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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 605-612, May-June 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278352

ABSTRACT

The high prevalence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) in athletic horses constitutes to be a challenge to the racing industry and a source of major concern to animal welfare. Both experimental and clinical evidence indicate that the use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising effector of repair in a variety of pulmonary conditions. The present study evaluated the effect of intrabronchial instillation of PRP on EIPH endoscopic scores from 37 Thoroughbred racehorses. Inclusion criteria were for animals to be EIPH-positive in, at least, two consecutive post-exercise endoscopic exams and to receive 250mg of furosemide IV four hours before racing. Animals were randomly assigned into 3 groups: placebo, control, and PRP instillation. All 37 Thoroughbred racehorses included had EIPH endoscopic scores pre- and post- treatment compared by statistical analysis. The bleeding score from the group receiving PRP was significantly lower than in the control and placebo groups. No adverse effects were observed in any animal during or after the experiment. It was possible to conclude that the intrabronchial instillation of autologous PRP was effective in reducing EIPH scores in racehorses receiving furosemide and that this bioproduct can be considered as a promising coadjuvant in controlling EIPH in athletic horses.(AU)


A alta prevalência de hemorragia pulmonar induzida por exercício (HPIE) em cavalos atletas é um desafio de longa data para a indústria de corridas, além de figurar como grande preocupação sobre o bem-estar animal. As evidências experimentais e clínicas indicam que o uso do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) de fonte autógena é promissor na terapêutica de diversas lesões pulmonares. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar as mudanças após corrida no escore endoscópico de HPIE de 37 cavalos Puro-Sangue Inglês que receberam instilação intrabronquial de PRP autólogo. Os animais selecionados eram HPIE-positivos em, ao menos, dois exames endoscópicos consecutivos e recebiam 250mg de furosemida IV administrado quatro horas antes de cada corrida. Na comparação dos escores endoscópicos pré e pós-tratamento, verificou-se que o escore de HPIE do grupo tratado com PRP foi significantemente menor que o dos grupos controle e placebo. Nenhum efeito adverso foi observado nos animais durante ou após o experimento. Concluiu-se que a instilação intrabronquial de PRP autólogo foi efetiva na redução do escore de HPIE de cavalos de corrida usuários de furosemida e que este bioproduto pode ser considerado uma alternativa promissora no controle de HPIE em cavalos atletas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal/adverse effects , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Acute Lung Injury/veterinary , Horses/physiology , Instillation, Drug , Furosemide/analysis , Hemorrhage/veterinary
3.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(4): 348-353, jul.-ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-896603

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: relatar a experiência inicial com a terapia por pressão negativa por instilação em feridas complexas infectadas ou contaminadas. Métodos: a terapia por pressão negativa por instilação utilizada foi o V.A.C. Ulta com instilação Veraflo (Kinetic Concepts, Inc). O modo de operação foi contínuo com pressão sub-atmosférica ajustada em 125 mmHg por duas horas e instilação entre as pausas. O tempo de instilação foi de 20 minutos (tempo de contato do agente tópico com a ferida) e a substância instilada foi solução salina padrão a 0,9%. Após obtenção de preparo adequado da ferida, ela foi coberta com enxerto ou retalho. Resultados: foram operados dez pacientes com feridas complexas contaminadas ou infectadas. O número médio de trocas da TPNi foi 1,4, o número médio total de cirurgias foi de 2,4, o intervalo até a cobertura da ferida foi de 6,3 dias e o intervalo até a alta foi de 11,4 dias. Conclusão: a comparação da terapia por pressão negativa por instilação com dois estudos prévios (controle histórico) evidenciou um tempo de internação menor, favorecendo a TPNi. Este estudo teve um caráter inicial, fazendo-se necessário conduzir um trabalho randomizado e controlado para confirmar a eficácia desta terapia e verificar a sua custo-efetividade.


ABSTRACT Objective: to report the initial experience with Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with instillation in infected or contaminated complex wounds. Methods: the negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation used was V.A.C. Ulta with Veraflo instillation (Kinetic Concepts, Inc). The mode of operation was continuous with negative pressure set at 125 mmHg for two hours and instillation between the pauses. The instillation time was 20 minutes (contact time of the topical agent with the wound) and the instilled substance was 0.9% normal saline. After adequate preparation of the wound, it was covered with graft or flap. Results: ten patients with complex or contaminated wounds were operated on. The mean number of NPWTi changes was 1.4, the mean number of surgeries was 2.4, the interval until complete wound coverage was 6.3 days, and the interval up to the time of discharge was 11.4 days. Conclusion: the comparison of the negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation with two previous studies (historical control) evidenced a shorter hospitalization time, favoring TPNi. This study had an initial character, making it necessary to conduct a randomized and controlled trial to confirm the efficacy of this therapy and verify its cost-effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Wound Healing , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Instillation, Drug , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): 238-241, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888125

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the technique of eye drop instillation in glaucoma patients and identify independent factors that may influence their performance. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 71 consecutive patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension, self-administering topical anti-glaucoma medications for ≥6 months were evaluated. All patients instilled a tear substitute into the eye with the worst eyesight using the technique normally used at home. The following parameters were evaluated: age, number of years receiving treatment with ocular hypotensive eye drops, time spent to instill the first drop, number of drops instilled, correct location of the eye drops, contact of the bottle with the eye, closing of the eyelids or occlusion of the tear punctum, and asepsis of the hands. Results: The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 10.8 years, and patients were on ocular hypotensive drugs for 11.3 ± 7.3 (range, 2-35) years. Only 28% of the patients were able to correctly instill the eye drops (squeeze out 1 drop and instill it into the conjunctival sac without bottle tip contact). Touching the tip of the bottle to the globe or periocular tissue occurred in 62% of the patients. In 49% of the patients, the eye drops fell on the eyelids or cheek. Two or more drops were squeezed by 27% of the patients. Conclusions: The majority of glaucoma patients were unable to correctly instill eye drops. Age was an independent factor associated with eye drop instillation performance.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a técnica de instilação de colírio em portadores de glaucoma e identificar fatores independentes que pode influenciar o desempenho. Métodos: Neste estudo transversal 71 pacientes consecutivos com glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular que auto instilam seus colírios há pelo menos 6 meses, foram avaliados. Todos os pacientes instilaram um colírio lubrificante no olho de pior visão utilizando a mesma técnica de instilação de colírio que utilizam rotineiramente em casa. Foram avaliados parâmetros como: idade, número de anos em tratamento com colírios hipotensores oculares, tempo gasto para instilação da primeira gota, número de gotas instiladas, localização correta do colírio, contato do frasco com o olho, fechamento de pálpebras ou oclusão do ponto lacrimal e assepsia das mãos. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 66 ± 10,8 anos. Os pacientes esta vam em tratamento com colírios hipotensores oculares por, em média, 11,3 ± 7,3 anos (variando de 2 a 35 anos). Apenas 28% dos pacientes foram capazes de instilar corretamente o colírio (instilação de 1 gota em saco conjuntival sem contato com a ponta do frasco). Contato da ponta do frasco com o olho ou tecido periocular ocorreu em 62% dos pacientes. Em 49% dos casos, o colírio caiu nas pálpebras ou fora do saco lacrimal na primeira tentativa. Duas ou mais gotas foram instiladas por 27% dos pacientes. Conclusão: A maioria dos pacientes com glaucoma é incapaz de instilar o colírio corretamente. A idade é um fator independente que influencia o desempenho da instilação de colírio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Time Factors , Instillation, Drug , Visual Acuity , Ocular Hypertension/drug therapy , Patient Education as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Patient Compliance , Intraocular Pressure/drug effects
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(1): 28-32, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-844064

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia fenilefrina a 10% aplicada pelo próprio paciente por vaporização em olho fechado em relação à instilação de gota em olho aberto em indivíduos que irão realizar exame de fundoscopia e avaliar o nível de dificuldade e a adequação técnica entre os métodos de administração. Métodos: Ensaio clínico controlado, randomizado e pareado realizado em 2014 envolvendo 100 olhos de 50 pacientes na Policlínica Ronaldo Gazolla - RJ, sem doenças oculares ou sistêmicas que comprometiam a dilatação pupilar. Os pacientes foram submetidos à instilação de 1 gota de fenilefrina a 10% e aplicação de vaporizador do mesmo midriático no olho contralateral. O olho em que se instilou o colírio permaneceu aberto, enquanto o olho vaporizado ficou fechado durante as aplicações da medicação. O diâmetro pupilar foi medido antes da aplicação, 10, 20 e 30 minutos após. O processo de instilação ou vaporização foi observado quanto a sua adequação técnica por um dos autores. Após o processo foi perguntado ao paciente questões pré-formuladas sobre a praticidade de ambos os métodos. Resultados: A diferença de midríase média entre os grupos de olhos avaliados em um determinado tempo foi no máximo 0,3 mm , o que não foi clinicamente ou estatisticamente significativo (ANOVA: F = 1,97 e p = 0,163609) . Porém, ao longo do tempo, a diferença entre o diâmetro da pupila no tempo inicial e no tempo de 30 minutos foi 1,15 mm para os olhos vaporizados e 1,58 mm para os olhos instilados com gotas (ANOVA: F = 129,22 e p ≤ 0,0001). Percentual de 60% dos pacientes tocaram a ponta do frasco de colírio nos olhos, enquanto que 12% tocaram o orifício na ponta do vaporizador com os dedos (p < 0,000001). Setenta de dois por cento (72%) consideraram a instilação de gotas fácil ou muito fácil enquanto 62% consideraram a vaporização em olho fechado fácil ou muito fácil (p = 0,238). Conclusão: A instilação de gotas em olhos abertos e a vaporização de olhos fechados da fenilefrina a 10% apresentou eficácia clínica semelhante. A vaporização foi mais segura e apresentou nível de dificuldade um pouco maior do que a instilação, apesar dos pacientes serem experientes para instilar gotas e inexperientes para vaporizar a medicação em olho fechado.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effectiveness of phenylephrine 10% applied by a spray onto the eye closed over drop instillation onto an open eye on patients who will perform ophthalmoscopy and assess the level of difficulty and technical adequacy of the administration methods. Methods: The study was a clinical trial, controlled, randomized and paired, performed in 2014, involving 100 eyes of 50 patients in the Polyclinic Ronaldo Gazolla - RJ, with no ocular or systemic diseases that compromised the pupillary dilation. Patients underwent 10% phenylephrine eye drop instillation onto one open eye and spray application onto the other eye, which was closed. Pupillary diameter was measured before application and 10, 20, 30 minutes after. The process of instillation or vaporization was observed for its technical correctness by one of the authors. A questionnaire was asked to the patient about the difficulty of both methods after topical administration. Results: The average mydriasis difference between the eye groups assessed at a given time was at most 0.3 mm, which was not clinically or statistically significant (ANOVA: F = 1.97 and p = 0.163609). However, over time, the difference between the average pupil diameter before application and after 30 minutes was 1.15 mm to vaporized eyes and to 1.58 mm in eyes instilled with drops (ANOVA: F = 129, 22 and p ≤ 0.0001). Sixty per cent of patients touched the tip of the eye drop bottle onto the eye, while 12% touched the tip of the vaporizer with their fingers (p <0.000001). Seventy two percent (72%) considered the drops instillation easy or very easy, while 62% considered vaporization in a closed eye easy or very easy (p = 0.238). Conclusion: The instillation of drops phenylephrine 10% in open eyes and the vaporization onto closed eyes showed similar clinical efficacy. Vaporization was safer and a little more difficult than instillation, despite the patients being experienced for instilling drops and inexperienced to vaporize the medication in a closed eye.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Administration, Topical , Eye/drug effects , Mydriatics/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Phenylephrine , Instillation, Drug , Randomized Controlled Trial , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Rev. Soc. Colomb. Oftalmol ; 50(1): 58-67, 2017. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-904932

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La medición fidedigna de parámetros tomográficos corneales es de gran importancia para el oftalmólogo general y para el cirujano de córnea, por cuanto permite un mejor diagnóstico y enfoque del paciente evaluado. Se ha visto que la presencia de fluoresceína en superficie ocular aumenta falsamente las paquimetrías según medida del Pentacam pero no se conoce si sucede algo similar con el equipo Galilei. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, de intervención, aleatorizado, que pretendió evaluar si la presencia de una mezcla comercialmente disponible de fluoresceína induce cambios sobre los parámetros tomográficos tomados con el equipo Galilei G4 en un grupo de voluntarios sanos. Como control se utilizó la instilación de solución salina fisiológica en el ojo contralateral. Resultados: En total se incluyeron 36 ojos pertenecientes a 18 voluntarios sanos ocularmente. En el estado basal no se encontraron cambios en los parámetros tomográficos del grupo control con respecto al grupo intervención. Al minuto y a los cinco minutos de observación, se encontró una dispersión marcada de los datos correspondientes y derivados de la cara posterior corneal. Estos cambios se normalizaron a los 20 y 40 minutos de seguimiento luego de la instilación. Conclusiones: La presencia de fluoresceína sobre la superficie ocular induce cambios artefactuales importantes que pueden llevar a errores diagnósticos. Es recomendable esperar un tiempo prudencial desde la instilación de fluoresceína en el consultorio antes de realizar un estudio tomográfico en el paciente.


Background: Trustable measuring of tomographic parameters is of outmost importance for both the comprehensive ophthalmologist and the corneal surgeon, as it allows for a correct diagnosis of the patient. It has been shown that the presence of fluorescein on the corneal surface artefactually increases pachimetry values when measured with a Pentacam device, but it is unknown whether the same behavior is seen when a Galilei equipment is used. Methods: Prospective, randomized, intervention study, which sought to evaluate if the presence of a commercially available fluorescein mixture induced changes on tomographic parameters as measured by a Galilei G4 equipment on healthy subjects. Instillation of sodium chloride was used as a control. Results: 36 eyes belonging to 18 healthy volunteers were included. Before intervention, there was no diff erence on tomographic data between the intervention and the control groups. At one and fi ve minutes aft er intervention, the fluorescein group exhibited an important dispersion of posterior corneal surface data. These changes subsided at 20 and 40 minutes after fluorescein instillation. Conlusions: The presence of fluorescein on the corneal surface induced a number of important errors in tomographic data.


Subject(s)
Corneal Pachymetry , Corneal Diseases , Diagnostic Errors , Fluorescein , Instillation, Drug
7.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2017; 27 (4): 257-259
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189285

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hypertension may coexist with certain diseases in neonates. Iloprost inhalation is one of the treatments which cause selective pulmonary vasodilatation. Inhalation is not an easy way of drug administration in mechanically ventilated infants; as some exhibit desaturations during inhalation. Moreover, inhalation of drug requires cessation of mechanical ventilation, if patient is on high frequency oscillatory ventilation. We presented two patients with pulmonary hypertension; term baby with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and preterm baby with respiratory distress syndrome; who had iloprost instillation during mechanical ventilation treatment. Iloprost instillation was well tolerated with no side effects in the term patient with diaphragmatic hernia; whereas severe blood pressure fluctuations were observed in the preterm infant. This report may courage administration of iloprost in term neonates with resistant pulmonary hypertension


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Infant, Newborn , Instillation, Drug , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Infant, Premature
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(3): 641-650, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-785710

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), pupil size (PS), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and ECG variables (Pms wave PmV, PR interval, QRS complex, RMV wave and QT intervals) over time during the instillation of 0.5% timolol, 0.5% levobunolol and 0.5% apraclonidine in clinically normal dogs. Ten adult beagles were used. Baseline values were measured at 8a.m., 2p.m. and 8p.m., for three consecutive days. A waiting period of 10 days between the administrations of each drug was established. For 15 consecutive days, the drug being tested was instilled in one eye of each dog twice a day (7a.m. and 7p.m.). The parameters were evaluated at the aforementioned times on days 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15. Data were statistically compared using the Bonferroni test and one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (P<0.05). The Pearson test was used to evaluate any correlation between QT interval, HR and BP. The tested drugs did not find a decrease in IOP. A significant decreased in PS was observed in almost all dogs following levobunolol administration, relative to the control eye. A significant decrease in HR was observed on day 3 following levobunolol treatment, while apraclonidine induced an increase on day 15. Blood pressure was reduced in all measurement time points following apraclonidine treatment. A negative correlation between QT interval and HR was only observed in dogs treated with timolol. In conclusion, levobunolol was the only drug that induced significant alterations in PS. Apraclonidine was the only drug that induced systemic hypotension. Timolol was the only drug to that induced a negative correlation between QT and HR.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as mudanças na pressão intraocular (PIO), no diâmetro pupilar (DP), na pressão sanguínea (PS), na frequência cardíaca (FC) e nas variáveis eletrocardiográficas (onda Pms, PmV, intervalo PR, complexo QRS, onda RmV e intervalo QT), ao longo do tempo da instilação do timolol 0,5%, do levobunolol 0,5% e da apraclonidina 0,5% em cães clinicamente normais. Dez Beagles adultos compuseram o estudo. Valores basais foram mensurados às oito,, 14 e 20 horas, durante três dias consecutivos. Foi instituído um período de espera de 10 dias entre a administração de cada fármaco. Durante 15 dias consecutivos, um olho de cada animal recebeu uma gota de cada um deles, a intervalos de 12 horas (às sete e às 19 horas). Os parâmetros foram avaliados nos momentos acima referidos, nos dias três, seis, nove, 12 e 15. Os dados foram comparados estatisticamente empregando-se o teste de Bonferroni após análise de variância para medidas repetidas (P<0,05). Teste de Pearson foi utilizado para correlação entre o intervalo QT com a FC e a PS. Não se encontrou diminuição da PIO. Observou-se redução significativa do DP na quase totalidade dos animais que receberam levobunol, relativamente ao olho controle. Diminuição significativa da FC foi vista ao terceiro dia após a administração do levobunolol, enquanto apraclonidina induziu aumento no 15º dia. A pressão arterial foi reduzida em todos os momentos com a apraclonidina. Observou-se correlação negativa entre o intervalo QT e a FC apenas nos indivíduos tratados com o timolol. Em conclusão, levobunolol foi o único fármaco que induziu alterações significativas no DP. A apraclonidina foi o único fármaco que induziu hipotensão sistêmica significativa. O timolol foi o único a ensejar correlação negativa entre o intervalo QT e a FC.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Blood Pressure , Heart Rate , Intraocular Pressure , Levobunolol/adverse effects , Levobunolol/analysis , Timolol/adverse effects , Timolol/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Instillation, Drug , Pupil
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(6): 371-375, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768171

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of 1% morphine instillation on clinical parameters, aqueous humor turbidity, and expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in rabbits with endotoxin-induced experimental uveitis. Methods: Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6 each): control (CG), morphine (MG), naloxone (NG), and morphine-naloxone (MNG) groups. Under dissociative anesthesia, 0.1 mL of solution containing 0.2 µg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from the Salmonella typhimurium cell wall was injected in the vitreous chamber. Clinical evaluations (conjunctical hyperemia, chemosis blepharospasm, and ocular discharge) and laser flaremetry were performed before (baseline), and 10 and 20 hours after induction of uveitis. Rabbits were subsequently euthanized and eyes were enucleated to quantify expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1 beta, PGE2, and MPO. Results: No significant differences in clinical parameters and flare values were observed between the study groups. TNF-α and IL-1 beta levels increased significantly in the CG, MG, NG, and MNG groups compared to baseline (P<0.05). Significant differences in PGE2 levels were observed between the MG and NMG groups (P<0.05). A trend toward increased MPO activity was observed in response to uveitis induction; however, this trend did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusions: Morphine has no effect on clinical parameters, flare, or expression levels of inflammatory mediators in a rabbit model of uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of LPS.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudaram-se os efeitos da instilação de morfina 1% sobre parâmetros clínicos, turbidez do humor aquoso e expressão de fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-alfa), de interleucina-1 beta (IL-1beta), de prostaglandina E2 (PGE2) e de mieloperoxidase (MPO), em olhos de coelhos com uveíte induzida por endotoxina. Material e Métodos: Vinte e quatro coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco foram distribuídos em quatro grupos (n=6, em cada): grupo controle (GC), morfina (GM), naloxona (GN) e morfina-naloxona (GMN). Sob anestesia dissociativa, injetou-se 0,1 mL de solução contendo 0,2 µg de lipossacarídeo (LPS) endotóxico da parede celular de Salmonella typhimurium na câmara vítrea. Realizou-se avaliação clínica (hiperemia conjuntival, quemose, blefaroespasmo e secreção ocular) e a flaremetria a “laser” antes (basal) e após 10 e 20 horas da indução da uveíte. No final, os coelhos foram submetidos à eutanásia e os olhos com uveíte foram enucleados para a quantificação dos níveis de TNF-alfa, IL-1 beta, PGE2 e MPO. Diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando p<0,05. Resultados: Os grupos da pesquisa não diferiram quanto aos parâmetros clínicos e os valores de “flare”. Observou-se elevação significativa nos níveis de TNF-alfa e de IL-1 beta, comparativamente ao basal, nos grupos GC, GM, GN e GMN (p<0,05). Valores de PGE2 variaram entre os grupos GM e GNM (p<0,05). A atividade de MPO aumentou após a indução da uveíte, porém, sem significância estatística (p>0,05). Conclusões: A morfina não atuou sobre parâmetros clínicos, “flare” e expressão dos mediadores inflamatórios estudados, quando instilada em olhos de coelhos com uveíte induzida por injeção intravítrea de LPS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Dinoprostone/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Morphine/pharmacology , Peroxidase/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Uveitis/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Aqueous Humor/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Endotoxins , Instillation, Drug , Morphine/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Uvea/drug effects , Uvea/pathology , Uveitis/etiology , Uveitis/pathology
10.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-758435

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the eye drop administration technique by elderly. This is a transversal study conducted in the of ophthalmology in the Medical Specialties Center of Aracaju. The study included 90 patients using eye drops, aged between 60 and 75 years old. First, the patient eye drop instillation technique was observed; after, an interview was performed with questions about the same aspects related to the administration of eye drops. The semi-structured questionnaire also included sociodemographic data and information on guidance received regarding the technique of administration. It was found that the majority of the elderly showed deviations from the proper technique of application of eyedrops in the observation and interview, respectively: they did not compressed the lacrimal region (97.8%, 96.7%), they did not keep their eyes closed for about two minutes (94.4%, 82.2%), they did not instilled the drops into the conjunctival sac (75.4%, 77.8%) and they allowed the eyedropper tip touch the eye (44.4%, 31.1%). We observed a statistically significant correlation between educational level and contact of the eyedropper tip with the eye (p = 0.010) during the observation. Among those who consulted with the doctor, only 28.2% had received information and those of whom were attended at the pharmacy, only 2.3% received counseling. Thus, it is important that health professionals instruct their patients, especially the elderly, about the correct eye drop instillation technique regardless how long it has been used and also according to the educational level of each patient...


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a aplicação da técnica de administração de colírios por idosos, Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado no setor de oftalmologia do Centro de Especialidades Médicas de Aracaju, Participaram do estudo 90 usuários de colírios, com faixa etária entre 60 e 75 anos, Primeiramente, fez-se a observação da técnica de administração do colírio realizada pelo paciente, em seguida, fez-se uma entrevista com perguntas sobre os mesmos aspectos referentes à administração do colírio, O questionário semiestruturado utilizado incluiu também dados sócio-demográficos e informação sobre orientação recebida quanto à técnica de administração, Constatou-se que a maior parte dos idosos apresentou desvios da técnica adequada de aplicação do colírio na observação e entrevista, respectivamente: não comprimiram a região lacrimal (97,8%, 96,7%), não mantiveram os olhos fechados por cerca de dois minutos (94,4%, 82,2%), não instilaram o colírio no saco conjuntival (75,4%, 77,8%) e fizeram contato da extremidade do frasco com o olho (44,4%, 31,1%), Foi observada associação estatisticamente significativa entre a escolaridade e o contato da extremidade do frasco com o olho (p = 0,010) durante a observação, Dentre aqueles que consultaram o médico, somente 28,2% relataram terem recebido orientação e dentre os que foram atendidos na farmácia, apenas 2,3% foram orientados, Diante do exposto, é importante que os profissionais da saúde orientem os pacientes, em especial os idosos, a respeito do modo correto de administração de colírio independentemente do tempo de uso do mesmo e de forma apropriada ao nível de instrução de cada paciente...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Health of the Elderly , Medication Errors , Ophthalmic Solutions , Pharmaceutical Services , Instillation, Drug
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(6): 377-381, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735804

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To quantify and compare the effects of instillation with 10% phenylephrine and digital lifting on the contralateral upper eyelid of patients with involutional bilateral blepharoptosis. Methods: The present prospective clinical study involved patients with involutional bilateral blepharoptosis who underwent two tests: 1) digital lifting of the more ptotic eyelid and observation of the effect on the contralateral eyelid and 2) instillation of two drops of 10% phenylephrine in the more ptotic eye and observation of the effect on the contralateral eyelid. Patients were filmed before and 5, 10, and 15 min after instillation, and the resulting images were analyzed to obtain eyelid measurements. The results were tested using a linear mixed-effects model. Results: A total of 27 patients, ranging from 52 to 82 years of age (mean age 68.51 ± 8.21 years), 24 (88.88%) of whom were women, were included in the present study. In eyes that received instillation, the marginal distance reflex-1 (MDR1) values increased from baseline (1.21 ± 0.60 mm) until 10 min after instillation, then remained statistically unchanged until 15 min after instillation (2.42 ± 0.90 mm). Significant differences were observed in the contralateral eye of the group that underwent digital lifting (1.51 ± 0.53 mm - 1.63 ± 0.56 mm) and in the contralateral eye of the group that underwent 10% phenylephrine instillation (1.38 ± 0.54 mm - 1.63 ± 0.56 mm); p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively. Conclusion: In all eyes, 10% phenylephrine elevated the upper eyelid, with improved eyelid height at 10 min after instillation. Significant differences were observed in the height of the contralateral eyelid when compared before and after each intervention in each group; however, this difference was very small and nearly undetectable by conventional clinical evaluation in the digital lifting group. However, the 10% phenylephrine eye-drop test resulted in substantial changes in MDR1 values ...


Objetivo: Quantificar e comparar o efeito da instilação do colírio de fenilefrina 10% com o levantamento manual da pálpebra superior contralateral de pacientes com ptose palpebral bilateral involucional. Métodos: Estudo clínico e prospectivo de pacientes com ptose palpebral bilateral involucional submetidos a dois testes: 1) elevação manual da pálpebra mais ptótica e observação do efeito da intervenção na pálpebra contralateral; e 2) a instilação de duas gotas de colírio de fenilefrina 10% no olho mais ptótico e observação do efeito da intervenção na pálpebra contralateral. Os pacientes foram filmados antes e 5, 10 e 15 minutos após a instilação. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente com o modelo linear de efeitos mistos. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 27 pacientes com idade entre 52-82 anos (68,51 ± 8,21), 24 dos quais eram do sexo feminino (88,88%). Em olhos submetidos a instilação do colírio, os valores da DMR1 (distância marginal reflexo) aumentaram da linha de base (1,21 ± 0,60 mm) até os 10 min, em seguida, manteve-se estatisticamente estável até 15 min (2,42 ± 0,90 mm). Diferenças significativas foram observadas nos olhos contralaterais, independentemente do levantamento manual da pálpebra (1,51 ± 0,53 mm - 1,63 ± 0,56 milímetros) e da instilação do colírio de fenilefrina 10% (1,38 ± 0,54 mm - 1,63 ± 0,56 mm), p=0,02 e p<0,01 respectivamente. Conclusões: Em todos os olhos, a instilação do colírio de fenilefrina 10% mostrou um aumento gradual do valor de distância marginal reflexo até os 10 min. Nos olhos contralaterais houve diminuição do valor de distância marginal reflexo, independentemente do teste realizado, porém as mudanças que ocorrem na posição da pálpebra contralateral, durante o teste da elevação manual, são muito pequenas e difíceis de serem detectadas no exame clínico convencional. Enquanto isso, o teste de colírio de fenilefrina 10% produziu mudanças substanciais nos valores distância marginal reflexo nos ...


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists/administration & dosage , Blepharoptosis/therapy , Eyelids/drug effects , Phenylephrine/administration & dosage , Blepharoptosis/pathology , Eyelids/pathology , Instillation, Drug , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Rev. obstet. ginecol. Venezuela ; 73(1): 40-49, mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-690982

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Demostrar la eficacia de la instilación intrauterina de ácido tricloroacético como método de ablación endometrial para el tratamiento de la hemorragia uterina. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, analítico, comparativo, en 60 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta del Servicio de Ginecología del Hospital Universitario de Caracas entre mayo 2008 y agosto 2009, en quienes se empleó ácido tricloroacético al 95 %, como método de ablación endometrial. Se seleccionaron dos grupos al azar, uno sujeto a la colocación previa de analógos de GnRh y otro control, sin este. Resultados: A los 3 meses del tratamiento, el grupo que recibió acetato de leuprolide presentó eumenorrea en 62,5 % e hipomenorrea en 37,5 %. Ninguna de las pacientes de este grupo presentó hipermenorrea, ni amenorrea. El grupo que no recibió análogos presentó eumenorrea en 50 % de los casos, hipomenorrea en 32,1 % e hipermenorrea en 17,9 %. La tasa de éxito y satisfacción de la paciente, fue de 100 % para el grupo con análogos y de 82,1 % para el control. Estos cambios resultaron estadísticamente significativos (P < 0,05). Conclusión: La instilación intrauterina de ácido tricloroacético es eficaz en el tratamiento de la hemorragia uterina, obteniendo mejores resultados al preparar el endometrio con acetato de leuprolide.


Objective: To demonstrate the efficiency of intrauterine instillation of trichloroacetic acid as a method of endometrial ablation for the treatment of uterine hemorrhage. Methods: This was a prospective, analytical and comparative study performed in 60 patients who came to consultation at the Servicio de Ginecologia del Hospital Universitario de Caracas between May, 2008 and August, 2009, in whom 95 % trichloroacetic acid was used as method of endometrial ablation. Two groups were selected at random, one subject to the previous administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue and another control, without this one. Results: To 3 months of treatment, the group that received leuprolide acetate presented eumenorrhea rates of 62.5 % and hypomenorrhea of 37.5 %. None of the patients of this group presented menorrhagia, not amenorrhea. The group that did not receive analogous presented eumenorrhea in 50 % of the cases, hypomenorrhea in 32.1 % and menorrhagia in 17.9 %. The rate of success and satisfaction of the patient was 100 % for the group with analogous and 82.1 % for the control group. These results turned out to be statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusion: Intrauterine instillation of trichloroacetic acid is effective in the treatment of uterine hemorrhage, obtaining better results when leuprolide acetate is used previous the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Trichloroacetic Acid/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine , Endometrial Ablation Techniques , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Uterine Hemorrhage/therapy , Caustics/therapeutic use , Instillation, Drug , Menstruation Disturbances , Prospective Studies , Perimenopause/blood , Stochastic Processes
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 76(1): 38-41, jan.-fev. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678160

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the ocular surface toxicity of two nitric oxide donors in ex vivo and in vivo animal models: S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC) in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix at final concentrations 1.0 and 10.0 mM. METHODS: Ex vivo GSNO and SNAC toxicities were clinically and histologically analyzed using freshly excised pig eyeballs. In vivo experiments were performed with 20 albino rabbits which were randomized into 4 groups (5 animals each): Groups 1 and 2 received instillations of 150 µL of aqueous HPMC solution containing GSNO 1.0 and 10.0 mM, respectively, in one of the eyes; Groups 3 and 4 received instillations of 150 µL of aqueous HPMC solution-containing SNAC 1.0 and 10.0 mM, respectively, in one of the eyes. The contralateral eyes in each group received aqueous HPMC as a control. All animals underwent clinical evaluation on a slit lamp and the eyes were scored according to a modified Draize eye test and were histologically analyzed. RESULTS: Pig eyeballs showed no signs of perforation, erosion, corneal opacity or other gross damage. These findings were confirmed by histological analysis. There was no difference between control and treated rabbit eyes according to the Draize eye test score in all groups (p>0.05). All formulations showed a mean score under 1 and were classified as "non-irritating". There was no evidence of tissue toxicity in the histological analysis in all animals. CONCLUSION: Aqueous HPMC solutions containing GSNO and SNAC at concentrations up to 10.0 mM do not induce ocular irritation.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a toxidade na superfície ocular de dois compostos doadores de óxido nítrico em modelos ex vivo e in vivo: S-nitrosoglutationa (GSNO) e S-nitroso-N-acetilcisteína (SNAC), em uma matriz de hidroxipropil metilcelulose (HPMC) nas concentrações finais de 1,0 and 10,0 mM. MÉTODOS: As toxicidades de GSNO e SNAC foram avaliadas clinicamente e histologicamente em modelo ex vivo usando globos oculares porcinos recém excisados. Experimentos in vivo foram realizados com 20 coelhos albinos que foram randomizados em 4 grupos (5 animais em cada): Os grupos 1 e 2 receberam instilações de 150 µL de solução aquosa de HPMC contendo GSNO 1,0 e 10,0 mM, respectivamente, em um dos olhos; Os grupos 3 e 4 receberam instilações de 150 µL de solução aquosa de HPMC contendo SNAC 1,0 and 10,0 mM, respectivamente, em um dos olhos. Os olhos contralaterias em cada grupo receberam solução aquosa de HPMC como controle. Todos os animais foram clinicamente avaliados em lâmpada de fenda e os olhos foram pontuados de acordo com o teste de Draize modificado e analisados histologicamente. RESULTADOS: Os globos oculares porcinos não apresentaram sinais de perfuração, erosão, opacidade da córnea ou outros danos graves. Esses resultados foram confirmados pela análise histológica. Não houve diferença entre os olhos dos coelhos tratados e controles de acordo com a pontuação do teste de Draize em todos os grupos (p>0,05). Todas as formulações apresentaram um escore médio menor do que 1 e foram classificadas como "não-irritantes". Não houve evidência de toxicidade tecidual nas análises histológicas em todos os animais. CONCLUSÃO: Soluções aquosas de HPMC contendo GSNO e SNAC em concentrações até 10,0 mM não induzem irritação ocular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Acetylcysteine/analogs & derivatives , Eye/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Donors/toxicity , S-Nitrosoglutathione/toxicity , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Acetylcysteine/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Eye/pathology , Instillation, Drug , Nitric Oxide Donors/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , S-Nitrosoglutathione/administration & dosage , Swine
15.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 38(6): 412-416, nov.-dez. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-611532

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, experimentalmente, malácia e estenose traqueal para testar novos modelos de órteses traqueais. MÉTODOS: Ressecamos três anéis cartilaginosos da traqueia cervical de cães no grupo A (n=5) e seis anéis no grupo B (n=4) para produzir malácia. Logo após, a mucosa da região com malácia recebeu aplicações de uma solução de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) a 23 por cento, e os animais eram acompanhados com exames broncoscópicos para observar o desenvolvimento de estreitamento da luz da via aérea. Quando a estenose era de mais de 50 por cento da luz, ou havia sinais mínimos de insuficiência ventilatória, os animais eram sacrificados. O segmento de via aérea estreitada foi então coletado para análise histológica e era calculada a área de luz residual do segmento traqueal com estenose e malácia. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica, foi constatada fibrose na submucosa e adventícia, associada a granulomas na mucosa. A luz residual média dos segmentos com estenose foi de 9 por cento e 12 por cento nos grupos A e B, respectivamente, (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: A combinação da ressecção de anéis cartilaginosos e da aplicação de NaOH 23 por cento na mucosa respiratória promoveu uma estenose traqueal intensa, porém esteve associada à perda de animais. Novos estudos são necessários para verificar se o emprego isolado de uma das técnicas seria mais seguro e eficaz para desenvolver estenose traqueal.


OBJECTIVE: To experimentally develop tracheal stenosis and malacia to test new models of tracheal stents. METHODS: We resected three cartilaginous rings from the cervical trachea of dogs in group A (n = 5) and six rings in group B (n = 4) to produce malacia. The mucosa of the region with malacia then received applications of a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 23 percent, and the animals were accompanied with bronchoscopic examinations to observe the development of luminal narrowing of the airway. When the stenosis was of more than 50 percent or there were minimal signs of ventilatory failure, the animals were sacrificed. The segment of narrowed airway was then collected for histological analysis and calculation of the area of residual lumen in the tracheal segment with stenosis and malacia. RESULTS: In histological analysis, fibrosis was found in the submucosa and adventitia, associated with granulomas in the mucosa. The average residual lumen of the segments with stenosis was 9 percent and 12 percent in groups A and B, respectively (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of resection of the cartilaginous rings and the application of 23 percent NaOH in the respiratory mucosa promoted severe tracheal stenosis, but was associated with loss of animals. Further studies are needed to verify that the isolated use of one of the techniques would be safer and more effective to develop tracheal stenosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Disease Models, Animal , Tracheal Stenosis , Instillation, Drug , Mucous Membrane , Sodium Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Trachea/surgery
16.
Femina ; 39(7): 365-372, jul. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-613337

ABSTRACT

Síndrome da dor vesical é a nomenclatura proposta para substituir o termo antigamente conhecido como cistite intersticial. Deve ser diagnosticada com base nas queixas de dor, pressão ou desconforto pélvico crônico, relacionados à bexiga acompanhados por pelo menos outro sintoma urinário como urgência ou aumento de frequência. A prevalência estimada é de 300 por 100.000 mulheres. A etiologia e a fisiopatologia ainda não foram elucidadas, mas mecanismos neurológicos centrais, fatores genéticos, imunológicos e infecciosos parecem estar envolvidos. O diagnóstico é de exclusão e deve ser baseado nos sintomas. O teste com cloridrato de potássio intravesical não deve ser usado como ferramenta diagnóstica. A cistoscopia com hidrodistensão e biópsia auxilia na documentação e classificação da doença. O tratamento deverá ser multidisciplinar e multimodal, associando-se medicações orais com intravesicais, modificações na dieta e no estilo de vida e medidas não farmacológicas


Bladder pain syndrome is the nomenclature proposed to replace the term formerly known as interstitial cystitis. It should be diagnosed based on complaints of pain, chronic pelvic pressure or discomfort related to bladder accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom, such as urgency or increased frequency. The estimated prevalence is 300 per 100,000 women. The etiology and pathophysiology have not been elucidated, but central neurologic mechanisms, genetic, immunological and infectious factors seem to be involved. The diagnosis is by exclusion and should be based on symptoms. The test with intravesical potassium chloride should not be used as a diagnostic tool. Cystoscopy with hydrodistenstion and biopsy assist in the documentation and classification of the disease. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and multimodal, associating intravesical and oral medications, changes in diet and in lifestyle and nonpharmacological measures


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cystitis, Interstitial/classification , Cystitis, Interstitial/diagnosis , Cystitis, Interstitial/etiology , Cystitis, Interstitial/physiopathology , Cystitis, Interstitial/therapy , Diet Therapy , Pelvic Pain/etiology , Life Style , Patient Education as Topic , Administration, Intravesical , Administration, Oral , Amitriptyline/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Instillation, Drug , Neurogenic Inflammation/etiology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319827

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the combination of drop in canales sacralis with acupotomy dissolution in the treatment of lumbocrural pain caused by slipped discs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and thirty-nine patients with lumbocrural pain caused by slipped discs were randomly divided into 3 groups: cases in Group A were treated by the drop in canales sacralis, in Group B by acupotomy dissolution and in Group C by the combination of canales sacralis drop with acupotomy dissolution. MacNab score and VAS score were assayed before treatment and 1 week, 3 and 6 months after treatment.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The effective rates in Groups A, B and C at 1 week, 3 and 6 months after treatment were 71.4%, 75.5%, 79.6%; 75.0%, 79.6%, 81.8% and 89.1%, 91.3%, 93.5%, respectively (P < 0.01). The pain intensity in Group C was reduced more markedly at different time points after treatment than that in Group A and Group B (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The combination of canales sacralis drop with acupotomy dissolution is superior to each method used alone in treatment of lumbocrural pain caused by slipped discs in the short-and long-term.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Female , Humans , Instillation, Drug , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Therapeutics , Low Back Pain , Drug Therapy , Therapeutics , Lumbar Vertebrae , Male , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291478

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of nano-TiO(2) intratracheal instillation on the progression of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The nano-TiO(2) was ultrasound with phosphate-buffered saline solutions (PBS) into its suspension for exposure. A total of 46 specific pathogen free (SPF) level of 11-week-old male apolipoprotein E-knockout mice were randomly divided into groups by their body weights: non-treatment group (8 mice), PBS control group (9 mice), high dose group (1.0 mg/ml, 10 mice), medium dose group (0.5 mg/ml, 10 mice), and low dose group (0.1 mg/ml, 9 mice). Except the non-treatment group, mice from other groups were intratracheally instilled with 0.05 ml each time, twice a week. After exposure of 6 weeks, viscera index, blood TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, and organic lipid ratio were assessed as biomarkers. Artery and aortic root issues were assessed by histopathology.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After 5 weeks exposure, mice body weights in high dose group ((29.7 ± 1.9) g) started to drop, compared to PBS control ((31.3 ± 1.9) g, t = -1.58, P < 0.05) and low dose group ((31.4 ± 1.4) g, t = -1.17, P < 0.05); after 6 weeks, high dose group ((28.8 ± 1.5) g) was lower than PBS control ((30.4 ± 1.9) g, t = -1.60, P < 0.05), non-treatment group ((30.2 ± 1.3) g, t = -1.43, P < 0.05) and low dose group ((30.6 ± 1.0) g, t = -1.83, P < 0.05). TC levels of non-treatment, PBS control, high dose group, medium dose group and low dose group were (2.92 ± 1.18), (3.12 ± 0.73), (4.19 ± 1.86), (3.46 ± 0.72) and (2.57 ± 0.64) mmol/L, respectively; TG levels were (0.39 ± 0.13), (0.39 ± 0.08), (0.60 ± 0.21), (0.55 ± 0.19) and (0.41 ± 0.11) mmol/L, respectively; HDL-C levels were (1.67 ± 0.45), (1.54 ± 0.67), (0.93 ± 0.50), (1.02 ± 0.48) and (1.31 ± 0.64) mmol/L; TG levels of high dose group were higher than that of non-treatment group (t = 1.27, P = 0.03) and low dose group (t = 1.62, P = 0.01); TG levels of medium dose group was higher than PBS control (t = 0.16, P = 0.04), and TC levels of high dose group were higher than PBS control (t = 0.22, P = 0.01), non-treatment group (t = 0.22, P = 0.04) and low dose group (t = 0.20, P = 0.03), and HDL-C levels of high dose group were lower than PBS control (t = -0.61, P = 0.04) and non-treatment group (t = -0.74, P = 0.04); organic lipid ratio of each group were (2.27 ± 0.51)%, (2.06 ± 0.53)%, (2.90 ± 0.50)%, (2.60 ± 0.23)%, (2.24 ± 0.45)%; high dose group were higher than PBS control (t = 0.85, P = 0.00), non-treatment group (t = 0.64, P = 0.03) and low dose group (t = 0.67, P = 0.01); medium dose group was higher than PBS control (t = 0.54, P = 0.02). The plaque lipid content and calcium content which showed the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture were elevated in medium and high dose groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Intratracheal instillation of nano-TiO(2) can induce dyslipidemia and accelerate the development of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture in ApoE-/-mice.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apolipoproteins E , Genetics , Atherosclerosis , Blood , Dyslipidemias , Blood , Instillation, Drug , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Nanoparticles , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Titanium , Pharmacology
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 71(5): 684-688, set.-out. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-497221

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Investigar se há diferença no peso e volume das gotas de colírios análogos das prostaglandinas em ângulos de gotejamento de 45º e 90º com relação ao plano horizontal. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo experimental utilizando os colírios latanoprosta, travoprosta e bimatoprosta, pelo qual se gotejava as soluções com angulação de 45º e 90º. Estes colírios foram escolhidos em virtude do seu uso rotineiro em oftalmologia e do seu custo. A primeira gota e dez gotas seguintes foram pesadas em ângulo de 45º e 90º. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do programa SPSS® 12.0 (Microsoft), utilizando o teste de variância ANOVA, sendo considerada diferença estatisticamente significante um valor P<0,001. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que há diferença no peso, e conseqüentemente no volume, das gotas instiladas a 45º e a 90º dos colírios de travoprosta e bimatoprosta. Para o colírio travoprosta o gotejo a 45º produz uma gota menor que em 90º. O inverso ocorre para o colírio de bimatoprosta. Já para o colírio de latanoprosta, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante. CONCLUSÕES: Como houve diferença estatística no peso das gotas de dois colírios análogos das prostaglandinas e em outro não se verificou esta variação, - e como este possui relação direta com o volume - infere-se que devemos ser críticos diante de estimativas de custo ou duração da terapia com base no gotejamento dos colírios considerando número de gotas por frasco e volume.


PURPOSE: To investigate if there is any difference in volume and drop weight of prostaglandin analogs when adopting drip angles of 45º and 90º, regarding a horizontal line. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted using the follow ophthalmic solutions: latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost. In this study the ophthalmic solutions were dripped according to an angle of 45º or 90º. Prostaglandin analogs were chosen due to their common use in ophthalmology and their cost. The first drop and other ten drops were weighed, alternating the drip angle (45º or 90º). Statistical analysis was done with SPSS® 12.0 (Microsoft), using quantitative comparisons with the ANOVA test. An odds value (P) below 0.001 was considered a statistical significant difference. RESULTS: We verified differences in weight and size of the travoprost and bimatoprost drops instilled at 45º and 90º. The drip at 45º produces a smaller drop of travoprost (P<0.001), and the inverse occurs for bimatoprost. There were no statistical significant differences in weight of latanoprost drops according to the instillation angle. CONCLUSIONS: Once there was statistical difference in weight - which has direct relationship with size - of the drops of two kinds of prostaglandin analogs and in another one we did not observe this variation, we infer that cost and therapy duration estimates should be analyzed carefully, especially if this kind of drip measure is used.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Prostaglandins F, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Amides/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/economics , Cloprostenol/administration & dosage , Cloprostenol/analogs & derivatives , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Instillation, Drug , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions/economics , Prostaglandins F, Synthetic/economics
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 34(3): 270-276, May-June 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-489585

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single instillation in a combination of povidone iodine with contrast agent under fluoroscopy guidance for the treatment of chyluria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From December 1999 to July 2006 a total of 40 patients with chyluria were treated by renal pelvic instillation therapy (RPIS). The sclerosing solution was prepared using povidone iodine with contrast agent diluted with sterile water in a ratio of 1:1:3. It was instilled on the side having chylous efflux using a bulb tip ureteric catheter. Unilateral instillation was done in 26 cases, 10 on the right side and 16 on left. Fourteen patients had bilateral chylous efflux and RPIS was performed on both sides in the same session. Fluoroscopy was used to evaluate the complete filling of the pelvic calyceal system. The sclerosing solution was kept in the system for 5 minutes and the ureteric catheter was then withdrawn. RESULTS: Immediate clearance was observed in 39 patients. Recurrence occurred in five patients. They were treated again using the same procedure with satisfactory results. The longest follow-up was five years and the shortest five months. CONCLUSION: RPIS of chyluria using a single instillation a combination of povidone iodine with contrast agent is safe and effective. Use of fluoroscopy helps to determine the exact amount of sclerosing solution required to completely fill the system and therefore overfilling is avoided. Moreover, the complications, which arise due to pyelointerstitial backflow, are prevented.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Chyle , Lymphatic Diseases/therapy , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Sclerosing Solutions/administration & dosage , Urologic Diseases/therapy , Drug Combinations , Fluoroscopy , Instillation, Drug , Kidney Pelvis , Lymphatic Diseases/diagnosis , Pyelonephritis/complications , Treatment Outcome , Urine , Urologic Diseases/diagnosis , Young Adult
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