), to a carbamate (propoxur) and to the organophosphate insecticides (clorpirifos and methyl-pyrimifos) was observed. A high cross resistance to malathion (organophosphate) was detected.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex , Insecticides/antagonists & inhibitors , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pyrethrins/antagonists & inhibitors , Selection, Genetic , Biological Assay/methods , Biological Assay/statistics & numerical data , Cuba , Culex/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Larva/genetics , Nitriles
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