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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888017


Type 2 diabetes mellitus( T2 DM) is a common chronic metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In pancreatic β-cells,glucose-stimulated insulin secretion( GSIS) plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of blood glucose level. Previous studies have shown that geniposide,one of the active components of Gardenia jasminoides,could quickly regulate the absorption and metabolism of glucose,and affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells,but the specific mechanism needs to be further explored. Emerging evidence indicated that glycosylation of glucose transporter( GLUT) has played a key role in sensing cell microenvironmental changes and regulating glucose homeostasis in eucaryotic cells. In this study,we studied the effects of geniposide on the key molecules of GLUT2 glycosylation in pancreatic β cells. The results showed that geniposide could significantly up-regulate the mRNA and protein levels of Glc NAc T-Ⅳa glycosyltransferase( Gn T-Ⅳa) and galectin-9 but had no signi-ficant effect on the expression of clathrin,and geniposide could distinctively regulate the protein level of Gn T-Ⅳa in a short time( 1 h) under the conditions of low and medium glucose concentrations,but had no significant effect on the protein level of galectin-9. In addition,geniposide could also remarkably affect the protein level of glycosylated GLUT2 in a short-time treatment. The above results suggested that geniposide could quickly regulate the protein level of Gn T-Ⅳa,a key molecule of protein glycosylation in INS-1 rat pancreatic βcells and affect the glycosylation of GLUT2. These findings suggested that the regulation of geniposide on glucose absorption,metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion might be associated with its efficacy in regulating GLUT2 glycosylation and affecting its distribution on the cell membrane and cytoplasm in pancreatic β cells.

Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Glycosylation , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Iridoids , Rats
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 222-227, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011165


ABSTRACT Objective Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is characterized by the progressive deterioration of pancreatic islet β-cell function over time and insulin resistance. Knowing more about the differences in pancreatic islet function in T2DM patients who have had diabetes for different lengths of time can help improve therapy for T2DM. Subjects and methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare islet β-cell function and insulin resistance in T2DM patients (n = 3,254) who had had diabetes for different lengths of time and those in normal controls (n = 794) using ANOVA and LSD analysis. Results We found that compared with that in normal controls, HOMA-β in T2DM patients with a history of diabetes of less than 1 year was lower (approximately 52% of that of normal controls, p = 0.003), while HOMA-IR in these patients was higher (approximately 50% of that of normal controls, p = 0.007). Compared with that in other diabetic patients, HOMA-β in patients with a history of diabetes of more than 30 years was the lowest. HOMA-IR in patients with a history of diabetes of between 20 and 30 years was lower than that in other diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions There were obvious decreases in HOMA-β and increases in HOMA-IR in T2DM patients with a history of diabetes of less than 1 year compared with those in normal controls. Therefore, early screening and intervention for T2DM might help improve islet function and delay the progression of diabetes.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Homeostasis/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Glucose Tolerance Test , Models, Biological
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 76-81, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990008


RESUMEN: Numerosas hipótesis se invocan para explicar el efecto beneficioso sobre el metabolismo glucídico tras la cirugía bariátrica. Algunos autores abogan por la secreción y liberación de distintas sustancias con funciones endocrinas (enterohormonas). Una de las sustancias más señaladas como efector, con efectos contrastados pero datos controvertidos, es el GLP-1. Nuestro estudio se realizó en ratas Wistar macho sanas, para evitar la ausencia de factores de confusión como son la DMT2 y la obesidad. Para conocer el mapa de adaptación a la secreción de GLP-1 tras la cirugía, se designaron 5 grupos: dos grupos control (de ayuno y de estrés quirúrgico); y tres grupos quirúrgicos (gastrectomía vertical, resección del 50 % del intestino medio y el Bypass gástrico con montaje en Y de Roux). Después de tres meses se estudiaron mediante técnicas inmunohistoquímicas el patrón de síntesis de GLP-1 en las distintas porciones del intestino delgado. También se estudió la expresión de los receptores de membrana en las células de los islotes pancreáticos. Se observó la existencia de un significativo aumento del número de células secretoras en íleon, duodeno y yeyuno en los grupos quirúrgicos de técnicas mixtas (RYGB) y malabsortivas (RI50). Igualmente se observó una elevación de los receptores pancreáticos en las mismas técnicas frente a los controles. Nuestros datos indican que la secreción intestinal de GLP-1 y su sensibilidad a nivel pancreáticas están aumentada, como efecto adaptativo a la agresión mecánica del tubo y a la alteración del flujo de nutrientes tras la cirugía.

SUMMARY: Numerous hypotheses are invoked to explain the beneficial effect on glucose metabolism after bariatric surgery. Some authors advocate for the secretion and release of various substances with endocrine functions (enterohormones). One of the substances most marked as effector, with contrasting effects but controversial data, is Glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1. Our study was performed in healthy male Wistar rats, to avoid the absence of confounding factors such as DMT2 and obesity. In order to know the map of adaptation to GLP-1 secretion after surgery, five groups were designated: Two control groups (fasting and surgical stress); and three surgical groups (vertical sleeve gastrectomy, 50 % midgut resection and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). After three months, the GLP-1 synthesis pattern was studied by immunohistochemical techniques in the different portions of the small digestive tract. The expression of membrane receptors in pancreatic islet cells was also studied. There was a significant increase in the number of secretory cells in ileum, duodenum and jejunum in mixed surgical (RYGB) and malabsorptive (RI50) groups. An elevation of pancreatic receptors was also observed in the same techniques against controls. Our data indicated that intestinal secretion of GLP1 and its sensitivity to the pancreatic level were increased, both to an adaptive effect to the mechanical aggression of the digestive tube and to the alteration of nutrient flow after surgery.

Animals , Male , Rats , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/metabolism , Bariatric Surgery , Pancreas/metabolism , Islets of Langerhans , Rats, Wistar , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Intestine, Small/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(6): e8344, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001533


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder, and poses threats to human health worldwide. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to play important roles in the pathophysiology of T2D. In this study, we explored the role of miR-3666 in T2D. miR-3666 was significantly down-regulated in the serum of T2D patients when compared to that of healthy volunteers, and miR-3666 expression level was negatively correlated with blood glucose levels of T2D patients. Overexpression of miR-3666 inhibited cell proliferation, reduced insulin secretion, and promoted cell apoptosis of pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1 cells). On the other hand, knockdown of miR-3666 had the opposite effects in INS-1 cells. The bio-informatics analysis using TargetScan revealed that adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was a downstream target of miR-3666, and the interaction between miR-3666 and ADIPOQ was validated by luciferase reporter assay. In addition, miR-3666 negatively regulated the mRNA and protein expression of ADIPOQ. Overexpression of ADIPOQ promoted insulin secretion after glucose stimulation, promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and partially abolished the effects of miR-3666 overexpression on insulin secretion, cell proliferation, and cell apoptosis of INS-1 cells. In conclusion, our results revealed that miR-3666 inhibited pancreatic cell proliferation, reduced insulin sensitivity, and promoted apoptosis by targeting ADIPOQ.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/physiology , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Adiponectin/genetics , Adiponectin/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry
Biol. Res ; 52: 44, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019508


BACKGROUND: Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) is G-protein coupled receptor predominantly expressed in pancreatic ß-cells that is activated by a variety of free fatty acids (FFAs). Once activated, it promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, increased levels of FFAs lead to lipotoxicity, inducing loss of ß-cell function. FFAR1 plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and previous studies have indicated the importance of developing anti-diabetic therapies against FFAR1, although its role in the regulation of ß-cell function remains unclear. The present study investigated the role of FFAR1 under lipotoxic conditions using palmitic acid (PA). The rat insulinoma 1 clone 832/13 (INS-1 832/13) cell line was used as a model as it physiologically resembles native pancreatic ß-cells. Key players of the insulin signaling pathway, such as mTOR, Akt, IRS-1, and the insulin receptor (INSR1ß), were selected as candidates to be analyzed under lipotoxic conditions. RESULTS: We revealed that PA-induced lipotoxicity affected GSIS in INS-1 cells and negatively modulated the activity of both IRS-1 and Akt. Reduced phosphorylation of both IRS-1 S636/639 and Akt S473 was observed, in addition to decreased expression of both INSR1ß and FFAR1. Moreover, transient knockdown of FFAR1 led to a reduction in IRS-1 mRNA expression and an increase in INSR1ß; mRNA. Finally, PA affected localization of FFAR1 from the cytoplasm to the perinucleus. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study suggests a novel regulatory involvement of FFAR1 in crosstalk with mTOR-Akt and IRS-1 signaling in ß-cells under lipotoxic conditions.

Animals , Rats , Palmitic Acid/toxicity , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Cell Line , Apoptosis , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 38(6): 287-292, June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789041


Abstract Purpose betatrophin has been reported to boost β cell expansion in insulin resistant states. Pregnancy is a well-recognized physiological state of insulin resistance. Betatrophin levels in pregnant women and their relationships with metabolic variables remain to be elucidated. Methods A total of 49 pregnant women and 31 age-matched unpregnant women with normal glucose regulation (UP-NGR) were included. Among these subjects, according to results from 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 22 women were diagnosed as having gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM ). Results Our study found that pregnant women, regardless of their glucose regulation status, had remarkably higher triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β). However, GDM patients had much lower HOMA-β compared with those of pregnant women with normal glucose regulation (P-NGR). Participants of the P-NGR group had almost 4 times higher levels of betatrophin than those of the UP-NGR group. Although betatrophin levels were lower in the GDM group than those of the P-NGR group, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Spearman correlation analysis showed that betatrophin levels were positively and significantly associated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), FINS and HOMA-β. However, adjustments of TC, TG and HDL-c eliminated the association between HOMA-β and betatrophin. Conclusions Pregnant women have significantly higher betatrophin levels in comparison to unpregnant women. Betatrophin levels are positively and significantly associated with β cell function and lipid levels. Furthermore, lipids may contribute to the association between betatrophin and β cell function.

Resumo Introdução Betatrofina tem sido relacionada à expansão de células β em estado de resistência à insulina. A gravidez é um conhecido estado fisiológico de resistência à insulina. Níveis de betatrofina em gestantes e sua relação com variáveis metabólicas ainda precisam ser esclarecidas. Métodos Um total de 49 gestantes e 31 não gestantes de mesma idade com níveis normais de glicose (UP-NGR) foram incluídas. Dentre elas, de acordo com os resultados da curva glicêmica, base em 75 g, 22 mulheres foram diagnosticadas com diabetes mellitus gestational ( DMG ). Resultados Nosso estudo identificou que gestantes, independente de seus níveis de glicose, tiveram notáveis níveis elevados de triglicerídeos (TG), colesterol (TC), insulina em jejum (FINS), HOMA-IR e HOMA-β. Contudo, pacientes com DMG tiveram bem menos HOMA-β se comparadas às gestantes com níveis normais de glicose ( P-NGR ). Participantes do grupo P-NGR tiveram níveis de betatrofina quase quarto vezes maiores ao das participantes do grupo UP-NGR. Embora os níveis de betatrofina sejam menores no grupo DMG do que no P-NGR, a diferença não obteve significância estatística. Análise da correlação de Spearman demonstrou que os níveis de betatrofina foram positiva e significativamente associados ao TC, TG, HDL-c (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), FINS e HOMA-β. Contudo, ajustes em TC, TG e HDL-c eliminaram a associação entre HOMA-β e betatrofina. Conclusões Gestantes têm níveis de betatrofina significativamente maiores do que não gestantes. Níveis de betatrofina são positive e significativamente associados às células β funcionais e níveis de lipídeos. Além disso, lipídeos podem contribuir na associação entre betatrofina e células β funcionais.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Peptide Hormones/blood , Angiopoietin-like Proteins , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(5): 391-399, Oct. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764109


Melatonin referred as the hormone of darkness is mainly secreted by pineal gland, its levels being elevated during night and low during the day. The effects of melatonin on insulin secretion are mediated through the melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2). It decreases insulin secretion by inhibiting cAMP and cGMP pathways but activates the phospholipaseC/IP3 pathway, which mobilizes Ca2+from organelles and, consequently increases insulin secretion. Both in vivo and in vitro, insulin secretion by the pancreatic islets in a circadian manner, is due to the melatonin action on the melatonin receptors inducing a phase shift in the cells. Melatonin may be involved in the genesis of diabetes as a reduction in melatonin levels and a functional interrelationship between melatonin and insulin was observed in diabetic patients. Evidences from experimental studies proved that melatonin induces production of insulin growth factor and promotes insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. The disturbance of internal circadian system induces glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which could be restored by melatonin supplementation. Therefore, the presence of melatonin receptors on human pancreatic islets may have an impact on pharmacotherapy of type 2 diabetes.

Animals , Humans , /metabolism , Melatonin/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , /etiology , Glucose/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Insulin , Melatonin/pharmacology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Receptors, Melatonin/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 575-585, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744831


Os gastos com medicamentos correspondem a uma grande parcela do orçamento em saúde. Sendo assim, a produção de conhecimento sobre o uso desses recursos é essencial na tomada de decisão em saúde pública e melhoria da assistência farmacêutica. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o processo de endividamento em um hospital universitário de alta complexidade devido ao gasto crescente com a aquisição de mesilato de imatinibe. Por meio de análise documental e registros no Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH) entre 2002 e 2010, realizou-se um estudo descritivo. A partir do caminho da incorporação do medicamento, foram mapeadas as estratégias da indústria farmacêutica e do governo, assim como as respostas governamentais de redução do preço. A sistematização e publicação de informações guardadas em arquivos e na memória podem contribuir para o acompanhamento dos resultados dos programas mantidos pelo Ministério da Saúde.

Medicine expenditures consume a large share of the health budget, so knowledge on the use of these funds is essential for decision-making in public health and improvement of pharmaceutical care. This study analyzed the indebtedness of a high-complexity university hospital due to increased spending on imatinib mesylate. The descriptive study was based on analysis of documents and records in the Hospital Information System (SIH) from 2002 to 2010. Starting with inclusion of the medicine in the budget, the study mapped strategies by the pharmaceutical industry and government, as well as government responses to reduce the product's price. The systematization and publication of information stored in files and electronic databases can help monitor the results of programs funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

Los gastos en medicamentos representan una gran proporción del presupuesto de salud, por lo que la producción de conocimiento sobre el uso de estos recursos es esencial en la toma de decisiones en salud pública y la mejora de la atención farmacéutica. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el proceso de endeudamiento en un hospital universitario de alta complejidad, debido al aumento de los gastos en la adquisición de mesilato de imatinib. A través del análisis de los documentos y registros en el Sistema de Información Hospitalaria (SIH) entre 2002 y 2010, se realizó un estudio descriptivo. A partir de la incorporación del medicamento, se mapearon las estrategias de la industria farmacéutica y del gobierno, así como las respuestas del gobierno para reducir el precio. La sistematización y publicación de la información almacenada en los archivos y su memoria puede contribuir para el seguimiento de los resultados de los programas mantenidos por el Ministerio de Salud.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Prediabetic State , Risk Assessment/methods , Biomarkers/metabolism , /diagnosis , /epidemiology , /etiology , /metabolism , Fasting , Glucose Tolerance Test , Homeostasis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Linear Models , London/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Prospective Studies , Prediabetic State/complications , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Risk Factors , Time Factors
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(1): 4-12, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746453


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic, progressive autoimmune disease characterized by metabolic decompensation often leading to dehydration and ketoacidosis. Viral agents seem to play an important role in triggering the autoimmune destruction that leads to the development of T1DM. Among several viral strains investigated so far, the enterovirus family has been consistently associated with the onset of T1DM in humans. One of the mediators of viral damage is the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) generated during replication and transcription of viral RNA and DNA. The Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene codes for an endoplasmic receptor of the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) family that recognizes dsRNA, plays an important role in the innate immune response triggered by viral infection. Binding of dsRNA to the TLR3 triggers the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferons, which exhibit potent antiviral action; thus, protecting uninfected cells and inducing apoptosis of infected ones. Therefore, the TLR3 gene is a good candidate for the development of T1DM. Within this context, the objective of the present review was to address the role of the TLR3 gene in the development of T1DM. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(1):4-12.

Animals , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , /genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/virology , Enterovirus/immunology , Enterovirus/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , /metabolism , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165768


AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor activated during metabolic stress and it regulates various enzymes and cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. We previously reported that activation of AMPK by glucose deprivation (GD) and leptin increases KATP currents by increasing the surface levels of KATP channel proteins in pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we show that the signaling mechanisms that mediate actin cytoskeleton remodeling are closely associated with AMPK-induced KATP channel trafficking. Using F-actin staining with Alexa 633-conjugated phalloidin, we observed that dense cortical actin filaments present in INS-1 cells cultured in 11 mM glucose were disrupted by GD or leptin treatment. These changes were blocked by inhibiting AMPK using compound C or siAMPK and mimicked by activating AMPK using AICAR, indicating that cytoskeletal remodeling induced by GD or leptin was mediated by AMPK signaling. AMPK activation led to the activation of Rac GTPase and the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC). AMPK-dependent actin remodeling induced by GD or leptin was abolished by the inhibition of Rac with a Rac inhibitor (NSC23766), siRac1 or siRac2, and by inhibition of myosin II with a myosin ATPase inhibitor (blebbistatin). Immunocytochemistry, surface biotinylation and electrophysiological analyses of KATP channel activity and membrane potentials revealed that AMPK-dependent KATP channel trafficking to the plasma membrane was also inhibited by NSC23766 or blebbistatin. Taken together, these results indicate that AMPK/Rac-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling associated with myosin II motor function promotes the translocation of KATP channels to the plasma membrane in pancreatic beta-cells.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Glucose/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , KATP Channels/metabolism , Leptin/metabolism , Myosin Type II/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Rats , Signal Transduction , rac GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(5): 444-451, 07/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719200


Osteocalcin is a bone matrix protein that has been associated with several hormonal actions on energy and glucose metabolism. Animal and experimental models have shown that osteocalcin is released into the bloodstream and exerts biological effects on pancreatic beta cells and adipose tissue. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin is the hormonally active isoform and stimulates insulin secretion and enhances insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and muscle. Insulin and leptin, in turn, act on bone tissue, modulating the osteocalcin secretion, in a traditional feedback mechanism that places the skeleton as a true endocrine organ. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of osteocalcin in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism in humans and its potential therapeutic implications in diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

A osteocalcina é uma proteína da matriz óssea que tem sido implicada com várias ações hormonais relacionadas à homeostase de glicose e ao metabolismo energético. Modelos animais e experimentais têm demonstrado que a osteocalcina é liberada do osso para a circulação sanguínea e age nas células betapancreáticas e no tecido adiposo. A osteocalcina decarboxilada é a isoforma hormonalmente ativa e estimula a secreção e sensibilidade à insulina no tecido adiposo e muscular. A insulina e a leptina, por sua vez, atuam no tecido ósseo modulando a secreção da osteocalcina, formando uma alça de retroalimentação tradicional em que o esqueleto torna-se um órgão endócrino. Novos estudos ainda são necessários para elucidar o papel da osteocalcina na regulação glicêmica e no metabolismo energético em humanos, com potenciais implicações terapêuticas no tratamento de diabetes, obesidade e síndrome metabólica.

Animals , Humans , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Glucose/metabolism , Osteocalcin/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Bone and Bones/metabolism , /metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Leptin/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Obesity/metabolism , Osteocalcin/blood
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jul; 52(7): 720-727
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153752


Administration of rutin (50 and 100 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally for 3 weeks treatment significantly improved body weight, reduced plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), restored the depleted liver antioxidant status and serum lipid profile in high fat diet + streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Rutin treatment also improved histo-architecture of ß islets and reversed hypertrophy of hepatocytes. Rutin exhibited significant antidiabetic activity, presumably by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines, improving antioxidant and plasma lipid profiles in High fat diet + streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic model and may be useful as a diabetic modulator along with standard antidiabetic drugs. However, such effects need to be confirmed on human subjects in clinical condition.

Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/etiology , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Male , Mice , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rutin/pharmacology , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163231


Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by permanent destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells and requires lifelong exogenous insulin therapy. Recently, islet transplantation has been developed, and although there have been significant advances, this approach is not widely used clinically due to the poor survival rate of the engrafted islets. We hypothesized that improving survival of engrafted islets through ex vivo genetic engineering could be a novel strategy for successful islet transplantation. We transduced islets with adenoviruses expressing betacellulin, an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, which promotes beta-cell growth and differentiation, and transplanted these islets under the renal capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Transplantation with betacellulin-transduced islets resulted in prolonged normoglycemia and improved glucose tolerance compared with those of control virus-transduced islets. In addition, increased microvascular density was evident in the implanted islets, concomitant with increased endothelial von Willebrand factor immunoreactivity. Finally, cultured islets transduced with betacellulin displayed increased proliferation, reduced apoptosis and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of cytokines. These experiments suggest that transplantation with betacellulin-transduced islets extends islet survival and preserves functional islet mass, leading to a therapeutic benefit in type 1 diabetes.

Animals , Apoptosis , Betacellulin , Cell Proliferation , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/surgery , Glucose Intolerance/surgery , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Rats
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39643


The worldwide prevalence of obesity is steadily increasing, nearly doubling between 1980 and 2008. Obesity is often associated with insulin resistance, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a costly chronic disease and serious public health problem. The underlying cause of T2DM is a failure of the beta cells of the pancreas to continue to produce enough insulin to counteract insulin resistance. Most current T2DM therapeutics do not prevent continued loss of insulin secretion capacity, and those that do have the potential to preserve beta cell mass and function are not effective in all patients. Therefore, developing new methods for preventing and treating obesity and T2DM is very timely and of great significance. There is now considerable literature demonstrating a link between inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in insulin-responsive tissues and the pathogenesis of obesity and T2DM. These studies are suggesting new and emerging therapeutic targets for these conditions. In this review, we will discuss inhibitory G proteins and GPCRs that have primary actions in the beta cell and other peripheral sites as therapeutic targets for obesity and T2DM, improving satiety, insulin resistance and/or beta cell biology.

Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits/genetics , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Obesity/drug therapy , Receptor, Melatonin, MT2/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/genetics , Receptors, Prostaglandin/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181915


BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the associations among body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, and beta-cell function in Korean patients newly presenting with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In total, 132 patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus were investigated. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and the indices of insulin secretion and insulin resistance were calculated. RESULTS: A higher BMI was associated with higher homeostasis model assessment values for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA-beta), and insulinogenic index as well as lower levels of insulin sensitivity index composite (ISIcomp) and disposition index (DI). In multiple regression models, BMI had independent positive associations with HOMA-IR, ISIcomp, and HOMA-beta and inverse associations with the DI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that BMI had independent positive associations with indices of insulin resistance and an inverse association with beta-cell function adjusted for insulin resistance in Korean patients newly presenting with type 2 diabetes.

Asians , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance/ethnology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93422


Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance and failure of pancreatic beta-cells producing insulin. Autophagy plays a crucial role in cellular homeostasis through degradation and recycling of organelles such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we discussed the role of beta-cell autophagy in development of diabetes, based on our own studies using mice with beta-cell-specific deletion of Atg7 (autophagy-related 7), an important autophagy gene, and studies by others. beta-cell-specific Atg7-null mice showed reduction in beta-cell mass and pancreatic insulin content. Insulin secretory function ex vivo was also impaired, which might be related to organelle dysfunction associated with autophagy deficiency. As a result, beta-cell-specific Atg7-null mice showed hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. However, diabetes never developed in those mice. Obesity and/or lipid are physiological ER stresses that can precipitate beta-cell dysfunction. Our recent studies showed that beta-cell-specific Atg7-null mice, when bred with ob/ob mice, indeed become diabetic. Thus, autophagy deficiency in beta-cells could be a precipitating factor in the progression from obesity to diabetes due to inappropriate response to obesity-induced ER stress.

Animals , Autophagy/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195165


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many studies have demonstrated an association between hemoglobin levels and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between hemoglobin concentrations and various clinical parameters, including metabolic factors, plasma C-peptide response after a meal tolerance test, and microvascular complications, in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In total, 337 male patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited. All subjects were subjected to a meal tolerance test and underwent assessment of hemoglobin levels, fasting and postprandial beta-cell responsiveness, and microvascular complications. RESULTS: Patients with lower hemoglobin concentrations had a longer duration of diabetes, a lower body mass index, and lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. They also had lower levels of postprandial C-peptide, Delta C-peptide, and postprandial beta-cell responsiveness. They had a higher prevalence of retinopathy and nephropathy. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant association between nephropathy and hemoglobin concentration. Also, hemoglobin concentrations were independently associated with Delta C-peptide levels and postprandial beta-cell responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Hemoglobin concentrations are associated with postprandial C-peptide responses and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Peptide/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Diabetic Retinopathy/blood , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Linear Models , Lipids/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Postprandial Period , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors