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2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(supl.1): 2529-2541, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278834

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo objetivou descrever a cobertura de plano de saúde no Brasil. Foram analisados dados das edições de 2013 e 2019 da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. A cobertura de plano de saúde médico ou odontológico foi analisada segundo características sociodemográficas, econômicas, de trabalho, situação censitária e Unidade da Federação. A cobertura de plano de saúde médico ou odontológico foi 27,9% (IC95%: 27,1-28,8) para 2013 e 28,5% (IC95%: 27,8-29,2) para 2019. Os resultados mostram que a cobertura continua concentrada nos grandes centros urbanos, nas regiões Sudeste e Sul, entre aqueles com melhor nível socioeconômico e aqueles que possuem algum vínculo de trabalho formal. Em 2019, dentre os trabalhadores formalizados, somente 30,7% relatou que o pagamento da mensalidade é feito diretamente a operadora, sendo 72,7% dentre os trabalhadores informais. Cerca de 92% dos planos de saúde médico cobrem internação e dentre as mulheres com plano de saúde, quase 20% delas não possuem cobertura para o parto. Apenas 11,7% das mulheres com idade entre 15 e 44 anos possuem cobertura para o parto através do plano de saúde. Os resultados mostram que a cobertura por plano de saúde mantém-se bastante desigual, reforçando a importância do Sistema Único de Saúde para a população brasileira.


Abstract This paper aimed to describe health insurance coverage in Brazil. Data from the 2013 and 2019 editions of the National Health Survey (PNS) were analyzed. The medical or dental health insurance coverage was analyzed according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, work status, urban/rural area, and Federation Unit. Coverage of medical or dental health insurance was 27.9% (95% CI: 27.1-28.8) for 2013 and 28.5% (95% CI: 27.8-29.2) for 2019. The results show coverage is still concentrated in large urban centers, in the Southeast and South, among those with better socioeconomic status and some formal employment. In 2019, only 30.7% of formal workers reported the monthly payment is made directly to the providers, while 72.7% of informal workers reported this information. About 92% of medical health insurance covers hospitalization, and almost 20% of women with health insurance are not covered for labor. Only 11.7% of women aged between 15 and 44 are covered for childbirth by health insurance. The results show the health insurance coverage is still quite unequal, reinforcing the Unified Health System (SUS) importance for the Brazilian population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rural Population , Insurance, Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Health Surveys , Insurance Coverage
3.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e992, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341413

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La salud ocupacional es una actividad multidisciplinaria que promueve y protege la salud de los trabajadores. El conocimiento de las condiciones de riesgo previene los accidentes y enfermedades ocupacionales. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimientos en salud ocupacional en tenientes del Ejército del Perú. Métodos: Estudio observacional y transversal. Participaron 86 tenientes de una promoción de la Escuela de Infantería. Se realizó el Cuestionario de conocimientos en salud ocupacional. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva para las características generales y para la asociación con los conocimientos, la prueba ji cuadrado. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 28,4 años (DE=1,26; Mín.26, Máx.32), 51,16 por ciento presentaron nivel bajo de conocimientos; trabajadores que no recordaban haber recibido capacitaciones en salud ocupacional y que sufrieron accidente de trabajo tuvieron nivel bajo de conocimientos, 80 por ciento (p = 0,049) y 73,68 por ciento (p = 0,026) respectivamente. La pregunta con mayores aciertos fue sobre el examen de salud ocupacional anual con un 75,58 por ciento, y la de menor conocimiento, sobre la cobertura del seguro complementario de riesgos con un 25,58 por ciento. Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimiento predominante sobre salud ocupacional en tenientes del ejército del Perú, fue bajo, con mayores porcentajes en los que no recuerdan capacitación en salud ocupacional y los que tuvieron algún accidente laboral(AU)


Introduction: Occupational health is a multidisciplinary activity that promotes and protects the health of workers. Knowledge of risk conditions prevents occupational accidents and diseases. Objective: To determine the level of occupational health knowledge in lieutenants of the Peruvian Army. Methods: Observational and cross-sectional study. 86 lieutenants of a promotion of the Infantry School participated. The Occupational Health Knowledge Questionnaire was applied. Descriptive statistics were applied for the general characteristics and the Chi-square test for the association with knowledge. Results: Mean age 28,4 years (SD = 1,26; Min. 26, Max. 32), 51,16 percent presented a poor level of knowledge; workers who did not remember having received training in Occupational Health and who suffered a work accident, 80 percent (p = 0,049) and 73,68 percent (p = 0,026) they had a bad level respectively. The question with the highest correct answers was about the annual occupational health examination with 75,58 percent, and the one with the least knowledge about the complementary risk insurance coverage with 25,58 percent. Conclusions: The predominant level of knowledge about occupational health in lieutenants in the Peruvian army was poor, with higher percentages in those who did not remember training in occupational health and those who had an occupational accident(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Accidents, Occupational , Occupational Health , Insurance Coverage , Mentoring , Occupational Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878324

ABSTRACT

Pneumoconiosis, an interstitial lung disease that occurs from breathing in certain kinds of damaging dust particles, is a major occupational disease in China. Patients diagnosed with occupational pneumoconiosis can avail of free medical treatment, whereas patients without a diagnosis of occupational diseases cannot not claim free medical treatment in most provinces from the government before 2019. This study aimed to analyze the priority of medical facility selection and its influencing factors among patients with pneumoconiosis. A total of 1,037 patients with pneumoconiosis from nine provinces in China were investigated. The health service institutions most frequently selected by the patients were county-level hospitals (37.5%). The main reason for the choice was these hospitals' close distance to the patients' homes (47.3%). The factors for the choice of health care institutions were living in the eastern region (


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , China , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pneumoconiosis/therapy , Rural Population , Silicosis , Smoking
5.
Salud colect ; 16: e2407, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139502

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo fue estimar la prevalencia de las prácticas autoreferidas para controlar la hipertensión y la diabetes, con y sin medicamentos, en adultos mayores de Campinas, Brasil, en tres períodos. Se analizaron los datos de las encuestas de salud realizadas en tres períodos: 2001-2002, 2008-2009 y 2014-2015. La prevalencia de hipertensión, de diabetes, del uso de medicación continua y las prácticas comportamentales aumentaron durante el período analizado, con una caída significativa en el uso no regular de medicamentos y las consultas médicas de rutina en individuos sin plan de salud privado. Los resultados evidenciaron avances en las prácticas relacionadas con la dieta en aquellas personas sin plan de salud y en quienes declararon contar con plan de salud, destacando mejoras en el tratamiento con medicamentos y la práctica de actividad física. La adherencia al uso de medicamentos y a prácticas comportamentales para controlar las morbilidades se mostró consistente en el período evaluado. Estos indicadores refuerzan la necesidad de mantener y ampliar las políticas dirigidas a la educación sanitaria y la asistencia farmacéutica en el país.


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-care management practices - both with and without medication - in elderly hypertensive and diabetic patients in Campinas, Brazil, in three periods. Data from health surveys conducted in three periods 2001-2002, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 were analyzed. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, the continuous use of medication, and all behavioral practices showed an overall increase in the period analyzed, with a significant drop in both the non-regular use of medications and routine doctor visits on the part of individuals without a private health plan. The results evidenced advances in diet-related practices among individuals without health plans as well as those who reported having healthcare coverage, highlighting improvements in drug treatment and physical activity. Adherence to medication and health behaviors for the management of morbidities was shown to be consistent in the period evaluated. These indicators reinforce the need to maintain and expand policies directed at health education and pharmaceutical assistance in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Self Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hypertension/therapy , Self Care/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise , Confidence Intervals , Prevalence , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Health Promotion , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810957

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a useful tool that is widely used in the emergency and intensive care areas. In Korea, insurance coverage of ultrasound examination has been gradually expanding in accordance with measures to enhance Korean National Insurance Coverage since 2017 to 2021, and which will continue until 2021. Full coverage of health insurance for POCUS in the emergency and critical care areas was implemented in July 2019. The National Health Insurance Act classified POCUS as a single or multiple-targeted ultrasound examination (STU vs. MTU). STU scans are conducted of one organ at a time, while MTU includes scanning of multiple organs simultaneously to determine each clinical situation. POCUS can be performed even if a diagnostic ultrasound examination is conducted, based on the physician's decision. However, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service plans to monitor the prescription status of whether the POCUS and diagnostic ultrasound examinations are prescribed simultaneously and repeatedly. Additionally, MTU is allowed only in cases of trauma, cardiac arrest, shock, chest pain, and dyspnea and should be performed by a qualified physician. Although physicians should scan all parts of the chest, heart, and abdomen when they prescribe MTU, they are not required to record all findings in the medical record. Therefore, appropriate prescription, application, and recording of POCUS are needed to enhance the quality of patient care and avoid unnecessary cut of medical budget spending. The present article provides background and clinical guidance for POCUS based on the implementation of full health insurance coverage for POCUS that began in July 2019 in Korea.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Budgets , Chest Pain , Critical Care , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Heart , Heart Arrest , Insurance Coverage , Insurance , Insurance, Health , Korea , Medical Records , National Health Programs , Patient Care , Point-of-Care Systems , Prescriptions , Shock , Thorax , Ultrasonography
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Public hospitals were established to provide high quality medical services to low socioeconomic status patients. This study examined the effects of public hospitals on the treatment and prognosis of patients with five-major gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (stomach cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer, bile duct cancer, and pancreatic cancer).METHODS: Among the 1,268 patients treated at Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center from January 2010 to December 2017, 164 (13%) were in the medicare group. The data were analyzed to identify and compare the clinical manifestations, treatment modality, and clinical outcomes between the groups.RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in the clinical data (age, sex), treatment method, and five-year survival rate were observed between the health insurance group and medicare group in the five major GI cancer patients. On the other hand, some medicare group patients tended more comorbidities and fewer treatment options than health insurance patients.CONCLUSIONS: Public hospitals have a positive effect on the treatment and prognosis in medicare group patients with the five-major GI cancers.


Subject(s)
Bile Duct Neoplasms , Colonic Neoplasms , Comorbidity , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Hand , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Liver Neoplasms , Medicare , Methods , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Social Class , Survival Rate
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Health policies in the Philippines have evolved in response to increasing health demands of older adults. However, there is a lack of research on equity among the ageing population in low-middle income countries. The objective of this study was to identify the trends in National Health Insurance Program (NHIP) coverage and healthcare utilization among older adults in the Philippines for the period from 2003 to 2017, during which NHIP expansion policies were implemented, focusing on reductions in socio-economic inequalities.@*METHODS@#A literature search of policies for older adults and an analysis of four Philippine National Demographic and Health Surveys (2003, 2008, 2013, and 2017) with data from 25,217 older adults who were 60 years or older were performed. The major outcome variables were NHIP coverage, self-reported illness, outpatient healthcare utilization, and inpatient healthcare utilization. Inequalities in NHIP coverage and healthcare utilization according to wealth were evaluated by calculating the concentration index for individual years, followed by a regression-based decomposition analysis.@*RESULTS@#NHIP coverage among older adults increased from 9.4 (2003) to 87.6% (2017). Although inequalities according to wealth quintile were observed in all four surveys (all P < 0.001), the concentration index declined from 0.3000 (2003) to 0.0247 (2017), showing reduced inequalities in NHIP coverage over time as observed for self-reported illness and healthcare utilization. NHIP coverage expansion for older adults in 2014 enabled equal opportunity for access to healthcare.@*CONCLUSION@#The passage of mandatory NHIP coverage for older Filipino adults in 2014 was followed by a reduction in inequality in NHIP coverage and healthcare utilization according to wealth.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Male , Middle Aged , National Health Programs , Philippines , Socioeconomic Factors
9.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(4): 257-260, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092701

ABSTRACT

Desde 2017 los miembros de la Comisión de Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales Difusas de la Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias hemos trabajado en la elaboración de las primeras guías de fibrosis pulmonar idiopática (FPI) del país, necesidad evidente para fomentar el diagnóstico precoz y adecuado de la enfermedad y establecer una base para posible incorporación de su cuidado en cobertura de seguros de salud especiales. Se elaboraron 5 preguntas de revisión de evidencia y el resto se trabajó en formato de preguntas de contexto. Un grupo de metodólogos graduaron la evidencia siguiendo la metodología GRADE.


Since 2017, the members of the Commission of Diffuse Interstitial Lung Diseases of the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases have worked in the development of the first guidelines of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in the country, an obvious need to encourage early and adequate diagnosis of the disease and establish a basis for possible incorporation of IPF patients care into special health insurance coverage. Five evidence review questions were prepared and the remainder were worked out in context question format. A group of methodologists graduated the evidence following the GRADE methodology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/history , Chile , Insurance Coverage
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(5): 1959-1970, Mai. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001781

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente estudo objetivou comparar as mudanças nos padrões de cobertura por planos privados de saúde entre servidores públicos, militares e demais trabalhadores no Brasil e verificar se a vinculação a planos de saúde repercute nas respectivas prevalências autorreferidas de Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (HAS) e Diabetes Mellitus (DM) no país. Para isso, foram utilizados os trabalhadores do setor público (federal, estadual, municipal ou militar) e, outros trabalhadores, com ≥ 18 anos de idade incluídos na Pesquisa Nacional de Amostra de Domicílios dos anos de 1998, 2003, 2008 e na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2013. Observou-se que ao longo dos anos de estudo, os servidores públicos civis e militares do Brasil apresentaram elevada e crescente proporção de adesão aos planos privados de saúde em relação aos demais trabalhadores. As prevalências de HAS e DM sempre foram maiores e cresceram entre os servidores com planos de saúde do que entre os sem planos. O status diferenciado aos servidores públicos e militares, no que se refere ao duplo acesso aos serviços públicos e privados de saúde, refletiu-se nas crescentes prevalências autorreferidas de HAS e DM, aumentando as iniquidades em saúde diante de um sistema público constituído de modo universal e equânime.


Abstract The scope of this paper was to compare the changes in coverage patterns by health insurance plans among public servants, the military and other employees in Brazil and verify if the purchase of such health plans is reflected in the respective self-reported prevalence of Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in the country. For this purpose, workers in the public sector (federal, state, municipal or military) and other workers aged ≥18 who were included in the 1998, 2003 and 2008 campaigns of the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) and in the 2013 National Survey were studied. Over the years of the study, it was observed that Brazil's public service employees, both civilian and military, have presented a high and increasing proportion of health insurance purchase compared to other workers. The prevalence of SAH and DM has always been higher among employees with health insurance. The special status of public servants and the military as regards the double access to both public and private healthcare systems is reflected in the increasing self-reported prevalence of SAH and DM, increasing health inequities in a public health system that was constituted in a universal and equitable way.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Occupational Health/trends , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Public Sector , Insurance Coverage/trends , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Insurance, Health/trends , Middle Aged
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(1): 46-53, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043357

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Determine the effect of Seguro Popular (SP) on preventive care utilization among low-income SP beneficiaries and uninsured elders in Mexico. Materials and methods: Fixed-effects instrumental-variable (FE-IV) pseudo-panel estimation from three rounds of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2000, 2006 and 2012). Results: Our findings suggest that SP has no significant effect on the use of preventive services, including screening for diabetes, hypertension, breast cancer and cervical cancer, by adults aged 50 to 75 years. Conclusions: Despite the evidence that suggests that SP has increased access to health insurance for the poor, inequalities in healthcare access and utilization still exist in Mexico. The Mexican government must keep working on extending health insurance coverage to vulnerable adults. Additional efforts to increase health care coverage and to support preventive care are needed to reduce persistent disparities in healthcare utilization.


Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) en la utilización de la atención preventiva entre beneficiarios de SP de bajos ingresos y ancianos sin seguro en México. Material y métodos: Estimación de pseudopanel de variables instrumentales de efectos fijos (FE-IV) en tres rondas de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de México (2000, 2006 y 2012). Resultados: El SP no tiene un efecto significativo en el uso de los servicios preventivos, incluida la detección de diabetes, hipertensión, cáncer de mama y cáncer de cuello uterino en adultos de 50 años o más. Conclusiones: Aún existen desigualdades en el acceso a la asistencia médica en México. El gobierno mexicano debe seguir trabajando para extender la cobertura del seguro de salud a la población más vulnerable. Se necesitan esfuerzos adicionales para aumentar la cobertura de atención médica y apoyar la atención preventiva para reducir las disparidades persistentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Sampling Studies , Health Surveys , Cost Savings , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Neoplasms/diagnosis
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(4): e00004118, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001657

ABSTRACT

Abstract: More than one in four Brazilians have private health insurance (PHI), even thought it covers mostly the same procedures as the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). This literature review included articles and monographs published since 1990 about the utilization of SUS by privately insured individuals. Considering outpatient care and hospitalization, privately insured people in Brazil use SUS in approximately 13% of the times they receive health care, and approximately 7% of people receiving care paid by SUS are privately insured; these findings vary depending on the type of service studied and on study methods. Utilization of SUS is more frequent in less developed regions, by people with more restricted PHI plans and by people with worse health status. Privately insured people report the limitations of PHI plans as their reasons for resorting to SUS. Sometimes, beneficiaries of PHI plans owned by nonprofit hospitals (which also provide health care financed by SUS) have easier access to care than uninsured people financed by SUS. Anecdotally, privately insured people are satisfied with SUS, but not to the point of adopting SUS as their preferred source of care. In short, for privately insured people, SUS only plays a secondary role in their health care. Despite PHI taking over part of the SUS's health care demand, PHI represents a restriction of the universal, equitable character of the SUS.


Resumo: Mais de um em cada quatro brasileiros têm planos de saúde, apesar de estes planos cobrirem majoritariamente os mesmos procedimentos do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Esta revisão da literatura incluiu artigos e monografias publicados desde 1990 sobre a utilização do SUS por indivíduos com plano de saúde. Ao considerar conjuntamente a assistência ambulatorial e hospitalar, os brasileiros com planos de saúde utilizam o SUS em aproximadamente 13% das vezes em que recebem cuidados; aproximadamente 7% das pessoas que recebem cuidados pagos pelo SUS dispõem de planos de saúde (os achados variam de acordo com o tipo de serviço analisado e com os detalhes metodológicos dos estudos). O aumento da utilização do SUS está associado a: regiões menos desenvolvidas do país, planos de saúde com pior cobertura e pessoas com pior saúde. Os brasileiros com plano de saúde citam as limitações dos planos como o motivo pelo qual recorrem ao SUS. Em alguns casos os beneficiários de planos de saúde comercializados por hospitais filantrópicos (os quais também prestam assistência financiada pelo SUS) relatam acesso mais fácil à assistência financiada pelo SUS, comparado com aqueles sem plano de saúde. Pessoas com plano de saúde eventualmente citam a satisfação com a utilização do SUS, mas não a ponto do SUS se tornar a fonte de assistência preferida. Em resumo, para os brasileiros com plano de saúde, o SUS desempenha papel secundário no financiamento dos cuidados de saúde. Embora os planos de saúde pareçam deslocar parte da demanda por assistência para fora do SUS, esses mesmos planos tendem a restringir o caráter universal e equitativo do SUS.


Resumen: Más de uno de cada cuatro brasileños tiene un seguro de salud privado (PHI), a pesar de que estos últimos cubren en su mayoría los mismos procedimientos que en el Sistema Unificado de Salud (SUS). Esta revisión de la literatura incluyó artículos y monografías publicadas desde 1990 sobre la utilización del SUS por parte de personas aseguradas mediante el sistema privado. Considerando atención ambulatoria junto a hospitalización, la población con seguro médico privado en Brasil utiliza el SUS aproximadamente un 13% de las veces que reciben atención médica; además, aproximadamente un 7% de la gente que recibe atención médica pagada a través del SUS tiene seguro privado. Los resultados varían con el tipo de servicio estudiado y con los detalles de los métodos de estudio. La frecuencia de utilización del SUS es mayor en las regiones menos desarrolladas, por parte de la población con planes de seguros de salud más limitados, y personas con peor salud. Las personas con seguros privados identifican las limitaciones de sus planes PHI como la razón por la que usan el SUS. Algunas veces, los beneficiarios de los planes PHI de hospitales sin fines de lucro (que también proveen servicios de salud financiados por el SUS) cuentan con un acceso más sencillo a los cuidados de salud sufragados por el SUS que las personas sin seguro. Anecdóticamente, la población con seguro de salud privado está satisfecha con la utilización que hacen del SUS, pero no hasta el extremo de que el SUS se trasforme en su principal vía para recibir servicios médicos. En resumen, para la población con seguro privado, el SUS juega un papel secundario en la financiación de la asistencia a sus cuidados de salud. Pese a que el PHI parece desviar del SUS parte de la demanda de cuidados de salud, el PHI representa una restricción del carácter universal y equitativo del SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Public Health , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/trends , Medical Assistance/trends , Medical Assistance/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/trends
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738611

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence and prevalence of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to predict the future AMD populations and health expenditures of intravitreal ranibizumab injection. METHODS: From 2010 to 2014, the National Health Insurance claims data were used to estimate the incidence and prevalence change of exudative AMD, according to demographic characteristics (year, sex, residence, and age). Based on the above results and changes in future population distribution, we estimated the AMD population by 2030. Considering the cost of Intravitreal ranibizumab injection from 2010 to 2014, we predicted the future health expenditure for AMD. RESULTS: The incidence and prevalence of exudative AMD increased from 14.04 and 295.11 per 100,000 populations in 2010 to 14.25 and 580.71 in 2014, respectively. The prevalence rate was higher in men and showed a large increase over 70 years of age. The ranibizumab was prescribed 13 times per person in average, and the amount consumed increased as the number of insurance coverage increased from 2013. Future AMD populations are predicted to reach 557,007 in 2030 from 146,871 in 2014. As a result, the cost of intravitreal ranibizumab injection is expected to increase from 83.6 billion won in 2014 to 171.7 billion won in 2030. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in medical expenses for AMD is expected due to social aging. Therefore, we need policies to secure medical resources and expand insurance indications.


Subject(s)
Aging , Demography , Health Expenditures , Humans , Incidence , Insurance , Insurance Coverage , Korea , Macular Degeneration , Male , National Health Programs , Prevalence , Ranibizumab
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764380

ABSTRACT

Enteral nutrition (EN) formulas are foods that are used to improve the nutritional status of patients and these foods' safety and quality must be ensured. Therefore, EN formulas in other countries are managed differently from that of general foods. We investigated the direction of development of the relevant laws regulations and guidelines pertaining to EN formulas and we compared these laws regulations and guidelines from different countries, including Korea. The United States and Europe manage EN formulas as foods, but they are managed differently compared to general foods because of separate laws or programs pertaining to EN foods. In addition, the use of the formulas does not necessarily require a prescription, but when used by prescription, then medical insurance covers them. In Japan, there are two types of EN formulas, food and drug, and there are differences for their management and insurance coverage. In the case of Korea, EN formulas are classified as food and drug, and different management and insurance are applied in each case, which inhibits their systematic management and industrial development. Integration of a management system and establishment of a legal foundation is necessary for the systematic management and development of EN formula in Korea.


Subject(s)
Enteral Nutrition , Europe , Humans , Industrial Development , Insurance , Insurance Coverage , Japan , Jurisprudence , Korea , Nutritional Status , Prescriptions , Social Control, Formal , United States
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate the mediating effect of subjective unmet healthcare needs on poor health. The mediating effect of unmet needs on health outcomes was estimated. METHODS: Cross-sectional research method was used to analyze Korea Health Panel data from 2011 to 2015, investigating the mediating effect for each annual dataset and lagged dependent variables. RESULTS: The magnitude of the effect of low income on poor health and the mediating effect of unmet needs were estimated using age, sex, education level, employment status, healthcare insurance status, disability, and chronic disease as control variables and self-rated health as the dependent variable. The mediating effect of unmet needs due to financial reasons was between 14.7% to 32.9% of the total marginal effect, and 7.2% to 18.7% in lagged model. CONCLUSIONS: The fixed-effect logit model demonstrated that the existence of unmet needs raised the likelihood of poor self-rated health. However, only a small proportion of the effects of low income on health was mediated by unmet needs, and the results varied annually. Further studies are necessary to search for ways to explain the varying results in the Korea Health Panel data, as well as to consider a time series analysis of the mediating effect. The results of this study present the clear implication that even though it is crucial to address the unmet needs, but it is not enough to tackle the income related health inequalities.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Dataset , Delivery of Health Care , Education , Employment , Healthcare Disparities , Insurance Coverage , Korea , Logistic Models , Methods , Needs Assessment , Negotiating , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739568

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic influence of Korean public medical insurance system on breast cancer patients. METHODS: Data of 1,068 patients with primary invasive breast cancer were analyzed. Korean public medical insurance status was classified into 2 groups: National Health Insurance and Medical Aid. Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards model were used for survival analysis. RESULTS: The Medical Aid group showed worse prognoses compared to the National Health Insurance group both in overall survival (P = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (P = 0.006). The Medical Aid group showed higher proportion of patients with tumor size > 2 cm (P = 0.022), more advanced stage (P = 0.039), age > 50 years (P = 0.003), and low education level (P = 0.003). The Medical Aid group showed higher proportion of patients who received mastectomy (P < 0.001) and those who received no radiation therapy (P = 0.013). The Medical Aid group showed a higher rate of distant recurrence (P = 0.014) and worse prognosis for the triple negative subtype (P = 0.006). Medical insurance status was a significant independent prognostic factor in both univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The Medical Aid group had worse prognosis compared to the National Health Insurance group. Medical insurance status was a strong independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Unfavorable clinicopathologic features could explain the worse prognosis for the Medical Aid group. Careful consideration should be given to medical insurance status as one of important prognostic factors for breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Education , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Insurance , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , National Health Programs , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Recurrence
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739219

ABSTRACT

The Korean Endocrine Society (KES) published clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acromegaly in 2011. Since then, the number of acromegaly cases, publications on studies addressing medical treatment of acromegaly, and demands for improvements in insurance coverage have been dramatically increasing. In 2017, the KES Committee of Health Insurance decided to publish a position statement regarding the use of somatostatin analogues in acromegaly. Accordingly, consensus opinions for the position statement were collected after intensive review of the relevant literature and discussions among experts affiliated with the KES, and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group. This position statement includes the characteristics, indications, dose, interval (including extended dose interval in case of lanreotide autogel), switching and preoperative use of somatostatin analogues in medical treatment of acromegaly. The recommended approach is based on the expert opinions in case of insufficient clinical evidence, and where discrepancies among the expert opinions were found, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Consensus , Expert Testimony , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Octreotide , Somatostatin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766129

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The current study presents a new conceptual framework for physician-induced demand that comprises several influential components and their interactions. METHODS: This framework was developed on the basis of the conceptual model proposed by Labelle. To identify the components that influenced induced demand and their interactions, a scoping review was conducted (from January 1980 to January 2017). Additionally, an expert panel was formed to formulate and expand the framework. RESULTS: The developed framework comprises 2 main sets of components. First, the supply side includes 9 components: physicians’ incentive for pecuniary profit or meeting their target income, physicians’ current income, the physician/population ratio, service price (tariff), payment method, consultation time, type of employment of physicians, observable characteristics of the physician, and type and size of the hospital. Second, the demand side includes 3 components: patients’ observable characteristics, patients’ non-clinical characteristics, and insurance coverage. CONCLUSIONS: A conceptual framework that can clearly describe interactions between the components that influence induced demand is a critical step in providing a scientific basis for understanding physicians’ behavior, particularly in the field of health economics.


Subject(s)
Employment , Insurance Coverage , Methods , Motivation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766108

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationships of types of dental insurance coverage in Korea with sociodemographic characteristics and the prevalence of systemic and oral diseases, as well as to evaluate the socioeconomic impact of Korean dental insurance policies. METHODS: Sample cohort data from 2006 to 2015 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The exposed group comprised patients who received insurance benefits for complete dentures, removable partial dentures, and implant care, while the control group comprised patients who did not receive these benefits. The type of insurance coverage and the prevalence of systemic and oral diseases were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Patients who received benefits in the form of complete dentures, removable partial dentures, and implants had similar sociodemographic characteristics in terms of sex, age, income quintile, and type of insurance coverage to the control group. The prevalence of hypertension, anemia, renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, asthma, and cerebral infarction was higher in the exposed group than in the control group (P<0.05). The prevalence of periodontal diseases and dental caries was also higher in the exposed group. CONCLUSIONS: Korean dental health insurance policy has been beneficial for the medical expenses of low-income and elderly people suffering from a cost burden due to systemic diseases. However, since there is a tendency to avoid invasive interventions in older patients due to the high risk of systemic diseases, insurance coverage of dentures may be more helpful from a socioeconomic perspective than coverage of dental implant treatments.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anemia , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Asthma , Cerebral Infarction , Cohort Studies , Dental Caries , Dental Implants , Denture, Complete , Denture, Partial, Removable , Dentures , Health Services for the Aged , Humans , Hypertension , Insurance Benefits , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Dental , Insurance, Health , Korea , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Periodontal Diseases , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial differences in American patients undergoing brain tumour surgery remain poorly characterized within urban medical centres. Our objective was to assess racial differences in operative brain tumour patients at a single academic hospital in Los Angeles, California. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of adult patients undergoing craniotomy for tumour resection from March 2013 to January 2017 at UCLA Medical Centre. Patients were categorized as Asian, Hispanic, Black, or White. Racial cohorts were matched on demographic variables for comparisons. Our primary outcome was post-operative length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality and discharge disposition. RESULTS: In this study, 462 patients identified as Asian (15.1%), Hispanic (8.7%), Black (3.9%), or White (72.3%). After cohort matching, non-White patients had elevated risk of prolonged LOS [odds ratio (OR)=2.62 (1.44, 4.76)]. No differences were observed in hospital mortality or non-routine discharge. Longer LOS was positively correlated with non-routine discharge [r(pb) (458)=0.41, p<0.001]. Black patients with government insurance had average LOS 2.84 days shorter than Black patients with private insurance (p=0.04). Among Hispanics, government insurance was associated with non-routine discharge [OR=4.93 (1.03, 24.00)]. CONCLUSION: Racial differences manifested as extended LOS for non-White patients, with comparable rates of hospital mortality and non-routine discharge across races. Prolonged LOS loosely reflected complicated clinical course with greater risk of adverse discharge disposition. Private insurance coverage predicted markedly lower risk of non-routine discharge for Hispanic patients, and LOS of three additional days among Black patients. Further research is needed to elucidate the basis of these differences.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , California , Cohort Studies , Racial Groups , Craniotomy , Hispanic or Latino , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Insurance , Insurance Coverage , Length of Stay , Medical Records , Socioeconomic Factors
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