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1.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 15(2): 31-36, ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994569

ABSTRACT

La escabiosis es una infestación producida por Sarcoptes scabiei, caracterizada por lesiones generalizadas pruriginosas. El diagnóstico es eminentemente clínico. Síntomas compatibles en varios miembros de la misma familia se consideran diagnósticos. El tratamiento consiste en la aplicación de Permetrina al 5% en la superficie cutánea.


Scabies is an infestation produced by Sarcoptes scabiei. Itchy generalized lesions characterized this pathology. The diagnosis is clinical. Compatible symptons presented in some members of the same family are considered diagnostic. The treatment is based in the application of Permetrine 5% in all the cutaneous area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Scabies/diagnosis , Scabies/drug therapy , Pruritus , Permethrin/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Insecticides/therapeutic use
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(6): 603-607, jun. 2017. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895466

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of a fipronil/(S)-methoprene formulation against fleas on naturally infested cats. The study involved a population of 89 cats distributed among 24 veterinary practices in 9 regions of Spain. The product was applied according to label instructions on days 0, 30 and 60. Animals underwent parasitological and clinical assessments on day 0 and thereafter in monthly intervals (every 30 days) until day 90. Ctenocephalides felis was the most abundant species (98.9% of all fleas collected), and flea abundance on Day 0 was associated with the hair type, the location of the household, and the time elapsed from the last anti-flea treatment. Fipronil/(S)-methoprene demonstrated high efficacy and induced the reduction of clinical signs related to the presence of fleas. Clinical signs and flea abundance decreased significantly throughout time (P=0.001) with an efficacy rate of 72.6% at Day 30, 88.4% at Day 60 and 93.9% at Day 90. A high level of flea control and a remission of the clinical signs related to presence of fleas were observed on cats following 3 monthly applications a fipronil/(S)-methoprene formulation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Ctenocephalides , Flea Infestations/prevention & control , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Methoprene/therapeutic use , Ectoparasitic Infestations/prevention & control
3.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1)ene.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901506

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en la actualidad, nuevas tendencias tecnológicas e iniciativas se están presentando en el desarrollo de productos insecticidas derivados de productos naturales, y de nuevos agentes antimicrobianos, dado que poseen bioactivos que son selectivos, biodegradables y tienen menores efectos adversos. La especie Ambrosia peruviana Willd. es de gran interés en el estudio por su gran potencial biológico y etnobotánico. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad larvicida sobre Aedes aegypty L. y la actividad antibacteriana sobre bacterias Gram positivas y Gram negativas de extractos de A. peruviana. Métodos: a partir del material vegetal seco (hojas), se obtuvieron cinco extractos de diferente polaridad en hexano (H), diclorometano (D), acetato de etilo (A) y etanol (E) y aceites esenciales (AE), los cuales fueron evaluados mediante la inhibición del crecimiento de larvas por el método recomendado de la OMS y la inhibición de las bacterias por el método de difusión en agar de Kirby-Bauer. Resultados: la tasa de mortalidad encontrada a las 24 h a una concentración de 200 ppm para todos los extractos fue del 10 por ciento. Al evaluar el paso de los insectos de larvas a adultos a las 144 h se observó a esta misma concentración una mortalidad del 100 por ciento con todos los extractos. Por otra parte, los extractos de A. peruviana presentaron inhibición sobre Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland y Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn con halos de inhibición del extracto de diclorometano (APExtD) de 10,5 y 15,0 mm de diámetro respectivamente, al contrario sobre las cepas Serratia marcescens Bizio, Proteus mirabilis Hauser, Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards y Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach no se presentó actividad antibacteriana. Conclusiones: esta investigación es el primer reporte de actividad larvicida sobre A. aegypty y de actividad antibacteriana sobre B. cereus y B. subtilis de varios extractos de A. peruviana con promisorios resultados en estos modelos(AU)


Introduction: New technological trends and initiatives are currently being put forth concerning the development of insecticidal products and antimicrobial agents of natural origin, since their bioactive components are selective and biodegradable, and cause fewer adverse effects. The species Ambrosia peruviana Willd. was of great interest to the present study, due to its great biological and ethnobotanical potential. Objective: Evaluate the larvicidal activity of A. peruviana extracts against Aedes aegypti L., and its antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Methods: Dry plant material (leaves) was processed to obtain five extracts of different polarity in hexane (H), dichloromethane (D), ethyl acetate (A), ethanol (E) and essential oils (AE), which were evaluated for larval growth inhibition with the method recommended by WHO, and for bacterial inhibition with the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method. Results: The mortality rate at 24 h and a concentration of 200 ppm was 10 percent for all extracts. Examination of the transition of larvae into adults at 144 h and the same concentration revealed a mortality of 100 percent with all extracts. On the other hand, the extracts of A. peruviana displayed inhibition capacity against Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn with inhibition haloes for the dichloromethane extract (APExtD) of 10.5 and 15.0 mm in diameter, respectively, whereas no antibacterial activity was found against the strains Serratia marcescens Bizio, Proteus mirabilis Hauser, Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: This study is the first report of larvicidal activity againstA. aegypti and antibacterial activity against B. cereus and B. subtilis by several extracts of A. peruviana with promising results in these models(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Aedes/pathogenicity , Vector Control of Diseases , Teucrium/drug effects , Teucrium/poisoning , Insecticides/therapeutic use
4.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2016; 09 (22): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187362

ABSTRACT

There has been reports of recent rise of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis [CL] cases in Syria. Surveillance data received from its early warning and disease surveillance system, which is the only surveillance system currently functioning in Syria show an increase in number of CL cases reported from Raqqa, DierEzor and Idleb


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Rural Population
5.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(4): 500-506, 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-611455

ABSTRACT

A utilização de agrotóxicos tem contribuído para o aumento da produção agrícola, entretanto, o uso incorreto e indiscriminado durante várias décadas levou à acumulação de resíduos tóxicos em alimentos, contaminação da água e do solo, intoxicação de produtores rurais, seleção de pragas resistentes, entre muitos outros problemas. Ultimamente tem crescido o interesse por substâncias que apresentem menor risco à saúde humana e ao ambiente, além da demanda crescente por produtos alimentícios saudáveis e isentos de resíduos de agrotóxicos. Felizmente são inúmeras as plantas que apresentam atividade inseticida, devendo ser estudadas e introduzidas, quando possível, nas propriedades agrícolas como forma alternativa de controle de pragas. Neste trabalho, é apresentada revisão sobre o uso de plantas com propriedades inseticidas e repelentes, evidenciando o potencial dessa ferramenta no manejo de pragas. Para a inserção definitiva e segura de produtos botânicos no mercado, mais estudos ainda são necessários.


The use of pesticides has contributed to the increased agricultural production; however, the incorrect and indiscriminate use over several decades has led to the accumulation of toxic residues in food, contamination of water and soil, poisoning of farmers, selection of resistant pests, besides several other problems. Lately, the interest for substances posing lower risk to the human health and the environment has increased, in addition to the increasing demand for healthy food products free from pesticide residues. Fortunately a large number of plants have insecticidal activity and should be studied and introduced, whenever possible, into farms as an alternative means to control pests. In this study, a review of the use of plants with insecticidal or repellent potential is presented, evidencing the potential of this tool in pest management. For a definitive and safe insertion of botanical products into the market further studies are still needed.


Subject(s)
Insecticides/therapeutic use , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Insect Repellents , Pesticides
6.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 12(4): 482-487, out.-dez. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578990

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito in vivo do óleo de citronela, no controle do carrapato bovino [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus], da mosca-dos-chifres (Haematobia irritans), da mosca-dos-estábulos (Stomoxys calcitrans) e da mosca doméstica (Musca domestica). Foram utilizadas 15 vacas da raça Holandês, distribuídas em três grupos de cinco animais cada um. Os tratamentos foram: controle negativo, amitraz a 0,025 por cento e óleo de citronela a 4 por cento. Para avaliação foram contadas fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato e moscas antes (média dos dias -3, -2, -1) e após a aplicação dos produtos nos dias 7, 14, 21 e 28; também foram coletadas amostras de sangue. Em 28 dias, houve necessidade de se reaplicar o amitraz e o fitoterápico para controlar a infestação com carrapato. A relação entre o número de aplicações foi de 1:2,5 para o amitraz e o óleo de citronela, respectivamente. A eficácia no controle do carrapato foi de 71,8 e 30,9 por cento para o amitraz e óleo de citronela a 4 por cento, respectivamente, na média pós-tratamento. Verificou-se baixo controle de moscas no tratamento constituído pelo fitoterápico. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para os parâmetros sanguíneos.


This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo effect of citronella oil on the control of bovine ticks [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus], horn flies (Haematobia irritans), stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) and houseflies (Musca domestica). Fifteen Holstein cows were allocated to three groups of five animals each. The treatments were: negative control, amitraz at 0.025 percent and citronella oil at 4 percent. Engorged female ticks and flies were counted before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment; blood samples were also collected. Within 28 days, amitraz and the phytotherapic agent had to be reapplied to control tick infestation. The relationship among the number of applications was 1:2.5 for amitraz and citronella oil, respectively. The efficacy of tick control was, on average, 71.8 and 30.9 percent for amitraz and citronella oil at 4 percent respectively, post-treatment. Lower control of flies was observed for the phytotherapic group. There was no difference among treatments for blood parameters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/parasitology , Insect Control/methods , Cymbopogon/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/prevention & control , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Ticks/parasitology , Insecticides/analysis , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Muscidae/parasitology
7.
Ciênc. rural ; 39(4): 1131-1135, jul. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-519153

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de várias formulações feitas com fumo em corda no controle do carrapato (Boophilus microplus) de bovinos leiteiros da raça Holandesa naturalmente infestados. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por Amitraz a 0,025%; extrato aquoso de fumo em corda (EFC) a 1,25% + detergente neutro a 0,5% (em três aspersões, com intervalos de 24 horas entre elas); EFC a 1,25% + cal extinta a 1,25% (três aspersões); EFC a 5,0% + cal extinta a 2,0%, (três aspersões); EFC a 3,75% + detergente neutro a 0,5% (uma aspersão), e pelo grupo controle. Para a avaliação, foram observadas fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato, com comprimento superior a 4,0mm, antes da aplicação e no 1o, 2o, 3o, 4o, 5o, 6o, 7o e 14o dias após a aplicação de cada tratamento. A eficácia média de controle do carrapato no 14odia foi de 100,0; 77,5; 22,0; 63,80; 25,3 e 0,0%, respectivamente. Verificou-se diferença significativa (P<0,05) entre os tratamentos constituídos pelo produto químico e pordiferentes formulações de fumo em corda.


This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of severals concentrations of rope tobacco against the tick (Boophilus microplus) naturally infested on Rolstein dairy cattle. The treatments used were Amitraz at 0.025%; rope tobacco aqueous extract (RT) at 1.25% + neutral detergent at 0.5% (tree aspersions, with interval of 24 hours among them), RT at 1.75% + withewash at 0.5% (tree aspersions); RT at 5.0% + withewash at 2.0% (tree aspersions); RT at 3.75% + neutral detergent at 0.5% (one aspersion) and the control group. Engorged ticks were evaluate with length superior to 4.0 mm, before and at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 14th day after treatment. The mean efficacy was 100.0; 77.5; 22.0; 63.8; 25.3 and 0.0%, respectively. Differences (P<0.05) among treatments with chemical product and rope tobacco formulations were observed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Phytotherapy/veterinary , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Tick Control , Tobacco
8.
In. Carvalheiro, José da Rocha; Azevedo, Nara; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C. de; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Klein, Lisabel. Clássicos em doença de Chagas: história e perspectivas no centenário da descoberta. Rio de Janeiro, Fiocruz, 2009. p.333-350, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-535937

ABSTRACT

Revisões históricas aos avanços científicos para o controle da doença, o Simpósio Internacional Comemorativo do Centenário da Descoberta da Doença de Chagas (1909-2009).


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Hexachlorocyclohexane/administration & dosage , History of Medicine , Triatominae
9.
Ethiop. j. health dev. (Online) ; 22(3): 268-274, 2009.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1261707

ABSTRACT

Background: Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) reduce malaria related mortality and morbidity significantly. Taking this into account; the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health has been distributing ITNs to malaria prone areas of the country through the support of the Global Fund. Objective: To study distributional coverage and assess the knowledge and utilization of insecticide treated nets in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 17 malarious districts targeted for the first phase free distribution of long lasting insecticide treats nets (LLITNs) by the Ministry of Health in 9 administrative regions from October 2005 to September 2006. Region specific list of malarious districts where MOH distributed ITNs was used as the sampling frame for stratified random sampling of districts. One kebele (sub district) was selected from each of the selected districts using simple random sampling; and 15of the total households in the selected kebeles were selected using systematic random sampling. Upon obtaining informed consent from the household head or the oldest person in the household the questionnaire was administered and information was recorded. Data were double entered using EpiData version 3 and analyzed using SPSS version 12. Results: A total of 3131 households were visited; and 51.6of the respondents were males. The overall ITN distribution and utilization were 97.6and 81.6; respectively. The majority of households (53.2) owned a single net per family; highest in Dire Dawa (93.7) and lowest in Afar (17.6). Thirty eight percent of the respondents owned two nets per household. Most of the respondents (91.1) cited that ITNs are useful to control malaria either through prevention of mosquito bites (60) or prevention of the disease (39). Conclusion: ITN distribution; utilization; knowledge of users and its acceptability were good considering the recent introduction of the products. However; the person net ratio gap should be narrowed and emphasis needs to be given to vulnerable groups


Subject(s)
Ethiopia , Insecticides/supply & distribution , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Knowledge , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control
10.
Dermatol. pediatr. latinoam. (Impr.) ; 6(3): 151-159, sept.-dic. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-599028

ABSTRACT

La pediculosis es una patología cuya prevalencia está en aumento en todo el mundo. En parte, esto se debe a las dificultades que presentan los tratamientos disponibles. Los pediculicidas químicos usados actualmente son piretrinas (permetrina 1% es la más usada), malatión 0,5%, lindano 1% (cuestionado debido a su neurotoxicidad e impacto ambiental) e ivermectina (sin aprobación de la Food and Drug Administration). Si bien existe una creciente evidencia sobre el desarrollo de resistencia a estos pediculicidas, es importante considerar la correcta realización de los tratamientos o la presencia de una reinfección antes que el desarrollo de resistencia propiamente dicho, razón por la cual es recomendable que el problema sea abordado en forma conjunta por el equipo de salud, la escuela y la familia. Actualmente se investigan nuevas opciones terapéuticas más seguras y eficaces como, por ejemplo, métodos físicos, aceites esenciales y derivados vegetales, nuevos insecticidas o la incorporación formal de opciones como la ivermectina, para lo cual aún se requiere más investigación que aporte evidencia de mejor calidad metodológica.


Head lice is a condition whose prevalence is increasing worldwide, probably because of the difficulties that available treatments present. Chemicals pediculicides currently in use are pyrethrins (1% permethrin is the most widely used), 0.5% malathion, 1% lindane (questioned because of its neurotoxic effects and their environmental impact) and ivermectin (not yet approved by the Food and Drug Administration). While there is increasing evidence of growing development of resistance to these pediculicides, it is important to consider the proper conduct of the treatments or the presence of reinfection before considering the real development of resistance, for these reasons a global assessment that includes the health equipe, the school and the family is desirable. New therapeutic options, both safe and effective, are being investigated. They include physical methods, products derived from essential oils and herbal products, new insecticides and ivermectin, which requires further research to provide evidence of better quality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lice Infestations/prevention & control , Lice Infestations/therapy , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Lice Infestations , Hexachlorocyclohexane/therapeutic use , Permethrin/therapeutic use , Pyrethrins/therapeutic use
11.
Ciênc. rural ; 38(6): 1700-1704, jul.-set. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-492012

ABSTRACT

A região sul do Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se por uma bovinocultura com predomínio de raças européias, tanto para produção de carne, quanto de leite. Essa região é considerada área marginal de ocorrência do carrapato Boophilus microplus, cujo parasitismo ocorre entre final de setembro e meados de maio devido às baixas temperaturas do inverno. No entanto, as perdas causadas por esse parasito são elevadas, o que tem sido agravadas pela seleção de populações de carrapatos resistentes aos acaricidas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a situação de sensibilidade/resistência do carrapato bovino, assim como a dinâmica de uso dos diferentes grupos acaricidas disponíveis no mercado, na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, na última década. Durante o período foram avaliadas amostras de carrapatos provenientes de 124 propriedades, de 14 municípios da região. Em cada propriedade foram coletadas teleóginas e informações relativas ao manejo. No Laboratório de Parasitologia do Instituto de Biologia da UFPel, foi realizado teste de imersão de teleóginas. Observou-se que durante o primeiro triênio os produtos mais utilizados eram à base de piretróide, determinando uma seleção de populações resistentes a esse princípio ativo. No terceiro triênio os produtos a base de amitraz dominaram o mercado, ocorrendo também seleção de populações resistentes. No primeiro triênio, todas as populações de carrapato analisadas eram sensíveis ao amitraz (índice de eficácia = 95 por cento), enquanto que, ao final do estudo, no terceiro triênio, esse índice de eficácia foi detectado em apenas 79 por cento das populações estudadas. Foram detectadas falhas de manejo na região, como número de aplicação superior a seis por ano, aplicação de acaricida somente quando visualizadas as formas adultas e uso exclusivo de acaricidas para o controle do carrapato, que predispõem a seleção de populações resistentes.


In the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, European cattle represent the most important stock used for meat and milk production. This region is considered a marginal area for the occurrence of the tick Boophilus microplus, which parasites the cattle between the end of September and early May. The damage caused by this parasite is high, which has been aggravated by the selection of tick populations resistant to acaricids. The aim of this present research was to evaluate the sensibility/resistance situation of Boophilus microplus, as well as the dynamic of the use of different acaricids in the last decade. During the period of study, tick samples from 124 farms, collected in 14 counties of the region, were analyzed. In each farm engorged female ticks and information about the acaricids management were collected. In order to test the sensibility/resistance we used the immersion test of the engorged females tick performed at the Laboratório de Parasitologia do Instituto de Biologia da UFPel . We observed that in the first three years of the last decade a selection of resistant tick populations was induced by pyretroids products. Products that used amitraz as a main compound, the most important acaricids used in the last three years of the decade, also induced resistant selection in the tick population to this drug. In the first three years of the studied period all tick populations analyzed where sensitive to amitraz (efficacy index = 95 percent). However, in the last three years of the decade, the efficacy index detected drop to 79 percent in the studied populations. Managing inaccuracy in the region where detected such as, number of application higher than six times a year, application of acaricids only when the adults forms where visualized and the exclusive use of the acaricid for the tick control, that might predispose to the selection of resistant populations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tick-Borne Diseases/veterinary , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Tick Control , Ticks
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112558

ABSTRACT

The susceptibility status of Xenopsylla cheopis, the efficient vector of human plague in India was assessed in erstwhile plague endemic areas of Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu following standard WHO techniques. The studies revealed the development of resistance in rat fleas to DDT--4.0%, Malathion--5.0%, Deltamethrin--0.05% and tolerance to Permethrin--0.75% in all the four blocks of Nilgiris hill district. Development of resistance may be due to the extensive use of insecticides in tea plantations and agricultural sectors where the domestic/peri-domestic rodents find their natural habitats and intermingle with each other.


Subject(s)
Animals , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Siphonaptera/microbiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Control , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Mice , Murinae , Plague/prevention & control , Rats , Rodent Diseases/prevention & control
13.
Rev. chil. tecnol. méd ; 28(2): 1454-1459, 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-534998

ABSTRACT

Por la importancia médica que reviste, la ectoparasitosis más importante es la pediculosis humana variedad capitis, que podría definirse como la infestación de la cabeza por piojos. Dada la alta prevalencia de pediculosis, sobre todo en la población pediátrica, es vital el conocer las características epidemiológicas de esta patología. Por otra parte, son cada vez más los reportes tanto a nivel nacional coma internacional. de resistencia al tratamiento por parte de los parásitos, por lo que saber cuáles son los tratamientos más usados por la población, si estos tienen o no indicación médica y cuáles fueron sus resultados, es relevante. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el Consultorio Esmeralda, comuna de Colina, aplicando una encuesta prediseñada que consignaba los siguientes datos: numero de habitantes del hogar (especificando niños y adultos), grado de hacinamiento, probable fuente de contagio, tratamiento utilizado, quién indicó el tratamiento y efectividad de este. Los datos se tabularon y analizaron expresando los resultados en porcentajes. Un total de 320 encuestas consignó 951 casos de pediculosis. El grado de hacinamiento fue en promedia de 2,4 personas por dormitorio. El promedio de edad de los infestados fue de 13,03 alias (rango entre 0 y 53 años), observándose que un 78,65 por ciento correspondía a menores de 16 años. En cuanto a la probable fuente de contagio, un 93,7 por ciento consideraba que el origen de la infestación familiar era el establecimiento educacional de uno de las niños de la casa. Del total de los casos un 96,6 por ciento recibió tratamiento farmacológico, de los cuales solo un 35,9 por ciento tenía indicación por algún profesional de la salud. Destacó dentro del tratamiento farmacológico, el uso de Lindano (30,1 por ciento) y de champú pediculicida (69,90 por ciento).


By the medical importance that has, the most important ectoparasites is the human pediculosis variety capitis, that could be defined as the infestation of the head by lice. Given the high prevalence of pediculosis, coverall in the paediatric population, is vital knowing the characteristic epidemiologists of this pathology on the other hand, they are more and more the reports as much at national level as International, of resistance to the treatment on the part of the parasites, reason why to know which are the treatments more used by the population, if these has or medical indication and which were not their results, is excellent. A descriptive study was realised of cross section in the Emerald Health Consulting Institution, commune of Colina, applying a predesigned survey that bnefed the following data: number of inhabitants of the home (specifying young and adult), overcrowding degree, probable source of contagion, used treatment, who indicated the treatment and effectiveness of this one. The data were tabularon and analyzed expressing the results in percentage. A total of 320 surveys briefed 957 cases of pediculosis. The overcrowding degree was in average of 2.4 people by dormitory The average of age of the infested ones was of 13.03 years (rank between 0 and 53 years), being observed that a 78.65 percent corresponded to minors of 16 years. As far as the probable source of contagion, a 93.7 percent considered that the origin of the familiar infestation was the educational establishment of one of the children of the house. From the total of the cases a 96.6 percent received pharmacological treatment, of which a 35.9 percent only had indication by some professional of the health. It emphasized within the pharmacological treatment, the use of Lindane (30.7 percent) and pediculicide shampoo (69.90 percent).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Lice Infestations/drug therapy , Pediculus , Age Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Data Collection , Drug Resistance , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Hexachlorocyclohexane/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 24(4): 306-310, ago. 2007. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-459601

ABSTRACT

Realizamos el estudio epidemiológico de un brote de sarna ocurrido en un hospital terciario, a partir de un caso de sarna costrosa, en febrero de 2005. Detectamos diez casos secundarios; ocho en el personal de salud y dos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una tasa de ataque de 4,1 por ciento. A diferencia de otros brotes, el diagnóstico de sarna costrosa se hizo al ingreso del caso primario al hospital. Las causas del brote fueron: adherencia deficiente a las medidas de aislamiento de contacto, permanencia prolongada del caso primario en sala compartida, y retardo en el inicio del tratamiento específico. Las principales medidas de control fueron: alertar a los servicios sobre el brote, realizar vigilancia epidemiológica, coordinación con la Dirección del Hospital y el Departamento de Salud Ocupacional, capacitar al personal de salud en las medidas de control, instaurar medidas de aislamiento y tratar a los casos y sus contactos con permetrina 5 por ciento loción tópica.


In February 2005 we performed an epidemiological study of an outbreak of scabies in a tertiary-care hospital which started from a crusted scabies case. We detected 10 secondary cases, 8 in healthcare workers and 2 in hospitalized patients. The attack rate was 4.1 percent. In contrast to previously described outbreaks, the crusted scabies case was recognized at admission. The outbreak causes were: lacking adherence to contact precautions, long stay of the primary case in the hospital ward and delay of specific treatment. The main control measures were: alerting the hospital services about the outbreak, performing epidemiologic surveillance, coordinating with the Hospital Direction and the Occupational Health Department, education of healthcare workers in control measures, implementation of isolation measures and treatment of cases and contacts with 5 percent permethrin topical lotion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Male , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Scabies/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Permethrin/therapeutic use , Petrolatum/therapeutic use , Scabies/drug therapy , Scabies/transmission
15.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 16(4): 279-293, 2007. mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-469116

ABSTRACT

No Brasil, o Aedes aegypti é responsável pela transmissão de dengue e o Aedes albopictus, potencial vetor, está se disseminando no país. O uso de inseticidas químicos ainda é o principal componete de controle do vetor. A ação das principais classes de compostos tradicionalmente usados em Saúde Pública é descrita, assim como os mecanismos de resistência selecionados pela população do vetor. Produtos alternativos, com potencial de utilização no controle do A. aegypti, incluindo o biolarvicida Bti e alguns reguladores do desenvolvimento de insetos, também são discutidos. Pretende-se contribuir com o uso racional de inseticidas, considerando os diferentes componentes do controle integrado...


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Insecticide Resistance
17.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 142(6): 507-510, nov.-dic. 2006. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-568941

ABSTRACT

Diferentes tipos de sarna han sido descritos con base en sus características clínicas, entre ellos la sarna costrosa (Noruega). Es una manifestación rara y extrema de la escabiosis que se produce principalmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 42 años, homosexual, a quien se diagnosticó VIH y que presenta lesiones dérmicas pruriginosas de 4 meses de evolución en tronco y extremidades, constituidas por xerosis, pápulas decapitadas, placas eritematosas, manchas hipercrómicas residuales y múltiples excoriaciones e hiperpigmentación ungueal en ambos pies. Se trató inicialmente como dermatitis psorasiforme que no cedió al tratamiento con esteroides y antipruritico. Se realizó diagnóstico por biopsia que confirmó la sospecha clínica de sarna noruega. Se aplicó un tratamiento con una dosis de ivermectina oral y benzoato de bencilo tópico con remisión en dos días.


Different types of scabies have been described based on their clinical outcome, one of which is the Crusted (Norwegian) type. This is an extreme manifestation of scabies that can be observed mainly among immunosupressed patients. A case ofa 42 year-old homosexual man is described. The patient was diagnosed with HIV, presenting pruritic lesions with a 4 month evolution in trunk and extremities. Lesions included xerosis, decapitated papules, badges with erythema, residual hyperchromic stains, multiple abrasions and ungueal pigmentation in both feet. At the beginning it was treated as apsorasiform dermatitis with steroids and antipruritics without success. Through a biopsy the suspected diagnosis of Crusted (Norwegian) scabies was confirmed. The patient was treated with a dose of oral ivermectin and topical benzyl benzoate and showed remission after two days.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Scabies/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzoates/therapeutic use , Scabies/drug therapy , Scabies/pathology , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Skin/parasitology , Skin/pathology , Sarcoptes scabiei , Treatment Outcome
18.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 46(1): 39-47, 2006. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-503741

ABSTRACT

Anopheles aquasalis del estado Aragua se encuentra en zonas de desarrollo agropecuario cercanas al Lago de Valencia y recibe presión de insecticidas en forma indirecta, la misma dirigida al control de plagas agrícolas. En esta especie, se determinó el nivel de resistencia al insecticida piretroide lambdacialotrina y al organofosforado pirimifosmetil. Los bioensayos se realizaron con el método de las botellas tratadas con insecticidas, a fin de determinar el umbral de resistencia el cual es definido como la sobrevivencia de los mosquitos a 60 minutos de exposición a una dosis específica de los productos evaluados. De tal manera que para lambdacialotrina 0,1 µg/mL se obtuvo un TL 98 de 140,7 minutos y para pirimifosmetil 0,1 µg/mL se obtuvo un TL 98 de 93,0 minutos. Se identificaron mecanismos de resistencia IN VIVO con los sinergistas Butóxido de Piperonilo (PB) y S,S,S, Tributilfosforotriotioato (DEF) e IN VITRO con el substrato beta naftil acetato. Las enzimas de multifunción oxidasa (MFO) y las esterasas confieren resistencia a estos grupos de insecticidas. Los resultados aquí obtenidos contribuirán al mejor conocimiento de la resistencia a insecticidas en esta especie de importancia médica.


Subject(s)
Esterases , Insect Vectors , Insecticides, Organophosphate , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Oxidoreductases , Environmental Health , Venezuela
19.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 46(1): 31-37, 2006. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-503742

ABSTRACT

Lutzomyia evansi es considerado un vector alterno de la leishmaniasis visceral americana (LVA) en localidades de Colombia y Venezuela. En el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, estudios sobre labionomía de esta especie han revelado que está asociada a los principales focos de LVA con tasas de infección natural de 0,23%, antropo filia y comportamiento intra y peridomiciliar, aspectos que nos motivaron a precisar bajo condiciones experimentales la respuesta de una población silvestre de esta especie frente a fenitrotión y lambdacialotrina para determinar las concentraciones letales 50 y 95 y dosis diagnósticas. La población de L. evansi fue capturada con trampa de Shannonen la localidad de Los Pajones, Estado Trujillo, por ser una localidad no sometida a presión con insecticidas. Los bioensayos fueron realizados por exposición de los insectos durante una hora a papeles impregnados con diferentes concentraciones de fenitrotión y lambdacialotrina y la mortalidad fue registrada luego de 24 horas. Las CL 50 y CL 95 con el insecticida fenitrotión fueron de 0,012% y 0,05% respectivamente y para lambdacyhalotrina una CL 50 de 0,0004% y CL 95 de 0,0017%. Los valores de las dosis diagnósticas obtenidos fueron de 0,189% para fenitrotión y 0,0063% para lambdacialotrina. Estos resultados son útiles para establecer comparaciones con otras poblaciones de L.evansi de áreas endémicas de LVA que estén sometidas a fuerte presión con insecticidas y así determinar las concentraciones que permitirían reducir la población de este vector e interrumpir la transmisión de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/parasitology , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Psychodidae , Biology , Parasitology , Venezuela
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112296

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of deltamethrin-impregnated mosquito nets on malaria incidence, mosquito density, any adverse side effect among users. A field trial was carried out over a period of three years in two adjacent military stations at Allahabad (UP), keeping one as a trial and other as a control station. During first year, baseline data were collected and during next two years residual spray was replaced with use of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets in trial station. The use of deltamethrin-impregnated mosquito nets/insecticide treated bed nets resulted in a significant decline in malaria incidence and Annual Parasite Index (API). The average mosquito density of Anopheline mosquitoes decreased by 67.8% and Culex by 49.7%. The insecticide was found safe for use amongst troops. Use of deltamethrin-impregnated mosquito nets has beneficial impact on integrated control of malaria.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Animals , Anopheles , Bedding and Linens , Case-Control Studies , Culex , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Malaria/epidemiology , Military Personnel , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Pyrethrins/therapeutic use
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