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1.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 14: 1-7, mar. 20, 2023. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1428842

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar as formas de descarte correto do resíduo doméstico advindo da insulinoterapia e elaborar uma tecnologia para educação aos pacientes (cartilha). Métodos: Estudo descritivo e exploratório, do tipo revisão integrativa. O levantamento das publicações foi realizado entre os meses de julho a dezembro de 2021, a partir das bases de dados Literatura Latino-Americana em ciências da saúde (Lilacs), Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo) e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), utilizando como descritores: Diabetes Mellitus; Insulina; Gerenciamento de Resíduos. Resultados: Identificou-se que a orientação a pessoa com Diabetes Mellitus quanto ao descarte correto de agulhas, seringas, lancetas, fitas reagentes, entre outros é deficiente e que a falta de legislação brasileira específica para resíduos de saúde produzidos em residências é o principal problema para o gerenciamento inadequado dos resíduos de serviços de saúde. A partir dos achados foi possível desenvolver uma tecnologia para educação a pessoas em uso de insulina. Conclusão: Há necessidade de investir em ações de orientação e prevenção, para reforçar aos usuários os cuidados no descarte dos resíduos de serviços de saúde. A capacitação dos profissionais da saúde possibilita o repasse de orientações adequadas e consistentes aos usuários, visando a proteção de quem produz os resíduos, dos coletores e do meio ambiente. (AU)


Objective: To analyze the forms of correct disposal of domestic waste from insulin therapy and develop a technology for patient education (booklet). Methods: Descriptive and exploratory study, integrative review type. The survey of publications was conducted between July and December 2021, from the Latin American Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs), Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo) and Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases, using the following descriptors: Diabetes Mellitus; Insulin; Waste Management. Results: It was identified that the guidance to people with Diabetes Mellitus regarding the correct disposal of needles, syringes, lancets, reagent strips, among others is deficient and that the lack of specific Brazilian legislation for health care waste produced in households is the main problem for the inadequate management of health care waste. From the findings it was possible to develop a technology for education of people using insulin. Conclusion: There is a need to invest in guidance and prevention actions, to reinforce to users the care in the disposal of health services waste. The training of health professionals enables the transfer of appropriate and consistent guidance to users, aiming to protect those who produce waste, the collectors and the environment. (AU)


Objetivo: Analizar las formas de eliminación correcta de los desechos domésticos resultantes de la terapia con insulina y desarrollar una tecnología para la educación del paciente (cuaderno). Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y exploratorio, del tipo revisión integradora. El relevamiento de publicaciones se realizó entre julio y diciembre de 2021, a partir de las bases de datos Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs), Biblioteca Científica Electrónica en Línea (Scielo) y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS), utilizando como descriptores: Diabetes Mellitus; Insulina; Gestión de residuos. Resultados: Se identificó que la orientación a las personas con Diabetes Mellitus sobre el correcto desecho de agujas, jeringas, lancetas, tiras reactivas, entre otros, es deficiente y que la falta de legislación brasileña específica para los desechos sanitarios producidos en los domicilios es el principal problema por la gestión inadecuada de los residuos sanitarios. Con base en los hallazgos, fue posible desarrollar una tecnología para educar a las personas que usan insulina. Conclusión: Existe la necesidad de invertir en acciones de orientación y prevención, para reforzar la atención de los usuarios en la eliminación de los residuos de los servicios de salud. La formación de los profesionales de la salud permite transmitir orientaciones adecuadas y coherentes a los usuarios, con el objetivo de proteger a los productores de residuos, a los recolectores y al medio ambiente. (AU)


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Waste Management , Insulin
2.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 22: e20236601, 01 jan 2023. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1413582

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar a correlação entre a consulta de enfermagem e o cumprimento de ações de autocuidado e práticas seguras em insulinoterapia por pessoas com diabetes. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo e analítico. Analisaram-se características sociodemográficas e clínicas e acertos em questionário com 16 itens sobre práticas seguras em insulinoterapia, aplicado na primeira e segunda consulta de enfermagem. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se aumento significativo de acertos no questionário nos aspectos relacionados à insulinoterapia na segunda consulta (14,22±1,59), em comparação com a primeira (9,24±3,13) (p<0,001), sugerindo melhoria do autocuidado e da adesão às práticas seguras em insulinoterapia. CONCLUSÃO: Houve melhora do cumprimento de ações de autocuidado e práticas seguras em insulinoterapia, após as consultas de enfermagem, mostrando que essa intervenção é eficaz para promoção do tratamento insulínico adequado.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between nursing consultation and the execution of self-care actions and safe practices in insulin therapy by people with diabetes. METHOD: Observational, retrospective, and analytical study. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and correct answers in a questionnaire with 16 items on safe practices in insulin therapy, applied in the first and second nursing consultations, were analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the number of correct answers in the questionnaire regarding aspects related to insulin therapy in the second consultation (14.22±1.59) compared to the first (9.24±3.13) (p<0.001), suggesting improvement in self-care and adherence to safe practices in insulin therapy. CONCLUSION: There was an improvement in the execution of self-care actions and safe practices in insulin therapy after the nursing consultations, showing that this intervention effectively promotes adequate insulin treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Office Nursing , Diabetes Mellitus , Patient Safety , Insulin/therapeutic use , Nursing Services , Self Care , Retrospective Studies
3.
In. Serra Sansone, María del Pilar; Vitureira Liard, Gerardo José; Pereda Domínguez, Jimena; Medina Romero, Gonzalo Alexander; Rodríguez Rey, Marianela Ivonne; Blanc Reynoso, Agustina; Santos, Karina de los; Morán, Rosario; Sotelo, Débora; Barreiro, Carolina. Diabetes y embarazo. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.101-115, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1419144
4.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2023. 177 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1519385

ABSTRACT

Several types of periodontal and peri-implant soft tissue defects require surgical treatment to reestablish function and aesthetics. However, local, and systemic factors can jeopardize tissue repair leading to unexpected outcomes and postoperative discomfort. In order to overcome this problem, new devices have been developed to improve surgical procedures outcomes and patient experience. The aim of the present study was to develop a new silk fibroin (SF)/chitosan (CH) film loaded with insulin as a drug delivery system to improve palatal donor area healing after free gingival graft harvesting for ridge preservation. For this, biomaterial development, characterization and in vitro assessment were performed to evaluate the new delivery system. In addition, 3- months outcomes from palatal wound healing following the use of the proposed delivery system were assessed through clinical, patient centered parameters, immunological, microbiological, and histological evaluations. Sixty-nine patients with indication of tooth extraction were enrolled into 3 groups: Control Group (C) (n=23): open wound on palatal mucosa followed by spontaneous healing; SF/CH Film (F) (n=23): open wound on palatal mucosa and silk fibroin film as dressing; Insulin-loaded SF/CH film (IF) (n=23): open wound on palatal mucosa and an insulin- loaded silk fibroin film as a delivery system. : It was verified some characteristics that are favorable to the oral environment, such as mechanical properties, swelling and permeability to water vapor. The biomaterial presented a standard of a controlled release system through diffusion with delivery stability in human saliva, along with an excellent biocompatibility with the absence of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity increasing cell viability in lineage cells (HaCat). F and IF promoted accelerated palatal wound closure on day 7 and 14 after surgery, as well as an early epithelialization, compared to the C group. Both films were capable to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß) and modulate biomarkers correlated to tissue degradation/remodeling. Spontaneous healing microbiome reported higher genus/species with pathogenic role in the oral mucosa with reduction in health species following this profile until de end of the follow-up. A tendency of eubiosis was observed in F and IF groups throughout healing process. It seems that this new device has a promising application in oral cavity and positively influence wound healing. (AU)


Diversos tipos de defeitos mucogengivais requerem abordagem cirúrgica para o reestabelecimento funcional e estético. Porém, alterações locais e sistêmicas podem prejudicar o processo de reparo gerando resultados inesperados e desconforto ao paciente. Biomateriais vem sendo desenvolvidos para melhorar os resultados dos procedimentos cirúrgicos e a experiência clínica do paciente. O objetivo do presente estudo foi desenvolver um filme de fibroína de seda (FS) e quitosana (QT) carregado com insulina (INS), atuando como um sistema de liberação, para acelerar a cicatrização de feridas na área doadora palatina após procedimento de preservação de rebordo com uso de enxerto gengival livre. Para isso, foi executado o desenvolvimento, caracterização e avaliação in vitro do biomaterial. Ademais, o resultado de 3 meses do reparo das feridas palatinas foi verificado por meio de avaliações clínicas, imunológica, microbiológica, histológica, bem como parâmetros centrados no paciente. Sessenta e nove pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente nos grupos Controle (C) (n=23): ferida aberta em palato seguido de cicatrização espontânea; Filme de FS/QT (F) (n=23): ferida aberta em palato associada ao filme na área doadora; Filme de FS/QT carregado com INS (IF) (n=23): ferida aberta em palato associada ao filme carregado com INS na área doadora. Verificou-se propriedades mecânicas, bem como de entumecimento e permeabilidade ao vapor de água, favoráveis ao meio bucal sem nenhuma alteração com a inclusão da INS. O dispositivo apresentou liberação controlada por meio de difusão com estabilidade em saliva humana. Excelente biocompatibilidade com ausência de cito e genotoxicidade foi observada em diversos tipos celulares aumentando a viabilidade celular em células de linhagem (HaCat). F e IF favoreceram um fechamento acelerado da ferida palatina aos 7 e 14 dias pós-injuria, assim como uma epitelização precoce destes comparado ao grupo C. F e IF reduziram citocinas pró-inflamatórias (IL6, TNF-α, IL-1ß) além de apresentarem função modulatória na quantificação de biomarcadores relacionados a degradação tecidual. O Grupo C apresentou gênero/espécies com potencial patogênico e redução de microrganismos relacionados a saúde mantendo este perfil aos 14 e 30 dias. Enquanto isso, uma tendência a eubiose foi observado em F e IF ao longo do processo de cicatrização. Deste modo, verifica-se a aplicação promissora do novo dispositivo na cavidade oral bem como capacidade de influenciar positivamente o reparo da mucosa oral. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Wound Healing , Chitosan , Fibroins , Insulin
5.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(2): 40-42, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444106

ABSTRACT

Las disglicemias, objetivadas en el test de tolerancia a la glucosa de 2 horas y en el monitoreo continuo de glicemia, son el factor de riesgo principal para el desarrollo de la diabetes relacionada a fibrosis quística (FQ) (DRFQ), la que constituiría la etapa final de un continuo de alteraciones del metabolismo de la glucosa en los pacientes con FQ. Estas disglicemias se deben tanto al daño directo de las células de los islotes pancreáticos productores de insulina, como al aumento de la resistencia a la insulina asociada al estado inflamatorio sistémico de la FQ. El uso cada vez más precoz de los moduladores del CFTR debiera contribuir a evitar el desarrollo de DRFQ y sus complicaciones. La siguiente revisión se enfoca en los efectos de los moduladores del CFTR en la tolerancia a la glucosa en pacientes con FQ.


Dysglycemia, observed in the 2-hour glucose tolerance test and in the continuous monitoring of glycemia, are the main risk factor for the development of diabetes related to cystic fibrosis (CF), which constitutes the final stage of a continuum of impaired glucose metabolism in people with CF. These dysglycemias are due both to direct damage to insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells, and to increased insulin resistance associated with the systemic inflammatory state of CF. The increasingly early use of CFTR modulators should help prevent the development of CRFD and its complications. The following review focuses on the effects of regulador de transmembrana de fibrosis quística (CFTR) modulators on glucose tolerance in people with CF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Diabetes Complications , Glucose Tolerance Test , Insulin
6.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 185-194, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of asiatic acid on β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).@*METHODS@#The T2DM model was established by high fat diet and streptozotocin injection in ICR mice, and the effects of asiatic acid on glucose regulation were investigated in model mice. The islets were isolated from palmitic acid-treated diabetic mice. ELISA was used to detect the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. ATP assay was applied to measure ATP production, and Western blotting was used to detect protein expression of mature β cell marker urocortin (Ucn) 3 and mitofusin (Mfn) 2. The regulatory effects of asiatic acid on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and Ucn3 expression were also investigated after siRNA interference with Mfn2 or treatment with TNF-α.@*RESULTS@#Asiatic acid with the dose of 25 mg·kg-1·d-1 had the best glycemic control in T2DM mice and improved the homeostasis model assessment β index. Asiatic acid increased the expression of Mfn2 and Ucn3 protein and improved the GSIS function of diabetic β cells in vitro and in vivo (both P<0.05). Moreover, it improved the ATP production of islets of T2DM mice in vitro (P<0.05). Interfering Mfn2 with siRNA blocked the up-regulation of Ucn3 and GSIS induced by asiatic acid. Asiatic acid inhibited islet TNF-α content and increased Mfn2 and Ucn3 protein expression inhibited by TNF-α.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Asiatic acid improves β cell insulin secretion function in T2DM mice by maintaining the β cell maturity, which may be related to the TNF-α/Mfn2 pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Insulin Secretion , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Insulin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Mice, Inbred ICR , Glucose/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate , GTP Phosphohydrolases/therapeutic use
7.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 508-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985671

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the difference in blood uric acid levels between patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women of childbearing age, and to investigate the correlation between body composition and blood uric acid levels. Methods: A total of 153 eligible childbearing age patients with PCOS treated at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2018 to March 2022 were selected, and 153 healthy women with normal menstruation were selected as the control group. Fasting blood uric acid levels were measured by venous blood test, and body composition was measured by a body composition analyzer. Group comparisons were made to analyze the correlation between body composition and blood uric acid levels. Results: The incidence of hyperuricemia was higher in patients with PCOS than that in the control group [30.1% (46/153) vs 2.0% (3/153)], with a statistically significant difference (χ2=44.429, P<0.001). Blood uric acid level was also significantly higher in patients with PCOS than that in the control group [(371±98) vs (265±67) μmol/L; t=11.170, P<0.001]. Among PCOS patients, there were statistically significant differences in weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, percent body fat, lean body weight, fat mass/lean body weight, percent skeletal muscle, and visceral fat level between the hyperuricemia group and the normal blood uric acid group (all P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed in waist-hip ratio (P=0.348). The following body composition indicators: weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio, body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, percent body fat, visceral fat level, lean body weight, and fat mass/lean body weight in all subjects, the PCOS patients and the control group, were positively correlated with blood uric acid levels (all P<0.01). The blood uric acid level in PCOS obese patients was higher than that in non-obese PCOS patients, and the difference was statistically significant [(425±83) vs (336±91) μmol/L; t=6.133, P<0.001]. The blood uric acid level in central obesity PCOS patients was also higher than that in non-central obesity PCOS patients [(385±95) vs (299±79) μmol/L], the difference was statistically significant (t=4.261, P<0.001). The blood uric acid level in normal-weight obese PCOS patients was higher than that in normal-weight non-obese PCOS patients [(333±73) vs (277±54) μmol/L], and the difference was statistically significant (t=2.848, P=0.006). Blood uric acid levels in normal-weight [(315±74) vs (255±67) μmol/L], overweight [(362±102) vs (276±57) μmol/L], and obese PCOS patients [(425±83) vs (303±74) μmol/L] were all higher than those in the corresponding control groups, with statistically significant differences (all P<0.001). Conclusions: PCOS patients have a higher incidence of hyperuricemia than healthy women of childbearing age. Blood uric acid levels are closely correlated with body composition indicators, such as weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio, body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, percent body fat, and visceral fat level. Body composition analysis of women with PCOS could help identify potentially obese people more accurately and carry out individualized treatment, thereby reducing the risk of metabolic abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Uric Acid , Hyperuricemia/complications , Insulin , Body Composition/physiology , Obesity/complications , Body Mass Index
8.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 832-838, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To prepare vitamin E polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-modified insulin-loaded liposomes (T-LPs/INS) and evaluate its safety, corneal permeability, ocular surface retention and pharmacokinetics in rabbit eyes.@*METHODS@#The safety of the preparation was investigated in human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) using CCK8 assay and live/dead cell staining. In the ocular surface retention study, 6 rabbits were randomized into 2 equal groups for application of fluorescein sodium dilution or T-LPs/INS labeled with fluorescein in both eyes, which were photographed under cobalt blue light at different time points. In the cornea penetration test, another 6 rabbits divided into 2 groups for application of Nile red diluent or T-LPs/INS labeled with Nile red in both eyes, after which the corneas were harvested for microscopic observation. In the pharmacokinetic study, 2 groups of rabbits (n=24) were treated with eye drops of T-LPs/INS or insulin, and the aqueous humor and cornea were collected at different time points for measurement of insulin concentrations using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. DAS2 software was used to analyze the pharmacokinetic parameters.@*RESULTS@#The prepared T-LPs/INS showed good safety in cultured HCECs. Corneal permeability assay and fluorescence tracer ocular surface retention assay demonstrated a significantly higher corneal permeability of T-LPs/INS with a prolonged drug residence in the cornea. In the pharmacokinetic study, insulin concentrations in the cornea at 6, 15, 45, 60, and 120 min (P < 0.01) and in the aqueous humor at 15, 45, 60, and 120 min after dosing were significantly higher in T-LPs/INS group. The changes in insulin concentrations in the cornea and aqueous humor were consistent with a two-compartment model in T-LPs/INS group and with the one-compartment model in the insulin group.@*CONCLUSION@#The prepared T-LPs/INS shows an improved corneal permeability, ocular surface retention capacity and eye tissue concentration of insulin in rabbits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Insulin , Liposomes , Endothelial Cells , Lipopolysaccharides , Vitamin E , Cornea , Fluorescein
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1401-1409, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There is still uncertainty regarding whether diabetes mellitus (DM) can adversely affect patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for carotid stenosis. The aim of the study was to assess the adverse impact of DM on patients with carotid stenosis treated by CEA.@*METHODS@#Eligible studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 March 2023 were selected from the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials databases. The short-term and long-term outcomes of major adverse events (MAEs), death, stroke, the composite outcomes of death/stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) were collected to calculate the pooled effect sizes (ESs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and prevalence of adverse outcomes. Subgroup analysis by asymptomatic/symptomatic carotid stenosis and insulin/noninsulin-dependent DM was performed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 19 studies (n = 122,003) were included. Regarding the short-term outcomes, DM was associated with increased risks of MAEs (ES = 1.52, 95% CI: [1.15-2.01], prevalence = 5.1%), death/stroke (ES = 1.61, 95% CI: [1.13-2.28], prevalence = 2.3%), stroke (ES = 1.55, 95% CI: [1.16-1.55], prevalence = 3.5%), death (ES = 1.70, 95% CI: [1.25-2.31], prevalence =1.2%), and MI (ES = 1.52, 95% CI: [1.15-2.01], prevalence = 1.4%). DM was associated with increased risks of long-term MAEs (ES = 1.24, 95% CI: [1.04-1.49], prevalence = 12.2%). In the subgroup analysis, DM was associated with an increased risk of short-term MAEs, death/stroke, stroke, and MI in asymptomatic patients undergoing CEA and with only short-term MAEs in the symptomatic patients. Both insulin- and noninsulin-dependent DM patients had an increased risk of short-term and long-term MAEs, and insulin-dependent DM was also associated with the short-term risk of death/stroke, death, and MI.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In patients with carotid stenosis treated by CEA, DM is associated with short-term and long-term MAEs. DM may have a greater impact on adverse outcomes in asymptomatic patients after CEA. Insulin-dependent DM may have a more significant impact on post-CEA adverse outcomes than noninsulin-dependent DM. Whether DM management could reduce the risk of adverse outcomes after CEA requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Time Factors , Stents/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Stroke/complications , Insulin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Risk Assessment
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 922-932, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pancreatic β-cells elevate insulin production and secretion through a compensatory mechanism to override insulin resistance under metabolic stress conditions. Deficits in β-cell compensatory capacity result in hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism in the regulation of β-cell compensative capacity remains elusive. Nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) is critical for pancreatic islets' homeostasis under physiological conditions, but its role in β-cell compensatory response to insulin resistance in obesity is unclear.@*METHODS@#In this study, using obese ( ob/ob ) mice with an absence of NF-Y subunit A (NF-YA) in β-cells ( ob , Nf-ya βKO) as well as rat insulinoma cell line (INS1)-based models, we determined whether NF-Y-mediated apoptosis makes an essential contribution to β-cell compensation upon metabolic stress.@*RESULTS@#Obese animals had markedly augmented NF-Y expression in pancreatic islets. Deletion of β-cell Nf-ya in obese mice worsened glucose intolerance and resulted in β-cell dysfunction, which was attributable to augmented β-cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, primary pancreatic islets from Nf-ya βKO mice were sensitive to palmitate-induced β-cell apoptosis due to mitochondrial impairment and the attenuated antioxidant response, which resulted in the aggravation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and cleaved caspase-3. These detrimental effects were completely relieved by ROS scavenger. Ultimately, forced overexpression of NF-Y in INS1 β-cell line could rescue palmitate-induced β-cell apoptosis, dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment.@*CONCLUSION@#Pancreatic NF-Y might be an essential regulator of β-cell compensation under metabolic stress.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Apoptosis , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Palmitates/pharmacology , Obesity/metabolism
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 679-683, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on liver protein kinase B (Akt)/forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) signaling pathway in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, and to explore the possible mechanism of EA on improving liver insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes mellitus.@*METHODS@#Twelve male 2-month-old ZDF rats were fed with high-fat diet for 4 weeks to establish diabetes model. After modeling, the rats were randomly divided into a model group and an EA group, with 6 rats in each group. In addition, six male Zucker lean (ZL) rats were used as the blank group. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6), "Weiwanxiashu" (EX-B 3), and "Pishu" (BL 20). The ipsilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Weiwanxiashu" (EX-B 3) were connected to EA device, continuous wave, frequency of 15 Hz, 20 min each time, once a day, six times a week, for a total of 4 weeks. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) in each group was compared before modeling, before intervention and after intervention; the serum levels of insulin (INS) and C-peptide were measured by radioimmunoassay method, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated; HE staining method was used to observe the liver tissue morphology; Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression of Akt, FoxO1 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver.@*RESULTS@#Before intervention, compared with the blank group, FBG was increased in the model group and the EA group (P<0.01); after intervention, compared with the model group, FBG in the EA group was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the serum levels of INS and C-peptide, HOMA-IR, and the protein expression of hepatic FoxO1 and PEPCK were increased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of hepatic Akt was decreased (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the serum levels of INS and C-peptide, HOMA-IR, and the protein expression of hepatic FoxO1 and PEPCK were decreased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of hepatic Akt was increased (P<0.01) in the EA group. In the model group, the hepatocytes were structurally disordered and randomly arranged, with a large number of lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In the EA group, the morphology of hepatocytes tended to be normal and lipid vacuoles were decreased.@*CONCLUSION@#EA could reduce FBG and HOMA-IR in ZDF rats, improve liver insulin resistance, which may be related to regulating Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Zucker , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Insulin Resistance , C-Peptide , Electroacupuncture , Liver , Signal Transduction , Insulin , Lipids
12.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 99-105, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of ferulic acid, a natural compound, on pancreatic beta cell viability, Ca2+ channels, and insulin secretion.@*METHODS@#We studied the effects of ferulic acid on rat insulinoma cell line viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide viability assay. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were also used to examine the action of ferulic acid on Ca2+ channels and insulin secretion, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Ferulic acid did not affect cell viability during exposures up to 72 h. The electrophysiological study demonstrated that ferulic acid rapidly and concentration-dependently increased L-type Ca2+ channel current, shifting its activation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction with a decreased slope factor, while the voltage dependence of inactivation was not affected. On the other hand, ferulic acid have no effect on T-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, ferulic acid significantly increased insulin secretion, an effect inhibited by nifedipine and Ca2+-free extracellular fluid, confirming that ferulic acid-induced insulin secretion in these cells was mediated by augmenting Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channel. Our data also suggest that this may be a direct, nongenomic action.@*CONCLUSION@#This is the first electrophysiological demonstration that acute ferulic acid treatment could increase L-type Ca2+ channel current in pancreatic β cells by enhancing its voltage dependence of activation, leading to insulin secretion.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Insulin Secretion , Insulin/pharmacology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Coumaric Acids/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism
13.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 68-74, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971628

ABSTRACT

Most information used to evaluate diabetic statuses is collected at a special time-point, such as taking fasting plasma glucose test and providing a limited view of individual's health and disease risk. As a new parameter for continuously evaluating personal clinical statuses, the newly developed technique "continuous glucose monitoring" (CGM) can characterize glucose dynamics. By calculating the complexity of glucose time series index (CGI) with refined composite multi-scale entropy analysis of the CGM data, the study showed for the first time that the complexity of glucose time series in subjects decreased gradually from normal glucose tolerance to impaired glucose regulation and then to type 2 diabetes (P for trend < 0.01). Furthermore, CGI was significantly associated with various parameters such as insulin sensitivity/secretion (all P < 0.01), and multiple linear stepwise regression showed that the disposition index, which reflects β-cell function after adjusting for insulin sensitivity, was the only independent factor correlated with CGI (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that the CGI derived from the CGM data may serve as a novel marker to evaluate glucose homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucose , Blood Glucose , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Time Factors , Insulin
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 291-302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981006

ABSTRACT

Branched chain amino acids, as essential amino acids, can be used to synthesize nitrogen-containing compounds and also act as signal molecules to regulate substance metabolism. Studies have shown that the elevated level of branched chain amino acids is closely related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It can affect insulin signal transduction by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway, and regulate insulin resistance by damaging lipid metabolism and affecting mitochondrial function. In addition, abnormal catabolism of branched amino acids can lead to the accumulation of metabolic intermediates, such as branched chain α-keto acids, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate and β-aminoisobutyric acid. Branched chain α-keto acids and 3-hydroxyisobutyrate can induce insulin resistance by affecting insulin signaling pathway and damaging lipid metabolism. β-aminoisobutyric acid can improve insulin resistance by reducing lipid accumulation and inflammatory reaction and enhancing fatty acid oxidation. This paper systematically reviewed the regulatory effects and mechanisms of branched chain amino acids and their metabolic intermediates on insulin resistance, which will provide a new direction for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acids, Branched-Chain/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin/pharmacology , Keto Acids/metabolism
15.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 66-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for an infant with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the child was collected. Targeted capture-next generation sequencing was carried out to identify the potential variants. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing of her family members.@*RESULTS@#The child was a 4-month-and-26-day female featuring onset of ketoacidosis accompanied with fasting blood glucose of 24.4 mmol/L, positive urine glucose, decreased serum C-peptide, HbA1c of 9.58%, and negative diabetes autoantibody. Genetic testing revealed that she has carried a heterozygous c.314T>G (p.L105R) variant of the INS gene. Sanger sequencing verified that neither of her parents has carried the same variant, which was also unreported in the literature. The variant was classified as likely pathogenic based on the ACMG guidelines.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.314T>G (P.L105R) variant of the INS gene probably underlay the genetic etiology in this child. Genetic testing should be conducted for children with suspected PNDM for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Infant, Newborn , Female , Mutation , Insulin/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Genetic Testing
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1032-1042, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970575

ABSTRACT

Based on transcriptome sequencing technology, the mouse model of prediabetes treated with Huangjing Qianshi Decoction was sequenced to explore the possible mechanism of treating prediabetes. First of all, transcriptome sequencing was performed on the normal BKS-DB mouse group, the prediabetic model group, and the Huangjing Qianshi Decoction treatment group(treatment group) to obtain differentially expressed genes in the skeletal muscle samples of mice. The serum biochemical indexes were detected in each group to screen out the core genes of Huangjing Qianshi Decoction in prediabetes. Gene Ontology(GO) database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) database were used to conduct signaling pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) was used to verify them. The results showed that the levels of fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(FINS), insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR), total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides(TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) in the mouse model were significantly decreased after treatment with Huangjing Qianshi Decoction. In the results of differential gene screening, there were 1 666 differentially expressed genes in the model group as compared with the normal group, and there were 971 differentially expressed genes in the treatment group as compared with the model group. Among them, interleukin-6(IL-6) and NR3C2 genes, which were closely related to the regulation of insulin resis-tance function, were significantly up-regulated between the model group and the normal group, and vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA) genes were significantly down-regulated between the model group and the normal group. However, the expression results of IL-6, NR3C2, and VEGFA genes were adverse between the treatment group and the model group. GO functional enrichment analysis found that the biological process annotation mainly focused on cell synthesis, cycle, and metabolism; cell component annotation mainly focused on organelles and internal components; and molecular function annotation mainly focused on binding molecular functions. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis found that it involved the protein tyrosine kinase 6(PTK6) pathway, CD28-dependent phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/AKT) pathway, p53 pathway, etc. Therefore, Huangjing Qianshi Decoction can improve the state of prediabetes, and the mechanism may be related to cell cycle and apoptosis, PI3K/AKT pathway, p53 pathway, and other biological pathways regulated by IL-6, NR3C2, and VEGFA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Prediabetic State , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Interleukin-6 , Transcriptome , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Insulin , Cholesterol
17.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 60-66, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969948

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at different frequencies on learning and memory functions, as well as the relevant proteins of brain insulin signal transduction pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice and explore the effect mechanism of EA in treatment of AD.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two SPF Kunming male mice were randomized into a blank group, a sham-operation group, a model group, a 2 Hz EA group, a 15 Hz EA group and a 30 Hz EA group, 12 mice in each one. In the model group and each EA group, AD model were established by the injection with streptozotocin (ST2) solution (8 mg/kg) into the left lateral ventricles. In the sham-operation group, 0.9% sodium chloride solution of the same volume was injected into the left lateral ventricles. After successful modeling, in each EA group, EA was applied at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) with corresponding frequencies, once daily. One course of EA intervention consisted of 7 treatments and 2 courses were given totally at interval of 1 day. After modeling and intervention, Morris water maze test was conducted for the mice of each group. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot method, the protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) was detected in the hippocampal of the mice after intervention.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the 2 Hz, 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups, the escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all extended (P<0.01), and the number of crossing the platform was reduced (P<0.01) after modeling. When compared with the blank group, the escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all extended (P<0.01), and the number of crossing the platform was reduced (P<0.01) in the model group after intervention. In the 2 Hz, 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups, the escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all shortened (P<0.01), and the number of crossing the platform was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) after intervention when compared with the model group. The escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all shortened (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the number of crossing the platform was increased (P<0.05) in the 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups in comparison with the 2 Hz EA group. The protein expression levels of IR, IRS-1 and PI3K were reduced in the model group when compared with those of the blank group (P<0.01, P<0.05); and these protein expression levels were increased in the 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups compared with the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the 2 Hz EA group, the protein expression levels of IR, IRS-1 and PI3K were all elevated in the 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The learning and memory function of AD mice may be improved through regulating brain insulin signaling transconduction pathway with electroacupuncture, and electroacupuncture at 15 Hz and 30 Hz obtains the overall better effect compared with the intervention at 2 Hz.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
18.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 11(3): 346, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1416449

ABSTRACT

Evaluar el efecto a corto plazo del tratamiento con insulina, sobre los índices hematimétricos en sujetos adultos diabéticos tipo 2. Metodología: Estudio retrospectivo, donde se registraron los índices hematimétricos y la glicemia de 44 pacientes hospitalizados (24 masculinos),de 58,7 ± 4,4 años de edad, diabéticos tipo 2, antes y después de 6 ± 2 horas del tratamiento con insulina. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los índices hematimétricos antes y después del tratamiento y tampoco entre los sexos. La glicemia basal se correlacionó con el contaje de glóbulos rojos (r = 0,417; p = 0,03), el volumen corpuscular medio (r = 0,424; p= 0,04), la hemoglobina (r =0,626; p = 0,001), el hematocrito (r = 0,574; p = 0,005) y la hemoglobina corpuscular media (r = 0,537; p = 0,01). Al dividir a la muestra en dos grupos (G1 y G2), tomando en cuenta el valor de la mediana de la diferencia de la glicemia antes y después del tratamiento (G1:<139 mg/dL y G2 ≥ 139 mg/dL), se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa en el volumen corpuscular medio del G2 antes y después del tratamiento; en la hemoglobina entre G1 y G2, tanto antes como después del tratamiento y en el volumen corpuscular medio entre G1 y G2,después del tratamiento (p < 0,05). Conclusión: La insulina pareciera provocar a corto plazo, un aumento del volumen corpuscular medio en sujetos que disminuyen significativamente su glicemia(AU)


To evaluate the short-term effect of insulintreatment on hematimetric indices in type 2 diabetic adultsubjects. Methodology: It was a retrospective study, wherehematimetric indices and glycemia of 44 hospitalized patients(24 male), 58.7 ± 4.4 years old, type 2 diabetics, were recordedbefore and ather 6 ± 2 hours of insulin treatment. Results:no statistically significant differences were found between thehematimetric indices before and aer treatment and neitherbetween the sexes. Basal glycemia correlated with red blood cellcount (r = 0,417; . = 0,03), mean corpuscular volume (r =0,424; . = 0,04), hemoglobin (r = 0,626; . = 0,001), hematocrit(r = 0,574; . = 0,005), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin(r=0,537; .=0,01). When dividing the sample into two groups,taking into account the median value of the difference inglycemia before and aer treatment (G1: < 139 mg/dL and G2 ≥ 139 mg/dL), a statistically significant difference was found inthe mean corpuscular volume of G2 before and after treatment;in hemoglobin between G1 and G2, both before and aertreatment and in mean corpuscular volume between G1 and G2,after treatment (. <0.05). Conclusion: Insulin seems to cause,in the short term, an increase in mean corpuscular volume insubjects who significantly lower their glycemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin , Blood Glucose , Hemoglobins , Erythrocytes , Hematocrit
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(11): 1458-1466, nov. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Simple surrogate indexes (SSI) to assess beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin resistance (IR) are an easy and economic tool used in clinical practice to identify glucose metabolism disturbances. AIM: To evaluate the validity and reliability of SSI that estimate beta-cell function, IS and IR using as a reference the parameters obtained from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 62 subjects aged 20-45 years, with a normal body mass index and without diabetes or prediabetes. SSI were compared with the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), insulin sensitivity index (Si) and disposition index (DI) obtained from the FSIVGTT using the minimal model approach. Half of the participants (n = 31) were randomly selected for a second visit two weeks later to evaluate the reliability of all the variables. RESULTS: HOMA1-%B and HOMA2-%B had a significant correlation with AIRg (Spearman Rho (rs) = 0.33 and 0.37 respectively, p 0.50) with Si were fasting insulin, HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR, HOMA1-%S, HOMA2-%S, QUICKI, and the McAuley index. The parameters that showed good reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) > 0.75 were AIRg, HOMA1-%S, HOMA2-%S, and QUICKI. Conclusions: Our results suggest that most of the SSI are useful and reliable.


ANTECEDENTES: Los índices simples subrogados (ISS) que evalúan la función de célula beta, sensibilidad a la insulina (SI) y resistencia a la insulina (RI) son herramientas sencillas y económicas que se usan en la práctica clínica para identificar alteraciones del metabolismo de la glucosa. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la validez y confiabilidad de ISS para estimar la función de célula beta, SI y RI usando como referencia los parámetros de la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa intravenosa con muestreo frecuente (FSIVGTT). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 62 sujetos de 20-45 años, con índice de masa corporal normal y sin diabetes mellitus o prediabetes. Los ISS se compararon con la respuesta aguda de la insulina a la glucosa (AIRg), índice de sensibilidad a la insulina (Si) e índice de disposición (DI) obtenidos de la FSIVGTT en base al modelo mínimo. La mitad de los participantes (n = 31) se seleccionaron aleatoriamente para acudir dos semanas después y evaluar la confiabilidad de todas las variables. RESULTADOS: HOMA1-%B y HOMA2-%B presentaron una correlación significativa con AIRg (Rho de Spearman (rs) = 0,33 and 0,37, respectivamente, p 0,50) con Si fueron insulina en ayuno, HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR, HOMA1-%S, HOMA2-%S, QUICKI y el índice de McAuley. Los parámetros que tuvieron buena confiabilidad (coeficiente de correlación intraclase > 0,75) fueron AIRg, HOMA1-%S, HOMA2-%S y QUICKI. Conclusiones: La mayoría de los ISS son instrumentos útiles y confiables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Glucose Tolerance Test , Insulin
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