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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): e610-e615, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353045

ABSTRACT

La intoxicación por bloqueantes de los canales de calcio es un cuadro poco frecuente en la población pediátrica. Los signos y síntomas pueden progresar de forma rápida y llevar al colapso cardiovascular y muerte. El sostén hemodinámico con inotrópicos y vasopresores no suele ser efectivo. La terapia con insulina y glucosa es un complemento eficaz del tratamiento inicial, que está ampliamente estudiado, y se utiliza en diferentes patologías con compromiso hemodinámico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente pediátrica con antecedente de ingestión de dosis altas de amlodipina con fines suicidas, con descompensación hemodinámica refractaria al tratamiento de soporte inotrópico habitual. A partir del tratamiento con insulina y glucosa, se logró la estabilidad hemodinámica, con evolución favorable de la paciente.


Calcium channel blocker poisoning is a rare condition in the pediatric population. Signs and symptoms can be rapidly progressive and lead to cardiovascular collapse and death. Hemodynamic support with inotropics and vasopressors is usually not effective. The insulin/glucose therapy is an effective complement to the initial treatment, which is widely studied and used in different pathologies with hemodynamic compromise. The case of a pediatric patient with a history of high-dose ingestion of amlodipine for suicidal purposes, with hemodynamic decompensation refractory to usual inotropic support treatment, is presented. From the insulin/glucose treatment, hemodynamic stability was achieved with a favorable evolution


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Suicide, Attempted , Calcium Channel Blockers/poisoning , Amlodipine/poisoning , Drug Overdose/therapy , Glucose/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 843-845, oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351058

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present a case of subcutaneous insulin resistance syndrome, a rare entity, consisting of subcutaneous and intramuscular insulin resistance, with normal or almost normal sensitivity to insulin when administered intravenously. Its cause is unknown and its treatment is challenging. Our patient required a pancreas transplant.


Resumen Presentamos un caso de síndrome de resistencia subcutánea a la insulina, entidad in frecuente, que consiste en resistencia a la insulina por vía subcutánea e intramuscular, con sensibilidad normal o casi normal a la insulina cuando se aplica por vía intravenosa. Se desconoce su causa y su tratamiento es un desafío. Nuestra paciente requirió trasplante de páncreas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Pancreas Transplantation , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Insulin
4.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 56-63, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280493

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir el tratamiento en un hospital de primer nivel de pacientes que consultaron el servicio de urgencias por hiperglucemia, el manejo previo y su probable relación con nuevas hiperglucemias. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional de corte transversal con seguimiento de un año en pacientes mayores de 18 años con hiperglucemia que consultaron en el servicio de urgencias entre septiembre-2016 y agosto-2017. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y se establecieron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, y farmacológicas. Se empleó estadística descriptiva, X 2 y modelos de regresión logística binaria (P<0.05). Resultados: Se presentaron 86 pacientes con hiperglucemia (edad media de 52.1±14.93 años). Se encontró que en el 58,1% de casos había un diagnóstico previo de diabetes mellitus; 87,2% fueron tratados con insulina cristalina y el 47,0% de los pacientes consultaron nuevamente por una crisis de hiperglucemia en los seis meses posteriores al egreso. Conclusión: Existe alta proporción de pacientes con hiperglucemias no cetónicas, no hiperosmolares que desconocían presentar diabetes mellitus. Además, casi la mitad de los pacientes consultan nuevamente por crisis de hiperglucemia en los siguientes seis meses después del alta.


Abstract Objective: Describe the treatment in a first-level hospital of patients who consulted the emergency department for hyperglycemia, the previous management and its probable relationship with new hyperglycemia. Materials and methods: Observational cross-sectional study with a one-year follow-up in patients over 18 years of age with hyperglycemia who consulted in the emergency department between September-2016 and August-2017. The medical records were reviewed and sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables were established. Descriptive statistics, X2 and binary logistic regression models (P <0.05) were used. Results: There were 86 patients with hyperglycemia (mean age 52.1 ± 14.93 years). It was found that in 58.1% of cases there was a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus; 87.2% were treated with crystalline insulin and 47.0% of the patients consulted again for a hyperglycemic crisis in the six months after discharge. Conclusion: There is a high proportion of patients with non-ketonic, non-hyperosmolar hyperglycemia who were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. In addition, almost half of the patients consult again for a hyperglycemic attack in the following six months after discharge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pharmacoepidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitals , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Therapeutics , Aftercare , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital
5.
Femina ; 49(4): 251-256, 20210430.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224096

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é uma complicação que atinge o metabolismo da gestante, resultando em intolerância à glicose e consequente hiperglicemia, originada pela insuficiência de insulina materna. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar os tratamentos disponíveis e mais utilizados para o DMG. Trata-se de um uma revisão de literatura, feita a partir de 22 referências, acerca dos tratamentos para o DMG. As bases de dados escolhidas foram Google Acadêmico, UpToDate, SciELO e o acervo da Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Estudos apontam a insulina humana ­ NPH e regular ­ como a principal escolha, quando comparada aos seus análogos, apesar de ainda existirem muitas controvérsias quanto ao início do tratamento, o esquema terapêutico e os ajustes das doses. Pesquisas têm demonstrado bons resultados sobre a eficácia e a segurança dos hipoglicemiantes orais ­ gliburida e metformina ­ no tratamento de gestantes diabéticas, mas é evidente a necessidade de mais estudos para confirmar a efetividade deles e garantir um bom desenvolvimento do concepto. Concluiu-se que o controle dietético e o exercício físico são a primeira opção de tratamento para o DMG. Todavia, caso a euglicemia não seja atingida, opta-se pelo tratamento medicamentoso por meio da insulinoterapia ou hipoglicemiantes orais, o que possibilita a redução da incidência dos efeitos adversos ao binômio materno-fetal.(AU)


Gestational diabetes mellitus (DMG) is a complication that affects the pregnant woman's metabolism, resulting in glucose intolerance and consequent hyperglycemia, caused by insufficient maternal insulin. This study aims to identify the available and most used treatments for DMG. This is a literature review, based on 22 references, about treatments for Gestational Diabetes; the databases chosen were Google Scholar, UpToDate, SciELO and the collection of the Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Studies point to human insulin ­ NPH and regular ­ as the main choice when compared to its analogues, although there are still many controversies about the beginning of treatment, therapeutic scheme and dose adjustments. Researches have shown good results on the efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents ­ glyburide and metformin ­ in the treatment of diabetic pregnant women, but it is evident the need for further studies to confirm their effectiveness and to guarantee a good development of the fetus. It was concluded that dietary control and physical exercise are the first treatment option for DGM. However, if euglycemia is not achieved, drug treatment is chosen through insulin therapy or oral hypoglycemic agents, which makes it possible to reduce the incidence of adverse effects to the maternal-fetal binomial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/diet therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Exercise , Databases, Bibliographic , Glyburide/adverse effects , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 82-90, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1153042

ABSTRACT

Essential oils (EO) such as carvacrol represent a wide range of mainly volatile aromatic plant compounds which hold antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal potential, in addition to other properties of interest to animal health, such as the ability to modulate the microbiome. Current horse care commonly involves an intensive management system with an excessive use of concentrated feed, which can lead to severe digestive and metabolic disorders. Studies with EO in horses are limited, but the use of carvacrol essential oil (CEO) can promote benefits in microbial fermentation. The objective was to investigate the effect of different quantities of CEO on the apparent total digestibility of nutrients, microbial profile in the feces and postprandial blood glucose and insulin response when added to the equine diet. Eight Mini-Horse geldings were used (42±6 months; 135±15 kg BW) and fed with a proportion of 60% concentrate and 40% grass hay. The treatments were: 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of CEO. The addition of CEO up to 300 ppm did not influence the apparent digestibility of nutrients or the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin response. The use of CEO maintained the fermentative digestive health of horses fed with concentrate diets.(AU)


Os óleos essenciais (EO), como o carvacrol, são descritos por representarem ampla gama de compostos principalmente voláteis de plantas aromáticas, com potencial antioxidante, antibacteriano, antifúngico, entre outras propriedades de interesse para a saúde animal, como a modulação do microbioma. Atualmente, os cavalos são submetidos a manejo intensivo, com uso excessivo de ração concentrada, o que pode causar graves distúrbios digestivos e metabólicos. Em cavalos, estudos com EO são limitados, mas o uso de óleo essencial de carvacrol (CEO) poderia promover benefícios na fermentação microbiana. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de óleo essencial de carvacrol, adicionadas à dieta de equinos, sobre a digestibilidade aparente total de nutrientes, o perfil microbiano por meio das fezes e a resposta sanguínea pós-prandial de glicose e insulina. Foram utilizados oito cavalos castrados, da raça Mini-Horse (42±6 meses), 135±15kg PV, alimentados na proporção de 60% concentrado e 40% feno de capim. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 100, 200 e 300ppm de CEO. A adição de CEO até 300ppm não influencia a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e a resposta de glicose e insulina plasmática pós-prandial. O uso de EO demonstra manter a saúde digestiva fermentativa quando os cavalos são alimentados com dieta rica em concentrado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Digestion/drug effects , Glucose , Horses/blood , Insulin/blood , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Monoterpenes
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878926

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the effect and mechanism of fucoxanthin on insulin resistance of obese mice induced by high-fat diet. Fifty C57 BL/6 J male mice were randomly divided into control group and high-fat diet group. The insulin resistance model was induced with high-fat diet for 12 weeks, and model mice were randomly divided into model group, fucoxanthin-0.2% group, fucoxanthin-0.4% group and metformin group. After dietary treatment for 6 weeks, the body weight and epididymal fat weight in each group were measured. Fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(FINS), total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein(LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein(HDL-C) were measured, and insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR) was calcula-ted. The pathological morphology in liver was observed by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the expressions of some key proteins in insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS-1)/posphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3 K)/serine-threonine kinase(Akt) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ(PPARγ)/sterol regulatory element binding protein-1(SREBP-1)/fatty acid synthetase(FAS) pathways in liver were detected by Western blot. According to the findings, compared with the model group, levels of body weight, epididymal fat weight, FBG, FINS, TC, TG, LDL-C and HOMA-IR, as well as protein expressions of PPARγ, SREBP-1 and FAS in liver were significantly reduced(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while level of HDL-C and protein expressions of p-IRS-1, IRS-1, PI3 K and p-Akt in liver were signi-ficantly increased after treatment with fucoxanthin(P<0.05 or P<0.01). And the pathological changes of liver tissue in fucoxanthin-treated mice were also improved obviously. The results showed that fucoxanthin could improve obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, and alleviate insulin resistance in obese mice, and its mechanism is possibly related to the regulation of IRS-1/PI3 K/Akt and PPARγ/SREBP-1/FAS pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Obese , Xanthophylls
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Little is known about the effects of environmental cobalt exposure on insulin resistance (IR) in the general adult population. We investigated the association between cobalt concentration and IR.@*METHODS@#A total of 1281 subjects aged more than 20 years with complete blood cobalt data were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2015-2016 cycle. Blood cobalt levels were analyzed for their association with IR among all populations and subgroups by sex. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of blood cobalt concentrations in association with fasting glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were estimated using multivariate linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education level, and household income. A multivariate generalized linear regression analysis was further carried out to explore the association between cobalt exposure and IR.@*RESULTS@#A negative association between blood cobalt concentration (coefficient = - 0.125, 95% CI - 0.234, - 0.015; P = 0.026) and HOMA-IR in female adults in the age- and sex-adjusted model was observed. However, no associations with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, or insulin were found in the overall population. In the generalized linear models, participants with the lowest cobalt levels had a 2.74% (95% CI 0.04%, 5.50%) increase in HOMA-IR (P for trend = 0.031) compared with subjects with the highest cobalt levels. Restricted cubic spline regression suggested that a non-linear relationship may exist between blood cobalt and HOMA-IR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results provide epidemiological evidence that low levels of blood cobalt are negatively associated with HOMA-IR in female adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cobalt/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Sex Factors , United States , Young Adult
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 263-274, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878255

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise on lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin-resistant (IR) rats and the underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at age of 10 weeks were fed with HFD for 10 weeks to establish IR model. The IR rats were then randomly assigned into 3 groups, including IR control (IR) group, aerobic exercise (AE) group and resistance exercise (RE) group. An additional chow diet sedentary control (CON) group was used as well. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin (FIN), glucagon and lipids, as well as triacylglycerol (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and the protein expression of fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) in skeletal muscles were measured after 8-week exercise interventions. The results showed that the contents of FBG, FIN, and LDL-C were increased by IR compared with CON group, and significantly decreased by aerobic exercise and resistance exercise; while aerobic exercise induced an increase in HDL-C as well. Furthermore, IR exhibited no significant effects on TG content of skeletal muscles, but significantly increased FFA level. Both aerobic and resistance exercise led to a decrease in TG content, and FFA level was increased by aerobic exercise but deceased by resistance exercise. In addition, the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ was increased and that of CPT-1 was decreased by IR, while both types of exercise resulted in a decrease in the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ, and an increase in CPT-1. In conclusion, aerobic and resistance exercise may attenuate IR through decreasing HFD-induced ectopic fat deposition and increasing β-oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle cells, and resistance exercise shows a greater improvement in lipid metabolism of skeletal muscles than aerobic exercise.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture on vascular endothelial function in patients of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT).@*METHODS@#A total of 140 patients with PCOS were divided into an IGT group (70 cases, 11 dropped off) and a NGT group (70 cases, 9 cases dropped off). The patients in the two groups were treated with full-cycle acupuncture at Zhongwan (CV 12), Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), Tianshu (ST 25), etc. once every other day, 3 times a week, for 3 months. Before and after treatment, TCM symptom score, insulin resistance index [including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour blood glucose (2hPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] and vascular endothelial related factors [including asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMD), endothelin-1 (ET-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO)] were compared between the two groups; in addition, the obese subgroup and non-obese subgroup of the two groups were further compared.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the TCM symptom scores, ADMD, ET-1 and MDA after treatment were decreased (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture could improve vascular endothelial function in PCOS patients, IGT patients have better efficacy than NGT patients, and obese patients have better efficacy than non-obese patients.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Blood Glucose , Female , Glucose , Glucose Intolerance/therapy , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/therapy
11.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 11: e38, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1179192

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar a qualidade e segurança individual e coletiva no uso de insulina pela população idosa em um município de grande porte do sul do Brasil. Método: estudo transversal de base populacional realizado em 2016-2017 com idosos de 68 anos ou mais. As entrevistas foram realizadas nos domicílios dos idosos. O desfecho foi medido pela forma de utilização e descarte das seringas e agulhas. Realizou-se análise descritiva mediante cálculo das proporções e projeções dos dados para os idosos do município. Resultados: foram entrevistados 735 idosos. A prevalência de diabetes foi de 20,0%, e 13,8% faziam uso de insulina injetável. A reutilização das seringas e agulhas foi relatada por 55,0% e 65,0% referiram descartar o material direto no lixo comum. Conclusões: a qualidade e a segurança dos idosos em insulinoterapia estão comprometidas, sendo necessário implementar estratégias de educação em saúde que visem melhorar o conhecimento e acesso as orientações adequadas.


Objective: to evaluate individual and collective quality and safety in the use of insulin by the aged population in a large city of southern Brazil. Method: a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in 2016-2017 with older adults aged 68 and over. The interviews were conducted in the older adults' homes. The outcome was measured by the way in which syringes and needles were used and disposed of. Descriptive analysis was performed by calculating the data proportions and projections for the older adults in the municipality. Results: 735 older adults were interviewed. The prevalence of diabetes was 20.0%, and 13.8% made use of injectable insulin. Syringes and needle reuse was reported by 55.0%, and 65.0% mentioned discarding the material directly in regular garbage. Conclusions: the quality and safety of the older adults in insulin therapy are compromised, and it is necessary to implement health education strategies aimed at improving knowledge and access to the appropriate guidelines.


Objetivo: evaluar la calidad y la seguridad individual y colectiva en el uso de insulina por parte de la población de edad avanzada en un importante municipio del sur de Brasil. Método: estudio transversal de base poblacional realizado en 2016-2017 con ancianos de al menos 68 años de edad. Las entrevistas se realizaron en los domicilios de las personas de edad avanzada. El resultado se midió considerando la forma de utilización y descarte de las jeringas y agujas. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo mediante el cálculo de las proporciones y proyecciones de los datos para los ancianos del municipio. Resultados: se entrevistó a un total de 735 personas de edad avanzada. La prevalencia de diabetes fue del 20,0%, y el 13,8% utilizaba insulina inyectable. El 55,0% indicó que reutilizaba las jeringas y agujas y el 65,0% mencionó que desechaba el material directamente en la basura común. Conclusiones: la calidad y la seguridad de las personas de edad avanzada sometidas a insulinoterapia están en riesgo, por lo que resulta necesario implementar estrategias de educación en salud que tengan por objetivo mejorar el conocimiento y el acceso a las pautas adecuadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus , Disposable Equipment , Patient Safety , Insulin
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11116, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249338

ABSTRACT

The interplay between obesity and gastrointestinal (GI) motility is contradictory, and the transgenerational influence on this parameter is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the GI function in a model of paternal obesity and two subsequent generations of their male offspring. Newborn male rats were treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG) and composed the F1 generation, while control rats (CONT) received saline. At 90 days, male F1 were mated with non-obese females to obtain male offspring (F2), which later mated with non-obese females for obtaining male offspring of F3 generation. Lee Index analysis was adopted to set up the obesity groups. Alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) technique was employed to calculate GI transit parameters: mean gastric emptying time (MGET), mean cecum arrival time (MCAT), mean small intestinal transit time (MSITT), and gastric frequency and amplitude of contractions. Glucose, insulin, and leptin levels and duodenal morphometry were measured. F1 obese rats showed a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of gastric contractions, while obese rats from the F2 generation showed accelerated MGET and delayed MCAT and MSITT. Glucose and leptin levels were increased in F1 and F2 generations. Insulin levels decreased in F1, F2, and F3 generations. Duodenal morphometry was altered in all three generations. Obesity may have paternal transgenerational transmission, and it provoked disturbances in the gastrointestinal function of three generations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Paternal Exposure , Obesity/etiology , Gastrointestinal Transit , Leptin , Gastrointestinal Motility , Insulin
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10782, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249333

ABSTRACT

We explored the cascade effects of a high fat-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) and pioglitazone (an anti-diabetic therapy used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)) on lipid profiles, oxidative stress/antioxidant, insulin, and inflammatory biomarkers in a rat model of insulin resistance. Sixty albino rats (80-90 g) were randomly divided into three dietary groups; 1) standard diet; 2) HFCD diet for 12 weeks to induce an in vivo model of insulin resistance; and 3) HFCD diet plus pioglitazone. Blood and tissue samples were taken to assess hepatic function, lipid profiles, oxidative biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant defense biomarkers, including reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α). HFCD-fed rats had significantly (P≤0.05) increased serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), alanine transaminase (ALT), and bilirubin levels, but decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels compared with the normal group. Moreover, serum leptin, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were increased significantly in HFCD animals compared with controls. Similarly, HFCD-induced insulin resistance caused antioxidant and cytokine disturbances, which are important therapy targets for pioglitazone. Importantly, administration of this drug ameliorated these changes, normalized leptin and resistin and inflammatory markers by reducing TNF-α levels. Metabolic cascades of elevated lipid profiles, oxidative stress, insulin, and inflammatory biomarkers are implicated in insulin resistance progression. HFCD induced metabolic cascades comprising hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, obesity-associated hormones, and inflammatory biomarkers may be alleviated using pioglitazone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Carbohydrates/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Diet, High-Fat , Pioglitazone/metabolism , Pioglitazone/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
14.
REVISA (Online) ; 10(2): 388-399, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253832

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar o perfil de saúde e farmacoterapêutico dos usuários de insulina cadastrados em uma unidade de saúde; e discutir o plano de cuidados adotado para estes pacientes, fundamentado em método de cuidados farmacêuticos. Método: Trata-se de estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, realizado por meio de uma pesquisa de campo, tendo como cenário de intervenção propriamente dito uma Unidade de Saúde da Família, de um município baiano, envolvendo 20 usuários. A pesquisa se dividiu em duas etapas: identificação do perfil de saúde e farmacoterapêutico dos usuários de insulina e definição do plano de cuidados, com base numa adaptação dos métodos Dáder e Pharmacotherapy Workup. Resultados: No processo de cuidado farmacêutico, foram realizadas 46 intervenções envolvendo estratégias farmacológicas e de educação em saúde, sendo possível constatar melhoria nos resultados de saúde dos pacientes acompanhados. Conclusão: Os resultados apontam o cuidado farmacêutico como estratégia promotora de melhor qualidade de vida a esses pacientes, e também indícios de que, no processo de assistência aos pacientes com diabetes em uso de insulina, nas unidades de saúde, há carências de informações, dificultando a adesão ao tratamento e às práticas de autocuidado.


Objective: To identify the health and pharmacotherapeutic profile of insulin users registered in a health unit; and discuss the care plan adopted for these patients, based on a pharmaceutical care method. Method: This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, carried out through field research, with the intervention scenario itself being a Family Health Unit, in a municipality in Bahia, involving 20 users. The research was divided into two stages: identification of the health and pharmacotherapeutic profile of insulin users and definition of the care plan, based on an adaptation of the Dáder and Pharmacotherapy Workup methods. Results: In the pharmaceutical care process, 46 interventions were carried out involving pharmacological strategies and health education, and it was possible to observe an improvement in the health results of the patients monitored. Conclusion: The results point to pharmaceutical care as a strategy that promotes better quality of life for these patients, and also evidence that, in the process of assisting patients with diabetes using insulin, in health facilities, there is a lack of information, making it difficult adherence to treatment and self-care practices.


Objetivo: Identificar el perfil de salud y farmacoterapéutico de los usuarios de insulina registrados en una unidad de salud; y discutir el plan de atención adoptado para estos pacientes, basado en un método de atención farmacéutica. Método: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo con enfoque cualitativo, realizado a través de investigación de campo, siendo el escenario de intervención en sí una Unidad de Salud de la Familia, en un municipio de Bahía, involucrando a 20 usuarios. La investigación se dividió en dos etapas: identificación del perfil de salud y farmacoterapéutico de los usuarios de insulina y definición del plan de cuidados, a partir de una adaptación de los métodos de Dáder y Pharmacotherapy Workup. Resultados: En el proceso de atención farmacéutica se realizaron 46 intervenciones que involucraron estrategias farmacológicas y educación para la salud, y se pudo observar una mejora en los resultados de salud de los pacientes monitoreados. Conclusión: Los resultados apuntan a la atención farmacéutica como una estrategia que promueve una mejor calidad de vida para estos pacientes, y también evidencian que, en el proceso de atención a los pacientes con diabetes con insulina, en los establecimientos de salud, existe una falta de información, por difícil adherencia al tratamiento y prácticas de autocuidado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Services , Diabetes Mellitus , Insulin
15.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20190343, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124793

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo descrever o processo de construção, avaliação e adequação de vídeos educativos sobre aplicação de insulina direcionados a pacientes adultos e cuidadores. Método estudo metodológico, de caráter descritivo, realizado em três fases: construção, avaliação e adequação. A construção dos vídeos foi realizada com base em revisão de literatura e no protocolo do município. A avaliação foi realizada com experts, por meio de um instrumento construído pelos pesquisadores. O nível de concordância entre os experts foi avaliado pelo índice de validade do conteúdo, que orientou o processo de adequação do material. Resultados os vídeos foram construídos contemplando os principais pontos críticos relacionados à aplicação de insulina. Os itens que obtiveram índice de validade de conteúdo < 0,8 foram reformulados. Conclusão e Implicações para a prática foram produzidos dois vídeos que abordam o transporte, armazenamento, preparo e aplicação da insulina, descarte de perfurocortantes e monitorização da glicemia. Os vídeos educativos construídos podem ser considerados ferramentas facilitadoras do processo de educação em diabetes mellitus e úteis na uniformização de orientações. A descrição do processo de construção, avaliação e adequação pode encorajar outros profissionais a desenvolver materiais que respondam às necessidades de seus contextos de trabalho e assim melhorar e qualificar o cuidado às pessoas.


RESUMEN Objetivo describir el proceso de construcción, evaluación y adecuación de vídeos educativos sobre la aplicación de insulina dirigidos a pacientes adultos y cuidadores. Método estudio de carácter descriptivo realizado en tres fases: construcción, evaluación y adecuación. La construcción de los vídeos se realizó en base a una revisión de la literatura y en el protocolo del municipio. La evaluación se realizó con expertos, utilizando un instrumento construido por los investigadores, el nivel de acuerdo entre los expertos se evaluó mediante el índice de validez de contenido, que guió el proceso de adaptación del material. Resultados los vídeos fueron construidos cubriendo los principales puntos críticos relacionados con la aplicación de insulina. Los ítems que obtuvieron un índice de validez de contenido <0.8 fueron reformulados. Conclusión e Implicaciones para la práctica se realizaron dos vídeos que abordan el transporte, el almacenamiento, la preparación y la aplicación de insulina, la eliminación de objetos punzantes y el control de la glucosa en sangre. Los vídeos educativos construidos pueden considerarse herramientas que facilitan el proceso de educación en diabetes mellitus y útiles para estandarizar las pautas. La descripción del proceso de construcción, evaluación y adaptación puede alentar a otros profesionales a desarrollar materiales que respondan a las necesidades de sus contextos de trabajo y así mejorar la atención a las personas.


ABSTRACT Objective to describe the process of development, evaluation, and adaptation of educational videos on insulin application whose target audience was adult patients and caregivers. Methods descriptive and methodological study, carried out in three phases: development, evaluation, and adaptation. The development of the videos was based on a literature review and the municipality's protocol. The evaluation was carried out by experts by applying an instrument designed by the researchers, and the level of agreement between the experts was assessed by the content validity index, which guided the material adaptation process. Results the videos were developed to address the main critical points related to insulin application. The items that obtained a content validity index < 0.8 were reformulated. Conclusion and implications for practice two videos were made addressing insulin transport, storage, preparation and application, sharps disposal, and blood glucose monitoring. The educational videos made in the present study can be considered tools that contribute to education in diabetes mellitus and are useful for standardizing guidelines. The description of the development, evaluation, and adaptation process can encourage other professionals to develop materials that meet the needs found in their work contexts and, consequently, improve and qualify the care provided to their patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiovisual Aids , Patient Education as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , Self Care , Insulin/therapeutic use
16.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(4): e20200270, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1154202

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo compreender a relação que as mulheres com diabulimia têm com o corpo. Método pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida com o Método da História Oral Temática, com quatro mulheres entre 18 e 30 anos que autorreferiram diabulimia. Resultados a relação das mulheres com o seu corpo foi pautada pela pressão social de magreza feminina que distorce a autoimagem, gera insatisfação com o corpo e a diminuição da autoestima. A perda de peso é proporcionalmente associada ao aumento da aceitação social e justifica a utilização de métodos deletérios à saúde como a diminuição da dose ou a suspensão do uso de insulina. As narradoras demonstraram conhecer os riscos, mas admitiram repeti-la em determinados contextos. Considerações finais e implicações para a prática o desejo que as mulheres com Diabetes Mellitus têm de perder peso precisa ser incorporado às estratégias de cuidado com a atenção dos profissionais da saúde à subjetividade, atuando para reconhecer e prevenir os transtornos alimentares em mulheres com diabetes e minimizar a adoção de ações prejudiciais à saúde.


Resumen Objetivo comprender la relación que tienen las mujeres con diabulimia con el cuerpo. Método investigación cualitativa, desarrollada con el Método de Historia Oral Temática, con cuatro mujeres entre 18 y 30 años que autoinformado diabulimia. Resultados la relación de la mujer con su cuerpo estuvo guiada por la presión social de la delgadez femenina que distorsiona la imagen de sí misma, genera insatisfacción con el cuerpo y la disminución de la autoestima. La pérdida de peso se asocia proporcionalmente con una mayor aceptación social y justifica el uso de métodos nocivos para la salud, como reducir la dosis o suspender el uso de insulina. Los narradores demostraron conocer los riesgos, pero admitieron repetirlo en determinados contextos. Consideraciones finales e implicaciones para la práctica el deseo que tienen las mujeres con Diabetes Mellitus de adelgazar debe incorporarse a las estrategias de atención con la atención de los profesionales de la salud a la subjetividad, actuando para reconocer y prevenir los trastornos alimentarios en mujeres con diabetes y minimizar la adopción de acciones nocivas para la salud.


Abstract Objective to understand the relationship that women with diabulimia have with the body. Method a qualitative research, developed with the Thematic Oral History Method, with four women between 18 and 30 years of age who reported diabulimia. Results women's relationship with their bodies has been guided by the social pressure of female thinness that distorts self-image, generates dissatisfaction with the body and diminishes self-esteem. Weight loss is proportionally associated with increased social acceptance and justifies the use of harmful methods to health such as reducing the dose or suspending the use of insulin. The narrators showed to know the risks, but admitted to repeat it in certain contexts. Final considerations and implications for practice the desire that women with Diabetes Mellitus have to lose weight needs to be incorporated into the strategies of care with the attention of health professionals to subjectivity, acting to recognize and prevent eating disorders in women with diabetes and minimize the adoption of actions harmful to health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Body Image , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabulimia/psychology , Qualitative Research , Insulin/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(3): 140-154, sept.-dic. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147408

ABSTRACT

Las herramientas para evaluar el grado de control glucémico se modificaron últimamente. La emoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c), parámetro de referencia (gold standard), refleja el control glucémico de los últimos tres meses de manera retrospectiva, sin expresar la variabilidad glucémica. El automonitoreo glucémico capilar (AGC) brinda información inmediata y prospectiva, pero dispone de pocos datos glucémicos para generar promedios y desviaciones estándares representativas. No detecta tendencias y tiene limitaciones para obtener datos nocturnos o durante la actividad física. Es invasivo y muchas veces rechazado. Contrariamente, el monitoreo continuo de glucosa (MCG) mide la glucosa instantáneamente, y muestra sus tendencias y su variabilidad en forma continua, incorporando nuevas métricas de control. Mediante el perfil ambulatorio de glucosa (PAG) se analizan los patrones del control glucémico durante el sueño, los ayunos prolongados, la actividad física y las intercurrencias, expresándolos como curvas con sus desviaciones estándar durante períodos de horas (8 a 24 horas) o días (7, 14, 30 y 90 días). El PAG contiene las siguientes métricas: porcentaje de tiempo en rango TIR (del inglés, time in range), porcentaje de tiempo por encima del rango TAR (del inglés, time above range), porcentaje de tiempo por debajo del rango o hipoglucemia TBR (del inglés, time below range) y coeficiente de variabilidad (%CV). La información continua permite tomar decisiones inmediatas, ya sea con la ingesta de carbohidratos o con la aplicación de insulina. El MCG con terapéuticas insulínicas inyectables (TII) o bomba portable de insulina (BPI) es una herramienta muy útil y complementaria para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) y la DM2 en la insulinoterapia. Su utilización se asoció con descensos significativos en la HbA1c, disminución de la variabilidad glucémica, reducción de las hipoglucemias totales y nocturnas, y mejoría de la calidad de vida en estos pacientes. Nuestro propósito como grupo de expertos es generar una guía práctica para regular la implementación del MCG.


The tools to assess the degree of glycemic control were modified lately. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the gold standard, reflects the glycemic control of the last 3 months retrospectively, without expressing glycemic variability. Selfblood glucose monitoring (SBGM) provides immediate and prospective information, but has little glycemic data to generate representative averages and standard deviations. It does not detect trends and has limitations to obtain nocturnal data or during physical activity. It is invasive and often rejected. On the contrary, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), allows to measure glucose instantly, shows your trends and variability continuously, incorporating new control metrics. The ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) analyzes the patterns of glycemic control during sleep, prolonged fasting, physical activity and intercurrences, expressing them as curves with their standard deviations during periods of hours (8 to 24 hours) or days (7, 14, 30 and 90 days). The AGP contains the following metrics: percentage time in range (TIR), percentage time above range mg/dl (TAR), percentage time below range or hypoglycemia (TBR) and coefficient of variation (%CV). CGM with IIT or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), is a very useful and complementary tool for the treatment of DM1 and DM2 in insulin therapy. Its use was associated with significant decreases in HbA1c, decreased glycemic variability, reduction of total and nocturnal hypoglycemia and improvement of the quality of life in these patients. Our aim as a group of experts is to generate a practical guide to regulate the implementation of the CGM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Exercise , Glucose , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Motor Activity
18.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180338, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1139738

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence available in the literature on educational strategies used in the teaching of insulin therapy to children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Method: systematic review undertaken in five databases, using the descriptors Insulin/therapeutic use, Patient education as topic, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Child, Infant, Adolescent and keywords, without any time limit. Primary studies on insulin therapy teaching were included, while research on insulin pumps was excluded. Results: 243 studies were identified, 13 of which were included. The results present educational strategies focused on children, adolescents and young people of up to 24 years of age, applied individually or in groups; by telephone contact or text messages by mobile phone; dramatization and educational camps; by a single professional or a multidisciplinary team. The strategies described in the analyzed studies addressed the adjustment of insulin dosages in everyday situations and education for insulin management, associated with the nutritional strategy of carbohydrate counting, diabetes education with a specific module on insulin therapy and intensive insulin use. The studies analyzed the effect of the educational intervention on several clinical and behavioral outcomes, such as glycated hemoglobin and self-efficacy. Conclusion: this review could not identify a single educational strategy able to improve metabolic and psychosocial outcomes. In most cases, nurses are the professionals responsible for the development of educational strategies focused on insulin therapy in children and adolescents with diabetes, regardless of the context in which they will be deployed. This confirms their role as educators.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar la evidencia disponible en la literatura sobre las estrategias educativas utilizadas para enseñar la terapia con insulina a niños y adolescentes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Método: revisión sistemática, realizada en cinco bases de datos, con los descriptores Insulina / uso terapéutico, Educación del paciente como tema, Diabetes mellitus tipo 1, Niño, Lactante, Adolescente y palabras clave, sin delimitación de períodos. Se incluyeron estudios primarios sobre la enseñanza de la terapia con insulina y se excluyó la investigación sobre la bomba de insulina. Resultados: se identificaron 243 estudios, de los cuales se incluyeron 13. Los resultados presentan estrategias educativas dirigidas a niños, adolescentes y jóvenes hasta los 24 años, aplicadas individualmente o en grupos; por contacto telefónico o mensajes de texto por teléfono celular; juegos de rol y campamentos educativos; por un solo equipo profesional o multidisciplinar. Las estrategias descritas en los estudios analizados abordaron el ajuste de la insulina en situaciones cotidianas y la educación para el manejo de la insulina, asociadas a la estrategia nutricional de conteo de carbohidratos, educación en diabetes con módulo específico sobre terapia insulínica y uso intensivo de insulina. Los estudios analizaron el efecto de la intervención educativa sobre varios resultados clínicos y conductuales, como la hemoglobina glucosilada y la autoeficacia. Conclusión: no fue posible determinar una única estrategia sobre la terapia con insulina capaz de mejorar el control metabólico y psicosocial. El desarrollo de estrategias educativas orientadas a la terapia con insulina para niños y adolescentes con diabetes, independientemente del contexto en el que se implementen, tiene, en su mayor parte, al enfermero como profesional responsable, lo que reafirma su rol educativo.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre estratégias educativas utilizadas no ensino da insulinoterapia às crianças e adolescentes com diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Método: revisão sistemática, realizada em cinco bases de dados, com os descritores Insulin/therapeutic use, Patient education as topic, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Child, Infant, Adolescent e palavras-chave, sem delimitação de período. Incluídos estudos primários acerca do ensino da insulinoterapia e excluídas pesquisas sobre bomba de insulina. Resultados: identificados 243 estudos, dos quais foram incluídos 13. Os resultados apresentam estratégias educativas direcionadas às crianças, adolescentes e jovens de até 24 anos de idade, aplicadas de forma individual ou em grupos; por contato telefônico ou mensagens de texto por celular; dramatização e acampamentos educativos; por um único profissional ou equipe multidisciplinar. As estratégias descritas nos estudos analisados abordaram ajuste da insulina em situações cotidianas e educação para manejo da insulina, associados com a estratégia nutricional de contagem de carboidratos, educação em diabetes com módulo específico sobre insulinoterapia e uso da insulina de forma intensiva. Os estudos analisaram o efeito da intervenção educativa sobre diversos desfechos clínicos e comportamentais, como a hemoglobina glicada e autoeficácia. Conclusão: não foi possível determinar uma única estratégia sobre a insulinoterapia capaz de melhorar o controle metabólico e psicossocial. O desenvolvimento de estratégias educativas voltadas à insulinoterapia de crianças e adolescentes com diabetes, independentemente do contexto em que serão implementadas, tem, em sua maioria, o enfermeiro como profissional responsável, o que reafirma seu papel educador.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pediatric Nursing , Child , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Education , Insulin
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 666-674, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137347

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe insulin use and postoperative glucose control in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: We examined 2,390 patients with and without diabetes enrolled in the Contemporary Analysis of Perioperative Cardiovascular Surgical Care (CAPS-Care) Study who underwent CABG surgery (01/2004 - 06/2005) to describe postoperative insulin use, variation in insulin use across different hospitals, and associated in-hospital complications and clinical outcomes. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted relationship between insulin use and clinical outcomes. Results: Overall, insulin was used in 82% (n=1,959) of patients, including 95% (n=1,203) with diabetes (n=1,258) and 67% (n=756) without diabetes (n=1,132). Continuous insulin was used in 35.5% of patients in the operating room and in 56% in the intensive care unit. Continuous insulin use varied significantly among centers from 8-100% in patients with diabetes. When compared with all patients not receiving insulin, insulin use in patients without diabetes was associated with a higher rate of death or major complication (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-2.04; P=0.003). In patients with diabetes, insulin use was not associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes (adjusted OR=1.01; 95% CI 0.52-1.98; P=0.98). Conclusion: The postoperative use of insulin is high among CABG patients in the United States of America. Insulin use in patients without diabetes was associated with worse clinical outcomes compared to patients (both with and without diabetes) who did not receive insulin. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal use of postoperative insulin after CABG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Coronary Artery Bypass , Insulin/therapeutic use , United States , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
20.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 11(2): 1176-1180, oct. 2020-mar. 2021. tab, graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283059

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) se consi- dera una enfermedad metabólica con hiperglu- cemia de forma crónica, causada por un déficit parcial o total en la secreción o acción de la in- sulina. El 70-90% de DM1 tienen base autoin- mune. Objetivo: Describir las características clí- nico- epidemiológicas de Diabetes Mellitus I en Pediatría del Hospital Mario Catarino Rivas, San Pedro Sula, Cortés, en el período comprendido entre junio de 2017 - junio de 2019. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, observacional, realizado en pacientes menores de 18 años que reunieron criterios de inclusión. Los datos se recolectaron mediante encuesta. Re- sultados: El grupo de edad más frecuente fue el escolar de 6-12 años en 49%. Mas frecuente en mujeres en 51%, 29% de los pacientes estudiados presentaron sedentarismo, 17% dislipidemias y sobrepeso, diagnosticadas en el debut de la enfer- medad. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron po- lifagia en 44%, poliuria en 21%. Conclusiones: Las características socio-demográficas del grupo poblacional estudiado fueron las siguientes, el sexo más afectado fue el femenino y el grupo de edad más frecuente los escolares que se encuen- tran cursando la primaria, la mayoría de los pa- cientes estudiados no presentaban enfermedades asociadas, mientras que solo unos pocos presen- taban sobrepeso y dislipidemias asociado a Dia- betes Mellitus tipo I, se observó un predominio del debut sintomático asociado con la triada de polifagia, polidipsia y poliuria, además visión borrosa y pérdida de peso...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Insulin/deficiency , Dyslipidemias , Pediatric Obesity/complications
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