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1.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e623, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347490

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En 2017 se realizó la Campaña de Cobertura Universal, en que se aplicó el nuevo modelo de distribución de mosquiteros impregnados con insecticida de larga duración, después de las bajas coberturas encontradas en 2015. Objetivo: Caracterizar el nuevo modelo de distribución de mosquiteros con insecticida de larga duración, aplicado en la Campaña 2017, en la provincia de Tete, Mozambique. Métodos: Se realizóun estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, observacional y transversal. A partir de estadísticas univariadas, se estimó el porcentaje y sus intervalos de confianza del 95 % para los indicadores de registro correctos. Para encontrar la asociación entre los hogares registrados y los hogares de posesión, se calculó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson (r) y el coeficiente de determinación (R2). Resultados: De los 3 284 hogares evaluados en la etapa de registro, al 98 por ciento se les asignaron calcomanías, al 99 por ciento cupones, y el criterio de adjudicación de mosquiteros impregnados con insecticida de larga duración fue correcto en el 97 por ciento, respectivamente. De los hogares registrados, 1 086 (97 por ciento) tuvieron acceso a al menos un mosquitero impregnado con insecticida de larga duración y 1 041 (92,9 por ciento) durmieron con estos mosquiteros la noche anterior a la encuesta. Conclusiones: La Campaña de Cobertura Universal, utilizando el nuevo modelo de distribución de mosquiteros impregnados con insecticida de larga duración, asegura un adecuado registro de los hogares, lo que ha contribuido al aumento de su posesión y uso, y al avance hacia el logro de las metas de cobertura universal en la comunidad(AU)


Introduction: As part of the Universal Coverage Campaign implemented in 2017, a new model was applied for the distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide. Coverage had been found to be low in 2015. Objective: Characterize the new model for the distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide applied in the 2017 Campaign in Tete Province, Mozambique. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive quantitative study was conducted. Starting from univariate statistics, estimation was made of percentage and its 95 percent confidence intervals for correct registry indicators. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and the coefficient of determination (R2) were estimated to find the association between registered and possessing households. Results: Of the 3 284 households evaluated during the registration stage, 98 percent were given stickers and 99 percent received coupons. The criterion followed for the assignment of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide was correct in 97 percent , respectively. Of the households registered, 1 086 (97 percent) had access to at least one mosquito net impregnated with long-lasting insecticide, whereas 1 041 (92 percent) had slept under these mosquito nets the night before the survey. Conclusions: With the use of the new model for the distribution of mosquito nets impregnated with long-lasting insecticide, the Universal Coverage Campaign ensures the appropriate registration of households, contributing to an increase in their possession and use, and the attainment of universal coverage goals in the community(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Unified Health System , Insecticides , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/standards , Health Promotion , Mozambique
2.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2407, jan-jun. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in French | ID: biblio-1283532

ABSTRACT

As abelhas exercem essencial atividade polinizadora, além de fundamentais na manutenção ecossistêmica, também polinizam diversos sistemas agrícolas. São crescentes os relatos sobre o desaparecimento de abelhas, possivelmente em decorrência do intenso uso de agrotóxicos, os quais não possuem seus efeitos sobre a biodiversidade, de fato, conhecidos. A maioria dos estudos nessa área é voltada para a compreensão dos efeitos de inseticidas, porém, os herbicidas também podem influenciar na mortandade dos insetos polinizadores. Referente aos herbicidas paraquat e diquat, amplamente utilizados na agricultura, pouco se conhece sobre os efeitos que atingem organismos não-alvo, como as abelhas. Este trabalho avaliou a mortalidade das abelhas Scaptotrigona bipunctata submetidas aos herbicidas paraquat e diquat, via contato e ingestão. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 com tratamento adicional, em três repetições. Os tratamentos foram: dois herbicidas (paraquat e diquat), duas doses (50 e 100%) e um tratamento adicional sem exposição ao produto (controle). Cada parcela consistiu em dez indivíduos, expostos aos tratamentos e incubados à 28oC durante 72 horas em ambiente controlado. Para o experimento de ingestão, ambas as doses dos herbicidas resultaram em maior mortalidade de abelhas em relação à condição controle. Ademais, a dose 100% resultou em maior toxicidade comparada à dose 50%. Para a contaminação via contato, não houve aumento na mortalidade das abelhas perante a exposição. Conclui-se que a contaminação por ingestão com os herbicidas paraquat e diquat pode afetar a sobrevivência das abelhas sem ferrão, podendo em longo prazo alterar a viabilidade e a dinâmica das populações das abelhas Scaptotrigona bipunctata.(AU)


Bees have essential pollinating activities and are fundamental to the maintenance of the ecosystem since they also pollinate various agricultural systems. There are growing reports about the disappearance of bees, possibly due to the intense use of pesticides, which do not have their effects on biodiversity fully known. Most studies in this area are aimed at understanding the effects of insecticides; however, herbicides can also influence the mortality of pollinating insects. Regarding the paraquat and diquat herbicides, widely used in agriculture, little is known about the effects on non-target organisms, such as bees. This work evaluated the mortality of Scaptotrigona bipunctata bees submitted to the paraquat and diquat herbicides via contact and ingestion. Two experiments were conducted in a randomized block design in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme with additional treatment, in three replications. The treatments were: two herbicides (paraquat and diquat), two doses (50 and 100%), and an additional treatment without contamination (control). Each plot consisted of ten individuals exposed to treatments and incubated at 28 ºC for 72 hours in a controlled environment. For the ingestion experiment, both doses of the herbicides resulted in higher bee mortality when compared to the control condition. In addition, the 100% dose resulted in greater toxicity when compared to the 50% dose. For contact contamination, there was no increase in bee mortality on exposure. It can be concluded that contamination by ingestion of paraquat and diquat can affect the survival of stingless bees, which in the long term may alter the viability and population dynamics of Scaptotrigona bipunctata bees.(AU)


Las abejas ejercen una actividad polinizadora esencial, además de ser fundamentales en el mantenimiento de los ecosistemas, también polinizan varios sistemas agrícolas. Cada vez hay más informes sobre la desaparición de abejas, posiblemente como consecuencia del uso intenso de pesticidas, que no tienen sus efectos sobre la biodiversidad, de hecho, conocidos. La mayoría de los estudios en esta área tienen como objetivo comprender los efectos de los insecticidas, sin embargo, los herbicidas también pueden influir en la mortalidad de los insectos polinizadores. Con respecto a los herbicidas paraquat e diquat, ampliamente utilizados en la agricultura, se sabe poco sobre los efectos que afectan a organismos no objetivo, como las abejas. Esta investigación evaluó la mortalidad de abejas Scaptotrigona bipunctata sometidas a herbicidas paraquat y diquat, por contacto e ingestión. Dos experimentos fueron conducidos en el delineamiento de bloques casualizados en esquema factorial 2 x 2 con tratamiento adicional, en tres repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron: dos herbicidas (paraquat y diquat) dos dosis (50 y 100%) y un tratamiento adicional sin exposición al producto (control). Cada parcela estuvo compuesta por diez individuos, expuestos a tratamientos e incubados a 28ºC durante 72 horas en ambiente controlado. Para el experimento de ingestión, ambas dosis de herbicidas resultaron en mayor mortalidad de abejas en comparación con la condición de control. Además, la dosis del 100% resultó en mayor toxicidad en comparación con la dosis del 50%. Para la contaminación por contacto, no hubo un aumento en la mortalidad de las abejas debido a la exposición. Se concluye que la contaminación por ingestión con herbicidas paraquat y diquat puede afectar la supervivencia de las abejas sin aguijón, lo que a largo plazo puede alterar la viabilidad y la dinámica poblacional de las abejas Scaptotrigona bipunctata.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees , Biodiversity , Diquat/toxicity , Herbicides/toxicity , Insecticides , Mortality
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0576-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155533

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever. Recently, the use of plant-sourced larvicides has gained momentum. METHODS: The hydroethanolic extracts and fractions ofOcotea nutansleaves and stems were bioassayed to determine the larvicidal efficacy of these samples. RESULTS: S-HEX (hexane fraction from the crude stem extract) demonstrated high potential for controlling third-stage larvae, with an LC50 of 14.14 µg.mL-1 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the treated larvae). CONCLUSIONS Extracts from O. nutans were effective against third-stage larvae ofA. aegyptiafter 24 h of exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Mosquito Vectors , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Ocotea , Larva
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.


Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00922020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143892

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite their widespread usage, synthetic insecticides and larvicides are harmful for controlling disease-causing mosquitoes owing to the development of resistance. The leaves of Eugenia astringens, Myrrhinium atropurpureum, and Neomitranthes obscura were collected from Marambaia and Grumari restingas. The safety and larvicidal efficacy of their extracts were tested against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar. METHODS: The dry leaves were subjected to static maceration extraction using 90% methanol. A. aegypti and S. pertinax larvae were exposed to 7.5, 12.5, and 25.0 µL/mL of the extracts (n= 30). The larvicidal activity after 24 h and 48 h, and the mortality, were determined. The median lethal concentration (CL50) was estimated by a Finney's probit model. RESULTS: M. atropurpureum and E. astringens extracts exhibited the strongest larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. M. atropurpureum extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of over 50% and 100% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively (CL50 = 11.10 and 9.68 ppm, respectively). E. astringens extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of 50% and 63.33% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. High concentrations of N. obscura extracts induced a maximum mortality of 46.66% in A. aegypti larvae after 48 h (CL50= 25 ppm). The larvae of S. pertinax showed 100% mortality following exposure to all the plant extracts at all the tested concentrations after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of M. atropurpuerum exhibited the strongest larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. The larvae of S. pertinax were sensitive to all the extracts at all the tested concentrations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Simuliidae , Aedes , Culex , Myrtaceae , Insecticides/pharmacology , Anopheles , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Larva
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200146, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143889

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the major vector of arboviruses that causes serious public health concerns in tropical and subtropical countries. METHODS: We examined the larvicidal activity of 1,2-diphenyldiselenide [(PhSe)2] and 1,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) diselenide [(p-ClPhSe)2] and determine its toxicity to different non-target organisms. RESULTS: (PhSe)2 and (p-ClPhSe)2 killed Ae. aegypti L3 larvae with LC50/24h values of 65.63 µM (20.48 mg/L) and 355.19 µM (135.33 mg/L), respectively. (PhSe)2 was not toxic to the four model organisms. CONCLUSIONS: (PhSe)2 is a larvicidal compound with selective action against Ae. aegypti larvae. The mechanisms of action of (PhSe)2 under field conditions remain to be investigated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Insecticides , Plant Extracts , Mosquito Vectors , Larva
7.
Acta amaz ; 50(4): 355-362, out. - dez. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146381

ABSTRACT

A deltametrina é um inseticida piretróide amplamente utilizado no controle de pragas na agricultura brasileira. O uso intensivo e desordenado desse pesticida na Amazônia pode carreá-lo aos ecossistemas aquáticos de várias maneiras, mas principalmente por escoamento e lixiviação. O presente estudo foi concebido para determinar a toxicidade aguda (LC50) de um pesticida à base de deltametrina (PBD) e caracterizar seus efeitos sobre dois biomarcadores bioquímicos, a glutationa-S-transferase (GST) e a acetilcolinesterase (AChE), em tecidos do peixe elétrico Microsternarchus cf. bilineatus. Os peixes foram expostos a concentrações de 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 µg L-1 de PBD por até 96 horas. Para cada tratamento, foi analisada a atividade absoluta das enzimas GST (músculo e fígado) e AChE (músculo e tecido nervoso). A CL50-96 h para Microsternarchus cf. bilineatus foi de 2,15 µg L-1, a menor concentração registrada para um peixe amazônico até o momento. Nenhuma das concentrações testadas deste inseticida afetou a atividade da AChE para o período de exposição testado. Um aumento significativo da atividade de GST no músculo foi detectado somente para as concentrações de 2 e 3 µg L-1. (AU)


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Biomarkers , Glutathione S-Transferase pi , Insecticides
8.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(2, cont.): e2301, jul-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1129392

ABSTRACT

Stingless bees Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Meliponinae) are pollinators of native and cultivated plants and are therefore in contact with areas contaminated by pesticides. These native bees were evaluated for changes in gene expression of esterase isoenzymes (EST) and peptides after contamination by contact with growth regulators from insecticides Gallaxy® EC 100, Natuneem and Azamax after 48, 120, 168 hours, 30 and 60 days. EST-4 presented an increase in relative activity after contamination with Gallaxy® EC 100 at 6.2 × 10-2 g a.i./mL; Natuneem at 7.5 × 10-5 g a.i./mL; and Azamax at 1.2 × 10-3 g a.i/mL after 60 days, 48 h, and 60 days, respectively. Inhibition of the relative activity of EST-4 was detected after contamination by Natuneem at 1.5 × 10-5 g a.i./mL and Azamax at 1.2 × 10-3 g a.i./mL after 48 h and 30 days, respectively. The insecticide growth regulators promoted changes in protein synthesis of T. angustula adult workers resulting in an increase or decrease in the relative intensity of bands, and the appearance of new peptides when compared with controls. Changes in protein synthesis have been identified mainly after long period of contamination, 120 and 168 h with the IGRs Gallaxy® EC 100 (at 0.78 and 1.25 g a.i./mL), Azamax (at 1.2 × 10-3 and 6 × 10-3 g a.i./mL), and Natuneem (at 7.5 × 10-5 and 3 × 10-3 g a.i./mL), and at 60 days with Natuneem (at 1.5 × 10-5 g a.i./mL).(AU)


Abelhas sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Meliponinae) são polinizadores de plantas nativas e cultivadas e, portanto, estão em contato com áreas contaminadas por biopesticidas. Essas abelhas nativas foram avaliadas quanto a alterações na expressão gênica de isoenzimas esterases (EST) e peptídeos após contaminação por contato com reguladores de crescimento de inseticidas Gallaxy® EC 100, Natuneem e Azamax após 48, 120, 168 horas, 30 e 60 dias. A EST-4 apresentou um aumento na atividade relativa após a contaminação com Gallaxy® 100 EC em 6,2 × 10-2 g i.a./mL, Natuneem em 7,5 × 10-5 g i.a./mL e Azamax em 1,2 × 10-3 g i.a./mL após 60 dias, 48 h e 60 dias, respectivamente. A inibição da atividade relativa de EST-4 foi detectada após contaminação pelo Natuneem a 1,5 × 10-5 g i.a./mL e Azamax a 1,2 × 10-3 g i.a./mL após 48 he 30 dias, respectivamente. Os reguladores de crescimento de inseticidas promoveram alterações na síntese protéica de trabalhadores adultos de T. angustula, resultando em um aumento ou diminuição da intensidade relativa das bandas e no aparecimento de novos peptídeos em comparação com os controles. Alterações na síntese de proteínas foram identificadas principalmente após um longo período de contaminação, 120 e 168 h com o IGRs Gallaxy® EC 100 (0,78 e 1,25 g i.a./mL), Azamax (1,2 × 10-3 e 6 × 10-3 g i.a./mL) e Natuneem (7,5 × 10-5 e 3 × 10-3 g i.a./mL) e 60 dias com Natuneem (1,5 × 10-5 g i.a./mL).(AU)


Las abejas sin aguijón Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Meliponinae) son polinizadores de plantas nativas y cultivadas y, por lo tanto, están en contacto con áreas contaminadas por bioplaguicidas. Estas abejas nativas fueron evaluadas para detectar cambios en la expresión génica de isoenzimas esterasa (EST) y péptidos después de la contaminación por contacto con los reguladores del crecimiento insecticidas Gallaxy® EC 100, Natuneem y Azamax después de 48, 120, 168 horas, 30 y 60 días. EST-4 mostró un aumento en la actividad relativa después de la contaminación con Gallaxy® 100 EC a 6.2 × 10-2 g i.a./mL, Natuneem a 7.5 × 10-5 g i.a./mL y Azamax a 1.2 × 10-3 g i.a./mL después de 60 días, 48 hy 60 días, respectivamente. La inhibición de la actividad relativa de EST-4 se detectó después de la contaminación por Natuneem a 1.5 × 10-5 g i.a./mL y Azamax a 1.2 × 10-3 g i.a./mL después de 48 hy 30 días. respectivamente. Los insecticidas reguladores del crecimiento promovieron cambios en la síntesis de proteínas de trabajadores adultos de T. angustula, resultando en un aumento o disminución de la intensidad relativa de las bandas y en la aparición de nuevos péptidos en relación a los controles. Los cambios en la síntesis de proteínas se identificaron principalmente después de un largo período de contaminación, 120 y 168 h con IGRs Gallaxy® EC 100 (0.78 y 1.25 g i.a./mL), Azamax (1.2 × 10-3 y 6 × 10-3 g i.a./mL) y Natuneem (7.5 × 10-5 y 3 × 10-3 g i.a./mL) y 60 días con Natuneem (1.5 × 10-5 g i.a./mL).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides , Plant Growth Regulators , Bees , Esterases , Insecticides
9.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1099-1115, 01-06-2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147209

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the topical, residual and agronomic effects of the insecticides Voliam Targo, Benevia, Lorsban 480 BR, Curbix 200 SC, Sperto, Verismo, Polytrin 400/40 CE, Curyom 550 EC, Polo 500 SC and Vertimec 18 EC in the control of the berry borer of coffee (H. hampei). The experimental design was completely randomized and four replicates were used in the trials. In the laboratory, a direct spray was sprayed on the insect (topical effect) and applied to the fruits of the coffee (residual contamination). In both experiments, each plot consisted of a Petri dish lined with filter paper, 10 fruits in the green stage and 10 adult females of the berry borer, originating from artificial breeding. Two field experiments were carried out at Campus Glória Experimental Farm. The first one was carried out with the objective of evaluating the residual effect of the insecticides on artificial infestation of the berry borer after applying the products to fruits at the beginning of maturation. The number of perforated fruits, dead females, number of eggs and larvae were evaluated in laboratory and field experiments. The second field experiment had as objective to evaluate the effectiveness in controlling the natural population of the berry borer. Two applications were performed with a 30-day interval, using a motorized turbocharger. The number of fruits bored in 50 fruits per plot and percentage of seeds bored in a sample of 250 seeds per replicate were evaluated. In the laboratory, all insecticides provided mortality higher than 80% in topical application and greater than 73% by residual contamination, except the insecticide Polo 500 SC, which provided a 55% mortality. In the field experiment with artificial infestation, all the insecticides differed from the control, maintaining residual control until 30 days after application and with mortality higher than 70%, reaching up to 100% of mortality. In the test with natural berry borer females infestation the insecticides differed from the control in all evaluated parameters, showed efficacy higher than 75% at 35 days after the second application. The insecticides Voliam Targo, Lorsban 480 BR, Curbix 200 SC, Sperto, Polytrin 400/40 CE and Verismo presented the best control results, being indicated for use in the management of the berry borer of coffee.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar em laboratório e em campo os efeitos tópicos, residuais e de eficiência agronômica dos inseticidas Voliam Targo, Benevia, Lorsban 480 BR, Curbix 200 SC, Sperto, Verismo, Polytrin 400/40 CE, Curyom 550 EC, Polo 500 SC e Vertimec 18 EC no controle da broca do café (H. hampei). O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado e quatro repetições foram utilizados nos ensaios. No laboratório foi feita uma pulverização direta sobre o inseto (efeito tópico) e uma aplicação nos frutos do café (contaminação residual). Em ambos os experimentos, cada parcela consistiu de uma placa Petri forrada com papel de filtro, 10 frutos no estágio verde e 10 fêmeas adultas da broca, originários de criação artificial. Dois experimentos de campo foram realizados na Fazenda Experimental Campus Glória. O primeiro foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito residual dos inseticidas em infestação artificial da broca após a aplicação dos produtos em frutos no início da maturação. Foram avaliados o número de frutos perfurados, fêmeas mortas, número de ovos e larvas nos experimentos de laboratório e campo. O segundo experimento de campo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia no controle da população natural da broca. Foram realizadas duas aplicações com intervalo de 30 dias, utilizando-se um turbo pulverizador motorizado. Foram avaliados o número de frutos perfurados em 50 frutos por parcela e porcentagem de sementes brocadas em uma amostra de 250 sementes por repetição. No laboratório, todos os inseticidas proporcionaram mortalidade superior a 80% em aplicação tópica e maior de 73% por contaminação residual, exceto o inseticida Polo 500 SC, que proporcionou 55% de mortalidade. No experimento de campo com infestação artificial, todos os inseticidas diferiram da testemunha, mantendo o controle residual até 30 dias após a aplicação e com mortalidade superior a 70%, chegando a até 100% de mortalidade. No teste com infestação natural da broca os inseticidas diferiram da testemunha em todos os parâmetros avaliados, mostraram eficácia superior a 75% aos 35 dias após a segunda aplicação. Os inseticidas Voliam Targo, Lorsban 480 BR, Curbix 200 SC, Sperto, Polytrin 400/40 CE e Verismo apresentaram os melhores resultados de controle, sendo indicados para uso no manejo da broca do café.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera , Farms , Insecticides , Control
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 341-352, 01-03-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146253

ABSTRACT

Essential oils have emerged as an alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of stored grain pests. The toxicity and repellency of the essential oils of four basil cultivars and three basil hybrids and the monoterpenes linalool, citral, and (E)-methyl cinnamate were evaluated in the stored grain pests Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophillus zeamais. The essential oils of the cultivar Genovese and the hybrid 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to C. maculatus. Conversely, the essential oils of the cultivar Sweet Dani and the hybrid 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to S. zeamais. Among the monoterpenes, (E)-methyl cinnamate was the most toxic to both pests, taking 0.14 and 0.34 µ L.mL-1 to kill 50% of the C. maculatus and S. zeamais populations, respectively. All essential oils from cultivars, hybrids, and monoterpenes were repellent to S. zeamais, except for (E)-methyl cinnamate. For C. maculatus, this effect was lower, being citral the most repellent compound. Results demonstrate the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of O. basilicum and its monoterpenes in the control of stored grain pests.


Os óleos essenciais surgem como alternativa aos inseticidas sintéticos no controle das pragas de grãos armazenados. A toxicidade e a repelência dos óleos essenciais de quatro cultivares e três híbridos de manjericão e dos monoterpenos linalol, citral e (E)-cinamato de metila foram avaliadas nas pragas de grãos armazenados Callosobruchus maculatus e Sitophillus zeamais. Os óleos essenciais da cultivar Genovese e do híbrido 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' foram mais tóxicos para C. maculatus. Já para S. zeamais, os óleos essenciais das cultivar Sweet Dani e do híbrido 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' apresentaram maior toxicidade. Dentre os monoterpenos, o (E)-cinamato de metila foi o mais tóxico para ambas as pragas. Foram necessários 0,14 e 0,34 µ L.mL-1 para matar 50% da população de C. maculatus e S. zeamais. Todos os óleos essenciais das cultivares, dos híbridos e dos monoterpenos foram repelentes a S. zeamais, com exceção do (E)-cinamato de metila. Já para C. maculatus, este efeito foi reduzido, sendo o citral o composto mais repelente. Nos resultados demonstram o potencial inseticida dos óleos essenciais de O. basilicum e seus monoterpenos para o controle de pragas de grãos armazenados.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Ocimum basilicum , Lamiaceae , Insecticides
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(3): 155-157, Mar. 2020.
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135605

ABSTRACT

An approach for the diagnosis of an abamectin outbreak in calves in the field is described and discussed. In a Midwestern Brazilian property, nine out of a 52 newborn calves were affected and died, making up for morbidity, mortality, and lethality ratios of 17.3%, 17.3%, and 100%, respectively. Major clinical signs included tremors in various muscle groups, inability to stand, and difficult, wheezing breathing. Each affected calf had been treated subcutaneously with abamectin (0.4mg/kg/body weight). No lesions were found at necropsy or at histological examination. Major diseases of newborn calves were included in the differential diagnosis.(AU)


Uma abordagem para o diagnóstico de um surto de abamectina em bezerros a campo é descrita e discutida. Numa propriedade do Centro-Oeste brasileiro, nove de um lote de 52 bezerros de 3 dias de idade foram afetados e morreram, perfazendo quocientes de morbidade, mortalidade e letalidade, respectivamente, de 17,3%, 17,3% e 100%. Os principais sinais clínicos incluíam tremores em vários grupos musculares, incapacidade em se manter em pé, e respiração difícil e estertorosa. Cada bezerro afetado havia sido tratado por via subcutânea com abamectina, na dose de 0,4mg/kg/peso corporal. Não foram encontradas lesões na necropsia, nem no exame histológico. As principais doenças de bezerros recém-nascidos foram incluídas no diagnóstico diferencial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/diagnosis , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/veterinary , Acaricides/poisoning , Insecticides/poisoning , Anthelmintics/poisoning
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 73-80, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089279

ABSTRACT

Abstract Stresses can be caused by multiple biotic and abiotic factors and their effects can affect both the biology and the immune system of insects. American cockroach - Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattaria: Blattidae) -besides being an excellent model species, has great medical importance because it can act as a mechanical vector of several pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of starvation, dehydration and both stresses on weight, and total and differential haemocyte count in P. americana adults. Each specimen was isolated in glass flasks containing or not food and/or water. They were weighed periodically. Another group received water for 24 h after the end of stress period. In the immunologic bioassay, we counted their haemocytes after the final weighing. All stresses reduced the insect weight, especially when the stresses were combined. Females of the control group gained weight and males had it unaltered. Different stress conditions and time did not influence on total haemocyte count. Insects without food and water had the proportion of prohaemocytes increased and plasmatocytes decreased. This study can serve as a basis of further studies of bioecology, behaviour and the ability of resisting insecticides, besides serving as a model to studies in other insect species.


Resumo Os estresses podem ser causados por múltiplos fatores bióticos e abióticos e seus efeitos podem afetar tanto a biologia como o sistema imune dos insetos. A barata-americana - Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattaria: Blattidae) - além de ser uma excelente espécie modelo, tem grande importância médica, pois pode atuar como vetor mecânico de diversos patógenos. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a influência da inanição, desidratação e ambos os estresses sobre o peso e o número total e diferencial de hemócitos em adultos de P. americana. Cada espécime foi isolado em frascos de vidro contendo ou não alimento e/ou água. Eles foram pesados periodicamente. Outro grupo recebeu água por 24 h após o término do período de estresse. Nos ensaios imunológicos, foram contados os seus hemócitos após a última pesagem. Todos os estresses reduziram o peso dos insetos, especialmente quando os estresses foram combinados. As fêmeas do grupo controle ganharam peso e os machos tiveram seu peso inalterado. As diferentes condições de estresse e tempo não influenciaram no número total de hemócitos. Os insetos sem alimento e água tiveram a proporção de pró-hemócitos aumentada e a de plasmatócitos reduzida. Esse estudo pode servir como base para estudos posteriores de bioecologia, comportamento e da habilidade de resistir aos inseticidas químicos, além de servir como modelo para estudos em outras espécies de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Periplaneta , Cockroaches , Insecticides , Diet , Immune System
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 142-148, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103091

ABSTRACT

The research of new substances capable of controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito is urgent due to the increase in the transmission of the diseases such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus by the vector. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots, a native plant from Brazil, and of the isolated compound piperovatine against larvae of A. aegypti by the larval immersion test. The lethal concentration that killed 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of larvae was determined by Probit analysis. The results indicated high larvicidal activity on A. aegypti larvae for crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots with LC50 of 4.86 µg/mL and LC99 of 15.50 µg/mL and piperovatine with LC50 of 17.78 µg/mL and LC99 of 48.55 µg/mL. This work opens new perspectives to the development of future products with crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots and piperovatine that can be applied to mosquito control.


La investigación de nuevas sustancias capaces de controlar el mosquito Aedes aegypti es urgente debido al aumento en la transmisión de enfermedades como el dengue, el chikungunya y el virus Zika por el vector. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad larvicida del extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis, una planta nativa de Brasil, y del compuesto aislado piperovatine contra larvas de A. aegypti mediante la prueba de inmersión larvaria. La concentración letal que mató al 50% (LC50) y al 99% (LC99) de larvas se determinó mediante análisis Probit. Los resultados indicaron una alta actividad larvicida en larvas de A. aegypti para extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis con LC50 de 4.86 µg/mL y LC99 de 15.50 µg/mL y piperovatine con LC50 de 17.78 µg/mL y LC99 de 48.55 µg/mL. Este trabajo abre nuevas perspectivas para el desarrollo de futuros productos con extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis y piperovatine que pueden aplicarse al control de mosquitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sorbic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Piper/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sorbic Acid/isolation & purification , Sorbic Acid/pharmacology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Brazil , Plant Roots , Dengue/prevention & control , Larvicides , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Larva/drug effects , Methylene Chloride
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828077

ABSTRACT

Leaf miner is one of the major pests on safflower, which causes yield loss and poor quality seriously. "Weihonghua", "nine safflower varieties" and "three chemical insecticides" as materials that used to evaluate variety and regularity of leaf miner, safflower resistant level, and different proportions insecticides in field efficiency test. The results showed that Liriomyza sativae and L. huidobrensis accounted for 80%, the peak period of two pests was all in July; but Phytomyza horticola is relative less, its peak period occured in June. Three were great difference of resistance to leaf miner among safflower varieties, FQ12 and YJ65 expressed higher resistibility to leaf miner by ratio method. With abamectin 2% emulsifiable concentrate diluted for 2 000 times, or the mixture three insecticides(bifenthrin 20% water emulsions, thiamethoxam 25% water dispersible granule, abamectin 2% emulsifiable concentrate=1∶1∶1) diluted for 3 000 times, which were sprayed on leaves at squaring stage and lethal rate was 96% after 48 h in the study. Through comparative study on the variety and regularity of leaf miner, screen for resistant varieties to leaf miner and for high efficiency pesticide. The study provides theoretical basis and reference for integrated pest management of leaf miner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carthamus tinctorius , Diptera , Insecticides , Pesticides , Thiamethoxam
16.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058888

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the attributes of Primary Health Care (PHC) for rural workers; to analyze sociodemographic conditions, history of poisoning and hospitalizations for pesticides and use of personal protective equipment; and to verify exposure to pesticides by determining bioindicators. METHODS Cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study with a sample of 1,027 rural workers living in municipalities belonging to a regional health department in Southern Minas Gerais, whose PHC is governed by the Family Health Strategy model. We used the adult version of the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool Brazil) and a structured questionnaire to collect socioeconomic data, history of poisoning and hospitalization for pesticides and use of personal protective equipment. Blood samples were collected to measure biomarkers of pesticide exposure and signs of renal and hepatic sequelae. RESULTS Low education was prevalent, as well as the intense contact of workers with pesticides. Frequent use of personal protective equipment was higher among men, as was the history of poisoning and hospitalizations for pesticides. Rates of 20% poisoning, 15% liver disease and 2% nephropathy were detected. Signs of hepatotoxicity were more frequent in men. Gender differences were all statistically significant. Regarding PHC, only the attribute "degree of affiliation" had a high score. None of the poisoning cases detected in the study were previously diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS Despite the high coverage of the Family Health Strategy, occupational risk and its consequences have not been detected by health services, which do not seem oriented to primary care, even lacking their essential attributes. There is a need for immediate and effective adaptation of public policies regarding the health of rural workers, with adequate training of teams and review of the portfolio of PHC services offered.


ABSTRACT OBJETIVO Avaliar os atributos da atenção primária à saúde (APS) na assistência à saúde de trabalhadores rurais; analisar condições sociodemográficas, histórico de intoxicação e internações por agrotóxicos e uso de equipamentos de proteção individual; e verificar a exposição aos praguicidas pela determinação de bioindicadores. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, descritivo-analítico, com amostra de 1.027 trabalhadores rurais residentes em municípios pertencentes a uma superintendência regional de saúde do sul de Minas Gerais, cuja APS é regida pelo modelo da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Utilizou-se o Instrumento de Avaliação da Atenção Primária (PCATool Brasil) versão adulto e um questionário estruturado para coleta de dados socioeconômicos, histórico de intoxicação e internação por agrotóxicos e uso de equipamentos de proteção individual. Foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas para dosagem de biomarcadores de exposição a praguicidas e de sinais de sequelas renais e hepáticas. RESULTADOS A baixa escolaridade foi prevalente, bem como o contato intenso dos trabalhadores com praguicidas. O uso frequente de equipamentos de proteção individual foi maior entre os homens, assim como o histórico de intoxicação e de internações por agrotóxicos. Detectaram-se índices de 20% de intoxicação, 15% de hepatopatia e 2% de nefropatia. Os sinais de hepatotoxicidade foram mais frequentes em homens. As diferenças entre sexos foram todas estatisticamente significantes. Com relação à APS, apenas o atributo "grau de afiliação" apresentou escore elevado. Nenhum dos casos de intoxicação detectados no estudo tinha diagnóstico prévio. CONCLUSÕES A despeito de uma alta cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família, o risco ocupacional e suas consequências não têm sido detectados pelos serviços de saúde, que se apresentam como não orientados à atenção primária, carecendo mesmo de seus atributos essenciais. Percebe-se a necessidade de adequação imediata e efetiva das políticas públicas no que concerne à saúde do trabalhador rural, com adequada capacitação das equipes e revisão da carteira de serviços da APS ofertados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pesticides/toxicity , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/chemically induced , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Rural Health , Family Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Insecticides/poisoning , Middle Aged
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132155

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso, commonly known as "imbuia", "canela-imbuia" or "imbuia-amarela" in Brazil, is a tree of the Southern Atlantic Forest. The present study investigates the anatomy of leaf and stem, volatile oil chemistry, as well as cytotoxicity and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of O. porosa. Species identification was achieved by anatomy features, mainly due to paracytic and anomocytic stomata; non-glandular trichomes; biconvex midrib and petiole with a collateral open arc vascular bundle; presence of a sclerenchymatous layer, starch grains and crystal sand in the stem; and the presence of phenolic compounds in the epidermis, phloem and xylem of the midrib, petiole and stem. The main volatile components of the essential oil were α-pinene (19.71%), β-pinene (13.86%) and bicyclogermacrene (24.62%). Cytotoxicity against human cancer cell (MCF-7), mouse cancer cell (B16F10) and mouse non-tumoral cell (McCoy) was observed as well as insecticidal activity of the essential oil against susceptible 'Ft. Dix' bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) by topical application.


Subject(s)
Bedbugs , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocotea/anatomy & histology , Ocotea/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Toxicity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Histocytochemistry
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190489, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057274

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brasilia, pyriproxyfen (PPF; 0.01 mg/L) has been used for the larval control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes since 2016. Information on the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to PPF, and the development of resistance in populations from the Federal District of Brazil (FD) is limited. It is essential to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides in order to improve vector control strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti populations from five areas of Brasilia to PPF. METHODS: We performed dose-response tests to estimate the emergence inhibition and resistance ratio of each field population, including the Rockefeller reference population. We also analyzed egg positivity, and the density and mortality of larvae and pupae. RESULTS: Populations from Vila Planalto (RR50=1.7), Regiment Guards Cavalry (RR50=2.5), and Sub-secretary of Justice Complex (RR50=3.7) presented high susceptibility to PPF, while the RR values of populations from Lago Norte (RR50=7.7) and Varjão (RR50=5.9) were moderately high, suggesting the emergence of insipient resistance to PPF in Brasilia. At 30 ng/mL, the highest larvae mortality rate was 2.7% for the population from Lago Norte, while that of pupae was 92.1% for Varjão and Vila Planalto. CONCLUSIONS: The five populations of Ae. aegypti from the FD are susceptible to PPF and there is a need to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti in new areas of the FD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyridines/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Brazil , Larva/drug effects
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190211, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057287

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Anopheles/classification
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190018, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092184

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The larvicidal potential of Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. was studied against the early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston., Aedes aegypti Linn.,and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. because of the emergence of mosquito resistance to conventional synthetic insecticides. METHODS: At concentrations of 12.5-200 ppm, larvicidal activities were studied under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: After 24 h of exposure, the methanol extract of the roots recorded the highest larvicidal activity against An. stephensi, with LC50 and LC90values of 7.96 and 34.39 ppm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We are developing potent larvicidal compound(s) from S. costus for controlling the mosquito larval population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Culex/drug effects , Saussurea/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Insecticides/isolation & purification
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