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Rev. cuba. med ; 59(1): e1327, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139038


Introducción: El índice glucemia-triglicéridos se utiliza para el diagnóstico presuntivo de la resistencia insulínica, que en los pacientes hipertensos se relaciona con la severidad de la hipertensión arterial. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad del índice glucemia-triglicéridos como marcador de resistencia a la insulina en pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial esencial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en 232 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial esencial. Se calculó el índice glucemia-triglicéridos y se comparó con el índice HOMA. Para este análisis se utilizó la curva ROC, la correlación de Pearson y el Índice de Kappa, se consideró significativo un valor de p menor a 0,05. Resultados: Se obtuvo un punto de corte de 8,1 que mostró una sensibilidad de 98,6 con una especificidad de 41,4. La curva ROC mostró un área bajo la curva con valor de 0,694 ≈ 0,7. Se observó correlación positiva (p=0,008) Índice de Kappa=88,4 por ciento. Conclusiones: El índice glucemia-triglicéridos resulto ser útil en pacientes con hipertensión arterial como marcador de resistencia a la insulina con un punto de corte de 8,1(AU)

Introduction: The glycemia-triglyceride index is used for the presumptive diagnosis of insulin resistance, which in hypertensive patients is related to the severity of high blood pressure. Objective: To determine the utility of the glycemia-triglyceride index as a marker of insulin resistance in adult patients diagnosed with essential arterial hypertension. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 232 patients diagnosed with essential arterial hypertension. The glycemia-triglyceride index was calculated and compared with HOMA index. For this analysis, ROC curve, Pearson correlation and Kappa index were used, p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We obtained an 8.1 cut-off point, showing 98.6 sensitivity and 41.4 specificity. The area below the ROC curve showed 0.694 ≈ 0.7 value. Positive correlation was observed (p = 0.008). Kappa index = 88.4 percent. Conclusions: The glycemia-triglyceride index turned out to be useful in patients with essential hypertension as a marker of insulin resistance with a cut-off point of 8.1(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Glycemic Index/physiology , Essential Hypertension/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 38-44, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088772


ABSTRACT Objective Activated macrophages (M1-type macrophages) in adipose tissue secrete many proinflammatory cytokines that induce insulin resistance (IR). Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of Gp130 cytokines, plays an important role in a variety of biological functions, including the regulation of inflammatory responses. Proinflammatory cytokines released in patients with IR trigger a chronic, low-grade inflammatory reaction in blood vessel walls. This inflammator response leads to endothelial damage, which is the main mechanism for atherosclerosis and many cardiovascular diseases. Animal studies have reported a relationship between OSM and IR. To the best of our knowledge, however, few clinical studies have examined this topic. Therefore, we studied the relationship between serum levels of OSM and IR. Subjects and methods This prospective cross-sectional case-control study enrolled 50 people with IR (according to the HOMA-IR and QUICKI indices) and 34 healthy controls. The fasting blood concentrations of insulin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), and OSM were determined. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, sex, and HbA1c levels. Univariate analyses showed that waist circumference (WC) and levels of fasting glucose, insulin, CRP, HDL-C, OSM, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI differed between the two study groups. In multivariate analyses, both IR indices (QUICKI and HOMA) and OSM differed between the two groups. Conclusion OSM was correlated with the IR indices (QUICKI and HOMA). For simplicity, it might replace the other IR indices in the future. Further detailed studies are needed to confirm this.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Oncostatin M/blood , Inflammation/blood , Case-Control Studies , Pilot Projects , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5022, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090060


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of oxidative stress on insulin signaling in cardiac tissue of obese mice. Methods Thirty Swiss mice were equally divided (n=10) into three groups: Control Group, Obese Group, and Obese Group Treated with N-acetylcysteine. After obesity and insulin resistance were established, the obese mice were treated with N-acetylcysteine at a dose of 50mg/kg daily for 15 days via oral gavage. Results Higher blood glucose levels and nitrite and carbonyl contents, and lower protein levels of glutathione peroxidase and phosphorylated protein kinase B were observed in the obese group when compared with their respective control. On the other hand, treatment with N-acetylcysteine was effective in reducing blood glucose levels and nitrite and carbonyl contents, and significantly increased protein levels of glutathione peroxidase and phosphorylated protein kinase B compared to the Obese Group. Conclusion Obesity and/or a high-lipid diet may result in oxidative stress and insulin resistance in the heart tissue of obese mice, and the use of N-acetylcysteine as a methodological and therapeutic strategy suggested there is a relation between them.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos do estresse oxidativo sobre a sinalização da insulina em tecido cardíaco de camundongos obesos. Métodos Utilizaram-se 30 camundongos Swiss subdivididos igualmente (n=10) em três grupos: Grupo Controle, Grupo Obeso e Grupo Obeso Tratado com N-acetilcisteína. Após estabelecidas a obesidade e a resistência à insulina, os camundongos obesos foram tratados diariamente, durante 15 dias, via gavagem oral, com N-acetilcisteína na dose de 50mg/kg. Resultados Observaram-se maiores níveis de glicose sanguínea, conteúdos de nitrito e carbonil, e menores níveis proteicos de glutationa peroxidase e proteína quinase B fosforilada no Grupo Obeso quando comparado a seu respectivo controle. Por outro lado, o tratamento com N-acetilcisteína se mostrou eficiente em diminuir os níveis glicêmicos, os conteúdos de nitrito e carbonil, e aumentar significativamente os níveis proteicos de glutationa peroxidase e proteína quinase B fosforilada, quando comparados ao Grupo Obeso. Conclusão Obesidade e/ou dieta hiperlipídica levam a estresse oxidativo e à resistência à insulina no tecido cardíaco de camundongos obesos, e o uso da N-acetilcisteína como estratégia metodológica e terapêutica sugeriu haver relação entre ambos.

Humans , Animals , Male , Mice , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diet, High-Fat , Myocardium/metabolism , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight , Blotting, Western , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Protein Carbonylation , Fluoresceins/analysis
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039736


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. Methods Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. Results Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. Conclusion Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos de três tipos de treinamentos de resistência na adiposidade, na inflamação e na ação da insulina em camundongos Swiss obesos por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos Swiss machos magros e obesos foram selecionados e posteriormente separados em oito grupos com oito animais em cada: dieta padrão + não treinado; dieta padrão + treinamento de resistência muscular; dieta padrão + treinamento de hipertrofia; dieta padrão + treinamento de força; dieta hiperlipídica + não treinado; dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de resistência muscular; dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de hipertrofia; e dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de força. O protocolo de treinamento consistiu em escaladas, por um período de 10 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para análises de lactato, glicemia e teste de tolerância à insulina. Após eutanásia, os tecidos adiposos foram retirados e pesados para determinar o índice de adiposidade. Em seguida, parte do tecido adiposo epididimal foi emblocado para análises histológicas, e outra parte foi homogeneizada para análises de fator de necrose tumoral alfa por ELISA. Resultados O volume total de treinamento e a concentração sanguínea de lactato não diferiram entre os três treinos resistidos, sugerindo similaridade entre eles. Nos animais obesos, as três modalidades de treinamento reduziram o peso corporal, a área adipocitária e o índice de adiposidade. Os três tipos de treinamentos ainda melhoraram a tolerância à insulina e reduziram a inflamação. Conclusão Os protocolos de treinamento resistido foram igualmente efetivos em reduzir a adiposidade, a inflamação e a resistência à ação da insulina em camundongos obesos.

Animals , Male , Mice , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Adiposity/physiology , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Hypertrophy/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Adipose Tissue, White/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Diet, High-Fat , Mice , Mice, Obese
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249173


Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious health problem worldwide; it is characterized by a group of metabolic disorders, including central obesity, insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia with accelerated atherosclerosis, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and elevated uric acid with increased risk of gout. The incidence of MS has increased considerably in recent decades and has attracted considerable attention. A number of clinical and translational laboratory studies have implicated the activation of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the development of MS, therefore establishing a strong link between chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases. This paper aims to review new developments on NLRP3 inflammasome in MS for better understanding of chronic inflammation in metabolic diseases. We will also provide new insights into using NLRP3 inflammasome as an innovative therapeutic target.

Inflammasomes/pharmacology , Metabolic Diseases/pathology , Uric Acid/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Obesity, Abdominal/pathology , Hypertension/pathology
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(6): 739-745, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055502


Abstract Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea, a common disease, is usually complicated by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipokine is considered to play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To assess whether secreted frizzled-related protein 5, a new adipokine, is involved in untreated obstructive sleep apnea patients. Methods: Seventy-six subjects with obstructive sleep apnea and thirty-three control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea were recruited and matched in terms of body mass index and age. The fasting secreted frizzled-related protein 5 plasma concentration was tested using ELISA. In addition, the correlation between secreted frizzled-related protein 5 and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis models with stepwise selection were performed to determine the independent associations between various factors and secreted frizzled-related protein 5. Results: Plasma secreted frizzled-related protein 5 levels were significantly lower in the obstructive sleep apnea group than in the control group (obstructive sleep apnea group: 28.44 ± 13.25 ng/L; control group: 34.16 ± 13.51 ng/L; p = 0.023). In addition, secreted frizzled-related protein 5 was negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance but positively correlated with the mean and lowest oxygen saturation with or without adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, neck circumference, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. The multiple linear regression analysis showed there was an independent negative association between secreted frizzled-related protein 5 and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Conclusion: Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 was involved in obstructive sleep apnea and the decrease in secreted frizzled-related protein 5 was directly proportional to the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. There was an independent negative correlation between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and secreted frizzled-related protein 5 in the obstructive sleep apnea group. Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 might be a therapeutic target for insulin resistance in obstructive sleep apnea.

Resumo Introdução: A apneia obstrutiva do sono, uma doença comum, é geralmente complicada com resistência à insulina e diabetes melito tipo 2. Acredita-se que a adipocina possa ter um papel importante no desenvolvimento de resistência à insulina e diabetes melito tipo 2 na apneia obstrutiva do sono. Objetivo: Avaliar se a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5, uma nova adipocina, está envolvida em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono não tratada. Método: Foram recrutados 76 indivíduos com apneia obstrutiva do sono e 33 indivíduos controle sem apneia obstrutiva do sono e pareados em relação a índice de massa corporal e idade. A concentração plasmática de proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 foi testada em jejum com o teste Elisa. Além disso, obteve-se correlação entre a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 e o modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina. Modelos de análise de regressão linear múltipla com seleção stepwise foram feitos para determinar as associações independentes entre vários fatores e a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5. Resultados: Os níveis plasmáticos de proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 foram significativamente menores no grupo com apneia obstrutiva do sono do que no grupo controle (grupo com apneia obstrutiva do sono: 28,44 ± 13,25 ng/L; grupo controle: 34,16 ± 13,51 ng/L; p = 0,023). Além disso, a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 foi correlacionada negativamente com o modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina, mas se correlacionou positivamente com a média e a saturação mínima de oxigênio com ou sem ajuste para idade, gênero, índice de massa corporal, circunferência do pescoço, circunferência da cintura e relação cintura-quadril. A análise de regressão linear múltipla mostrou que houve uma associação negativa independente entre a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 e o modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina. Conclusões: A proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 esteve envolvida na apneia obstrutiva do sono e sua diminuição foi diretamente proporcional à gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Houve uma correlação negativa independente entre o modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina e a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 no grupo da apneia obstrutiva do sono. A proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 pode ser um alvo terapêutico para a resistência à insulina na apneia obstrutiva do sono.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Eye Proteins/blood , Membrane Proteins/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Insulin/blood , Obesity/complications
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 582-591, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055018


ABSTRACT GH is one of the insulin counterregulatory hormones which acts in the opposite way to insulin, increasing the glucose production by the liver and kidneys and decreasing glucose uptake from peripheral tissues, thus being a hyperglycemic hormone. When in excess, as in acromegaly, it induces glucose intolerance and diabetes. As expected, patients with GH deficiency (GHD) have hypoglycemia, especially in early childhood, but as GH is also a lipolytic hormone, these patients are becoming obese with higher percentages of body fat. Although obesity in general is directly related to insulin resistance, in patients with GH secretion disorders this relationship may be altered. In acromegaly there is a decrease in fat mass with worsening insulin sensitivity and mice with isolated GHD are characterized by greater insulin sensitivity despite excess fat mass. In humans with GHD, body composition shows increased body fat and decreased free fat mass, but the results regarding insulin sensitivity are still controversial in these patients. These discrepant results regarding insulin sensitivity in patients with GHD suggest the existence of other variables influencing these results. In the present review, we will try to follow the path of the different researches conducted on this subject, both in animal and human models, with the goal of understanding the current knowledge of insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of GHD. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):582-91

Humans , Animals , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Human Growth Hormone/physiology , Glucose/physiology , Glucose/metabolism
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 500-503, Sep.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286550


The metabolic syndrome describes a group of signs that increase the likelihood for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. The action of insulin depends on its binding to membrane receptors on its target cells. We wonder if blood insulin could travel bound to proteins and if, in the presence of hyperinsulinemia, a soluble insulin receptor might be generated. We used young adult Wistar rats (which have no predisposition to obesity or diabetes), whose drinking water was added 20 % of sugar and that were fed a standard diet ad libitum for two and six months. They were compared with control rats under the same conditions, but that had running water for consumption. At two months, the rats developed central obesity, moderate hypertension, high triglyceride levels, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, i.e., metabolic syndrome. Electrophoresis of the rats’ plasma proteins was performed, followed by Western Blot (WB) for insulin and for the outer portion of the insulin receptor. The bands corresponding to insulin and to the receptor external part were at the same molecular weight level, 25-fold higher than that of free insulin. We demonstrated that insulin, both in control animals and in those with hyperinsulinemia, travels bound to the receptor outer portion (ectodomain), which we called soluble insulin receptor, and that is released al higher amounts in response to plasma insulin increase; in rats with metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinemia, plasma levels are much higher than in controls. Soluble insulin receptor increase in blood might be an early sign of metabolic syndrome.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Receptor, Insulin/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Hyperinsulinism/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Glucose Intolerance/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Insulin/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 509-515, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038507


ABSTRACT Objective We denote the four major factors related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as "diabetes factor" (DF); increased insulin resistance (IR); decreased glucose effectiveness (GE); and the first-and-second-phase of insulin secretion (FPIS, SPIS). The level of hemoglobin (Hb) was found to be related to IR and FPIS, but no-known studies focused on its role in relation to SPIS and GE. In this study, we aim to evaluate the relationships between Hb and all four DFs in the same individual. Subjects and methods We randomly enrolled 24,407 men and 24,889 women between 30 and 59 years old. IR, FPIS, SPIS and GE were measured according to equations published in our previous studies. To compare the slopes between Hb and the four DFs with different units, we converted their units to percent of change per unit of increased Hb. Results Age, HDL-cholesterol and GE were higher in women; BMI, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, TG, Hb, FPIS, SPIS and IR were higher in men. After they were converted into percentage, the closeness of their relationships to Hb, from the highest to the lowest, were GE, IR, FPIS and SPIS for women and IR, GE, FPIS and SPIS for men. GE was the only one negatively related to Hb. Conclusions Our data showed that IR, FPIS and SPIS were both positively and, GE negatively, related to the Hb in adult Chinese. For women, GE had the closest association with Hb; for men, it was IR. Both phases of insulin secretion had relatively weaker relationships than IR and GE.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose/physiology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Insulin Secretion/physiology , Random Allocation , Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 270-275, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038708


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in non diabetic teetotallers who constitute a definite group are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To identify the metabolic risk factors of NAFLD if any in non diabetic subjects who do not consume alcohol. METHODS: In a cross sectional study the effect of metabolic parameters (BMI, individual lipid levels, hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), HOMA IR and the metabolic syndrome components) of 150 consecutive non diabetic teetotallers (90 with normal glucose tolerance and 60 prediabetics) on their NFS (quantifiable severity parameter of NAFLD) was studied by linear regression analysis. Similar study was done in the normal glucose tolerance and prediabetes groups separately. These parameters were then compared with those of 75 matched diabetic teetotallers with NAFLD. To analyse further the difference between normal glucose tolerance, prediabetic and overt diabetic groups, binary logistic regression of the factors was carried out taking prediabetes and diabetes as outcome variable. RESULTS: All the metabolic parameters were significantly higher in diabetics compared to non diabetics and in prediabetics compared to those with normal glucose tolerance except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and BMI significantly predicted NFS in the overall (adjusted R2 68.7%, P=0.000) and normal glucose tolerance groups (adjusted R2 73.2%, P=0.000) whereas BMI, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HbA1c did in prediabetics (adjusted R2 89%, P=0.000). The metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with NFS in the overall and prediabetic groups. High triglyceride (odds ratio1.08), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio1.03) and HbA1c (odds ratio 11.54) were positively associated with prediabetes compared to normal glucose tolerance group. CONCLUSION: In nondiabetic teetotallers dyslipidemias are the prime contributors to the development of NAFLD.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os fatores de risco metabólicos da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) em abstêmios não diabéticos, que constituem um grupo distinto, não são bem definidos. OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores de risco metabólicos da DHGNA em indivíduos não diabéticos e que não consumam álcool. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo transversal, o efeito dos parâmetros metabólicos (IMC, níveis de lipídios individuais, HbA1c, Homa IR e os componentes da síndrome metabólica) de 150 abstêmios não diabéticos consecutivos (90 com tolerância à glicose normal e 60 pré-diabéticos) em sua NFS (parâmetro de gravidade quantificável da DHGNA) foram estudados por análise de regressão linear. Um estudo similar em separado foi feito nos grupos normais da tolerância da glicose e do pré-diabetes. Esses parâmetros foram comparados com os de 75 abstêmios diabéticos pareados com DHGNA. Para analisar ainda mais a diferença entre a tolerância à glicose normal foi realizada a regressão logística binária dos fatores tomando pré-diabetes e diabetes como variável de desfecho, nos grupos diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. RESULTADOS: Todos os parâmetros metabólicos foram significativamente maiores nos diabéticos comparados aos não diabéticos e em pré-diabéticos comparados àqueles com tolerância normal à glicose, exceto HDL. Os índices TG, HDL e IMC previram significativamente o NFS no geral nos grupos de tolerância normal (R2 ajustado 68,7%, P=0,000) e de glicose normal (R2 ajustado 73,2%, P=0,000), enquanto o IMC, TG, LDL e HbA1c predisseram em pré-diabéticos (R2 ajustado 89%, P=0,000). A síndrome metabólica foi associada significativamente com o NFS nos grupos totais e pré-diabéticos. O TG elevado (odds ratio 1,08), o LDL (odds ratio 1,03) e a HbA1c (odds ratio 11,54) foram positivamente associados ao pré-diabetes em comparação com o grupo normal de tolerância à glicose. CONCLUSÃO: Em abstêmios não diabéticos as dislipidemias são os principais contribuintes para o desenvolvimento da DHGNA.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/metabolism
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 30(2): e171, mayo.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126428


RESUMEN Introducción: En Cuba no existe consenso acerca del valor del índice de conicidad que debe ser considerado de riesgo para identificar disglucemias. Objetivos: Determinar el punto de corte del índice de conicidad como predictor de disglucemia en ambos sexos. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal con 975 personas (523 mujeres y 452 hombres), que asistieron a consulta externa del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología por sospecha de diabetes mellitus entre abril de 2008 y abril de 2013. Se les realizó interrogatorio, examen físico y estudios complementarios (prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa, insulinemia en ayunas, lípidos y ácido úrico). Se utilizó para el procesamiento estadístico el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson, análisis de regresión logística y el análisis de curvas Receiver Operator Characteristic. Resultados: En el sexo femenino se observó una correlación directamente proporcional y significativa entre el índice de conicidad y las variables glucemia en ayunas y a las 2 h, insulinemia en ayunas, colesterol, triglicéridos, ácido úrico y el índice "homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance". En el sexo masculino se observó una correlacióndirectamente proporcional y significativa entre el índice de conicidad y las variables estudiadas, excepto con los triglicéridos. El índice de conicidad tuvo su mayor poder predictor de disglucemia con un punto de corte de 1,18 para las mujeres y 1,20 en hombres. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo del índice de conicidad como predictor de disglucemia fue de 1,18 para las mujeres y 1,20 para los hombres; es decir que tuvo un buen poder predictivo de disglucemias en el sexo femenino, no así en el masculino(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: In Cuba, there is no consensus about the value of the conicity index that should be considered as risk to identify dysglycemia. Objective: To determine the cut-off point of conicity index as a predictor of dysglycemia in both sexes. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 975 people (523 women and 452 men), who attended an outpatient consultation at the National Endocrinology Institute for suspected diabetes mellitus from April 2008 to April 2013. Interrogation, physical examination and complementary studies (oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulinemia, lipids and uric acid) were performed. Pearson's correlation coefficient, logistic regression analysis and Receiver Operator Characteristic curve analysis were used for statistical processing. Results: In the female subjects, a directly proportional and significant correlation was observed between the conicity index and the fasting blood glucose variables and at 2 h, fasting insulinemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and the index homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. In the male subjects, a directly proportional and significant correlation was observed between the conicity index and the variables studied, except with triglycerides. The conicity index had its highest predictive power of dysglycemia with a cut-off point of 1.18 in women and 1.20 in men. Conclusions: The optimal cut-off point of conicity index as a predictor of dysglycemia was 1.18 for women and 1.20 for men; that is to say, it was a good predictor of dysglycemias in the female subjects, but not so for male subjects(AU)

Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 30(2): e179, mayo.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126427


RESUMEN Introducción: La resistencia a la insulina es frecuente en el síndrome de ovario poliquístico, con diferencias entre fenotipos y discrepancias sobre cómo medirla. Objetivo: Identificar trastornos de la sensibilidad y resistencia a la insulina en mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico, y determinar si es mayor en el fenotipo clásico. Métodos: Incluyó 152 mujeres: 45 sin síndrome de ovario poliquístico (Grupo I); 46 con síndrome de ovario poliquístico clínico (Grupo II); 61 con síndrome de ovario poliquístico clásico (Grupo III). Se realizó prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral, se calcularon índices de sensibilidad o resistencia a la insulina en ayunas (HOMA-IR, I0/G0, FIRI, ISI, Belfiore, Bennet, Quicki, Raynaud) y en la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral (Belfiore2, Ribel, Ins2glu2, ATI, IITotal, DATI/DATG, Matsuda, BetaHOMA). Se emplearon las pruebas de Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney y Chi cuadrado. Resultados: Las mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico tenían más obesidad global y central (p / 0,05), más nivel de glucemia a los 30, 120 y 180 minutos de la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral (p / 0,05) y de insulinemia a los 30, 60 y 120 (p / 0,0001), lo que fue mayor en el grupo III. Se diagnosticó intolerancia en ayunas en una mujer de cada grupo y tolerancia alterada en una del II y III. No hubo diferencias significativas entre grupos para los índices de sensibilidad o resistencia a la insulina en ayunas; ni del HOMA entre mujeres normopeso vs. sobrepeso-obesidad (p / 0,05). La mediana de los índices de la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral fue menor para los de sensibilidad (Belfiore2, Ribel) y mayor para los de resistencia a la insulina (Ins2glu2, ATI, IITotal) en el Grupo III. El DATI/DATG, Matsuda y BetaHOMA no tuvieron diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: Las mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico tienen mayor respuesta glucémica, resistencia a la insulina e hiperinsulinismo postsobrecarga de glucosa que las mujeres con función ovárica normal, más manifiesta en el fenotipo clásico. Los índices de ayuno son menos sensibles, independientemente del peso corporal. Tienen mayor utilidad: insulinemia a los 60 minutos de la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral, Belfiore2, ATI e IITotal(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Insulin resistance is common in polycystic ovary syndrome, with differences between phenotypes and discrepancies on how to measure it. Objective: To identify disorders of insulin sensitivity and resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and determine if the latter is greater in the classic phenotype. Methods: The study included 152 women. 45 of them had no polycystic ovary syndrome (Group I), 46 had clinical polycystic ovary syndrome (Group II) and 61 had classic polycystic ovary syndrome (Group III). Oral glucose tolerance test was performed, fasting insulin sensitivity or resistance indices (HOMA-IR, I0 / G0, FIRI, ISI, Belfiore, Bennet, Quicki, Raynaud) were calculated and the tolerance test to oral glucose (Belfiore2, Ribel, Ins2glu2, ATI, IITotal, DATI / DATG, Matsuda, BetaHOMA) was also assessed. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Chi square tests were used. Results: Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome had more global and central obesity (p /0.05), more blood glucose level at 30, 120 and 180 minutes of the oral glucose tolerance test (p /0.05 ) and insulinemia at 30, 60 and 120 (p /0.0001), which was higher in group III. Fasting intolerance was diagnosed in one woman in each group and altered tolerance in one of group II and group III, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups for fasting insulin sensitivity or resistance indices, nor for HOMA among normal weight women vs. overweight-obesity (p / 0.05). The median indexes of the oral glucose tolerance test were lower for those of sensitivity (Belfiore2, Ribel) and higher for those of insulin resistance (Ins2glu2, ATI, IITotal) in Group III. The DATI / DATG, Matsuda and BetaHOMA had no significant differences. Conclusions: Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome have higher glycemic response, insulin resistance and post-overload glucose hyperinsulinism than women with normal ovarian function, which is more evident in the classical phenotype. Fasting rates are less sensitive, regardless of body weight. Tests such as insulinemia 60 minutes after the oral glucose tolerance, Belfiore 2, ATI and IITotal are most useful(AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/diagnosis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods , Hyperinsulinism/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(4): 428-434, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040335


Abstract Objective: Given the importance of incorporating simple and low-cost tools into the pediatric clinical setting to provide screening for insulin resistance, the present study sought to investigate whether waist-to-height ratio is comparable to biochemical markers for the discrimination of insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved students from nine public schools. In total, 296 children and adolescents of both sexes, aged 8 -14 years, composed the sample. Waist-to-height ratio, triglycerides/glucose index, and triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio were determined according to standard protocols. Insulin resistance was defined as homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance with cut-off point ≥ 3.16. Results: Age, body mass index, frequency of overweight, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, triglycerides, triglycerides/glucose index, and triglycerides-to-HDL-C were higher among insulin resistant boys and girls. Moderate correlation of all indicators (waist-to-height ratio, triglycerides/glucose index, and triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio) with homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance was observed for both sexes. The areas under the receiver operational characteristic curves ware similar between waist-to-height ratio and biochemical markers. Conclusion: The indicators provided similar discriminatory power for insulin resistance. However, taking into account the cost-benefit ratio, we suggest that waist-to-height ratio may be a useful tool to provide screening for insulin resistance in pediatric populations.

Resumo Objetivo: Considerando a importância de incorporar ferramentas simples e de baixo custo no cenário clínico-pediátrico para a triagem de resistência à insulina, o presente estudo buscou investigar se a razão cintura/estatura é comparável a marcadores bioquímicos na discriminação de resistência à insulina em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos: Este estudo transversal envolveu estudantes de nove escolas públicas. No total, 296 crianças e adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 8 e 14 anos, compuseram a amostra. A razão cintura/estatura, o índice triglicerídeos/glicose e a razão triglicerídeos/HDL-C foram determinados de acordo com protocolos padrão. A resistência à insulina foi definida por meio do modelo de avaliação homeostática para resistência insulínica, com ponto de corte ≥ 3.16. Resultados: Idade, índice de massa corporal, frequência de excesso de peso, circunferência da cintura, razão cintura/estatura, insulina, glicemia, modelo de avaliação homeostática para resistência insulínica, triglicerídeos, índice triglicerídeos/glicose e razão triglicerídeos/HDL-C foram maiores entre meninos e meninas com resistência à insulina. Também foram observadas, em ambos os sexos, correlações moderadas de todos os indicadores (razão cintura/estatura, índice triglicerídeos/glicose e razão triglicerídeos/HDL-C) com o modelo de avaliação homeostática para resistência à insulina. As áreas sob as curvas ROC foram semelhantes entre a razão cintura/estatura e os marcadores bioquímicos. Conclusão: Os indicadores forneceram poder discriminatório similar para a resistência à insulina. No entanto, levando em conta o custo-benefício, sugerimos que a razão cintura/estatura pode ser uma ferramenta útil para a triagem de resistência à insulina em populações pediátricas.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Biomarkers/analysis , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Waist Circumference/physiology , Waist-Height Ratio , Triglycerides/blood , Brazil , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Overweight/physiopathology , Overweight/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood
Rev. cuba. med ; 58(2): e506, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139010


Introducción: El hipotiroidismo es considerado un factor de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular por su relación con la dislipidemia, la hipertensión arterial y la cardiopatía isquémica. En Cuba, después de la diabetes, ocupa el segundo lugar en la prevalencia de las enfermedades endocrinas. Objetivo: Identificar si existe relación entre la presencia de hipotiroidismo primario e insulinorresistencia y la aterosclerosis carotídea subclínica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico, multicéntrico, de corte transversal, en 150 pacientes divididos en dos grupos de comparación: 1) hipotiroidismo primario (n=75) y 2) insulinorresistencia sin hipotiroidismo (n=75) a los cuales se les realizaron procederes de laboratorio y ecográficos. Los pacientes fueron atendidos en las consultas de endocrinología de Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico 10 de Octubre, Hospital Miguel Enríquez y del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Resultados: En el grupo con hipotiroidismo, los valores medios de índice de masa corporal, colesterol total, hormona estimulante de la tiroides y grosor íntima-media carotideo fueron significativamente mayores respecto a los insulinorresistentes. El HOMA-IR fue significativamente mayor en el grupo con insulinorresistencia. El valor de TSH 8805; 4,20 µmol/L mostró sensibilidad de 95,5 por ciento y especificidad de 73,3 por ciento en la predicción de aumento del GIMC. El HOMA-IR 8805;3,10 tuvo sensibilidad de 95,5 por ciento y especificidad de 73,1 por ciento. Conclusiones: El hipotiroidismo y la insulinorresistencia son predictores independientes de aterosclerosis carotídea subclínica(AU)

Introduction: Hypothyroidism is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to its relationship with dyslipidemia, high blood pressure and ischemic heart disease. In Cuba, after diabetes, it ranks second in the prevalence of endocrine diseases. Objective: To identify if there is a relationship between the presence of primary hypothyroidism and insulin resistance and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: An analytical, multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out in 150 patients separated into two comparison groups: 1) primary hypothyroidism (n = 75) and 2) insulin resistance with no hypothyroidism (n = 75). They underwent laboratory and ultrasound procedures. The patients were treated at the endocrinology consultations from 10 de Octubre Clinical Surgical Hospital, Miguel Enríquez Hospital and the National Institute of Endocrinology. Results: The hypothyroidism group showed mean values of body mass index, total cholesterol, thyroid-stimulating hormone and carotid intima-media thickness significantly higher compared to insulin-resistant drugs. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in the insulin resistance group. TSH value #8805; 4.20 µmol / L showed 95.5 and 73.3 percent specificity in predicting GIMC increase. HOMA-IR #8805; 3.10 had 95.5 percent sensitivity and 73.1 percent specificity. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism and insulin resistance are independent predictors of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Arteriosclerosis/complications , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Hypothyroidism/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 220-224, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001299


ABSTRACT Purpose: Beta-thalassemia minor, a common hereditary blood disorder in Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, is associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance, in turn, can be associated with excessively high intraocular pressure and, therefore, intraocular pressure-induced blindness. This study aimed to investigate the intraocular pressure in subjects with beta-thalassemia minor. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising of 203 subjects divided into two groups: beta-thalassemia minor (103) and healthy (100).Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed and complete blood count, blood pressures, serum fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. All subjects underwent ophthalmological examinations including intraocular pressure measurements. Results: Intraocular pressure in the subjects with beta-thalassemia minor was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (p=0.007). Additionally, intraocular pressure was inversely correlated with hemoglobin A2 levels (p=0.001, r=-0.320). Serum insulin and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher in subjects with beta-thalassemia minor (p=0.03, p=0.009, respectively). Conclusion: Subjects with beta-thalassemia minor had lower intraocular pressure than healthy controls, suggesting beta-thalassemia minor may actually protect against high intraocular pressure.

RESUMO Objetivo: Beta-talassemia menor é uma doença hereditária comum no sangue em países mediterrâneos como a Turquia e está associada à resistência à insulina. A resistência à insulina por sua vez, pode estar associada à pressão intraocular excessivamente alta e, portanto à cegueira induzida pela pressão intraocular. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a pressão intraocular em indivíduos com beta-talassemia menor. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal compreendendo 203 indivíduos divididos em 2 grupos: beta-talassemia menor (103) e saudável (100). Eletroforese de hemoglobina foi realizada e hemograma completo, pressão arterial, glicemia em jejum e níveis de insulina medidos. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos foram submetidos a exames oftalmológicos, incluindo medidas de pressão intraocular. Resultados: A pressão intraocular nos indivíduos com beta-talassemia menor foi significativamente menor do que em indivíduos saudáveis (p=0,007). Além disso, a pressão intraocular foi inversamente correlacionada com os níveis de hemoglobina A2 (p=0,001, r=-0,320). Insulina sérica e pressão arterial sistólica foram significativamente maiores em indivíduos com beta-talassemia menor (p=0,03, p=0,009, respectivamente). Conclusão: Os indivíduos com beta-talassemia menor tiveram pressão intraocular menor do que os controles saudáveis, sugerindo que a beta-talassemia menor pode, na verdade, proteger contra a alta pressão intraocular.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , beta-Thalassemia/physiopathology , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Reference Values , Tonometry, Ocular , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure/physiology , Hemoglobin A2/analysis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , beta-Thalassemia/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Insulin/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(2): 217-223, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002466


Abstract Objective: To investigate the factors associated with insulin resistance in children aged 4-7 years, and to identify the cutoff point of the triglyceride-glucose index for the prediction of insulin resistance in this population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 403 children from a retrospective cohort. Insulin resistance was also evaluated in a sub-sample using the HOMA index. Four indicators of body adiposity were assessed: body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and the percentages of total and central body fat. Food habits were evaluated by the identification of dietary patterns, using principal component analysis. Information was also collected on lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and breastfeeding time. Results: The median index observed in the sample was 7.77, which did not differ between the genders. The shorter the time spent in active activities, the higher the triglyceride-glucose value; and increase in the values of body adiposity indicators was positively associated with triglyceride-glucose. The cutoff point with the best balance between sensitivity and specificity values was 7.88 (AUC = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.51-0.74). Conclusion: The present study identified that total and central body adiposity and shorter time spent in lively activities was positively associated with insulin resistance, evaluated through the triglyceride-glucose index. The cutoff point of 7.88 may be used in this population for insulin resistance risk screening, but caution is required when using it in other populations.

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar os fatores associados à resistência à insulina em crianças de 4 a 7 anos, e identificar o ponto de corte do índice triglicerídeos-glicemia (TyG) para predição da RI nessa população. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com 403 crianças pertencentes a uma coorte retrospectiva. A resistência à insulina foi avaliada pelo índice triglicerídeos-glicemia e também pelo índice HOMA, este em uma subamostra. Avaliou-se quatro indicadores de adiposidade corporal: o índice de massa corporal, a relação cintura-estatura e os percentuais de gordura corporal total e central. O hábito alimentar foi avaliado pela identificação dos padrões alimentares, utilizando-se a análise de componentes principais. Foram coletadas também informações sobre estilo de vida, condição socioeconômica e tempo de aleitamento materno. Resultados: A mediana observada do índice triglicerídeos-glicemia na amostra foi de 7,77 e não diferiu entre os sexos. Quanto menor o tempo diário em atividades ativas, maior o valor de triglicerídeos-glicemia; e o aumento nos valores dos indicadores de adiposidade corporal associou-se positivamente com o triglicerídeos-glicemia. O ponto de corte com melhor equilíbrio entre os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade foi o de 7,88 (AUC = 0,63; IC 95% 0,51 - 0,74). Conclusão: O presente estudo identificou que a adiposidade corporal total e central e o menor tempo diário em atividades ativas associou-se positivamente com a resistência à insulina, avaliada pelo índice triglicerídeos-glicemia. O ponto de corte de 7,88 pode ser utilizado nessa população para triagem do risco de resistência à insulina, mas é necessário cautela na sua utilização em outras populações.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Triglycerides/blood , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Adiposity , Life Style , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Endpoint Determination
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 28-33, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001327


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, especially that induced by obesity, plays a central role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the evaluation of overweight patients is important, the nutritional assessment tools used in clinical practice have limitations. Neck circumference (NC), from this, becomes a viable and low-cost alternative, which seems to be related to the accumulation of fat in the hepatic tissue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between NC and metabolic alterations in patients with non- alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study performed in 82 patients, of whom 76 underwent liver biopsy. We performed weight, height, abdominal circumference and NC measures. Values of NC ≥42 cm and ≥36 cm were considered as altered for men and women, respectively. Laboratory tests and liver biopsy result were collected in the participants' charts. We evaluated fasting blood glucose levels, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), ferritin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and the HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: We evaluated eighty-two patients. Patients with altered NC had increased body mass index (P=0.043), abdominal circumference (P=0.007), insulin (P=0.003) and HOMA-IR (P=0.029) when compared to those with adequate NC. NC was significantly correlated with reduced levels of high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) in men (r= -042, P<0.05), increased insulin levels in men and female (rs=0.47; P<0.05 and rs=0.51; P<0.01, respectively), as well as higher HOMA-IR index both males (rs=0.49; P<0.01) and female (rs=0.30; P<0.05). There was no significant association between NC and liver outcomes (r=0.145; P=0.36). CONCLUSION: NC is associated with the HOMA-IR index in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. NC can be used in the screening of insulin resistance in these patients, considering that insulin resistance plays a key role in the progression of the disease.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A resistência à insulina, em especial a induzida pela obesidade, desempenha papel central no desenvolvimento da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA). Embora seja importante a avaliação de pacientes com excesso de peso, as ferramentas de avaliação nutricional utilizadas na prática clínica apresentam limitações. A circunferência do pescoço, a partir disso, torna-se uma alternativa viável e de baixo custo, a qual parece estar relacionada ao acúmulo de gordura no tecido hepático. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre a circunferência do pescoço (CP) e as alterações metabólicas em pacientes com DHGNA. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em 82 pacientes, dos quais 76 foram submetidos à biópsia hepática. Foram realizadas as medidas de peso, altura, circunferência abdominal e CP. Valores de CP ≥42 cm e ≥36 cm foram considerados alterados para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Os exames laboratoriais e o resultado da biópsia hepática foram coletados dos prontuários dos participantes. Foram avaliados os níveis glicêmicos em jejum, insulina, hemoglobina glicosilada, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C), lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-C), ferritina, fosfatase alcalina, gama glutamiltransferase, albumina, bilirrubina total, bilirrubina direta, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacética, transaminase glutâmico-pirúvica e o índice HOMA-IR. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 82 pacientes. Os pacientes com CP alterada apresentaram aumento do índice de massa corporal (P=0,043), circunferência abdominal (P=0,007), insulina (P=0,003) e HOMA-IR (P=0,029) quando comparados àqueles com CP adequada. A CP foi significativamente correlacionada com níveis reduzidos de colesterol de alta densidade (HDL-C) em homens (r= -042, P<0,05), aumento dos níveis de insulina em homens e mulheres (rs=0,47, P<0,05 e rs = 0,51; P<0,01, respectivamente), bem como maior índice HOMA-IR, tanto do sexo masculino (rs=0,49; P<0,01) quanto do feminino (rs=0,30; P<0,05). Não houve associação significativa entre CP e os desfechos hepáticos (r=0,145, P=0,36). CONCLUSÃO: A CP está associada com o índice HOMA-IR em pacientes com DHGNA. A CP pode ser utilizada no rastreamento da resistência à insulina nesses pacientes, considerando que a resistência à insulina desempenha um papel fundamental na progressão da doença.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Neck/anatomy & histology , Biopsy , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Waist Circumference , Ferritins/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/physiopathology , Homeostasis/physiology , Insulin/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Liver/pathology , Middle Aged
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 10-14, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001326


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Currently, the prevalence in developed countries is 40%, but this value increases considerably in developing countries, which can reach rates bigger than 90%. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the mean and annual prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients from Itajaí during the period from July 1992 to April 2016, as well as the gender and age groups most affected. METHODS: After consent of the clinical director of the Gastroclinica Itajaí and confidentiality commitment about the research, the database of the Endoscopy Service of the clinic was evaluated. All the patients who underwent their first upper digestive endoscopy with urease test and/or histological analysis were included. The data were submitted to statistical analysis of prevalence by gender, age group and years of study, with subsequent correction through the confidence interval. RESULTS: The mean prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection thru all years of study was 50.07%. With the calculation of the annual prevalences, it was evident the gradual reduction of infection in the population of Itajaí, that was 81.3% in 1992, declining to 33% in the year of 2016. When classifying the prevalence of infection by gender, it was higher in males (53.59%), and gender distribution by age group showed no statistically significant difference among genders between the ages of 40 and 80 years. In relation to the age group, the highest prevalence was in the group between 40 and 49 years. CONCLUSION: Although this study is retrospective and based on endoscopic database analysis, without access to clinical data of patients such as prior use of proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics to endoscopy, its results are important because they may reflect the current panorama of Helicobacter pylori infection in the city under study, where it has been presenting a gradual reduction of prevalence over the years, with current rates similar to that of developed countries (33%). Future studies are needed to confirm our data.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A bactéria Helicobacter pylori associa-se fortemente ao desenvolvimento do adenocarcinoma gástrico. Atualmente, a prevalência em países desenvolvidos é de 40%, porém esse valor cresce consideravelmente em países em desenvolvimento, que chegam a alcançar taxas de até 90%. OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar a prevalência média e anual da infecção por Helicobacter pylori nos pacientes de Itajaí durante o período de julho de 1992 a abril de 2016, assim como o sexo e as faixas etárias mais acometidas. MÉTODOS: Após consentimento do diretor técnico da Gastroclínica Itajaí e comprometimento de sigilo em relação à pesquisa, foi avaliada a base de dados do Serviço de Endoscopia da clínica. Foram selecionados todos os pacientes que realizaram pela primeira vez o exame de endoscopia digestiva alta com teste da urease e/ou análise histológica. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística de prevalência por sexo, faixa etária e anos do estudo, com posterior correção dos dados através do intervalo de confiança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência média da infecção por Helicobacter pylori em todos os anos de estudo foi de 50,07%. Com o cálculo das prevalências anuais, ficou evidente a redução gradual da infecção na população de Itajaí, que era de 81,3% em 1992, passando a 33% no ano de 2016. Ao classificar a prevalência da infecção por gênero, foi maior no sexo masculino (53,59%) e a distribuição dos gêneros por faixa etária não mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os sexos entre as idades de 40 a 80 anos. Em relação à faixa etária, a maior prevalência foi no grupo entre 40 e 49 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Embora este estudo seja retrospectivo e baseado em análise de banco de dados de endoscopias digestivas, sem acesso a dados clínicos de pacientes como uso prévio de nibidor de bomba de próton e antibióticos à endoscopia, seus resultados são importantes, pois podem refletir o panorama atual da infecção por Helicobacter pylori no município em estudo, que vem apresentando uma redução gradual da prevalência ao longo dos anos, com taxas atuais semelhantes às dos países desenvolvidos (33%). Estudos futuros são necessários para confirmar nossos dados.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Neck/anatomy & histology , Biopsy , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Waist Circumference , Ferritins/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/physiopathology , Homeostasis/physiology , Insulin/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Liver/pathology , Middle Aged
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(6): e8344, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001533


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder, and poses threats to human health worldwide. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to play important roles in the pathophysiology of T2D. In this study, we explored the role of miR-3666 in T2D. miR-3666 was significantly down-regulated in the serum of T2D patients when compared to that of healthy volunteers, and miR-3666 expression level was negatively correlated with blood glucose levels of T2D patients. Overexpression of miR-3666 inhibited cell proliferation, reduced insulin secretion, and promoted cell apoptosis of pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1 cells). On the other hand, knockdown of miR-3666 had the opposite effects in INS-1 cells. The bio-informatics analysis using TargetScan revealed that adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was a downstream target of miR-3666, and the interaction between miR-3666 and ADIPOQ was validated by luciferase reporter assay. In addition, miR-3666 negatively regulated the mRNA and protein expression of ADIPOQ. Overexpression of ADIPOQ promoted insulin secretion after glucose stimulation, promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and partially abolished the effects of miR-3666 overexpression on insulin secretion, cell proliferation, and cell apoptosis of INS-1 cells. In conclusion, our results revealed that miR-3666 inhibited pancreatic cell proliferation, reduced insulin sensitivity, and promoted apoptosis by targeting ADIPOQ.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/physiology , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Adiponectin/genetics , Adiponectin/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(6): 461-465, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973861


ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to evaluate choroidal per­fusion changes in obese patients using optical coherence tomography and dynamic contour tonometry, to determine whether these changes are associated with body mass index, and to assess the ocular effects of insulin resistance. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the data of 32 obese patients with body mass index >30 kg/m2 and 45 healthy control individuals. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude values of the patients were measured using dynamic contour tonometry, and the mean choroidal thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index. Results: The mean choroidal thickness (294.30 ± 60.87 μm) and ocular pulse amplitude (2.10 ± 0.74) were lower, whereas the mean intraocular pressure (16.61 ± 2.35 mmHg) was higher in obese patients than in controls. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass index and ocular pulse amplitude (r=-0.274; p=0.029) and an insignificant negative correlation between mean choroidal thickness, intraocular pressure, and body mass index. There was an insignificant negative correlation between homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index, mean choroidal thickness, and intraocular pressure and significant ne­gative correlation between homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index and ocular pulse amplitude (r=-0.317; p=0.022). Conclusion: We found reduced mean choroidal thickness and ocular pulse amplitude and increased mean intraocular pressure in obese patients. These changes indicated a decrease in choroidal perfusion and ocular blood flow. It may be possible to detect ocular blood flow changes in obese patients through noninvasive assessment using the choroid. The negative correlation between insulin resistance and ocular pulse amplitude may be associated with intracellular fat accumulation in obese patients.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações da perfusão coroidiana em pacientes obesos utilizando tomografia de coerência óptica e a tonometria de contorno dinâmico, para determinar se essas alterações estão associadas ao índice de massa corporal e avaliar os efeitos oculares da resistência à insulina. Métodos: Foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, os dados de 32 pacientes obesos, com índice de massa corporal >30 kg/m2, e 45 controles saudáveis. Os valores de pressão intraocular e da amplitude de pulso ocular dos pacientes foram medidos por meio de tonometria de contorno dinâmico e a espessura média da coroide foi medida por tomografia de coerência óptica com profundidade de imagem aprimorada. A resistência à insulina foi avaliada usando o índice de estimativa da resistência à insulina pelo modelo de homeostase. Resultados: A espessura média da coroideia (294,30 ± 60,87 μm) e a amplitude de pulso ocular (2,10 ± 0,74) foram menores, enquanto a pressão intraocular média (16,61 ± 2,35 mmHg) foi maior nos obesos do que nos controles. Houve uma correlação negativa significativa entre o índice de massa corporal e a amplitude de pulso ocular (r=-0,274; p=0,029) e uma correlação negativa insignificante entre a espessura média da coroide, a pressão intraocular e o índice de massa corporal. Houve uma correlação negativa insignificante entre a avaliação do modelo de homeostase - estimativa do índice de resistência à insulina, espessura média da coróide e pressão intraocular e correlação negativa significativa entre o modelo de avaliação de homeostase - o índice de resistência à insulina estimado e a amplitude de pulso ocular (r=-0,317; p=0,022). Conclusão: Encontramos redução da espessura média da coroide e da amplitude de pulso ocular e aumento da pressão intraocular em pacientes obesos. Essas alterações indicaram uma diminuição na perfusão coroidal e no fluxo sanguíneo ocular. Pode ser possível detectar alterações no fluxo sanguíneo ocular em pacientes obesos por meio de avaliação não invasiva usando a coróide. A correlação negativa entre a resistência à insulina e a amplitude de pulso ocular pode estar associada ao acúmulo de gordura intracelular em pacientes obesos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/complications , Tonometry, Ocular , Pulsatile Flow/physiology , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Choroid/blood supply , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Intraocular Pressure/physiology