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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) may be effective for vector control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Their efficacy, however, has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the large-scale efficacy of LLINs on Lutzomyia longiflocosa entomological parameters up to two years post-intervention in the sub-Andean region of Colombia. METHODS A matched-triplet cluster-randomised study of 21 rural settlements, matched by pre-intervention L. longiflocosa indoor density was used to compare three interventions: dip it yourself (DIY) lambda-cyhalothrin LLIN, deltamethrin LLIN, and untreated nets (control). Sand fly indoor density, feeding success, and parity were recorded using CDC light trap collections at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. FINDINGS Both LLINs reduced significantly (74-76%) the indoor density and the proportion of fully engorged sand flies up to two years post-intervention without differences between them. Residual lethal effects of both LLINs and the use of all nets remained high throughout the two-year evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Anopheles/drug effects , Rural Population , Insecticide Resistance , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Colombia , Mosquito Vectors
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984009

ABSTRACT

Abstract Three phosphate solubilizing bacteria were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp and Pseudomonas fulva . The strains were subjected to plant biochemical testing and all the PGPR attributes were checked in the presence of pesticides (chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen). The phosphate solubilizing index of strain Ros2 was highest in NBRIP medium i.e 2.23 mm. All the strains showed acidic pH (ranges from 2.5-5) on both medium i.e PVK and NBRIP. Strain Ros2 was highly positive for ammonia production as well as siderophore production while strain Rad2 was positive for HCN production. The results obtained by the strains Rad1, Rad2 and Ros2 for auxin production were 33.1, 30.67 and 15.38 µg ml-1, respectively. Strain Rad1 showed 16% increase in percentage germination in comparison to control in the presence of pesticide stress. Most promising results for chlorophyll content estimation were obtained in the presence of carotenoids upto 6 mgg-1 without stress by both strains Rad1 and Rad2. Study suggests that especially strain Ros2 can enhance plant growth parameters in the pesticide stress.


Resumo Três bactérias solubilizantes de fosfato foram isoladas e identificadas por seqüenciamento de rRNA 16S como Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp e Pseudomonas fulva. As estirpes foram submetidas a testes bioquímicos de plantas e todos os atributos PGPR foram verificados na presença de pesticidas (clorpirifos e piriproxifeno). O índice de solubilização de fosfato da estirpe Ros2 foi mais elevado no meio NBRIP, isto é, 2,23 mm. Todas as estirpes apresentaram um pH ácido (varia de 2,5-5) em ambos os meios, isto é PVK e NBRIP. A estirpe Ros2 foi altamente positiva para a produção de amoníaco, bem como a produção de sideróforos enquanto a estirpe Rad2 foi positiva para a produção de HCN. Os resultados obtidos pelas estirpes Rad1, Rad2 e Ros2 para a produção de auxina foram 33,1, 30,67 e 15,38 μg ml-1 , respectivamente. A deformação Rad1 mostrou aumento de 16% na germinação percentual em comparação com o controlo na presença de stress de pesticida. Os resultados mais promissores para a estimativa do teor de clorofila foram obtidos na presença de carotenóides até 6 mgg-1 sem estresse por ambas as cepas Rad1 e Rad2. Estudo sugere que especialmente a estirpe Ros2 pode melhorar parâmetros de crescimento de plantas no estresse de pesticidas.


Subject(s)
Phosphates/metabolism , Pseudomonas/physiology , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Triticum/growth & development , Chlorpyrifos/administration & dosage , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Pakistan , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , RNA, Bacterial/analysis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Pseudomonas putida/drug effects , Pseudomonas putida/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020899

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the adherence of pregnant women to personal protective measures against mosquito bites, recommended by the Ministry of Health, and to investigate the factors associated with the non-adoption of these measures. METHODS We interviewed 177 pregnant women between November 2016 and February 2017 in the 10 basic health units of the municipality of Propriá, state of Sergipe, two located in the rural area and eight in the urban area, during prenatal appointments, to raise information about the use of preventive measures against the vector transmission of Zika virus. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and the odds ratio was calculated. The independent variables were grouped by the analysis of principal components, and the dependents (the use of repellent, mosquito nets, garments, screens and insecticides) were analyzed using the logistic regression method. RESULTS Among the measures recommended by the Ministry of Health, mosquito nets were the most used by pregnant women living in rural areas and with low education level, while the repellents were more used by women in the urban area and with higher education level. Women in a vulnerable socio-economic situation presented a risk 2.4 times higher for not using screens in their homes, 1.9 times higher for not changing clothes and 2.5 times higher for not using repellent than pregnant women in better economic conditions. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status of pregnant women, especially among the less privileged, influenced the use of protective measures against Zika virus, from the purchase of repellent, clothing, insecticides to other resources in the municipality of Propriá, SE.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a adesão de gestantes às medidas de proteção individual contra picadas de mosquitos, recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde e investigar os fatores associados à não adoção dessas medidas. MÉTODOS Foram entrevistadas 177 gestantes entre novembro de 2016 e fevereiro de 2017 nas 10 unidades básicas de saúde da cidade de Propriá, SE, duas localizadas na zona rural e oito na zona urbana, durante as consultas de pré-natal, para levantar informações sobre o uso de medidas preventivas contra a transmissão vetorial do zika vírus. Os dados foram analisados utilizando métodos de estatística descritiva, teste do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher, e foi calculado o odds ratio . As variáveis independentes foram agrupadas por meio da análise de componentes principais, e as dependentes (uso de repelentes, mosquiteiros, vestimentas, telas e inseticidas) foram analisadas pelo método de regressão logística. RESULTADOS Entre as medidas recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde, o uso de mosquiteiros foi a mais utilizada por gestantes residentes na zona rural e de baixa escolaridade, enquanto os repelentes foram mais utilizados por mulheres da zona urbana e com maior tempo de estudo. Mulheres com situação socioeconômica vulnerável apresentaram risco 2,4 vezes maior de não utilizar telas em suas residências, 1,9 vezes maior de não mudar o modo de se vestir e 2,5 vezes maior de não usar repelentes do que gestantes em melhores condições econômicas. CONCLUSÕES A condição socioeconômica das gestantes, especialmente entre as mulheres menos favorecidas, influenciou o uso das medidas de proteção contra o zika vírus, desde a compra de repelentes, vestimentas, inseticidas até outros recursos na cidade de Propriá, SE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women , Mosquito Nets/statistics & numerical data , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Insect Repellents/administration & dosage , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
4.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; ilus; 2019. xix, 82 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050345

ABSTRACT

A malária é um grave problema de saúde pública e, até o momento, no Brasil, não há dados sobre resistência, nem tampouco uma rede de monitoramento da resistência de anofelinos a inseticidas utilizados pelos programas de controle da malária. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) preconiza dois métodos para detecção de resistência a inseticidas: o método OMS de tubos com papéis impregnados com inseticidas e o método de garrafas impregnadas, originalmente desenvolvido pelo Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sendo assim, esse projeto teve como objetivo a comparação desses dois métodos para avaliação de populações de anofelinos do norte do Brasil, quanto ao status de resistência a dois inseticidas da classe dos piretroides (etofenprox e alfacipermetrina), usados pelos programas de controle. O estudo foi desenvolvido inicialmente em laboratório, onde foram realizados bioensaios para calibração de doses diagnósticas para garrafas impregnadas com a utilização de Anopheles aquasalis, mantida em laboratório há mais de 20 anos e usada como linhagem padrão de comparação. Nesse estudo foi considerada como dose diagnóstica, nos testes de garrafas impregnadas, a menor concentração de inseticida capaz de causar efeito knockdown em mais de 99 % das fêmeas expostas por 30 minutos e taxa de mortalidade superior a 99 % após 24 horas de recuperação. Para etofenprox, foi determinada a dose diagnóstica de 20,0 µg/garrafa, enquanto para alfacipermetrina, a dose encontrada foi de 20,5 µg/garrafa


Para os ensaios com tubos com papéis impregnados foram utilizadas as doses recomendadas pela OMS, que equivalem ao dobro da concentração de inseticida capaz de matar >99 % das fêmeas da linhagem de referência (0,5 % para etofenprox e 0,05 % para alfacipermetrina). As atividades de campo foram desenvolvidas em Cruzeiro do Sul (AC), onde 1.120 fêmeas de Anopheles darlingi, coletadas em três pontos do município em dias diferentes, foram levadas para o laboratório de entomologia do município e submetidas a bioensaios qualitativos, utilizando as doses de inseticidas determinadas nos ensaios de calibração e recomendadas pela OMS. A partir dos resultados obtidos, para ensaios de garrafa sugere-se alteração do critério de leitura de mortalidade no tempo diagnóstico de 30 minutos, para leitura após 24 horas de recuperação na ausência de inseticida, devido ao efeito knockdown. Com alteração desse critério de leitura, os anofelinos testados apresentaram resistência aos inseticidas avaliados em ambos os métodos. Ao comparar o uso de garrafas e papéis impregnados em laboratório e no campo, verificou-se que os dois métodos são eficazes para detecção da resistência a inseticidas, além de serem facilmente aplicados a diferentes espécies de Anopheles, permitindo a obtenção de resultados semelhantes para a mesma população. Estamos cientes das limitações desse estudo no que se refere à utilização de uma espécie de anofelino, para estabelecer a dose diagnóstica, diferente da testada em campo e à inexistência de uma linhagem de referência para as espécies vetoras do Brasil. Vale ressaltar que as duas metodologias apresentam vantagens e desvantagens quanto à infraestrutura, capacidade técnica, recursos humanos e financeiros necessários. Assim, a escolha do método a ser utilizado deve considerar as especificidades dos estados e municípios que executarão os bioensaios de detecção da resistência. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Malaria , Anopheles
5.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; (77): 1-10, 2018. mapas, graf, tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1119220

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os principais resultados do Projeto de Inovação Tecnológica em Saúde realizado entre 2014 e 2015, destacando-se o uso de coleiras impregnadas com deltametrina a 4% em cães em uma região endêmica para leishmaniose visceral (LV), o município de Votuporanga, São Paulo, Brasil. Neste município, anterior à realização do projeto, eram registrados muitos casos caninos e humanos da doença, com elevada taxa de letalidade. Durante o projeto, foram monitorados cerca de 16,5 mil cães, examinadas 25.700 amostras de sangue, considerando-se as perdas e as entradas de novos animais durante os quatro inquéritos sorológicos. Após sua finalização, verificou-se uma diminuição da prevalência e incidência de LV canina, assim como do número de casos humanos. A diminuição dos casos caninos foi correlacionada positivamente aos casos humanos no período de 2011 a 2016 (Correlação de Pearson de 0.914, p-valor<0.05). Além disso, a análise espacial dos resultados corrobora a diminuição ou desaparecimento da concentração de casos caninos e, consequentemente, de fontes e de infecção nas áreas endêmicas à medida que avançaram no tempo e espaço as diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento do projeto. Apesar da drástica redução na incidência da LV canina, ainda permaneceram algumas áreas críticas. Os resultados delineados sugerem a revisão de protocolos e manuais demonstrando a efetividade do uso das coleiras como medida preventiva e potencial no controle da LV. (AU)


This paper aims to present the main results of the Health Technology Innovation Project carried out between 2014 and 2015, which evaluates the use of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated collars in dogs, in an endemic region for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the municipality of Votuporanga, São Paulo, Brazil. Before this project, Votuporanga had notified canine and human cases of the disease, with a high case fatality rate. We monitored approximately 16.5 thousand dogs, 25,700 blood samples analyzed, considering losses and entrances of new animals during the four serological surveys. After the project, the prevalence and incidence of canine VL decreased as well as the number of human cases. We found a positive correlation between the decrease of infected dogs and human cases from 2011 to 2016 (Pearson correlation of 0.914, p-value <0.05). Furthermore, the spatial analysis of the results indicated areas with canine cases concentration that decreased its intensity or disappeared concomitantly to the project levels in the space-time. Despite the drastic reduction in the incidence of canine VL, some critical areas remain. The current results suggest the review of protocols and manuals demonstrating the effectiveness of the use of collars as a preventive measure and potential in the control of VL. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Pyrethrins/administration & dosage , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Evaluation of the Efficacy-Effectiveness of Interventions , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Spatial Analysis
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 500-504, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042458

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the acaricidal efficiency of synthetic pyrethroids (SP) associated with organophosphates (OP) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Ticks were collected in 54 cattle farms and tested using in vitro adult immersion test against four commercially available acaricide mixtures of SP and OP. Only one of four acaricides, comprising a mixture of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and fenthion, had a mean efficiency higher than 95%, and was effective in 94.44% (51/54) of the cattle farms tested. The acaricide with a mixture of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and citronelall had the lowest mean efficiency (62.11%), and was effective in 29.62% (16/54) of cattle farms tested. Furthermore, R. (B.) microplus in Southern Brazil exhibited differing degrees of resistance to SP and OP mixtures. The results suggest that the presence of fenthion contributes to the higher efficiency of the formulation with this active principle. This is possibly due to its recent commercial availability, as tick populations have been lower challenged with this product. Monitoring the resistance of ticks to carrapaticides is essential to maximize the efficiency of these products in the control of R. (B.) microplus.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a eficiência acaricida de piretroides sintéticos (SP) associados a organofosforados (OP) sobre populações de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Carrapatos foram coletados em 54 fazendas de bovinos, testados in vitro pelo teste de imersão de teleóginas, contra quatro associações acaricidas comercialmente disponíveis de SP e OP. Apenas um dos quatro acaricidas, constituído por associação de cipermetrina, clorpirifós e fenthion, teve eficiência média superior a 95%, sendo eficaz em 94,44% (51/54) das fazendas testadas. O acaricida com associação de cipermetrina, clorpirifós e citronelal teve menor eficiência média (62,11%), sendo efetivo em 29,62% (16/54) das fazendas testadas. Além disso, o R. (B.) microplus no sul do Brasil, apresentou diferentes graus de resistência às associações de SP e OP. Os resultados sugerem que a presença do fenthion contribui para a maior eficiência da formulação com esse princípio ativo. Possivelmente, isso ocorre em função da sua recente introdução no mercado, já que as populações de carrapatos foram pouco desafiadas com este produto. Monitorar a resistência dos carrapatos aos carrapaticidas é fundamental para maximizar a eficiência desses produtos no controle de R. (B.) microplus.


Subject(s)
Organophosphates/administration & dosage , Pyrethrins/administration & dosage , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides/administration & dosage , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Pyrethrins/chemical synthesis , Brazil , Insecticides/chemical synthesis
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 687-692, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829677

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The significant increase in dengue, Zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing Piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. METHODS: Piper nigrum extract was produced by maceration, standardized in piperine, and incorporated into cotton threads, which were inserted into hydrogel cylinders manufactured by the extrusion of carrageenan and carob. The piperine content of the extract and thread reservoirs was quantified by chromatography. The release profile from the device was assessed in aqueous medium and the larvicidal and residual activities of the standardized extract as well as of the controlled-release device were examined in Aedes aegypti larvae. RESULTS The standardized extract contained 580mg/g of piperine and an LC50 value of 5.35ppm (24h) and the 3 cm thread reservoirs contained 13.83 ± 1.81mg of piperine. The device showed zero-order release of piperine for 16 days. The P. nigrum extract (25ppm) showed maximum residual larvicidal activity for 10 days, decreasing progressively thereafter. The device had a residual larvicidal activity for up to 37 days. CONCLUSIONS: The device provided controlled release of Piper nigrum extract with residual activity for 37 days. The device is easy to manufacture and may represent an effective alternative for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae in small water containers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Aedes/drug effects , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Delayed-Action Preparations , Dengue/transmission , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(4): 418-424, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792803

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION Information regarding the cost of implementing insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) is scarce. Therefore, we evaluated the ITC implementation cost, in addition to the costs of intensive conventional routine activities of the Aedes control program in the city of Guantanamo, Cuba. METHODS A cost-analysis study was conducted from the perspective of the Aedes control program, nested in an ITC effectiveness trial, during 2009-2010. Data for this study were obtained from bookkeeping records and activity registers of the Provincial Aedes Control Programme Unit and the account records of the ITC trial. RESULTS The annual cost of the routine Aedes control program activities was US$16.80 per household (p.h). Among 3,015 households, 6,714 ITCs were distributed. The total average cost per ITC distributed was US$3.42, and 74.3% of this cost was attributed to the cost of purchasing the ITCs. The annualized costs p.h. of ITC implementation was US$3.80. The additional annualized cost for deploying ITCs represented 19% and 48.4% of the total cost of the routine Aedes control and adult-stage Aedes control programs, respectively. The trial did not lead to further reductions in the already relatively low Aedes infestation levels. CONCLUSIONS At current curtain prices, ITC deployment can hardly be considered an efficient option in Guantanamo and other comparable environments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/economics , Aedes , Costs and Cost Analysis , Mosquito Nets/economics , Insect Vectors , Insecticides/economics , Mosquito Control/methods , Cuba , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Insecticides/administration & dosage
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 310-318, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745973

ABSTRACT

House re-invasion by native triatomines after insecticide-based control campaigns represents a major threat for Chagas disease vector control. We conducted a longitudinal intervention study in a rural section (Area III, 407 houses) of Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, and used wing geometric morphometry to compare pre-spray and post-spray (re-infestant bugs) Triatoma infestans populations. The community-wide spraying with pyrethroids reduced the prevalence of house infestation by T. infestans from 31.9% to < 1% during a four-year follow-up, unlike our previous studies in the neighbouring Area I. Two groups of bug collection sites differing in wing shape variables before interventions (including 221 adults from 11 domiciles) were used as a reference for assigning 44 post-spray adults. Wing shape variables from post-spray, high-density bug colonies and pre-spray groups were significantly different, suggesting that re-infestant insects had an external origin. Insects from one house differed strongly in wing shape variables from all other specimens. A further comparison between insects from both areas supported the existence of independent re-infestation processes within the same district. These results point to local heterogeneities in house re-infestation dynamics and emphasise the need to expand the geographic coverage of vector surveillance and control operations to the affected region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Pyrethrins/administration & dosage , Triatoma/drug effects , Argentina , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Longitudinal Studies , Rural Population , Triatoma/anatomy & histology , Wings, Animal
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(3): 270-273, 03/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-751986

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar através de teste in vivo, a eficácia e o período residual de proteção do fipronil 10% "top spot" em cães infestados com diferentes cargas parasitárias de Ctenocephalides felis felis. Foram utilizados 24 cães da raça Beagle, compondo seis animais por grupo. Os cães foram divididos em quatro grupos. Os cães dos grupos controles I e II não receberam tratamento, enquanto que os cães dos grupos tratados I e II receberam tratamento com formulação de fipronil 10% "top spot". Os cães dos grupos controle I e tratado I foram infestados com 100 pulgas adultas não alimentadas, e os cães dos grupos controle II e tratado II foram infestados com 300 pulgas adultas não alimentadas. As infestações foram realizadas nos dias, -2, +5, +12, +19, +26, +33 e +40 e nos dias +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 e +42 foi realizada retirada mecânica e contagem de pulgas para avaliação. As eficácias pulguicidas, para o grupo tratado I, nos dias +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 e +42, foram respectivamente 99,36%; 99,73%; 99,48%; 99,74%; 99,75%; 95,06% e 67,62%...


The objective of the study was to evaluate through in vivo test, the efficacy and residual period of protection of 10% fipronil "top spot" for dogs with different Ctenocephalides felis felis burdens of infestations. For this, 24 Beagles were used, divided into four groups of six dogs each. The dogs of the control groups I and II were not treated, while the dogs of the treated groups I e II were treated with the formulation of 10% fipronil "top spot". The dogs of the control group I and treated group I were infested with 100 unfed C. felis felis and dogs of group control II and treated II one were infested with 300 unfed C. felis felis each. Infestations were performed on days -2, +5, +12, +19, +26, +33 and +40, and on days +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 and +42 fleas were mechanical removed and counted for evaluation. Efficacy for treated group I on days +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 and +42 was respectively 99.36%, 99.73%, 99.48%, 99.00%, 74.00%, 99.75%, 95.06% and 67.62%...


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dogs/parasitology , Ctenocephalides , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Chemical Compounds/analysis
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(1): 25-31, 2/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-741103

ABSTRACT

Os parasitas gastrintestinais causam enorme prejuízo econômico na bovinocultura, tanto nacional como mundial, ocasionado principalmente por Bunostumom sp., Cooperia sp. e Trichostrongylus sp. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a eficácia in vitro do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua (H.7) frente a esses endoparasitas. O H.7 foi produzido com sete dias de percolação a 4ºC e posteriormente liofilizado. Com esse fitoterápico, realizaram-se testes de eclodibilidade de ovos (TEO) e de migração larvar em ágar (TMLA), com seis repetições, com concentrações crescentes (0,78 a 50mg/mL). Para analisar a composição química do fitoterápico, procedeu-se à marcha fitoquímica completa. No TEO, a eficácia variou de 94,08±2,58% na maior concentração a 15,67±0,97% na menor concentração. Já no TMLA os valores encontrados variaram de 90,05±0,55% a 4,12±0,46%. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram encontrados diversos compostos com propriedades de combater os nematódeos, tanto direta como indiretamente. Os resultados obtidos nos testes in vitro evidenciam que o extrato produzido possui potencial de combater nematódeos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Novos estudos devem ser realizados buscando maximizar a eficácia do H.7 e de outras extrações obtidas a partir de A. annua, uma vez que foram demonstrados excelentes resultados em ambos os experimentos.


Gastrointestinal parasites cause economic losses to the cattle production, in Brazil and worldwide, mainly caused by Bunostumom sp., Cooperia sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia annua (H.7) against these parasites. The H.7 was produced after 7 days of storage at 4°C and then lyophilized. With this herbal the egg hatch test (EHT) and larval migration inhibition (LMI) were performed,in six replicates with different concentrations (0.78 to 50mg/mL). To analyze the chemistry composition the complete phytochemical screening was done. In EHT efficiency ranged from 94.08±2.58% at the highest concentration to 15.67± 0.97% in the lowest concentration. In LMI test the values ranged from 90.05±0.55% to 4.12±0.46%. Phytochemical tests showed many chemical compounds with anthelmintic properties. The results obtained in biochemical tests together with those found in in vitro tests showed that the extract produced has the potential to combat intestinal nematodes of cattle. Further studies should be conducted to maximize the effectiveness of H.7 and other extractions from A. annua, because it demonstrated excellent results in both experiments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Artemisia annua/parasitology , Artemisia annua/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Insecticides/analysis
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(2): 244-247, 06/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714791

ABSTRACT

Myocoptes musculinus is the most common fur mite identified among laboratory mice; infested mice, in addition to dermatological signs, may also be prone to secondary infections, affecting the outcome of a research trial. This trial was conducted in order to assess the safety and efficacy of a single topical administration of eprinomectin (5mg/kg BW) in a naturally infested laboratory mice colony. A safety trial was conducted on 20 uninfested pregnant females assigned to two groups, receiving eprinomectin and mineral oil, respectively. The mice were examined daily for signs of illness or toxicity; nests were individually weighted at 21 and 28 days postpartum. No acute toxicity was observed, all treated females gave full term delivery and number and mean weight of newborns ranged in the physiological values. To evaluate the efficacy, 20 naturally infested non-pregnant females were divided into two groups, treated as in the safety trial. Animals were observed daily for 15 min until 21 days post-treatment (DPT) and a “pruritus index” (PI: scratching and gnawing acts/mouse/min) was calculated. Pelage examination was performed on DPT 7, 14, 21 and 50. The “PI” was significantly lower in the treated group and mites were eradicated from all infested animals. A single topical administration of eprinomectin at a (high) dosage of 5mg/kg BW was safe and effective to control M. musculinus in mice.


Myocoptes musculinus é o ácaro de pele mais comum identificado entre camundongos de laboratório. Camundongos infestados, além de sinais dermatológicos, também podem ser propensos a infecções secundárias, interferindo no resultado de um ensaio de pesquisa. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a segurança e eficácia de uma única administração tópica de eprinomectina (5mg / kg PV) em uma colônia de camundongos de laboratório naturalmente infestada. Um estudo de segurança foi realizado em 20 fêmeas prenhes sadias, divididas em dois grupos, recebendo eprinomectina e óleo mineral, respectivamente. Os camundongos foram examinados diariamente para detectar quaisquer sinais da doença ou toxicidade; camundongos recém-nascidos foram pesados individualmente aos 21 e 28 dias pós-parto. Nenhuma toxicidade aguda foi observada. Todas as fêmeas tratadas chegaram ao parto, o número e peso dos recém-nascidos variaram dentro de parâmetros fisiológicos. Para avaliar a eficácia, 20 camundongos não prenhes, naturalmente infestados, foram divididos em dois grupos: tratado e grupo controle não tratado. Os animais foram observados diariamente durante 15 minutos até os 21 dias pós- tratamento (DPT) e um índice de prurido (IP) - arranhões e ato de roer / camundongo / min) foi calculado. Exame da pelagem foi realizado em DPT 7, 14, 21 e 50. O IP foi significativamente menor no grupo tratado, e os ácaros foram erradicados de todos os animais infestados. Uma única administração tópica de eprinomectina, na dose de 5mg / kg de peso corporal, foi segura e eficaz no controle de M. musculinus em camundongos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Ivermectin/analogs & derivatives , Mice/parasitology , Mite Infestations/prevention & control , Administration, Topical , Insecticides/adverse effects , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(4): 554-558, Oct-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698019

ABSTRACT

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group). The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon), respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control). The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33) and from 3 to 11 (group G100). However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite.


Com objetivo de avaliar a eficiência do tratamento parcial de animais infestados por mosca-dos-chifres, foram utilizadas 45 vacas da raça Guzerá, com idade entre 4 e 7 anos, divididas em três grupos de 15 animais. Os animais dos grupos G33 (33,3% tratados) e G100 (100% tratados) receberam um brinco inseticida/animal, com diazinon 40%, e os do grupo GC não receberam tratamento (controle). A cada 14 dias foram realizadas contagens das moscas sobre a região cervico-dorso-lombar das vacas dos três grupos. O estudo foi realizado de setembro de 2006 a setembro de 2009. Neste período, seis tratamentos com quatro meses cada, e com intervalo de um a dois meses, foram realizados nos animais dos grupos G33 e G100. Os animais do grupo G33 apresentaram maior infestação que os do grupo G100, o número de mosca variou de 12 a 27 no grupo G33 e de 3 a 11 no grupo G100. No entanto, os grupos G33 e G100 apresentaram menores infestações que as observadas nos animais do grupo GC, que apresentou de 45 a 87 moscas. O tratamento parcial de bovinos infestados por mosca-dos-chifres com a utilização de inseticida diazinon 40% é uma alternativa eficiente no controle deste ectoparasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Female , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Diazinon/administration & dosage , Ectoparasitic Infestations/drug therapy , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Muscidae , Treatment Outcome
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(3): 1097-1103, set. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695006

ABSTRACT

The earthworm Eisenia foetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta) is an excellent biosentinel model organism for assessing potential toxicological risks by xenobiotics in terrestrial ecosystems. Methamidophos is an organophosphorous insecticide widely used to control agricultural pests. Its main action is due to inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of methamidophos on the morphology and male parameters in Eisenia foetida. After determining the LD50 for methamidophos (85.34 mg/kg soil), five groups were formed, including control subjects, and sprayed with tap water. Methamidophos treated groups were subjected to doses of 1/10, 1/6, 1/3 and 2/3 of the LD50. Each group was analyzed at day 1, 6, 14 and 30 post-treatment. The results show a significant decrease in the weight of all individuals treated with methamidophos, besides showing a coiled body in 100 percent of them. Sperm count showed a significant increase in the treated groups after 1, 6 and 14 days post exposure and a significant decrease by day 30. Using the technique of acridine orange, a significant increase in abnormal metachromatic sperm (red fluorescence) in treated animals was shown. Methamidophos alters the overall behavior in earthworms and the male reproductive parameters of Eisenia foetida possibly altering the structure and conformation of DNA.


La Lombriz de tierra, Eisenia foetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta), constituye un excelente modelo de organismo biocentinela para evaluar los riesgos tóxicos de xenobióticos, en ecosistemas terrestres. Metamidofos es un insecticida organofosforado de amplio uso para controlar plagas agrícolas. Su acción principal se debe a la inhibición de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de metamidofos sobre la morfología y parámetros espermáticos de Eisenia foetida. Una vez determinada la LD50 para metamidofos (85,34 mg/kg de tierra), se tomaron 5 grupos, entre ellos los individuos del grupo control, los cuales fueron asperjados con agua potable. Los grupos tratados con metamidofos fueron sometidos a dosis de 1/10, 1/6, 1/3 y 2/3 de la LD50. Cada grupo fue analizado al día 1, 6, 14, y 30 post tratamiento. Los resultados muestran una baja significativa en el peso de todos los individuos tratados con metamidofos, además de presentar enrrollamiento corporal, en el 100 por ciento de ellos. El recuento espermático presenta un aumento significativo en los grupos tratados a 1,6 y 14 días, para luego decaer significativamente el día 30. El uso de la técnica del naranja de acridina, mostró un aumento significativo de espermatozoides metacromáticos anormales en los animales tratados (fluorescencia de color rojo). Se concluye que Metamidofos altera el comportamiento general de la lombriz de tierra y los parámetros reproductivos espermáticos de Eisenia foetida posiblemente alterando la conformación y estructura del ADN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Organothiophosphorus Compounds/administration & dosage , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Oligochaeta , Reproduction , Body Weight , Semen , Time Factors
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(1): 246-253, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676165

ABSTRACT

The current annual consumption of insecticides in agriculture in Brazil is over three million tons. The exposure happens through food that is contaminated with toxic waste and respiratory and dermal absorption. Biological control with Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) has assumed increasing importance replacing the use of conventional insecticides. However, the tests used to justify approval for use and market release of Bt products, and the protocols used to assess the development of toxicity, are extremely superficial. In addition, more studies comparing effects between males and females and during pregnancy and lactation have not been conducted. Thus, the hypothesis tested in this study was if the administration of the XenTari® WG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai) biological insecticide and Decis® 25CE (Deltamethrin) synthetic insecticide, at concentrations that do not cause clinical signs of maternal toxicity, could interfere in the histophysiology of the organs of neonate rats. Thirty-five pregnant albino rats, Rattus norvegicus albinus, were randomly distributed in seven groups: Group I received placebo (water); Groups II, III, and IV received 1.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg of XenTari®/kg respectively; and Groups V, VI, and VII received 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg of Deltamethrin/kg, respectively. The results showed that the highest doses of insecticides reduced the number of neonates. No histopathological alterations were observed in the kidneys, however, lipidosis, diffuse mononuclear inflammatory cells, and sinusoids congestion were observed in the liver. Rats from groups IV and VII presented atresia in the ovaries. Neonates from Group IV showed congestion and hemosiderin deposition in the testicle's blood vessels, which is characteristic of a process of hemolysis. In conclusion, both insecticides presented similar effects on organs and number of neonates born to rats exposed to sub-lethal doses that did not cause clinical symptoms of maternal intoxication.


El consumo anual actual de insecticidas en la agricultura en Brasil es más de tres millones de toneladas. Aproximadamente el 60% de los trabajadores rurales expuestos a los insecticidas son mujeres. La exposición ocurre a través de alimentos contaminados con desechos tóxicos y la absorción respiratoria y dérmica. El control biológico con Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) ha adquirido una importancia creciente en la sustitución del uso de insecticidas convencionales. Sin embargo, las pruebas utilizadas para justificar la aprobación para el uso y la liberación del mercado de los productos Bt, y los protocolos utilizados para evaluar el desarrollo de toxicidad, son muy superficiales. Además, no se han realizado estudios que que permitan comparar los efectos entre hombres y mujeres y durante el embarazo y la lactancia. Por lo tanto, la hipótesis planteada en este estudio fue si la administración del Grupo de Trabajo XenTari ® (B. thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai) insecticida biológico y Decis ® 25CE (deltametrina) insecticidas sintéticos, en concentraciones que no causan signos clínicos de toxicidad materna, podría interferir en la histofisiología de los órganos de las ratas recién nacidas. Treinta y cinco ratas albinas preñadas, Rattus norvegicus albino, fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en siete grupos: Grupo I recibió un placebo (agua), los Grupos II, III y IV recibieron 1,0, 10,0 y 20,0 mg de XenTari ® / kg, respectivamente, y Grupos V, VI y VII recibieron 1,0, 2,0 y 4,0 mg de deltametrina / kg, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que las dosis más altas de insecticidas redujeron el número de neonatos. No se observaron alteraciones histopatológicas en los riñones, sin embargo, se observaron en el hígado, lipidosis, difusas células inflamatorias mononucleares, y la congestión de sinusoides. Las ratas de los grupos IV y VII presentaron atresia ovárica. Los recién nacidos de grupo IV mostraron congestión y depósito de hemosiderina en los vasos sanguíneos del testículo, lo cual es característico de un proceso de hemólisis. En conclusión, los insecticidas presentaron efectos similares en los órganos y en el número de recién nacidos de ratas expuestas a dosis sub-letales, que no causan síntomas clínicos de toxicidad materna.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Insecticides/toxicity , Ovary/drug effects , Ovary/pathology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Testis/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Lipidoses , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Animals, Newborn
17.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(4,supl.1): 757-762, 2013. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-700015

ABSTRACT

O óleo essencial das folhas de Schinus terebinthifolius foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG-EM. O rendimento do óleo foi de 0,8%, sendo identificados 37 constituintes químicos. Os componentes principais foram germacreno D (25,0%), (E)-ß-cariofileno (17,5%) e δ -elemeno (10,5%). O óleo essencial foi diluído em acetona nas concentrações de 10-2 a 10-8 e aplicado aos insetos (Hypothenemus hampei) por aplicação tópica e exposição em superfície contaminada. As taxas de mortalidade foram avaliadas após 24 e 48 horas do início do experimento. A aplicação em superfície contaminada resultou em 25% de mortalidade no controle, enquanto nas diluições de 10-2 a 10-8 foram observados 100,0 a 30,0% de mortalidade. Na aplicação tópica, observou-se 27,5% de mortalidade no controle e 97,5 a 77,5% nas diluições de 10-2 a 10-8.


The essential oil from the leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analyzed by GC-MS. The oil yield was 0.8%, and 37 chemical constituents were identified. The main components were germacrene D (25.0%), (E)-ß-cariophyllene (17.5%) and δ-elemene (10.5%). The essential oil was diluted in acetone in concentrations of 10-2 to 10-8 and it was applied to insects (Hypothenemus hampei) by topical application and exposure to contaminated surface. Mortality rates were evaluated after 24 and 48 hours. The contaminated surface application resulted in 25.0% of mortality in control while the dilutions of 10-2 to 10-8 resulted in 100% to 30.0% of mortality respectively. In the topical application, it was observed 27.5% of mortality in control and 97.5 to 77.5% of mortality in dilutions of 10-2 to 10-8


Subject(s)
Anacardiaceae/classification , Oils, Volatile/chemical synthesis , Pest Control , Coffee/metabolism , Insecticides/administration & dosage
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144655

ABSTRACT

The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Initiative in the Indian subcontinent was launched in 2005 as a joint effort between the governments in the Region (India, Nepal and Bangladesh) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective is to reduce the annual VL incidence below 1/10,000 inhabitants by 2015 based on detection and treatment of VL cases and vector control. We present here a review of studies published in the period 2005-2010 on the efficacy of different tools to control Phlebotomus argentipes. The review indicates that the current indoor residual spraying (IRS) and novel vector control methods mainly insecticide treated nets (ITN) have low effectiveness for several reasons. Efforts to improve quality of IRS operations and further research on alternative and integrated vector control methods need to be promoted to reach the VL elimination target by 2015.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Nepal/epidemiology , Phlebotomus , World Health Organization
19.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(5): 607-612, Sept.-Oct. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604489

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using hydramethylnon gel baits compared with conventional spraying for controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in two residential buildings in Yasuj, Iran. The IPM approach was based on educational programs using pamphlets, posters and lectures, sanitation using vacuuming and application of hydramethylnon gel baits. Conventional approach used cypermethrin (10 percent EC) on baseboard and cracks-and-crevices. Sticky traps were used as tools for monitoring cockroach population densities. The IPM approach reduced (943 percent) the rate of insecticide application compared to the conventional spray. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were significantly reduced from an average of 12.2 ± 3.01 cockroaches per unit before treatment to zero cockroach per unit by week four and thereafter. Cockroach populations in the conventional spray treatment were reduced from an average of 11.5 ± 4.43 cockroaches per unit before treatment to an average of 3.4 ± 0.99 cockroach per unit after 11 weeks of post treatment. The IPM treatment improved 100 percent of infested units compared to 78 percent for spray treatment to obtain a clean level of infestation (< 1cockroach per trap per unit). The results suggest that the intervention by IPM using hydramethylnon gel baits significantly reduced cockroach infestation compared to cypermethrin spray throughout the 11 weeks of post-treatment period. However, within the study period, the IPM system involving gel baits, educational program and sanitation was 363.2 percent more expensive than the conventional method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cockroaches , Insecticides/economics , Pest Control/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Germany , Housing , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Pest Control/methods
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135710

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: DPE-28, a substituted diphenyl ether (2,6-ditertiarybutyl phenyl-2’,4’-dinitro phenyl ether) was reported to exhibit promising insect growth regulating activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. A controlled release formulation (CRF) of DPE-28 has been developed to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in its breeding habitats. Toxicity of DPE-28, safety to non-target mosquito predators and the release profile of the CRF of DPE-28 are studied and discussed. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity was tested in male and female Wistar rats as per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 and 402 respectively. The toxicity of DPE-28 to non-target predators was tested as per the reported procedure from this laboratory. The CRF of DPE-28 was prepared by following the reported procedure developed at this laboratory earlier. The concentration of DPE-28 released from the CRF was monitored by HPLC by constructing a calibration graph by plotting the peak area in the Y-axis and the concentration of DPE-28 in the X-axis. Results: DPE-28 has been tested for acute oral toxicity and found to be moderately toxic with LD50 value of 1098 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The results of the acute dermal toxicity and skin irritation studies reveal that DPE-28 is safe and non-irritant. DPE-28 when tested at 0.4 mg/litre against non-target mosquito predators did not produce any mortality. The release profile of the active ingredient DPE-28 from the CRF by HPLC technique showed that the average daily release (ADR) of DPE-28 ranged from 0.07 to 5.0 mg/litre during first four weeks. Thereafter the matrix started eroding and the ADR ranged from 5 to 11 mg/litre during the remaining 5 wk. The cumulative release of active ingredient showed that > 90 per cent of the active ingredient was released from the matrix. Interpretation & conclusions: The controlled release matrix of DPE-28 was thus found to inhibit the adult emergence (>80%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus for a period of nine weeks. The CRF of DPE-28 may play a useful role in field and may be recommended for mosquito control programme after evaluating the same under field conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Breeding , Culex/drug effects , Culex/physiology , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations/toxicity , Female , Humans , Insect Vectors , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Insecticides/toxicity , Juvenile Hormones/administration & dosage , Juvenile Hormones/chemistry , Juvenile Hormones/pharmacology , Juvenile Hormones/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50 , Male , Mosquito Control/methods , Phenyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Phenyl Ethers/chemistry , Phenyl Ethers/pharmacology , Phenyl Ethers/toxicity , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Wistar
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