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1.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e623, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347490

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En 2017 se realizó la Campaña de Cobertura Universal, en que se aplicó el nuevo modelo de distribución de mosquiteros impregnados con insecticida de larga duración, después de las bajas coberturas encontradas en 2015. Objetivo: Caracterizar el nuevo modelo de distribución de mosquiteros con insecticida de larga duración, aplicado en la Campaña 2017, en la provincia de Tete, Mozambique. Métodos: Se realizóun estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, observacional y transversal. A partir de estadísticas univariadas, se estimó el porcentaje y sus intervalos de confianza del 95 % para los indicadores de registro correctos. Para encontrar la asociación entre los hogares registrados y los hogares de posesión, se calculó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson (r) y el coeficiente de determinación (R2). Resultados: De los 3 284 hogares evaluados en la etapa de registro, al 98 por ciento se les asignaron calcomanías, al 99 por ciento cupones, y el criterio de adjudicación de mosquiteros impregnados con insecticida de larga duración fue correcto en el 97 por ciento, respectivamente. De los hogares registrados, 1 086 (97 por ciento) tuvieron acceso a al menos un mosquitero impregnado con insecticida de larga duración y 1 041 (92,9 por ciento) durmieron con estos mosquiteros la noche anterior a la encuesta. Conclusiones: La Campaña de Cobertura Universal, utilizando el nuevo modelo de distribución de mosquiteros impregnados con insecticida de larga duración, asegura un adecuado registro de los hogares, lo que ha contribuido al aumento de su posesión y uso, y al avance hacia el logro de las metas de cobertura universal en la comunidad(AU)


Introduction: As part of the Universal Coverage Campaign implemented in 2017, a new model was applied for the distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide. Coverage had been found to be low in 2015. Objective: Characterize the new model for the distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide applied in the 2017 Campaign in Tete Province, Mozambique. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive quantitative study was conducted. Starting from univariate statistics, estimation was made of percentage and its 95 percent confidence intervals for correct registry indicators. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and the coefficient of determination (R2) were estimated to find the association between registered and possessing households. Results: Of the 3 284 households evaluated during the registration stage, 98 percent were given stickers and 99 percent received coupons. The criterion followed for the assignment of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide was correct in 97 percent , respectively. Of the households registered, 1 086 (97 percent) had access to at least one mosquito net impregnated with long-lasting insecticide, whereas 1 041 (92 percent) had slept under these mosquito nets the night before the survey. Conclusions: With the use of the new model for the distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide, the Universal Coverage Campaign ensures the appropriate registration of households, contributing to an increase in their possession and use, and the attainment of universal coverage goals in the community(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Unified Health System , Insecticides , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/standards , Health Promotion , Mozambique
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) may be effective for vector control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Their efficacy, however, has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the large-scale efficacy of LLINs on Lutzomyia longiflocosa entomological parameters up to two years post-intervention in the sub-Andean region of Colombia. METHODS A matched-triplet cluster-randomised study of 21 rural settlements, matched by pre-intervention L. longiflocosa indoor density was used to compare three interventions: dip it yourself (DIY) lambda-cyhalothrin LLIN, deltamethrin LLIN, and untreated nets (control). Sand fly indoor density, feeding success, and parity were recorded using CDC light trap collections at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. FINDINGS Both LLINs reduced significantly (74-76%) the indoor density and the proportion of fully engorged sand flies up to two years post-intervention without differences between them. Residual lethal effects of both LLINs and the use of all nets remained high throughout the two-year evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Anopheles/drug effects , Rural Population , Insecticide Resistance , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Colombia , Mosquito Vectors
3.
Afr. pop.stud ; 33(1): 4642-4654, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258275

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria remains endemic in Nigeria. The National Malaria Elimination Programmeutilizes the mass media to educate Nigerians to adopt insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) for malaria prevention and treatment respectively. This study investigated the influence of media messages on ITN and ACT use in Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Data was collected with a structured questionnaire from 480 respondents across 15 communities in Southeast Nigeria. Analysis was carried out on the data using percentages and logistic regression. Results: Results indicated high exposure to malaria messages, but limited effect on ITN and ACT use. Regression results showed that exposure to newspapers (OR=1.017); magazines (OR=1.639) and internet (OR=1.444) increased the odds of ITN use. Exposure to television messages(OR=1.707;P<0.001);billboards(OR=2.098;P<0.011);Internet(OR=1.805;P<0.011) and tertiary education(OR=8.454;p<0.000) positively predicted ACT use. Conclusions: Exposure to malaria messages has not resulted in population-wide adoption of ITNs and ACT. There is need for the National Malaria Elimination Programme to address factors that hinder ITN and ACT use


Subject(s)
Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Malaria , Mass Media , Nigeria
4.
Afr. j. health issues ; 2(2): 1-7, 2018. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1256877

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Notwithstanding the large-scale use of mosquito nets and peri and intra-residential sanitation measures to control malaria in DR Congo, malaria remains the first of the deadliest diseases. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of mosquito net use on malaria parasitaemia. Subjects and methods: We carried out an analytical cross-sectional study from 21 September to 17 December 2015. Two hundred and fifty-two subjects aged ? 5 years, living in the villages of Madula and Wanierukula(30 and 58 km from Kisangani), using a mosquito net in good condition every day, or not at all, were included. Pregnant women and subjects who took antimalarial treatment in the last two months before the study were excluded. Results: The mean malaria parasitaemia in subjects who used anet was 439.2 parasites / ?l, less than half of those who did not use a net (895.5 parasites / ?l). On the other hand, in those who slept after 22:00, the use of the net did not influence their malaria parasitaemia. Conclusion: The use of the mosquito net reduces asymptomatic parasitaemia in half in those who use netsin the outskirts of Kisangani. It shows certain limits, among other things, a not insignificant malaria parasitaemia, even in the subjects who use it regularly and a low efficiency in the subjects who used it after 22h00. It deserves to be reinforced by other prevention methods such as the spraying of residual insecticides


Subject(s)
Democratic Republic of the Congo , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Malaria , Mosquito Control , Mosquito Nets
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 108-115, Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND New brands of potential long lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and LLIN treatment kits require field evaluation before they are used in a vector control programme. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-efficacy, usage, washing practice and physical integrity of nets treated with LLIN treatment kit, ICON MAXX in a phase III field trial in Odisha state, India. METHODS A total of 300 polyester nets treated with ICON MAXX and 140 polyester nets treated conventionally with lambda-cyhalothrin CS 2.5% ITNs were distributed. The bio-efficacy was evaluated with WHO cone bioassay. The chemical analysis of netting pieces was done at the beginning, after 12 and 36 months of the trial. FINDINGS After one year of distribution of nets, the bioassay showed 100% mortality on both ITNs and ICON MAXX treated nets. At 36 months, the overall pass rate was 58.8% and the mean lambda-cyhalothrin content of LLINs was 34.5 mg ai/m2, showing a loss of 44.4% of the original concentration. CONCLUSION ICON MAXX treated LLIN was found to retain bio-efficacy causing 97% knockdown of Anopheles stephensi up to 30 months and met the WHOPES criteria. However, the desired bio-efficacy was not sustained up to 36 months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/statistics & numerical data , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Time Factors , Biological Assay , India , Laundering/methods , Malaria/prevention & control
6.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 95(5): 322­333-2017.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1259903

ABSTRACT

Objective:To examine the change in equity of insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership among 19 malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa before and after the launch of the Cover The Bed Net Gap initiative.Methods:To assess change in equity in ownership of at least one ITN by households from different wealth quintiles, we used data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Malaria Indicator Surveys. We assigned surveys conducted before the launch (2003­2008) as baseline surveys and surveys conducted between 2009­2014 as endpoint surveys. We did country-level and pooled multicountry analyses. Pooled analyses based on malaria transmission risk, were done by dividing geographical zones into either low- and intermediate-risk or high-risk. To assess changes in equity, we calculated the Lorenz concentration curve and concentration index (C-index).Findings:Out of the 19 countries we assessed, 13 countries showed improved equity between baseline and endpoint surveys and two countries showed no changes. Four countries displayed worsened equity, two favouring the poorer households and two favouring the richer. The multicountry pooled analysis showed an improvement in equity (baseline survey C-index: 0.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.10 to 0.11; and endpoint survey C-index: 0.00; 95% CI: −0.01 to 0.00). Similar trends were seen in both low- and intermediate-risk and high-risk zones.Conclusion:The mass ITN distribution campaigns to increase coverage, linked to the launch of the Cover The Bed Net Gap initiative, have led to improvement in coverage of ITN ownership across sub-Saharan Africa with significant reduction in inequity among wealth quintiles


Subject(s)
Africa South of the Sahara , Health Equity , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Malaria , Ownership
7.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e18, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842766

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine the resistance of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets against repeated washing and environmental factors by using bioassay tests. After 5, 15 and 21 washings with detergents and by using bioassay tests, the resistance of 40 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets was compared with that of 40 bed nets conventionally treated with one K-O tablet. To examine the long-term resistance, 31 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets were also distributed among villagers, and were re-collected to perform bioassay tests after 1, 2 and 5 years. In the first phase of this study, the insecticidal effect of the conventionally-treated nets significantly decreased due to repeated washings (P < 0.001); however, it was not significant regarding PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets (P = 0.92 in continuous exposure and P = 0.12 in mortality tests). In the long-term phase of this study, the time required for knockdown of PermaNet® 2.0 increased over the first 2 years and then decreased. In addition, the mortality rate decreased over the first 2 years and then increased. In conclusion, it seems that the technique used by the manufacturer for impregnation of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets has an acceptable efficiency in comparison with conventional techniques.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insecticides , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Biological Assay , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Laundering , Time Factors
8.
Rev. patol. trop ; 45(4): 349-359, dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-913304

ABSTRACT

Malaria is still the parasitic disease with the greatest worldwide impact. Recently in Brazil, almost all cases of the disease have been recorded in the Amazon region. The struggle against the vectors through insecticide treated nets associated with rapid diagnosis and treatment, is currently the main strategy. This study aimed to determine the protective effect of these devices on the incidence of malaria in one municipality in the Amazon, and was conducted with information from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and with the analysis of 10,050 slides of thick blood smears that were prepared and examined in loco. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine the normality of the data and the Mann-Whitney test was used for all comparisons of the analyzed variables. The significance level was set at p≤0.01. The results revealed a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in all analyzed variables, including the species of the parasite, the level and type of infection, and the gender and age of the diagnosed individual (p˂0.01). These findings confirmed that these devices are an important tool for disease control, presenting a new variable in combating the disease in the studied population. Therefore, the use of insecticide-treated nets is recommended as a preventive measure and guidance to the population regarding the correct way to use this device is required to avoid problems such as the loss of naturally acquired immunity, reduction in the protective effect of the device and the development of resistance to the insecticide.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Amazonian Ecosystem , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insect Vectors/classification
9.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2016. xiv, 60 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971508

ABSTRACT

Lutzomyia longipalpis é considerado um complexo de espécies capaz de produzirdiferentes quimiotipos de feromônios. A borrifação de inseticida residual para controle deflebotomíneos tem sido incapaz de impedir a propagação da Leishmaniose VisceralAmericana (LVA) no Brasil. Desta forma, novas abordagens com um bom custo-benefíciosão necessárias para controlar populações de Lu. Longipalpis. Mosquiteiros Impregnados deLonga Duração (MILD) oferecem uma nova estratégia de controle e pode ser umaalternativa para borrifação em locais de agregação, tais como galinheiros, fixados em suassuperfícies. O feromônio sintético (±) -9-metilgermacreno-B pode aumentar a atração de Lu.longipalpis em ambientes naturais. Neste estudo, testamos duas estratégias potenciais parao controle de Lu. longipalpis utilizando o feromônio sintético em conjunto com MILDs, com oefeito de "atrair e matar" o vetor no mesmo local. Este estudo foi realizado em GovernadorValadares, Minas Gerais, município de ocorrência de LVA Brasil. Experimentos de campoforam realizados em galinheiros experimentais para comparar a eficácia e efeito residual deinseticidas e mosquiteiros impregnados na mortalidade de Lu. longipalpis, associandoambos os tratamentos com feromônio sintético. Este estudo mostrou que o mosquiteiroimpregnado e a borrifação mataram aproximadamente 100% dos flebotomíneos em até 2meses após os tratamentos. Após 4 meses, o efeito letal do mosquiteiro impregnado reduziupara 69% e inseticida residual para 89%. Concluímos que o MILD é uma ferramentapotencial para matar flebotomíneos em locais de agregação, e o feromônio sintético podeaumentar a sua eficácia atraindo mais insetos para serem mortos pelo mosquiteiro. Maistestes de campo por um longo período são necessários para identificar a viabilidade detratamento de superfícies com mosquiteiros impregnados como parte do programa decontrole da leishmaniose visceral.


Lutzomyia longipalpis is considered a species complex with variability in pheromonesproduction. The residual insecticide spraying to control sand flies have been unable toprevent the spread of the American visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) across Brazil. In this way,new cost-effective approaches are needed to manage populations of the vector Lu.Longipalpis. Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) offer a new control strategy and can bean alternative of spraying on aggregation sites, such as chicken sheds, fixed in theirsurfaces. The synthetic pheromone (±) -9-methylgermacrene-B can increase attraction of Lu.longipalpis in natural environments. Here, we test two potential strategies for Lu. longipalpiscontrol using the synthetic pheromone in conjunction with LLINs, with the effect of “attractingand killing" the vector at the same site. This study was conducted in Governador Valadares,Minas Gerais, a municipality of the occurrence of AVL in Brazil. Field experiments wereperformed with experimental chicken sheds to compare the efficacy and residual effect ofinsecticide spraying and impregnated netting in Lu. Longipalpis mortality, associating bothtreatments with synthetic pheromone. This study showed that the impregnated netting andspraying killed approximately 100% of sandflies in up to 2 months after treatment. After 4months of exposure treatments, the lethal effect of netting reduced to approximately 69%and residual insecticide to 89%. We concluded that insecticide impregnated netting is apotential tool in killing sand flies in aggregation sites, and synthetic pheromone can increasetheir effectiveness attracting more sand flies to be killed by netting. More field trials for a longperiod are needed to identify the feasibility of treating surfaces with impregnated netting aspart of visceral leishmaniasis control program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis , Psychodidae , Pheromones , Insecticide-Treated Bednets
10.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(6): 493-497, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725812

ABSTRACT

Mosquito nets treated with long-lasting insecticide (LLINs), when used in compliance with guidelines of the World Health Organization, may be effective for malaria vector control. In 2012, approximately 150,000 LLINs were installed in nine municipalities in the state of Rondônia. However, no studies have assessed their impact on the reduction of malaria incidence. This study analyzed secondary data of malaria incidence, in order to assess the impact of LLINs on the annual parasite incidence (API). The results showed no statistically significant differences in API one year after LLIN installation when compared to municipalities without LLINs. The adoption of measures for malaria vector control should be associated with epidemiological studies and evaluations of their use and efficiency, with the aim of offering convincing advantages that justify their implementation and limit malaria infection in the Amazon Region.


O uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com inseticida de longa duração (MILD), quando obedecidas as orientações da Organização Mundial da Saúde, é medida de controle de vetores da malária que pode apresentar excelentes resultados. Em 2012 foram instalados aproximadamente 150.000 MILDs em nove municípios do estado de Rondônia. Concomitantemente não houve estudo de avaliação de impacto na redução da incidência. O presente estudo analisou dados secundários da incidência, na expectativa de avaliar o impacto dos MILDs na incidência parasitária anual (IPA). Os resultados estatísticos mostram que, no período de um ano após a instalação dos MILDs, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na variação da IPA em relação a outros municípios que não receberam os MILDs. A adoção de medidas de controle vetorial deve ser acompanhada de estudos epidemiológicos e de avaliação de uso e eficácia para oferecer subsídios mais robustos que justifiquem a adoção desta medida de controle da malária na Região Amazônica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Brazil/epidemiology , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Incidence , Malaria/epidemiology , Mosquito Control/instrumentation
12.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272074

ABSTRACT

T. b. rhodesiense is the acute form of African human trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness which is common in East and Southern Africa. Trypanosomiasis is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei and transmitted by tsetse flies (genus Glossina spp). Treatment of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa with trypanocidal drugs has been hindered by drug resistance and proves to be too expensive for many farmers. Tsetse control methods include aerial and ground spraying; sterile insect technique; and bait technology; including the use of insecticide-treated cattle (ITC). We compared two techniques of application of insecticides on cattle using a mathematical model: whole-body (WB); where insecticides are applied on the entire animals body and restricted application (RAP); where insecticides are applied on the legs; belly and ears of the animal


Subject(s)
Cattle , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , Tsetse Flies
13.
Ethiop. j. health sci ; 24(1): 76-84, 2014. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1261878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the feasibility of achieving widespread coverage with Insecticide-Treated Nets has to be preceded by learning how people value the Insecticide-Treated Nets and estimating the potential demand and willingness to pay so that sustainability of the intervention can beassured. The objective of this study was to determine willingness to pay for Insecticide-Treated Nets among households in Berehet District, Northern Ethiopia.METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods in fiverandomlyselected Kebeles fromJanuary-February 2012. Open ended contingent valuation technique with follow-up method was used. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and observation methods. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the association between dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: The average number of individuals per Insecticide-Treated Nets was 3.83.Nearly 68.5% persons had willingness to buy Insecticide-Treated Nets if they have access to these Nets. The median maximum price a person is willingness to pay for blue rectangular Insecticide-Treated Net was 20 ETB. People had willingness to pay 30 ETB for blue and white conical insecticide-treated nets.Working on knowledgeof malaria (OR=0.68, CI (0.47, 0.98; p<0.05), perceived benefit of Insecticide-Treated Nets (OR=0.28, CI (0.2-0.4; p<0.05), perceived susceptibility (OR=0.64(0.44-0.93; p<0.05) and perceived severity of malaria (OR=0.65(0.47-0.91, p<0.05) had significant association with a willingness to pay Insecticide-Treated Nets. Respondents who prefer kebele/place/ to buy Insecticide-Treated Net for rectangular shape had a significant association with a willingness to pay for Insecticide-Treated Nets (OR=1.92, CI= 1.07-3.92).CONCLUSIONS: Promotions, products, price and place had significant association with willingness to pay for Insecticide-Treated Nets. Designing a social marketing strategy helps ensure sustainable supply of Insecticide-Treated Nets and proper use of Insecticide-Treated Nets


Subject(s)
Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Malaria/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Social Marketing
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the contribution of poses screen pre-impregnated (PSP) installed at openings and eaves of dwellings in the reduction of malaria transmission in the commune of Aguégués in Bénin.@*METHODS@#The PSP were manufactured from preimpregnated Olyset Net. They were installed at windows, eaves and doors of 70 dwellings. 320 children aged 6-59 months were treated and 311 children were recruited in the control zone. Variables measured are: plasmodic index (IP), gametocyte index, parasite density (PD), fever, hemoglobin, anemia.@*RESULTS@#The global IP was 16.62% with PSP and 72.20% without PSP. Gametocyte index did not differ significantly between the treated zone (27.8) and the control zone (29.1). The total geometric mean of DP was 309 in the treated zone and 600 in the control zone. Hemoglobin level is 8.7 in the control zone and 9.5 in the treated zone. We noted a predominance of anemia in the control zone compared to the treated zone.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The PSP have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity in the commune of Aguégués.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Animals , Benin , Epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Fever , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Hemoglobins , Metabolism , Humans , Infant , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Malaria , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Male , Parasitemia , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Prevalence
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the larvicidal and pupicidal activites of Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).@*METHODS@#The larvicidal and pupucidal was determined at five different concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm. Percentage of larval mortality was assessed after 48 h.@*RESULTS@#Methanol extracts of S. trilobatum was found to be more susceptible against the larvae of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi at 250 ppm with a LC50 value of 125.43, 127.77 and 116.64 ppm respectively. Leaf methanol extracts of S. trilobatum also exhibited pupicidal and adult emergence properties.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggested that the leaf extracts of S. trilobatum showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Ae. Aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Consumer Behavior , Culex , Disease Reservoirs , Drug Resistance , Female , Ghana , Epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Insect Repellents , Pharmacology , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insecticides , Pharmacology , Larva , Malaria , Epidemiology , Male , Ovum , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Preparations , Pharmacology , Solanaceae , Chemistry , Urban Population
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine resistance status of Culex species to different class of insecticides and assess the major anti-mosquito strategies employed by urban households and their possible effects on malaria acquisition.@*METHODS@#Structured questionnaires were randomly administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics, measures that people use to prevent mosquito bites and their perception of where mosquitoes breed in their communities. Adult susceptibility assays were also carried out using WHO discriminating dosages of four insecticides from different chemical classes against Culex species.@*RESULTS@#Majority of respondents (54.75%) preferred the use of domestic insecticides in the form of aerosols and coils. Among households that used domestic insecticides, the use of coil was most frequent (62.9%) with a mean (95% CI) of 9.18 (8.99, 9.37) coils per week. Strong level of pyrethroid-resistance and multiple insecticide resistance in Culex species were also detected in some of the study sites.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The excessive use of domestic insecticides and high level of resistance in Culex species observed in the study area has implications for the ITN component of the nation's malaria control program in more subtle ways. People will lose interest in the use of ITN when it fails to protect users from bites of resistant Culex species. Excessive use of domestic insecticides may also select resistance in both malaria vectors and Culex species. On this account we recommend that nuisance mosquitoes must be controlled as part of malaria control programs to improve acceptance and utilization of ITN.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Animals , Consumer Behavior , Culex , Disease Reservoirs , Family Characteristics , Female , Ghana , Epidemiology , Humans , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insecticides , Malaria , Epidemiology , Male , Mosquito Control , Methods , Public Health , Pyrethrins , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144655

ABSTRACT

The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Initiative in the Indian subcontinent was launched in 2005 as a joint effort between the governments in the Region (India, Nepal and Bangladesh) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective is to reduce the annual VL incidence below 1/10,000 inhabitants by 2015 based on detection and treatment of VL cases and vector control. We present here a review of studies published in the period 2005-2010 on the efficacy of different tools to control Phlebotomus argentipes. The review indicates that the current indoor residual spraying (IRS) and novel vector control methods mainly insecticide treated nets (ITN) have low effectiveness for several reasons. Efforts to improve quality of IRS operations and further research on alternative and integrated vector control methods need to be promoted to reach the VL elimination target by 2015.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Nepal/epidemiology , Phlebotomus , World Health Organization
18.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 13(5): 1-10, 2012.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268438

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2007; Zimbabwe government distributed rectangular insecticide treated nets in Chipinge District; covering 100 of population at risk. However; malaria morbidity continued increasing from 492/1000 (49.2) in 2007 to 667/1000 (66.7) in 2008. A study was conducted in Chipinge District in May 2009 to investigate the use of rectangular insecticide treated nets and factors affecting their use in malaria prevention: METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Quantitative and qualitative methods were triangulated to assess utilisation of rectangular insecticide treated nets. Five interviewers administered 380 questionnaires to senior matriarchs selected from five wards; with 19;667 sampling frame (19;667/380 = 52). Five focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences; while qualitative data were summarised into thematic areas. RESULTS:Approximately; 95 of respondents knew that malaria was caused by mosquito bites. Perception of nets as malaria preventative measure was high (88). Utilization of rectangular insecticide treated nets was low (33) with 81of those not using them expressed difficulty procedures of mounting them and unavailability of related accessories as main reasons. People preferred conical insecticide treated nets (84) compared to rectangular insecticide treated nets (15). Conclusion: Although the Chipinge people accepted insecticide treated nets for malaria prevention; procedure of mounting rectangular insecticide treated nets and accessing related accessories prevented consistent use.In order for insecticide treated net project to have impact on malaria prevention; priority should be given to conical shape or rectangular shape with adequate accessories like wire nails and strings or twine


Subject(s)
Insecticide-Treated Bednets/statistics & numerical data , Malaria , Mosquito Control
19.
S. Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 27(3): 116-125, 2012.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1270694

ABSTRACT

This paper presents data on the pattern of knowledge of caregivers; bed-net coverage and the role of a rural district healthcare system; and their implications for malaria transmission; treatment; prevention and control in Chikhwawa; southern Malawi; using multi-level logistic regression modelling with Bayesian estimation. The majority of caregivers could identify the main symptoms of malaria; that the mosquito was the vector; and that insecticide-treated nets (ITN) could be used to cover beds as an effective preventative measure; although cost was a prohibitive factor. Use of bed nets displayed significant variation between communities. Groups that were more knowledgeable on malaria prevention and symptoms included young mothers; people who had attended school; wealthy individuals; those residing closest to government hospitals and health posts; and communities that had access to a health surveillance assistant (HSA). HSAs should be trained on malaria intervention programmes; and tasked with the responsibility of working with village health committees to develop community-based malaria intervention programmes. These programmes should include appropriate and affordable household improvement methods; identification of high-risk groups; distribution of ITNs and the incorporation of larval control measures; to reduce exposure to the vector and parasite. This would reduce the transmission and prevalence of malaria at community level


Subject(s)
Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Knowledge , Malaria , Rural Health , Therapeutics
20.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 5(3): 1068-1074, 2012. tab
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1259165

ABSTRACT

Contexte. Le paludisme est un probleme majeur de sante publique en Republique Democratique du Congo. L'utilisation de la moustiquaire impregnee d'insecticide (MII) compte parmi les options les plus efficaces retenues pour lutter contre ce fleau. Cette pratique est encore faible dans la communaute et loin d'approcher le seuil de 60fixe par le sommet d'Abuja. Objectif. Identifier les determinants de l'utilisation de la MII par les enfants de moins de cinq ans a Kinshasa Materiel et methodes. Etude de type transversale; conduite entre le 05 et le 20 aout 2008; dans la zone de sante de Lemba a Kinshasa; sur un echantillon de 299 menages. L'unite statistique retenue dans l'etude etait le menage disposant d'au moins un enfant de moins de cinq ans. La prevalence de l'utilisation de la MII a ete estimee; et la regression logistique a permis d'en identifier les determinants. Resultats. La frequence d'utilisation de la MII dans la population d'etude etait de 42;5(IC95: 36;9 - 48;1). Les determinants de son utilisation identifies etaient : la taille du menage (p= 0;032); l'utilisation d'alternatives a la MII (OR : 0;27 ; IC95:0;15 - 0;48 ; p 0;001) ; l'exposition aux p


Subject(s)
Child , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Malaria
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