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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 843-845, oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351058

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present a case of subcutaneous insulin resistance syndrome, a rare entity, consisting of subcutaneous and intramuscular insulin resistance, with normal or almost normal sensitivity to insulin when administered intravenously. Its cause is unknown and its treatment is challenging. Our patient required a pancreas transplant.


Resumen Presentamos un caso de síndrome de resistencia subcutánea a la insulina, entidad in frecuente, que consiste en resistencia a la insulina por vía subcutánea e intramuscular, con sensibilidad normal o casi normal a la insulina cuando se aplica por vía intravenosa. Se desconoce su causa y su tratamiento es un desafío. Nuestra paciente requirió trasplante de páncreas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Pancreas Transplantation , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Insulin
2.
Femina ; 49(9): 520-524, 20211030.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342318

ABSTRACT

A síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) é frequentemente acompanhada de distúrbio metabólico, principalmente dos carboidratos e dos lipídeos, aumentando o risco de síndrome metabólica. Por essa razão, alguns investigadores ainda denominam a SOP de síndrome metabólica-reprodutiva. O objetivo deste capítulo é descrever as principais repercussões metabólicas, bem como como investigá-las e saber como suas consequências podem ser deletérias para a saúde da mulher. Esta é uma revisão narrativa mostrando a implicação do metabolismo dos carboidratos e dos lipídeos nas dislipidemias, bem como da síndrome metabólica sobre o sistema reprodutor, e o risco cardiovascular da mulher com SOP. Conclui-se que o manejo adequado dos distúrbios metabólicos na SOP é benéfico a curto e a longo prazo tanto para o sistema reprodutor quanto para o cardiovascular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Insulin Resistance , Risk Factors , Glucose Intolerance/diagnosis , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/physiopathology , Lipid Metabolism Disorders/physiopathology
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 316-321, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345286

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Considering the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and both insulin resistance and obesity, and the prominent role of ghrelin in these metabolic disorders, we explored whether plasma levels of ghrelin were associated with CRC. Moreover, in the patients with CRC the possible correlations between ghrelin and insulin, insulin resistance, and body mass index (BMI) as an indicator of obesity were examined. METHODS: A total of 170 subjects, including 82 cases with CRC and 88 controls were enrolled in this study. Plasma levels of ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured in all the subjects using ELISA and glucose oxidase methods. Furthermore, insulin resistance was assessed by calculating HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: The cases with CRC had decreased ghrelin levels (P<0.001) and a higher HOMA-IR index (P<0.001) than controls. Interestingly, when CRC patients were stratified based on tumor site, lower ghrelin levels and a higher HOMA-IR index were observed in the patients with either colon or rectal cancer vs. controls too. Additionally, there were an age and BMI-independent negative correlation between ghrelin levels and HOMA-IR (r=-0.365, P<0.05), and an age-independent negative correlation between ghrelin levels and BMI (r=-0.335, P<0.05) in the rectal subgroup. CONCLUSION: Our findings support a role for ghrelin in connection with insulin resistance and obesity in CRC susceptibility; however, it needs to be corroborated by further studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Considerando a associação entre câncer colorretal (CCR), a resistência à insulina, à obesidade e o papel proeminente da grelina nessas doenças metabólicas, foi explorado se os níveis plasmáticos de grelina estavam associados ao CCR. Além disso, nos pacientes com CCR foram pesquisadas as possíveis correlações entre a grelina, insulina, resistência insulínica e índice de massa corporal (IMC) como indicadores de obesidade. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos neste estudo 170 indivíduos, sendo 82 com CRC e 88 controles. Os níveis plasmáticos de grelina, insulina e glicose foram medidos em todos os sujeitos utilizando métodos ELISA e glicose oxidase. Além disso, a resistência à insulina foi avaliada pelo cálculo do índice HOMA-IR. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes com CRC apresentaram redução dos níveis de grelina (P<0,001) e maior índice HOMA-IR (P<0.001) do que os controles. Curiosamente, quando os pacientes com CRC foram estratificados com base no local do tumor, níveis mais baixos de grelina e maior índice de HOMA-IR foram observados nos indivíduos com câncer de cólon ou retal versus controles também. Além disso, houve uma correlação negativa entre idade e IMC independente entre os níveis de grelina e HOMA-IR (r=-0,365, P<0,05) e uma correlação negativa independente da idade entre os níveis de grelina e IMC (r=-0,335, P<0,05) no subgrupo retal. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados apoiam o papel da grelina em relação à resistência à insulina e à obesidade na suscetibilidade do CRC; no entanto, ela precisa ser corroborada por estudos posteriores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Colorectal Neoplasms , Body Mass Index , Ghrelin , Obesity/complications
4.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(1): e267, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289391

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La estrecha relación que existe entre diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y obesidad ha dado lugar a la creación del término "diabesidad", considerándose la nueva enfermedad del siglo XXI. La dupla entre estas produce grave lesión en el tejido hepático, músculo esquelético y sistema cardiovascular. Es importante un estilo de vida saludable y buena adherencia farmacológica para combatir esta pandemia. Objetivo: Describir aspectos generales acerca de la fisiopatología y el tratamiento de la diabesidad. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica no sistemática en las bases de datos Science Direct, EMBASE, LILACS, Redalyc, SciELO y PubMed. Los criterios de inclusión fueron publicaciones en inglés y español, en las que el título, palabras clave o resumen incluyen información pertinente al objetivo de estudio, periodicidad no mayor de cinco años. En la búsqueda se obtuvieron 50 artículos, de los cuales fueron seleccionados 35. Conclusión: La insulinorresistencia es el factor determinante para la progresión hacia diabetes mellitus tipo 2, en calidad de respuesta del tejido adiposo frente a altos niveles de ácidos grasos libres (lipotoxicidad), consecuencia de la obesidad, obligando al páncreas a secretar grandes cantidades de insulina, que con el tiempo compromete su funcionalidad. En la actualidad, existen diversas alternativas no farmacológicas, farmacológicas y quirúrgicas para el abordaje de la diabesidad, donde la prevención representa un aspecto de vital importancia(AU)


Introduction: The close relation among diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity has led to the creation of the term "diabesity," considering it the new disease of XXI century. The fusion of these two diseases produces severe lesions in the hepatic tissue, the skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system. It is important a healthy lifestyle and a good pharmacological adherence to fight this so called pandemic. Objective: Describe general aspects related to the physiopathology and treatment of diabesity. Method: It was carried out a non-systematic bibliographic search in databases like Science Direct, EMBASE, LILACS, Redalyc, SciELO and PubMed. The inclusion criteria were publications in English and Spanish language, with a periodicity of no more than 5 years, in which the title, keywords and abstract included information that will be relevant for the objective of the study. In the search 50 articles were found, of which 35 were selected. Conclusions: Insulin resistance is the key factor for the progression towards diabetes mellitus type 2, as a response of the adipose tissue to high levels of free fatty acids (lipotoxicity), which is a consequence of obesity, and obligates the pancreas to secrete big amounts of insulin that as time goes by compromises its functionality. Nowadays, there are different non-pharmacological, pharmacological and surgical alternatives to address the diabesity, in which prevention represents an aspect of vital importance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Healthy Lifestyle , Obesity/physiopathology , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Obesity/therapy
5.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(1): e271, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289386

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de ovario poliquístico se asocia con frecuencia a alteraciones cardiometabólicas; y su asociación con el fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal ha sido poco estudiada en Cuba. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia del fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal en mujeres de edad mediana con síndrome de ovario poliquístico y su asociación con la resistencia a la insulina, trastornos del metabolismo de la glucosa y ateroesclerosis subclínica. Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, en 30 mujeres. Se tomaron variables clínicas: edad, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de cintura y cadera, índice cintura/cadera, tensión arterial, además de concentraciones de glucosa, insulina, colesterol total, triglicéridos, HDL-c y LDL-c, e índice HOMA-IR. La aterosclerosis subclínica se evaluó por doppler carotideo y ecocardiograma (hipertrofia ventricular izquierda y grasa epicárdica). El fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal se definió como triglicéridos elevados (≥ 1,7 mmol/L) y circunferencia de la cintura ≥ 80 cm. Resultados: La frecuencia del fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal fue 43,3 por ciento (13/30). Los valores medios de circunferencia abdominal, tensión arterial, así como de glucemia (p < 0,003), insulinemia (p = 0,028), triglicéridos (p < 0,0001), e índice HOMA-IR (p = 0,012) fueron más elevados en el grupo de mujeres con esa condición. A pesar de no haber diferencias significativas la frecuencia de mujeres con incremento del grosor íntima-media carotídeo y de grasa epicárdica fue superior en aquellas con el fenotipo. Conclusiones: La presencia del fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal es frecuente en mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico, y se asocia con alteraciones del metabolismo de la glucosa y la resistencia a la insulina. Este pudiera ser utilizado en la práctica clínica como un marcador de riesgo para alteraciones cardiometabólicas(AU)


Introduction: The polycystic ovary syndrome is frequently associated to cardiometabolic alterations; and its relation with the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype has been poorly studied in Cuba. Objective: Identify the frequency of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in middle age women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its association with insulin resistance, disorders in the glucose metabolism and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study in 30 women. As clinical variables there were used: age, weight, size, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, waist/hip index, blood pressure; glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c and LDL-c concentrations, and HOMA-IR index. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by a carotid doppler and an echocardiogram (left ventricular hypertrophy and epicardial fat). The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as high triglycerides levels (≥ 1.7 mmol/L) and CC ≥ 80 cm. Results: The frequency of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was 43.3 percent (13/30). The mean values of abdominal circumference, blood pressure, as well as glycemia (p < 0.003), insulinaemia (p = 0.028), triglycerides (p < 0.0001), and HOMA-IR index (p = 0.012) were higher in the group of women with that condition. Although there were not significant differences, the frequency of women with increase of the carotid intima-media thickness and epicardical fat was higher in those with the phenotype. Conclusions: The presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is frequent in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, and it is associated with alterations of the glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. This can be used in the clinical practice as a marker of risk for cardiometabolic alterations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/diagnosis , Hypertriglyceridemia/diagnosis , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 34(1): https://periodicos.unifor.br/RBPS/article/view/10952, 17/02/2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253193

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade da dieta de crianças e adolescentes com excesso de peso e determinar a relação com fatores de risco cardiometabólico. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, transversal e analítico, realizado entre dezembro de 2016 e agosto de 2018, com crianças e adolescentes. Coletaram-se variáveis comportamentais (prática de atividade física e tempo de tela), antropométricas (peso, altura, índice de massa corporal, circunferência abdominal e do pescoço) e dietéticas (recordatório de 24 horas) e os dados bioquímicos foram consultados nos prontuários. Avaliou-se a resistência à insulina (RI), usando Homeostasis Model Assessment ­ Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), e a qualidade da dieta, por meio do Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado (IQD-R). Análises realizadas pelos testes de Spearman e Mann-Whitney U, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: A amostra incluiu 100 crianças e adolescentes, sendo 71 (71%) do sexo feminino, média de idade de 9,42 ± 2,89 anos. IQD-R apresentou valor médio de 61,16 (IC 95%: 59,14 ­ 63,19) e nenhum participante apresentou dieta de boa qualidade. Não foram encontradas associações entre o escore do IQD-R e marcadores cardiometabólicos. Observaram-se associações negativas entre os componentes "vegetais totais e leguminosas" e HOMA-IR (r= -0,290), "vegetais verde-escuros, alaranjados e leguminosas" e HOMA-IR (r= -0,333) e "vegetais verde-escuros, alaranjados e leguminosas" com insulina de jejum (r= -0,291). Participantes com mais de três fatores de risco cardiometabólico tiveram pontuação significativamente maior do componente "gordura sólida e açúcar de adição". Conclusão: Nenhum participante investigado apresentou dieta qualitativamente adequada. A baixa ingestão de vegetais e leguminosas foi associada com marcadores de RI. Descritores: Promoção da Saúde, Obesidade Pediátrica; Consumo de Alimentos; Resistência à Insulina; Doenças Cardiovasculares.


Objective: To assess the quality of the diet of children and adolescents with excess weight and determine its relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: This quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2016 to August 2018 with children and adolescents. Behavioral (regular physical activity, screen time), anthropometric (weight, height, Body Mass Index, abdominal circumference, neck circumferences) and dietary (24-hour recalls) data were collected, and biochemical data were retrieved from medical records. Insulin resistance (IR) was measured using the Homeostasis Model Assessment ­ Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and diet quality was assessed using the Revised Diet Quality Index (Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado ­ IQD-R). Analyses using Spearman's and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed with a significance threshold set at 5%. Results: The sample consisted of 100 children and adolescents, 71 (71%) of whom were girls, and the mean age was 9.42±2.89 years. The mean IQD-R was 61.16 (95%CI: 59.14 ­ 63.19) and none of the participants presented a good quality diet. No associations were found between the IQD-R score and cardiometabolic markers. However, negative associations were observed between "total vegetables and legumes" and HOMA-IR (r=-0.290), "dark green and orange vegetables and legumes" and HOMA-IR (r=-0.333) and "dark green and orange vegetables and legumes" and fasting insulin (r=-0.291). The participants who presented more than three cardiometabolic risk factors had a significantly higher score on the "solid fat and added sugar" component. Conclusion: None of the participants had a qualitatively adequate diet. The low intake of vegetables and legumes was associated with IR markers. Descriptors: Health Promotion, Pediatric Obesity; Food Intake; Insulin Resistance; Cardiovascular Diseases.


Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de la dieta de niños y adolescentes con exceso de peso y determinar la relación con los factores de riesgo cardiometabolico. Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, transversal y analítico realizado entre diciembre de 2016 y agosto de 2018 con niños y adolescentes. Se recogieron las variables de conducta (práctica de actividad física y tiempo de pantalla), antropométricas (peso, altura, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia abdominal y del cuello) y dietéticas (recordatorio de 24 horas) y los datos bioquímicos han sido consultados de los historiales clínicos. Se evaluó la resistencia a la insulina (RI) usando el Homeostasis Model Assessment ­ Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) y la calidad de la dieta a través del Índice de Calidad de la Dieta Revisado (ICD-R). Los análisis han sido realizados por las pruebas de Spearman y Mann-Whitney U con el nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados: La muestra ha sido de 100 niños y adolescentes de los cuales 71 (71%) era del sexo femenino con la media de edad de 9,42 ± 2,89 años. El ICD-R presentó el valor medio de 61,16 (IC 95%: 59,14 - 63,19) y ningún participante presentó dieta de buena calidad. No se ha encontrado asociaciones entre la puntuación del ICD-R y los marcadores cardiometabolicos. Se ha observado asociaciones negativas entre los componentes "vegetales totales y leguminosas" y el HOMA-IR (r= -0,290), "vegetales verde-oscuros, anaranjados y leguminosas" y el HOMA-IR (r= -0,333) y "vegetales verde-oscuros, anaranjados y leguminosas" y la insulina de ayuno (r= - 0,291). Los participantes con más de tres factores de riesgo cardiometabolico tuvieron la puntuación significativamente mayor en el componente "grasa sólida y azúcar de adición". Conclusión: Ningún participante investigado presentó la dieta cualitativamente adecuada. La baja ingesta de vegetales y leguminosas se ha asociado con los marcadores de RI Descriptores: Promoción de la Salud, Obesidad Pediátrica; Consumo de Alimentos; Resistencia a la Insulina; Enfermedades Cardiovasculares.


Subject(s)
Insulin Resistance , Cardiovascular Diseases , Public Health , Eating , Pediatric Obesity
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(7): e00120320, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285841

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to assess whether weight, length, and conditional growth during the first year are associated with glycemia and insulin resistance among young adults. A non-concurrent longitudinal design was used in the study. This is a population-based cohort study, composed of people aged from 22 to 28 years. We estimated z-scores from birth to the first year and the infants were classified as stunted, underweight, overweight, obese, wasted, and at risk of wasting, using cut-offs proposed by the World Health Organization (Child Growth Standards, 2006). Conditional weight and length gain variables were estimated. Glycemia, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and single point insulin sensitivity estimator (SPISE) were evaluated in adulthood. Multiple linear regressions that includes the variables associated with glycemia and insulin resistance were used. In total, 1,070 subjects were evaluated and glycemia in adulthood was higher among subjects who were wasted or at risk of wasting at 12 months (β coefficient = 2.77; 95%CI: 0.37; 5.21). In relation to normal weight, those subjects who were overweight at 12 months showed the lowest glycemia (β coefficient = -2.39; 95%CI: -4.32; -0.36). Conditional weight gain in the first year was negatively associated with glycemia in adulthood (β coefficient = -0.65; 95%CI: -1.23; -0.08). SPISE was higher among underweight subjects, and negatively associated with conditional relative weight gain and conditional linear growth in the first year. In conclusion, we found that undernutrition and suboptimal growth were associated with higher glycemia.


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si el peso, longitud y crecimiento condicionado durante el primer año está asociado con la glucemia y resistencia a la insulina entre adultos jóvenes. En el estudio se usó un diseño longitudinal no concurrente. Se trata de un estudio de cohorte con base poblacional, compuesto por individuos con una edad comprendida entre los 22 y 28 años de edad. Estimamos un puntaje z desde el nacimiento hasta el primer año y los niños fueron clasificados como: talla baja, con bajo peso, con sobrepeso, obesos, emaciados y con riesgo de emaciación, usando los cortes propuestos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (Child Growth Standards, 2006). Se estimaron como variables tanto el aumento de peso condicionado, como la longitud. La glucemia, insulina, el modelo de homeostasis para evaluar la resistencia a la insulina (HOMA, en inglés) y el estimador de sensibilidad a la insulina de un solo punto (SPISE, en inglés) fueron evaluados en la etapa adulta. Usamos regresiones múltiples lineales que incluyen las variables significativamente asociadas con la glucemia y resistencia a la insulina. Se evaluaron a 1.070 individuos, la glucemia en la etapa adulta fue mayor entre individuos que estaban emaciados o con riesgo de emaciación a los 12 meses (coeficiente β = 2,77; IC95%: 0,37; 5,21). En relación con el peso normal, estos individuos que sufrían sobrepeso a los 12 meses mostraron la más baja glucemia (coeficiente β = -2,39; IC95%: -4,32; -0,36). El aumento de peso condicionado durante el primer año estuvo negativamente asociado con la glucemia en la etapa adulta (β coeficiente = -0,65; IC95%: -1,23; -0,08). El SPISE fue más alto entre los individuos con bajo peso, y estuvo negativamente asociado con el aumento relativo de peso condicionado y el crecimiento lineal condicionado durante el primer año. En conclusión, descubrimos que la desnutrición y crecimiento insuficiente estuvieron asociados con una glucemia más alta.


Resumo: O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o peso, estatura e crescimento condicional durante o primeiro ano de vida estão associados à glicemia e à resistência insulínica entre adultos jovens. O estudo usou um desenho longitudinal não concorrente. O estudo de coorte de base populacional analisou pessoas de idade entre 22 e 28 anos. Estimamos os escores-z desde o nascimento até o primeiro ano, e os lactentes foram classificados como: baixa estatura para idade, sobrepeso, obesidade, subnutrição e risco de subnutrição, usando os pontos de corte propostos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (Child Growth Standards, 2006). Foram estimadas as variáveis de peso condicional e ganho de estatura. Foram avaliadas na vida adulta a glicemia, insulina e avaliação do modelo de homeostase da resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR, em inglês) e estimador de sensibilidade à insulina de ponto único (SPISE, em inglês). Utilizamos regressão linear multivariada, incluindo as variáveis com associação significativa com a glicemia e a resistência insulínica. Foram avaliados 1.070 indivíduos, e a glicemia na idade adulta foi maior naqueles com subnutrição ou riso de subnutrição aos 12 meses de idade (coeficiente β = 2,77; IC95%: 0,37; 5,21). Em relação ao peso normal, indivíduos com sobrepeso aos 12 meses mostraram a menor glicemia (coeficiente β = -2,39; IC95%: -4,32; -0,36). O ganho ponderal condicional no primeiro ano de vida mostrou associação negativa com glicemia na vida adulta (coeficiente β = -0,65; IC95%: -1,23; -0,08). O SPISE foi mais alto entre indivíduos subnutridos e mostrou associação negativa com o ganho ponderal condicional e o crescimento linear condicional no primeiro ano. Como conclusão, o estudo mostrou que a subnutrição e o crescimento baixo estiveram associados a glicemia mais elevada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Adult , Young Adult , Insulin Resistance , Malnutrition , Thinness , Brazil , Cohort Studies
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10782, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249333

ABSTRACT

We explored the cascade effects of a high fat-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) and pioglitazone (an anti-diabetic therapy used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)) on lipid profiles, oxidative stress/antioxidant, insulin, and inflammatory biomarkers in a rat model of insulin resistance. Sixty albino rats (80-90 g) were randomly divided into three dietary groups; 1) standard diet; 2) HFCD diet for 12 weeks to induce an in vivo model of insulin resistance; and 3) HFCD diet plus pioglitazone. Blood and tissue samples were taken to assess hepatic function, lipid profiles, oxidative biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant defense biomarkers, including reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α). HFCD-fed rats had significantly (P≤0.05) increased serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), alanine transaminase (ALT), and bilirubin levels, but decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels compared with the normal group. Moreover, serum leptin, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were increased significantly in HFCD animals compared with controls. Similarly, HFCD-induced insulin resistance caused antioxidant and cytokine disturbances, which are important therapy targets for pioglitazone. Importantly, administration of this drug ameliorated these changes, normalized leptin and resistin and inflammatory markers by reducing TNF-α levels. Metabolic cascades of elevated lipid profiles, oxidative stress, insulin, and inflammatory biomarkers are implicated in insulin resistance progression. HFCD induced metabolic cascades comprising hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, obesity-associated hormones, and inflammatory biomarkers may be alleviated using pioglitazone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Carbohydrates/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Diet, High-Fat , Pioglitazone/metabolism , Pioglitazone/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 65-73, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283551

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las dislipidemias favorecen la formación precoz de placas ateroscleróticas, aumentando el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECVs). La Actividad Física (AF) es un factor protector de ECVs, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la asociación entre AF medida objetivamente y dislipidemias en población pediátrica. METODOLOGÍA: La AF fue evaluada en 159 niños (9-13 años) de la Región de La Araucanía a través de acelerometría (ActiGraph GT3X+). Por este medio se estimó el porcentaje de AF moderada a vigorosa (AFMV) y el de conducta sedentaria (CS). Sujetos con ≥60 min de AFMV se consideraron físicamente activos según recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Individuos con %CS>75° percentil fueron considerados sedentarios. El perfil lipídico fue determinado usando métodos convencionales. Fueron calculados índices de aterogenicidad TG/cHDL e índice de aterogenicidad del plasma (IAP). RESULTADOS: 37,1% presentó dislipidemia, 8% hipercolesterolemia, 19,5% hipertrigliceridemia, 6,3% cLDL elevado y 25,2% cHDL disminuido. Solo un 9,4% fueron considerados físicamente activos de acuerdo a la recomendación de la OMS. En los sujetos físicamente activos no hubo caso de dislipidemias (p= 0,032) y tampoco bajos niveles de cHDL (p= 0,013). El %AFMV estaba reducido en sujetos con cHDL bajo y se correlacionó positivamente con HDL-c (r= 0,157, p=0,048). Además, el %AFMV se correlacionó con menores valores de TG/cHDL (r= -0,193, p=0,015) e IAP (r= -0,214, p=0,006). Si bien el comportamiento sedentario no estuvo asociado con riesgo de dislipidemias, el %CS se correlacionó positivamente con niveles de glucosa (r= 0,159, p=0,044) y HOMA-IR (r= 0,178, p=0,037) y negativamente con Quicki (r= -0,160, p=0,044). CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos sugieren que la AF se correlaciona a menor frecuencia de dislipidemias y la práctica de AFMV aumentaría los valores de HDL-c y reduciría los índices aterogénicos, por lo que promoverla puede significar disminuir el riesgo de ECVs en nuestra población. Además, la CS se relaciona con un aumento en valores de glucosa e índices de resistencia insulínica en escolares de la Región de La Araucanía.


Dyslipidemias cause early formation of atherosclerotic plaque, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Physical Activity (PA) is a protective factor against CVDs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between objectively measured PA with dyslipidemias in a pediatric population. METHOD: The PA was evaluated in 159 children (9-13 years old) from Región de La Araucanía using accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X +). The percentage of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were estimated. Subjects with ≥60 min of MVPA were considered physically active according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO). Individuals with %SB >75th percentile were sedentary. The lipid profile was determined using conventional methods. TG/HDL-C ratio and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were calculated. RESULTS: 37.1% presented dyslipidemia, 8% hypercholesterolemia, 19.5% hypertriglyceridemia, 6.3% elevated LDL-C and 25.2% decreased HDL-C. Only 9.4% were physically active according to the WHO recommendation. In physically active subjects where no cases of dyslipidemias (p =0.032) and no low HDL-C (p = 0.013). The %MVPA was reduced in subjects with low HDL-C and positively correlated with HDL-c (r = 0.157, p = 0.048). In addition, %MVPA was correlated with lower TG / HDL-C values (r = -0.193, p = 0.015) and AIP (r = -0.214, p = 0.006). SB was not associated with risk of dyslipidemia, % SB was positively correlated with glucose levels (r = 0.159, p = 0.044) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.178, p = 0.037) and negatively with Quicki (r = -0.160, p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that PA is it correlates to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia and the practice of MVPA would increase HDL-c values and reduce atherogenic index, promoting it may been reducing the risk of CVDs in our population. In addition, the SB is related to an increase in glucose values and insulin resistance index in schoolchildren in Región de La Araucanía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Dyslipidemias/blood , Students , Triglycerides/blood , Body Weight , Insulin Resistance , Chile , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Primary and Secondary , Atherosclerosis/blood , Sedentary Behavior , Accelerometry , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Homeostasis , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11391, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285650

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatosteatosis and steatohepatitis, is intrinsically related to obesity. Our previous study reported on the anti-obese activity of α,β-amyrin (AMY), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Protium heptaphyllum. This study investigated its ability to prevent fatty liver and the underlying mechanism using the mouse model of NAFLD. NAFLD was induced in male Swiss mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. The controls were fed a normal chow diet (ND). The mice were simultaneously treated with AMY at 10 and 20 mg/kg or fenofibrate at 50 mg/kg. Lipid levels along with metabolic and inflammatory parameters were assessed in liver and serum. The liver sections were histologically examined using H&E staining. RT-qPCR and western blotting assays were performed to analyze signaling mechanisms. Mice fed HFD developed severe hepatic steatosis with elevated triglycerides and lipid droplets compared with ND controls. This was associated with a decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, an increase of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, and enhanced sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) expression, which have roles in lipogenesis, inhibition of lipolysis, and inflammatory response. AMY treatment reversed these signaling activities and decreased the severity of hepatic steatosis and inflammatory response, evidenced by serum and liver parameters as well as histological findings. AMY-induced reduction in hepatic steatosis seemed to involve AMPK-mTORC1-SREBP1 signaling pathways, which supported its beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Insulin Resistance , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Liver , Mice, Inbred C57BL
11.
Clinics ; 76: e2439, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153980

ABSTRACT

Despite a growing number of investigative studies on pancreatic fat deposition, there remains no clear indication regarding the clinical relevance of fat infiltration in the pancreas, also called fatty pancreas (FP). An individual's body weight is correlated with their pancreatic weight. Moreover, lipid infiltration causes disorders that compromise not only morphology but also metabolic functions. Fat infiltration leads to insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, and pancreatic cancer; however, knowledge about pancreatic fat content and aspects related to the clinical profile remains unclear in the literature. The present review describes the current knowledge of FP, including its pathophysiology and clinical implications, as well as lifestyle changes in FP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatic Diseases , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Pancreas/diagnostic imaging , Body Weight
12.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 11(2): 10-24, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1281694

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analizar la relación entre Porphyromonas gingivalis y diabetes mellitus tipo 2, mediante una revisión sistemática exploratoria de la literatura científica publicada entre los años 2000 y 2019. Métodos: se utilizaron los siguientes términos MeSH: Porphyromonas gingivalis, diabetes mellitus type 2, periodontal disease, non insulin dependent diabetes. Se obtuvieron 346 resultados, de los cuales se seleccionaron 41 por título, se excluyeron 11 posterior a la lectura del abstract e introducción y 19 después de la lectura del texto completo. Finalmente, se incluyeron 11 artículos. Resultados: el lipopolisacárido de Porphyromonas gingivalis y su fimbria tipo II se relacionan con una mayor producción de citoquinas proinflamatorias como IL-6 y TNF-α, las cuales afectan las vías de señalización de la glucosa y se relacionan con insulinoresistencia. La dipeptidil peptidasa 4 de Porphyromonas gingivalis puede participar en la degradación de incretinas, lo cual afecta la producción de insulina en el huésped y promueve estados de hiperglicemia. El interactoma de Porphyromonas gingivalis puede superponerse con genes involucrados en resistencia a la insulina y diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Conclusión: según la evidencia científica publicada existen factores de virulencia y mecanismos por los cuales la Porphyromonas gingivalis influye en el desarrollo de insulinorresistencia y diabetes mellitus tipo 2.


Objective: To analyze the relationship between Porphyromonas gingivalis and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 by reviewing the scientific literature published between 2000 and 2019. Methods: The following MeSH terms were used: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Diabetes Mellitus type 2, periodontal disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes. We obtained 346 results, of which 41 were selected by title, 11 were excluded after reading the abstract and introduction and 19 after reading the full text. Finally, 11 articles were included. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide and its type II fimbria are associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, which affect glucose signaling pathways and are related to insulin resistance. Porphyromonas gingivalis dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (PgDPP4) may participate in incretin degradation which affects host insulin production and promotes hyperglycemic states. The Porphyromonas gingivalis interactome may overlap with genes involved in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: According to published scientific evidence, there are virulence factors and mechanisms by which Porphyromonas gingivalis influences the development of insulin resistance and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Porphyromonas gingivalis/pathogenicity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Periodontal Diseases , Insulin Resistance , Virulence Factors , Hyperglycemia
13.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 29-37, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146470

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico clínico de resistencia insulínica (RI) es difícil, ya que el Clamp no es aplicable a la clínica. El así llamado "síndrome metabólico", un predictor clínico de la RI, no identifica alrededor de la mitad de los sujetos afectados. Previamente, definimos adecuadamente (Análisis ROC) los niveles de corte diagnóstico de los siguientes predictores bioquímicos: HOMA1, HOMA2, QUICKI e ISI-Composite, a través de analizar datos de 90 sujetos (53 no resistentes y 37 resistentes) que tenían una medición directa de su resistencia insulínica (Test de supresión pancreática, TSP, Test de Reaven) y también, una curva de tolerancia a la glucosa oral (CTG). Los puntos de corte obtenidos exhibieron un mucho mejor desempeño diagnóstico comparados con los puntos de corte convencionales. También encontramos un predictor nuevo, simple, económico y eficiente, el I0*G60. Definimos la "normalidad metabólica" de la CTG usando las medianas de los valores de varios parámetros en 312 sujetos con un G120 dentro de los 2 primeros terciles del grupo de normo-tolerantes a la glucosa (NGT, n=468; G120: 51-110 mg/dL, los con mejor función beta insular). A las medianas de la función beta insular y de la sensibilidad insulínica se les asignó un valor de un 100%. Se calculó el % relativo de función beta insular (%RFBI) y el % relativo de sensibilidad insulínica (%RSI) del resto de la cohorte (n=573) contra estos valores de referencia. El "OGTT Squeezer" se escribió en Excel. Las glicemias y las insulinemias de la CTG fueron las entradas del programa. Las salidas fueron: I0*G60, ISI-OL, QUICKI, and HOMA1 (predictores) y el índice insulinogénico, el índice de disposición, %RFBI y %RSI (parámetros). El programa también caracterizó la tolerancia glucídica de acuerdo a los criterios de la ADA 2003. El formato final del programa, HTML 5, facilita su uso. Desarrollamos tres versiones del programa: completa, abreviada y mínima.


Clinically, diagnosing insulin resistance (IR) is difficult since the Clamp is not applicable to clinical work. The so-called "Metabolic Syndrome", a clinical surrogate of IR, fails to identify around 50% of affected subjects. Previously, we properly defined (ROC Analysis) the diagnostic cut-offs of the following biochemical predictors: HOMA1, HOMA2, QUICKI, and ISI-Composite by analyzing data from 90 subjects (53 non-insulin-resistant and 37 insulin-resistant subjects) who had a direct measurement of insulin resistance (Pancreatic Suppression Test, PST, Reaven's Test), and also, an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). The resulting cut-offs exhibited much better performances compared with the conventional cut-offs. We also found a new, simple, inexpensive and efficient predictor, the I0*G60. We chose to define the "metabolic normalcy" of the OGTT by using the median values of several parameters in 312 NGT subjects with a G120 in the first 2 tertiles of the NGT group (n=468; G120: 51-110 mg/dL, those with the best beta-cell function). The median values of both Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity of these subjects were assigned a 100% value. Both % Relative Beta-Cell Function (%RBCF) and % Relative Insulin Sensitivity (%RIS) of everyone else in the cohort (n=573) was calculated against these reference values. The "OGTT Squeezer" was written in Excel. The OGTT's glucose and insulin values served as the inputs of the program. The outputs were: I0*G60, ISI-OL, QUICKI, and HOMA1 (predictors), and Insulinogenic Index, Disposition Index, %RBCF, and %RIS (parameters). Moreover, the program characterized the OGTT according to the ADA 2003 criteria. The HTML 5 format of the program facilitates its use. We developed 3 versions of the program: complete, abbreviated, and minimal versions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Homeostasis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Little is known about the effects of environmental cobalt exposure on insulin resistance (IR) in the general adult population. We investigated the association between cobalt concentration and IR.@*METHODS@#A total of 1281 subjects aged more than 20 years with complete blood cobalt data were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2015-2016 cycle. Blood cobalt levels were analyzed for their association with IR among all populations and subgroups by sex. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of blood cobalt concentrations in association with fasting glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were estimated using multivariate linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education level, and household income. A multivariate generalized linear regression analysis was further carried out to explore the association between cobalt exposure and IR.@*RESULTS@#A negative association between blood cobalt concentration (coefficient = - 0.125, 95% CI - 0.234, - 0.015; P = 0.026) and HOMA-IR in female adults in the age- and sex-adjusted model was observed. However, no associations with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, or insulin were found in the overall population. In the generalized linear models, participants with the lowest cobalt levels had a 2.74% (95% CI 0.04%, 5.50%) increase in HOMA-IR (P for trend = 0.031) compared with subjects with the highest cobalt levels. Restricted cubic spline regression suggested that a non-linear relationship may exist between blood cobalt and HOMA-IR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results provide epidemiological evidence that low levels of blood cobalt are negatively associated with HOMA-IR in female adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cobalt/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Sex Factors , United States , Young Adult
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878987

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Gegen Qinlian Decoction(GQD) on enzyme activity, gene expression and methylation level of fatty acid synthase(FASN) in adipose tissue from rats with insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet. The 60% fat-powered high-fat diet was continuously given to male SD rats to induce the insulin resistance model. Then, they were divided into five groups randomly and administrated by gavage every day for 16 weeks with following drugs respectively: 10 mL·kg~(-1)water for control group(C) and insulin resistance model control group(IR), 1.65 g·kg~(-1)GQD per day for low-dose group(GQDL), 4.95 g·kg~(-1)GQD per day for medium-dose group(GQDM), 14.85 g·kg~(-1)GQD per day for high-dose group(GQDH), and 5 mg·kg~(-1) rosiglitazone per day for rosiglitazone group(RGN). Epididymal adipose tissue was taken to determine enzyme activity of FASN by colorimetric method, mRNA expression level of Fasn by quantitative Real-time PCR(Q-PCR) and CpGs methylation level between +313 and +582 by bisulfite sequencing PCR(BSP). These results showed that Fasn expression was significantly lowered in IR model rats compared with the control rats(P<0.01). Enzymatic activity and CpGs methylation level of Fasn in IR group showed downward trends. Low and medium-dose GQD can increase enzyme activity of FASN(P<0.05). Moreover, low-dose GQD increased the total CpGs methylation level of Fasn fragment between +313 and +582 in insulin resistance rats(P<0.05). For GQDM group, the methylation frequency of CpGs at positions +506 and +508(P<0.01) as well as the methylation frequency of CpGs on the binding sites of transcription factorzinc finger protein 161(P<0.05) were significantly increased. The methylation frequency of CpG at +442 position was positively correlated with Fasn expression(P<0.01, r=0.735), and methylation frequencies of CpGs at +345 and +366 positions were positively associated to enzyme activity of FASN respectively(P<0.05, r=0.479; P<0.01, r=0.640). In conclusion, GQD can reverse enzyme activity of FASN and methylation level of Fasn in adipose tissue of insulin resistant rats, and CpG sites at positions +506 and +508 may be the targets of GQD. The methylation level of CpGs at + 345 and + 366 sites were possibly related to FASN activity, while methylation of CpG at + 442 site may be closely correlated with mRNA level of Fasn. In addition, GQD did not significantly change mRNA expression level of Fasn, but effectively reversed enzymatic activity, suggesting that GQD may regulate the post transcriptional expression of Fasn.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fatty Acid Synthases/genetics , Gene Expression , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Male , Methylation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878926

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the effect and mechanism of fucoxanthin on insulin resistance of obese mice induced by high-fat diet. Fifty C57 BL/6 J male mice were randomly divided into control group and high-fat diet group. The insulin resistance model was induced with high-fat diet for 12 weeks, and model mice were randomly divided into model group, fucoxanthin-0.2% group, fucoxanthin-0.4% group and metformin group. After dietary treatment for 6 weeks, the body weight and epididymal fat weight in each group were measured. Fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(FINS), total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein(LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein(HDL-C) were measured, and insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR) was calcula-ted. The pathological morphology in liver was observed by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the expressions of some key proteins in insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS-1)/posphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3 K)/serine-threonine kinase(Akt) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ(PPARγ)/sterol regulatory element binding protein-1(SREBP-1)/fatty acid synthetase(FAS) pathways in liver were detected by Western blot. According to the findings, compared with the model group, levels of body weight, epididymal fat weight, FBG, FINS, TC, TG, LDL-C and HOMA-IR, as well as protein expressions of PPARγ, SREBP-1 and FAS in liver were significantly reduced(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while level of HDL-C and protein expressions of p-IRS-1, IRS-1, PI3 K and p-Akt in liver were signi-ficantly increased after treatment with fucoxanthin(P<0.05 or P<0.01). And the pathological changes of liver tissue in fucoxanthin-treated mice were also improved obviously. The results showed that fucoxanthin could improve obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, and alleviate insulin resistance in obese mice, and its mechanism is possibly related to the regulation of IRS-1/PI3 K/Akt and PPARγ/SREBP-1/FAS pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Obese , Xanthophylls
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878878

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides are macromolecular compounds formed by more than 10 monosaccharide molecules linked by glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides have a wide range of sources, high safety and low toxicity, with a variety of biological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-virus, immune regulation, lowering blood glucose, and lowering blood lipids. Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2 DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and low inflammation. In recent years, the treatment of T2 DM with polysaccharide has become a research hotspot. Polysaccharides can not only make up for the side effects such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, gastrointestinal injury caused by long-term treatment of acarbose, biguanidine and sulfonylurea, but also play an effective role in reducing glucose by regulating glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, intestinal flora, etc. In this paper, the research progress of polysaccharides in the treatment of T2 DM was reviewed. In addition, the hot spots such as the hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharides with structural modifications were summarized, providing theoretical guidance for the development of active polysaccharide hypoglycemic medicines and the further study of action mechanism.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance , Polysaccharides
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 263-274, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878255

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise on lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin-resistant (IR) rats and the underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at age of 10 weeks were fed with HFD for 10 weeks to establish IR model. The IR rats were then randomly assigned into 3 groups, including IR control (IR) group, aerobic exercise (AE) group and resistance exercise (RE) group. An additional chow diet sedentary control (CON) group was used as well. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin (FIN), glucagon and lipids, as well as triacylglycerol (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and the protein expression of fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) in skeletal muscles were measured after 8-week exercise interventions. The results showed that the contents of FBG, FIN, and LDL-C were increased by IR compared with CON group, and significantly decreased by aerobic exercise and resistance exercise; while aerobic exercise induced an increase in HDL-C as well. Furthermore, IR exhibited no significant effects on TG content of skeletal muscles, but significantly increased FFA level. Both aerobic and resistance exercise led to a decrease in TG content, and FFA level was increased by aerobic exercise but deceased by resistance exercise. In addition, the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ was increased and that of CPT-1 was decreased by IR, while both types of exercise resulted in a decrease in the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ, and an increase in CPT-1. In conclusion, aerobic and resistance exercise may attenuate IR through decreasing HFD-induced ectopic fat deposition and increasing β-oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle cells, and resistance exercise shows a greater improvement in lipid metabolism of skeletal muscles than aerobic exercise.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 716-724, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Obesity is a fundamental factor in metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, fatty liver, and atherosclerosis. However, effective preventive measures are still lacking. This study aimed to investigate different surgical protocols for removing partial adipose tissue before the onset of obesity and determine whether, and by which protocol, preliminary adipose removal could exert potent preventive effects against diet-induced metabolic disorders.@*METHODS@#Male low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) knockout (KO) mice were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to epididymal fat removal (Epi-FR) surgery, subcutaneous fat removal (suQ-FR) surgery, both subcutaneous and epididymal fat removal (Epi + suQ-FR) surgery, or sham-operation. After 1 week of recovery, all mice were given a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks to induce metabolic disorders.@*RESULTS@#In the Epi-FR group and the sham-operated group, the mean numbers of the residual subcutaneous fat were 28.59 mg/g and 18.56 mg/g, respectively. The expression of relative genes such as Pparg, Cebpa, Dgat2, Fabp4 and Cd36 in the residual subcutaneous fat increased 2.62, 3.90, 3.11, 2.06, 1.78 times in the Epi-FR group compared with that in the sham-operated group. Whereas in the other fat-removal groups, the residual fat depots had no significant change in either size or gene expression, as compared with those of the sham-operated group. Plasma lipid and glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, as detected by the glucose tolerance test, were not significantly alleviated in the three fat removal groups. Liver mass or lipid content was not attenuated in any of the three fat removal groups. The atherosclerosis burdens in the entire inner aorta and aortic root did not decrease in any of the three fat removal groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our data suggest that removal of epididymal adipose or subcutaneous adipose alone or in combination before the onset of obesity did not protect against hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, fatty liver, or atherosclerosis in LDL-R KO mice fed with a HFD. Hence, adipose removal possibly does not represent a potential approach in preventing obesity-related metabolic disorders in the obesity-susceptible population.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity , Subcutaneous Fat
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture on vascular endothelial function in patients of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT).@*METHODS@#A total of 140 patients with PCOS were divided into an IGT group (70 cases, 11 dropped off) and a NGT group (70 cases, 9 cases dropped off). The patients in the two groups were treated with full-cycle acupuncture at Zhongwan (CV 12), Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), Tianshu (ST 25), etc. once every other day, 3 times a week, for 3 months. Before and after treatment, TCM symptom score, insulin resistance index [including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour blood glucose (2hPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] and vascular endothelial related factors [including asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMD), endothelin-1 (ET-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO)] were compared between the two groups; in addition, the obese subgroup and non-obese subgroup of the two groups were further compared.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the TCM symptom scores, ADMD, ET-1 and MDA after treatment were decreased (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture could improve vascular endothelial function in PCOS patients, IGT patients have better efficacy than NGT patients, and obese patients have better efficacy than non-obese patients.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Blood Glucose , Female , Glucose , Glucose Intolerance/therapy , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/therapy
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