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2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879429

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of low-frequency electroacupuncture combined with aerobic exercise on sarocopenia, and the effects of IGF-I /Akt and its downstream signaling pathway-related protein.@*METHODS@#Naturally aging SD rats were used as research objects. Thirty-two 6-month-old male SD rats weighing 400 to 450 g were bred to 12-month-old and randomly divided into 4 groups according to body weight:Control group(YC, only grasp, fix, put back, without other intervention), electroacupuncture group (YA, electroacupuncture intervention), exercise group (YE, exercise intervention) and electroacupuncture+exercise group (YEA, electroacupuncture combined with exercise intervention). SD rats were continuously intervened from 12 months to 18 months of age. At the end of the experiment, the conditions of naturally aging rats in each group were observed:skeletal muscle wet weight / weight ratio;HE staining morphology of soleus muscle under light microscope; qPCR was used to detect the expression level of IGF-I mRNA in skeletal muscle;the expression of AKT, mTOR, p70S6K and p-p70S6K proteins in rat gastrocnemius was determined by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#In 18-month-old rats, the intervention period was 6 months. (1) Compared with YC group, YA group and YEA group significantly increased the wet weight / body weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle in 18 months old rats. YEA group could significantly increase the wet weight / body weight ratio of soleus muscle compared with YC group YC group and YA group (@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture combined with aerobic exercise can attenuate sarocopenia in 18-month-old naturally aging rats. The molecular mechanism may be related to the promotion of protein synthesis by activating the IGF-I / Akt pathway.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Exercise , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1249-1259, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878628

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of growth hormone (GH) gene on skeletal muscle cell proliferation of Guizhou cattle. The coding sequence of cattle GH gene was amplified by reverse transcription PCR, cloned into the pUCM-T vector and then used to construct the GH gene overexpression vector pEGFP-N3-GH. The expression of the GH gene in skeletal muscle-related tissues (psoas major and longissimus dorsi) of Guizhou cattle was determined by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). This was followed by culturing and identification of the bovine primary skeletal muscle cells. Subsequently, we introduced the GH gene overexpression vector into the cells to investigate its effect on the proliferation of bovine skeletal muscle cells and the expression of insulin like growth factor 1 and 2 genes related to skeletal muscle growth and development. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of GH gene was higher in the psoas major than in the longissimus dorsi of Guizhou cattle, and the expression level in the psoas major of Guanling cattle and Weining cattle was significantly higher than in the longissimus dorsi (P<0.05). The transfection and proliferation results showed that pEGFP-N3-GH significantly increased the expression of GH, IGF-1, and IGF-2 genes in skeletal muscle cells compared to pEGFP-N3 (PP<0.05), and that overexpression of the GH gene also significantly increased the proliferation rate of skeletal muscle cells at the four periods examined (PP<0.01). Our results suggest that GH gene can promote the proliferation of skeletal muscle cells of Guizhou cattle and exerts a positive regulatory effect. This lays the foundation for further exploring the mechanism by which the GH gene affects the growth and development of Guizhou cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cell Proliferation , Cloning, Molecular , Growth Hormone/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Muscle, Skeletal
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 523-534, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128390

ABSTRACT

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is regarded as a crucial clinically significant therapeutic agent against several pathological conditions. Recently, recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology has enabled the production of many drugs of rDNA-origin including IGF-1. Securing a readily available supply of IGF-1 is invaluable to clinical research and biotechnological domains. In this work, the cloning of a full-length bovine IGF-1 cDNA and the successful expression of its cognate recombinant IGF-1 protein is reported. Single-strand cDNA was prepared from liver tissues, through the specific reverse transcription (RT) of IGF-1 mRNA. Subsequently, a PCR amplicon of ~543bp was successfully amplified. Recombinant pTARGET™ vector harboring IGF-1 insert was successfully cloned into competent E. coli JM109 cells. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the recombinant IGF-1 has been expressed at the expected size of 7.6kDa. The outcome provides a robust basis for transecting the recombinant pTARGETTM vector, harboring the IGF-1 cDNA insert, into mammalian cells. Optimal initial glucose concentration was found to be 10g/l with corresponding protein concentration of 6.2g/l. The proliferative biological activity crude recombinant IGF-1 protein was verified on HeLa cell lines. This is envisaged to facilitate large-scale production of recombinant IGF-1 protein, thereby enabling thorough investigation of its clinical and pharmaceutical effects.(AU)


O fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina-1 (IGF-1) é considerado um agente terapêutico clinicamente significativo contra várias condições patológicas. Recentemente, a tecnologia de DNA recombinante (rDNA) permitiu a produção de muitos medicamentos de origem rDNA, incluindo o IGF-1. Garantir um suprimento prontamente disponível de IGF-1 é inestimável para pesquisas clínicas e domínios biotecnológicos. Neste trabalho, relata-se a clonagem de um cDNA de IGF-1 bovino de comprimento total e a expressão bem-sucedida de sua proteína IGF-1 recombinante cognata. O cDNA de cadeia simples foi preparado a partir de tecidos do fígado, por meio da transcrição reversa específica (RT) do mRNA de IGF-1. Posteriormente, um amplificador de PCR de ~ 543pb foi amplificado com sucesso. O vetor pTARGET™ recombinante contendo a inserção de IGF-1 foi clonado com sucesso em células competentes E. coli JM109. A análise por SDS-PAGE revelou que o IGF-1 recombinante foi expresso no tamanho esperado de 7,6kDa. O resultado fornece uma base robusta para a transferência do vetor pTARGETTMTM recombinante, abrigando a inserção de cDNA de IGF-1 em células de mamíferos. Verificou-se que a concentração inicial ideal de glicose é 10g/L, com a concentração de proteína correspondente de 6,2g/L. A proteína IGF-1 recombinante bruta de atividade biológica proliferativa foi verificada nas linhas celulares HeLa. É previsto que isso facilite a produção da proteína IGF-1 recombinante em larga escala, permitindo, assim, uma investigação completa dos seus efeitos clínicos e farmacêuticos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Recombinant Proteins , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Buffaloes/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Escherichia coli , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 608-617, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055027

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The somatotropic axis is the main hormonal regulator of growth. Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are the key components of the somatotropic axis. This axis has been studied for a long time and the knowledge of how some molecules could promote or impair hormones production and action has been growing over the last decade. The enhancement of large-scale sequencing techniques has expanded the spectrum of known genes and several other candidate genes that could affect the GH-IGF1-bone pathway. To date, defects in more than forty genes were associated with an impairment of the somatotropic axis. These defects can affect from the secretion of GH to the bioavailability and action of IGF-1. Affected patients present a large heterogeneous group of conditions associated with growth retardation. In this review, we focus on the description of the GH-IGF axis genetic defects reported in the last decade. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):608-17


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Human Growth Hormone/genetics , Growth Disorders/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Phenotype , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Genotype , Growth Disorders/metabolism
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(1): 70-78, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989290

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Short stature is a common feature, and frequently remains without a specific diagnosis after conventional clinical and laboratorial evaluation. Longitudinal growth is mainly determined by genetic factors, and hundreds of common variants have been associated to height variability among healthy individuals. Although isolated short stature may be caused by the combination of variants, with a deleterious impact on the growth of individuals with polygenic inheritance, recent studies have pointed out some monogenic defects as the cause of the growth disorder observed in nonsyndromic children. The majority of these defects are in genes related to the growth plate cartilage and in the growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. Affected patients usually present the mildest spectrum of some forms of skeletal dysplasia, or subtle abnormalities of laboratory tests, suggesting hormonal resistance or insensibility. The lack of specific characteristics, however, does not allow formulation of a definitive diagnosis without the use of broad genetic studies. Thus, molecular genetic studies including panels of genes or exome analysis will become essential in investigating and identifying the causes of isolated short stature in children, with a crucial impact on treatment and follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Variation/genetics , Body Height/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Human Growth Hormone/genetics , Growth Disorders/genetics
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(1): 205-213, jan.-fev. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-836700

ABSTRACT

Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a expressão gênica do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina I (IGF-I) e do receptor do hormônio do crescimento (GHR) no fígado e no músculo do peito de codornas de corte, alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de suplementação de metionina, em duas gerações sucessivas. Foram utilizadas codornas dos 22 aos 42 dias de idade, distribuídas em três e cinco tratamentos na primeira e na segunda geração, respectivamente. Ao final, as aves foram abatidas por deslocamento cervical, sendo coletados fígado e músculo do peito para extração de RNA total. O cDNA foi amplificado usando primers específicos para os genes analisados. Os resultados mostraram que a expressão dos genes GHR e IGF-I sofreu influência da suplementação. No quinto tratamento, em que apenas a primeira geração recebeu uma suplementação acima do padrão das exigências para o período, houve uma expressão significativamente maior do GHR tanto no músculo do peito como no fígado e igualmente do IGF-I no músculo, levando a concluir que o excesso de metionina na dieta torna-se tóxica para as aves. Apesar de a expressão dos genes ter sofrido influência da adição de metionina nos níveis estudados, não foi observada diferença no consumo alimentar, na conversão alimentar e no peso das aves.(AU)


This study was conducted to evaluate the gene expression of the insulin-like I growth factor (IGF-I) and growth hormone receptor (GHR), in the liver and chest muscle of slaughter quails fed with diets containing different levels of methionine supplementation, in two successive generations. Twenty-two to 42 day-old quails were used, distributed in three and five treatments in the first and second generation, respectively. At the end, the birds were killed by cervical dislocation, and their liver and chest muscle were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using specific primers for the genes analyzed. The results showed that the expression of GHR gene and IGF-I were influenced by the supplementation. In the fifth treatment, where only the first generation received supplementation above the standard requirements for the period, there was a significantly higher expression of GHR both in muscle chest and in the liver, and also IGF-I on muscle, leading to the conclusion that the excess dietary methionine becomes toxic to birds. Despite the gene´s expression seeming to be influenced by the addition of methionine levels in the study, there was no difference in feed intake, feed conversion and weight of the birds.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Coturnix/genetics , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Gene Expression , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Methionine/administration & dosage , Receptors, Somatotropin/genetics , DNA Primers , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1063-1070, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762916

ABSTRACT

Damage to cartilage causes a loss of type II collagen (Col-II) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG). To restore the original cartilage architecture, cell factors that stimulate Col-II and GAG production are needed. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and transcription factor SOX9are essential for the synthesis of cartilage matrix, chondrocyte proliferation, and phenotype maintenance. We evaluated the combined effect of IGF-I and SOX9 transgene expression on Col-II and GAG production by cultured human articular chondrocytes. Transient transfection and cotransfection were performed using two mammalian expression plasmids (pCMV-SPORT6), one for each transgene. At day 9 post-transfection, the chondrocytes that were over-expressing IGF-I/SOX9 showed 2-fold increased mRNA expression of the Col-II gene, as well as a 57% increase in Col-II protein, whereas type I collagen expression (Col-I) was decreased by 59.3% compared with controls. The production of GAG by these cells increased significantly compared with the controls at day 9 (3.3- vs 1.8-times, an increase of almost 83%). Thus, IGF-I/SOX9 cotransfected chondrocytes may be useful for cell-based articular cartilage therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Collagen Type II/biosynthesis , Glycosaminoglycans/biosynthesis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Matrilin Proteins/biosynthesis , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Transfection/methods , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Collagen Type II/analysis , Extracellular Matrix/chemistry , Gene Expression , Glycosaminoglycans/analysis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Matrilin Proteins/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SOX9 Transcription Factor/genetics , Spectrophotometry
9.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(5): 722-729, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731212

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se estimar o tempo de decisão para procura de atendimento (TD) para homens e mulheres com infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM); analisar a influência de variáveis ambientais no TD e a interação entre gênero e variáveis ambientais para o desfecho TD. Estudo transversal, envolvendo cem pacientes, entrevistados em hospitais de Salvador. Na análise dos dados empregou-se o Qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fisher e o Modelo de Regressão Linear Robusto. Predominou o IAM ocorrido no domicílio, familiares no entorno, e os pacientes sendo alvo de ações equivocadas. Observou-se TD elevado para mulheres (0,9h) e homens (1,4h). Aqueles em casa no início dos sintomas tiveram maior TD, comparados aos no trabalho e menor em relação aos em via pública (p=0,047). Houve interação estatisticamente significante entre gênero e viver acompanhado; e entre gênero e ter companheiro e filhos no entorno, para o desfecho TD. O cuidar em enfermagem focalizado nas especificidades de fatores ambientais e de gênero pode otimizar o atendimento precoce.


The purpose was to estimate the decision time (DT) for searching for attendance for men and women suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI); and to analyze the influence of surrounding variables in the DT. Transversal study, involving one hundred patients interviewed in hospitals of Salvador-BA, Brazil. For data analysis, it was used the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test, and the Robust Linear Regression Model. AMI at the home predominated, with family members and patients receiving mistaken actions. A high DT was observed both, for women (0.9h) and men (1.4h). Those at home during the initial symptoms had higher DT, compared to those at work; and lower in relation to those in public spaces (p=0.047). Statistically significant interaction occurred among gender and the fact of living with company; and among gender and having a companion and children, for the outcome of the DT. Nursing care focused on the specificity of surrounding factors and gender can optimize early attendance.


Se objetivó estimar el tiempo de decisión para buscar atendimiento (TD) para hombres y mujeres con infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM); analizar la influencia de variables ambientales en TD y la interacción entre genero y variables ambientales para el desfecho del TD. Estudio transversal, envolviendo cien pacientes entrevistados en hospitales de Salvador-BA, Brasil. En el análisis se utilizó el chi-cuadrado o el Teste Exacto de Fisher y el Modelo de Regresión Linear Robusto. Predominó el IAM en el domicilio, familiares en el entorno y con pacientes siendo objeto de acciones equivocadas. Se observó TD elevados para mujeres (0,9h) y hombres (1,4h). Aquellos en sus casas en el inicio de los síntomas tuvieron mayor TD, comparados a los en el trabajo, y menor en relación aquellos en vía pública (p=0,047). Hubo interacción estadísticamente significante entre genero y vivir acompañado y entre genero y tener compañero e hijos en el entorno, para el desfecho del TD. El cuidar en enfermería focalizado en especificidades de factores ambientales y de géneros puede optimizar el atendimiento precoce.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Growth Hormone/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Repressor Proteins , Transcription Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Proteins/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Somatotropin/genetics , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(9): 753-758, 09/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719310

ABSTRACT

Tibetan (TB) and Bama (BM) miniature pigs are two popular pig breeds that are used as experimental animals in China due to their small body size. Here, we analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gene fragments that are closely related to growth traits [growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1)] in these pig breeds and a large white (LW) control pig breed. On the basis of the analysis of 100 BMs, 108 TBs, and 50 LWs, the polymorphic distribution levels of GH, GHR, and IGF-1 were significantly different among these three pig breeds. According to correlation analyses between SNPs and five growth traits - body weight (BW), body length (BL), withers height (WH), chest circumference (CC), and abdomen circumference (AC) - three SNP loci in BMs and four SNP loci in TBs significantly affected growth traits. Three SNP sites in BMs and four SNP sites in TBs significantly affected growth traits. SNPs located in the GH gene fragment significantly affected BL and CC at locus 12 and BL at locus 45 in BMs, and also BW, WH, CC, and AC at locus 45 and WH and CC at locus 93 in TBs. One SNP at locus 85 in the BM GHR gene fragment significantly affected all growth traits. All indices were significantly reduced with a mixture of alleles at locus 85. These results provide more information regarding the genetic background of these minipig species and indicate useful selection markers for pig breeding programs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Growth Hormone/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/physiology , Receptors, Somatotropin/genetics , Swine, Miniature/genetics , Alleles , Body Size , DNA , Dwarfism/genetics , Genetic Loci , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine
11.
Clinics ; 68(6): 785-791, jun. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of (CA)n repeats in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene on birth size in children who are small or adequate-sized for gestational age and to correlate these polymorphisms with serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and insulin sensitivity in children who are small for gestational age, with and without catch-up growth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 439 infants: 297 that were adequate-sized for gestational age and 142 that were small for gestational age (66 with and 76 without catch-up). The number of (CA)n repeat in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats in the insulin gene were analyzed using GENESCAN software and polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion, respectively. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from all patients. RESULTS: The height, body mass index, paternal height, target height and insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels were higher in children who were small for gestational age with catch-up. There was no difference in the allelic and genotypic distributions of both polymorphisms between the adequate-sized and small infants or among small infants with and without catch-up. Similarly, the polymorphisms were not associated with clinical or laboratory variables. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of the (CA)n repeats of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene, separately or in combination, did not influence pre- or postnatal growth, insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels or insulin resistance. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Insulin/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics , Adenosine , Brazil , Birth Weight/genetics , Blood Glucose/genetics , Body Height/genetics , Body Weight/genetics , Cytosine , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Risk Factors
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 500-509, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149919

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has rapidly increased, and with it, physician consultations and expenditures (about one and a half times) in the last 5 years. Recent etiological studies reveal that AIS is a complex genetic disorder that results from the interaction of multiple gene loci and the environment. For personalized treatment of AIS, a tool that can accurately measure the progression of Cobb's angle would be of great use. Gene analysis utilizing single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been developed as a diagnostic tool for use in Caucasians but not Koreans. Therefore, we attempted to reveal AIS-related genes and their relevance in Koreans, exploring the potential use of gene analysis as a diagnostic tool for personalized treatment of AIS therein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 Korean AIS and 35 age- and sex-matched, healthy adolescents were enrolled in this study and were examined for 10 candidate scoliosis gene SNPs. RESULTS: This study revealed that the SNPs of rs2449539 in lysosomal-associated transmembrane protein 4 beta (LAPTM4B) and rs5742612 in upstream and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) were associated with both susceptibility to and curve severity in AIS. The results suggested that both LAPTM4B and IGF1 genes were important in AIS predisposition and progression. CONCLUSION: Thus, on the basis of this study, if more SNPs or candidate genes are studied in a larger population in Korea, personalized treatment of Korean AIS patients might become a possibility.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Disease Progression , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Korea , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Scoliosis/genetics
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(12): 1194-1201, Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606537

ABSTRACT

Recent biotechnological advances have permitted the manipulation of genetic sequences to treat several diseases in a process called gene therapy. However, the advance of gene therapy has opened the door to the possibility of using genetic manipulation (GM) to enhance athletic performance. In such ‘gene doping’, exogenous genetic sequences are inserted into a specific tissue, altering cellular gene activity or leading to the expression of a protein product. The exogenous genes most likely to be utilized for gene doping include erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), myostatin antagonists, and endorphin. However, many other genes could also be used, such as those involved in glucose metabolic pathways. Because gene doping would be very difficult to detect, it is inherently very attractive for those involved in sports who are prepared to cheat. Moreover, the field of gene therapy is constantly and rapidly progressing, and this is likely to generate many new possibilities for gene doping. Thus, as part of the general fight against all forms of doping, it will be necessary to develop and continually improve means of detecting exogenous gene sequences (or their products) in athletes. Nevertheless, some bioethicists have argued for a liberal approach to gene doping.


Subject(s)
Humans , Athletic Performance , Doping in Sports/methods , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Enhancement/methods , Bioethical Issues , Doping in Sports , Endorphins/genetics , Endorphins/pharmacology , Erythropoietin/genetics , Erythropoietin/pharmacology , Genetic Enhancement , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/pharmacology , Myostatin/genetics , Myostatin/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/pharmacology
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2010. [126] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-579506

ABSTRACT

O hormônio de crescimento (GH) recombinante humano (rhGH) é o único tratamento disponível para crianças com deficiência de GH (DGH). Embora os resultados sejam em média satisfatórios, existe uma ampla variabilidade individual, de forma que alguns indivíduos ainda falham em atingir uma estatura normal ou dentro do seu potencial genético, mesmo quando diagnosticados e tratados sob as mesmas recomendações. Parte dessa variabilidade tem sido atribuída à falta de individualização da dose, uma vez que a terapia é baseada em doses fixas de rhGH ajustadas somente pelo peso. As variáveis clínicas preditivas de resposta ao tratamento com rhGH conhecidas até o momento explicam apenas 50% da variabilidade observada, sugerindo que outros parâmetros preditivos ainda estejam por ser reconhecidos. Apesar do intenso progresso de estudos moleculares, variáveis genéticas envolvidas na modulação da capacidade de resposta ao tratamento com rhGH permanecem amplamente desconhecidas. Sendo assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência de variantes gênicas comuns, presentes em genes envolvidos nos mecanismos de ação do GH, sobre a capacidade de resposta de crescimento de crianças com DGH tratadas com rhGH, de forma a fornecer ferramentas para a individualização do tratamento. Quatro polimorfismos de importância funcional presentes em três genes envolvidos nos mecanismos de ação do GH foram correlacionados à capacidade de resposta ao tratamento com rhGH em 84 crianças pré-púberes com DGH. Os achados moleculares foram correlacionados com a velocidade de crescimento no primeiro ano (n=84) e com a altura ao final (n=37) após tratamento com rhGH. As análises estatísticas foram ajustadas para as demais variáveis clínicas relacionadas à resposta ao tratamento com rhGH. Três desses polimorfismos a presença (GHRfl) ou ausência (GHRd3) do exon 3 do gene do receptor de GH (GHR); as repetições (CA)n, da região promotora do gene do fator de crescimento insulina-símile...


Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is the standard treatment for children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Although growth outcomes are usually satisfactory, there is a wide range of individual variability, so that some children do not achieve normal adult height or fail to reach final heights near their genetic potential, even when diagnosed and treated according to the same recommendation. Part of this variability has been attributed to the lack of treatment individualization, since therapy is based on fixed rhGH doses adjusted only by body weight. Clinical variables which predict growth responses to rhGH so far explain only 50% of the variability observed, suggesting that other influential factors may be missing from current prediction models. Despite the striking progress of molecular studies, genetic variables which are involved in modulation of rhGH responsiveness remain largely unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of common genetic variants present in genes involved in GH actions on the rhGH responsiveness of children with GHD. We assessed the influence of four functional polymorphisms in three genes involved in GH actions on treatment outcomes after rhGH treatment in 84 prepubertal children with GHD. Genotypes were correlated to first year growth velocity (n = 84) and final height after treatment (n = 37). Statistical analyses were adjusted for other clinical influential factors. Our results demonstrated that three of these polymorphisms the presence (GHRd3) or absence (GHRfl) of GH receptor (GHR) gene exon 3; the (CA)n repeats, in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) promoter region; and the -202 A/C polymorphism, in the promoter region of insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP3) gene can independently and interactively influence the rhGH responsiveness of children with GHD...


Subject(s)
Child , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Human Growth Hormone/genetics , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Growth Hormone/deficiency , Pharmacogenetics , Polymorphism, Genetic
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193635

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the effects of adenovirus-mediated gene transfection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bFGF combined with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-Ra) and/or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) both in human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes and rabbits OA model. Human OA chondrocytes were delivered by adenovirus-mediated bFGF, IL-Ra and IGF-1 vectors, respectively. Chondrocyte proliferation, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, expression of type II collagen, ADAMTS-5, MMP-13, MMP-3 and TIMP-1 were determined. Rabbit OA model was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) in knees. Adenoviral vectors encoding human bFGF, IL-Ra and IGF-1 were injected intraarticularly into the knee joints after ACLT. The effects of adenovirus- mediated gene transfection on rabbit OA were evaluated. In vitro, the transfected genes were expressed in cell supernatant of human OA chondrocytes. AdbFGF group significantly promoted chondrocyte proliferation, and increased GAG and type II collagen synthesis than in the OA group. As two or three genes were transfected in different combinations, there was significant enhancement on the GAG content, type II collagen synthesis, and TIMP-1 levels, while ADAMTS-5, MMP-13, and MMP-3 levels were reduced. In vivo, the transfected genes were expressed in synovial fluid of rabbits. Intraarticular delivery of bFGF enhanced the expression of type II collagen in cartilage and decreased cartilage Mankin score compared with the OA control group (P = 0.047; P < 0.01, respectively). Multiple-gene transfection in different combinations showed better results than bFGF transfection alone. This study suggests that bFGF gene transfection is effective in treating experimental OA. Multiple gene transfection has better biologic effects on OA.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Collagen Type II/genetics , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/genetics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/genetics , Interleukin-1/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/genetics , Osteoarthritis/therapy , Rabbits , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/genetics , Transfection
16.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 2(3): 173-178, jul. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-610296

ABSTRACT

Human growth is a complex process regulated by several genes, most of which are unknown. Recently, our knowledge regarding the etiology of genetically determined causes of short stature has greatly increased, so molecular analysis is becoming essential for the diagnosis of growth retardation. The advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the function of the somatotrophic axis have resulted in a dramatic enhancement of our ability to diagnose and treat growth disorders. We hope that in the next few years improved methods for identifying specific abnormalities which cause short stature will expand our ability to diagnose other causes of growth retardation, and reduce the proportion of patients with "idiopathic" short stature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Height/genetics , Growth Hormone/genetics , Growth Disorders/diagnosis , Growth Disorders/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/physiology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Pituitary Gland/physiology , Hypothalamus/physiology , Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone/physiology , Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone/genetics , Growth Hormone/physiology , Mutation
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2009. [119] p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-587150

ABSTRACT

Crianças nascidas pequenas para a idade gestacional (PIG) apresentam maior risco de permanecerem com baixa estatura na vida adulta. Os fatores de crescimento insulina-símile 1 e 2 (IGF-1 e IGF-2) são os principais fatores endócrinos determinantes do crescimento fetal. Na vida pós-natal o GH, principal hormônio promotor de crescimento, exerce a maior parte de seus efeitos por meio do IGF-1. A grande maioria das ações conhecidas do IGF-1 e IGF-2 são mediadas via receptor tirosina quinase conhecido como receptor tipo 1 de IGFs (IGF-1R). Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar os genes IGF1 e IGF1R em crianças nascidas pequenas para a idade gestacional que não recuperaram o crescimento na vida pós-natal. Foram selecionados 145 pacientes nascidos PIG, 72 sem catch up e 73 com catch up. Em 54 PIG sem catch up foi estudado toda a seqüência codificadora do gene IGF1 por meio de PCR e seqüenciamento direto, nos demais PIG sem catch up e nos 73 PIG com catch up foi estudado apenas o exon 6 do IGF-1 por PCR e seqüenciamento direto para avaliação de um polimorfismo encontrado nesta região. Nos pacientes que apresentavam concentração sérica de IGF-1 e IGFBP-3 acima da média para idade e sexo e seqüência do IGF1 normal (n=23) foi realizada coleta de sangue periférico com posterior separação de leucócitos mononucleares pelo gradiente de ficoll seguido por extração de RNA pelo método de Trizol® Posteriormente, a partir do RNA, sintetizamos o cDNA (DNA complementar) utilizando primers randômicos. Foi realizado PCR e seqüenciamento direto do cDNA, além de análise da expressão do IGF1R por PCR em tempo real. Nenhuma mutação foi encontrada no gene IGF1. Entretanto um locus altamente polimórfico foi encontrada na região 3' não traduzida do exon 6 deste gene, região esta envolvida no processo de poliadenilação. A freqüência das variantes alélicas foi semelhante em PIG com e sem catch-up e em controles nascidos AIG. Analisando o fenótipo de pacientes PIG...


Children born small for gestational age (SGA) have a higher risk of remaining short in adulthood. The insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1 and IGF-2) are the main factors determining endocrine fetal growth. GH is the main promoter of linear growth in the postnatal life, exerting its effects mostly through the IGF-1. The vast majority of known actions of IGF-1 and IGF-2 are mediated by the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R), a member of the tyrosine kinase receptors family. The aim of this study was to investigate IGF1 and IGF1R genes mutations in children born small for gestational age without catch up growth in postnatal life. We selected 145 patients born SGA, 72 without catch-up and 73 with catch up. The whole coding region of the IGF1 gene was sequenced in 54 patients without catchup. In the other SGA children without catch-up and in 73 SGA with catch-up, only the exon 6 of IGF1 was sequenced to assess the influence of allelic variants present in this region. In patients with normal IGF1 sequence and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels above the mean for age and sex (n = 23) total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes followed by cDNA synthesis with random primers. The IGF1R cDNA was amplified using specific primers followed by direct sequencing. IGF1R expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. No mutations were found in the IGF1 gene. However a highly polymorphic sequence was identified in the upstream core polyadenylation signal (UCPAS) located in IGF1 3' UTR at exon 6. The frequency of the identified allelic variants was similar in SGA children with and without catch-up and in controls. Furthermore, children homozygous for the wild-type allele and those carrying the allelic variants in homozygous or heterozygous state presented similar weight and length at birth, as well as serum IGF-1 levels and postnatal growth features. Two novel nonconservative allelic variants were identified in IGF1R in 23 SGA children...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Failure to Thrive/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Receptor, IGF Type 1/genetics , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Growth Disorders/etiology , Growth Disorders/genetics
18.
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2009; 57 (2): 159-168
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166198

ABSTRACT

Insulin like growth factor I [IGF-I] regulates growth, protein synthesis, and cell proliferation and differentiation in vertebrates. Polymorphisms of insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] gene transcript alleles of 3 different breeds of chicken [Sasso as a native breed, Arbor Acres plus and Cobb 500] were assessed. The associations of these polymorphisms with growth rate of the studied breeds were also evaluated. Total RNA were isolated from chicken livers and IGF-1 gene was amplified from each breed by RT-PCR using specific primers flanking a certain region of the gene. The amplified products were then subjected to SSCP analysis for genotype identification-I GENEThree different banding patterns were obtainedfor the three breeds with a unique pattern forthe Cobb 500 [the fastest growing breed]. Inthis report, we describe how SSCP analysis ofRT-PCR products can be used to evaluate thetranscript expression pattern of avian IGF-1polymorphism and their effect on the growthtraits of chickens


Subject(s)
Animals , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Chickens/growth & development
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52237

ABSTRACT

The molecular mechanism playing a role in the development of prostate cancer (PCA) is not well defined. We decided to determine the changes in gene expression in PCA tissues and to compare them to those in non- cancerous samples. Prostate tissue samples were collected by needle biopsy from 21 PCA and 10 benign prostate hyperplasic (BPH) patients. Total RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression levels were determined by microarray method. In the progression to PCA, 738 up-regulated and 515 down- regulated genes were detected in samples. Analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software revealed that 466 network and 423 functions-pathways eligible genes were up-regulated, and 363 network and 342 functions-pathways eligible genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated networks were identified around IL-1beta and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) genes. The NFKB gene was centered around two up- and down-regulated networks. Up-regulated canonical pathways were assigned and four of them were evaluated in detail: acute phase response, hepatic fibrosis, actin cytoskeleton, and coagulation pathways. Axonal guidance signaling was the most significant down-regulated canonical pathway. Our data provide not only networks between the genes for understanding the biologic properties of PCA but also useful pathway maps for future understanding of disease and the construction of new therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , DNA Primers , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Male , NF-kappa B/genetics , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor , Up-Regulation
20.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2005 Feb; 72(2): 145-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-80643

ABSTRACT

Many previously uncharacterized cases of poor growth in children, i.e. idiopathic short stature, are now attributable to genetic defects in the GH-IGF-1 axis. This paper will provide an overview of the clinical findings of patients identified with various genetic defects of the GH/IGF-1 axis with an emphasis on the more recently described syndromes.


Subject(s)
Body Height/genetics , Child , Growth Disorders/genetics , Growth Hormone/deficiency , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Receptors, Somatotropin/genetics
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