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Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 40(1): 16-24, ene. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442115


Objetivos. Caracterizar los eventos adversos (EA) asociados a hidroxicloroquina (HQ), azitromicina (AZI), tocilizumab (TOB) e ivermectina (IVM) prescritos como «fuera de etiqueta» en el tratamiento de pacientes hospitalizados por la COVID-19. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un análisis secundario transversal de la base de datos del sistema de farmacovigilancia del Seguro Social de Salud del Perú (EsSalud) de las notificaciones de EA a HQ, AZI, TOB e IVM provenientes del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins de abril a octubre del 2020. Se revisaron las historias clínicas digitales, se estimaron las tasas de reporte de EA y se evaluaron sus características por tipo de fármaco, tiempo de aparición, tipo por órgano-sistema afectado, gravedad y causalidad. Resultados. Se identificaron 154 notificaciones que describen un total de 183 EA posiblemente relacionados con HQ, AZI, TOB e IVM, siendo 8% la tasa de reporte de EA. La mediana de tiempo de aparición de EA fue de 3 días (RIC: 2-5). La mayoría fueron cardiovasculares, destacándose la prolongación del intervalo QT. Se observaron EA hepatobiliares principalmente asociados a TOB. La mayoría de los casos fueron moderados, no obstante, el 10,4% fue grave. Conclusiones. Se identificaron EA potencialmente asociados al uso de HQ, AZI, TOB e IVM contra la COVID-19, siendo los más frecuentes los de tipo cardiovasculares. A pesar de que la AZI, HQ e IVM poseen perfiles conocidos de seguridad, su empleo en la COVID-19 podría incrementar la aparición de EA por los factores de riesgo propios de esta infección. Se sugiere reforzar la vigilancia, especialmente, de TOB.

Objective. To characterize the adverse events (AEs) related to the off-label use of hydroxychloroquine (HQ), azithromycin (AZI), tocilizumab (TOB) and ivermectin (IVM) for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods. We conducted a secondary cross-sectional analysis of the Peruvian Social Health Insurance (EsSalud) pharmacovigilance system database of AE notifications to HQ, AZI, TOB and IVM in the Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital from April to October 2020. Information was collected from digital medical records. We estimated AE reporting rates and evaluated their characteristics by drug type, time of occurrence, type by the affected organ-system, severity and causality. Results. We identified 154 notifications describing a total of 183 AE possibly related to HQ, AZI, TOB and IVM; the reporting rate was 8%. The median time of AE occurrence was 3 days (IQR: 2-5). Most were cardiovascular events; prolongation of the QT interval was the most frequent. Hepatobiliary AEs were mainly associated with TOB. Most cases were moderate, however, 10.4% were severe. Conclusions. We found AEs potentially associated with the use of HQ, AZI, TOB and IVM against COVID-19; cardiovascular events were the most frequent. Although AZI, HQ and IVM have known safety profiles, their use against COVID-19 could increase the occurrence of AE due to the risk factors inherent to this infection. Surveillance systems must be improved, especially those for TOB.

Humans , Male , Female , Insurance, Health
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(3): 810-818, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512110


Health insurance coverage in Nigeria is still very low as over 70% of health care expenditure is financed by out-of-pocket payment. Health care providers are critical participants in the private health insurance scheme, therefore, their perception and satisfaction with the scheme is fundamental in ensuring sustainability. This study assessed health providers' satisfaction with private health insurance scheme in Port Harcourt Rivers State.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study which engaged a two-stage sampling method to recruit 60 participating health facilities and 180 responding health personnel by simple random sampling at each stage. A structured, pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the levels of satisfaction with the four major domains of satisfaction viz; billing rate, payment models, HMO administrative processes and claims management. Data was analysedusing of SPSS, version 26. Characteristics of the responding facilities were tabulated and compared. Level of satisfaction was deduced by Likert Scale according to the domains of satisfaction. Regression analysis with p-value was set at less than or equal to 0.05 was used to determine the predictors of satisfaction with participation in health insurance. The level of satisfaction with negotiated billing rates, payment models, HMO administrative processes and claims management were analyseddescriptively, and results were presented as means, standard deviation, frequencies and percentages, in tables, pie and bar charts

Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Insurance, Health , Health Maintenance Organizations , Health Personnel , Job Satisfaction
Ghana med. j ; 57(1): 13-18, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427015


Objective: The study aimed to assess the determinants of enrolment in health insurance schemes among people living with HIV. Design: The study was a cross-sectional study. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 371 HIV clients attending the clinic. Chi-square statistic was used for bi-variate analysis, and analytical decisions were considered significant at a p-value less than 0.05. Logistic regression was done to determine predictors of enrolment in health insurance. Setting: The study was carried out in the HIV clinic of Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria Participants: HIV clients attending a clinic Result: Mean age of respondents was 45.4±10.3, and 51.8% were males. Almost all the respondents were Christians. Only 47.7% were married, and most lived in the urban area. Over 70% had at least secondary education, and only 34.5% were civil servants. About 60% of the respondents were enrolled in a health insurance scheme. Being single (AOR: 0.374, CI:0.204-0.688), being self-employed (AOR: 4.088, CI: 2.315-7.217), having a smaller family size (AOR: 0.124, CI: 0.067-0.228), and having the higher income (AOR: 4.142, CI: 2.07-8.286) were predictors of enrolment in a health insurance scheme. Conclusion: The study has shown that enrolment in a health insurance scheme is high among PLHIV, and being single, self-employed, having a smaller family size, and having a higher monthly income are predictors of enrolment in the health insurance scheme. Increasing the number of dependants that can be enrolled so that larger families can be motivated to enrol in health insurance is recommended

Humans , HIV , Insurance, Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(1): 91-97, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389933


RESUMEN El estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el conocimiento, las actitudes y prácticas de un grupo de profesionales de la salud sobre la farmacovigilancia en el contexto de la COVID-19 en el Seguro Social de Salud del Perú (EsSalud). Se realizó un análisis secundario descriptivo de una base de datos que incluía las respuestas de una encuesta en línea realizada por el Centro de Referencia Institucional de Farmacovigilancia y Tecnovigilancia de EsSalud. De 144 participantes, el 66% mostró alto nivel de conocimiento y el 81,2%, actitud positiva; sin embargo, el 71,5% tuvo un inadecuado nivel de práctica de farmacovigilancia. Si bien los profesionales de EsSalud demostraron tener alto conocimiento y actitud positiva para implementar farmacovigilancia, esto no se ve reflejado en la práctica de esta actividad en la época de pandemia por el SARS-CoV-2. Se deben emplear estrategias para integrar a la farmacovigilancia en las actividades asistenciales en beneficio de la seguridad del paciente.

ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate a group of health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on pharmacovigilance in the context of COVID-19 in the Peruvian Social Health Insurance (EsSalud). A descriptive secondary analysis was carried out on a database that included responses from an online survey conducted by the Institutional Referral Center for Pharmacovigilance and Technovigilance of EsSalud. Of 144 participants, 66% showed a high level of knowledge and 81.2% had a positive attitude; however, 71.5% had an inadequate level of pharmacovigilance practice. Although EsSalud professionals demonstrated a high level of knowledge and positive attitude to implement pharmacovigilance, this is not reflected in the practice of this activity during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Strategies should be implemented to integrate pharmacovigilance into healthcare activities to benefit patient safety.

Humans , Male , Female , Health Personnel , Pharmacovigilance , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Delivery of Health Care , Insurance, Health
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-15, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1361135


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of health services among adults living in Manaus, Amazonas. METHODS This was a panel of two cross-sectional studies conducted in Manaus in 2015 and 2019. Individuals aged ≥ 18 years were selected by probabilistic sampling and interviewed at home. The study outcomes were doctor visits and hospitalizations in the previous 12 months, and unmet surgical needs. Variations between 2015 and 2019 were tested using chi-squared goodness-of-fit test. Poisson regression with robust variance was employed to calculate the prevalence ratios (PR) of the outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS The surveys included 5,800 participants in total. Visits to the doctor decreased from 2015 (78.7%) to 2019 (76.3%; p < 0.001), hospital admissions increased from 2015 (7.9%) to 2019 (11.5%; p < 0.001), and unmet surgical needs decreased in the period (15.9% to 12.1%; p < 0.001). These variations were particularly observed in vulnerable individuals - sicker; poorer; non-whites; and those belonging to lower social classes, with less access to education, formal jobs, and health insurance (p < 0.05). Doctor visits were higher in people with fair health status (PR = 1.09; 95%CI 1.06-1.12), health insurance (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.09-1.17), and chronic diseases (p < 0.001) but lower in men (PR = 0.87; 95%CI 0.84-0.90) and informal workers (PR = 0.89; 95%CI 0.84-0.94). Hospitalizations were higher in people with worse health statuses (p < 0.001), without partners (PR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.05-1.53), and with multimorbidity (PR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.33-2.12) but lower in men (PR = 0.55; 95%CI 0.44-0.68), older adults (p < 0.001), informal workers (PR = 0.67; 95%CI 0.51-0.89), and unemployed (PR = 0.72; 95%CI 0.53-0.97). Unmet surgical needs were higher in older adults (p < 0.001), middle-class people (PR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.01-1.55), worse health statuses (p < 0.001), and chronic diseases (p < 0.001) but lower in men (PR = 0.76; 95%CI 0.65-0.86). CONCLUSIONS From 2015 to 2019, less people visited the doctor, more were admitted to hospitals, and less were in need of surgery or aware of that need, potentially indicating poorer access to health services.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Facilities and Services Utilization , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Insurance, Health
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(supl.2): e00075621, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394205


O objetivo deste artigo é descrever a expressão da financeirização em um conjunto de dez empresas e grupos econômicos atuantes no comércio de planos e seguros de saúde no Brasil entre 2008 e 2016, selecionadas pelo faturamento e pelo tamanho da carteira de clientes. As dimensões contábil/financeira e patrimonial foram analisadas a partir dos balanços patrimoniais e fluxos de caixa cotejados com indicadores microeconômicos de financeirização e dos registros de alteração na composição societária depositados em juntas comerciais. Para analisar o posicionamento político das empresas recorreu-se a dados primários de entrevistas semiestruturadas com representantes qualificados bem como à análise de relatórios aos acionistas e notícias de mídia especializada. Em síntese, a dominância financeira encontra expressão nas empresas de planos de saúde estudadas, mas a sua caracterização não obedece a um padrão homogêneo universalmente reproduzível, devendo a pesquisa empírica ocupar um lugar de destaque na investigação do fenômeno. Sendo a saúde e o seu componente assistencial definidos constitucionalmente como bens de relevância pública que solicitam o amparo de políticas estáveis e equitativas na distribuição dos recursos disponíveis e a tendência oligopolista e concentradora de recursos inerentes ao processo de financeirização contraditória com essa diretriz, e dado o lócus estratégico ocupado por essas empresas, as perspectivas projetadas para o conjunto do sistema tendem a evoluir para aumento dos gastos totais em saúde com maior concentração de recursos assistenciais e puncionamento dos recursos em circulação pela esfera da acumulação financeira.

The article aims to describe the characteristics of financialization in a set of ten companies and economic groups operating health plans and insurance in Brazil from 2008 to 2016, selected according to their turnover and the size of their client portfolio. The financial/accounting and net worth dimensions were analyzed according to the balance sheets and cash flows, compared to microeconomic indicators of financialization and the records of changes in the shareholding structure filed with commercial boards. The authors analyzed the companies' policy positions based on primary data from semi-structured interviews with qualified representatives and the analysis of shareholder reports and news from the specialized media. In short, financial dominance is expressed in the health plans studied here, but their characterization does not follow a universally reproducible and homogeneous pattern, and empirical research should play a key role in further investigating the phenomenon. Since health and healthcare are defined constitutionally as publicly relevant goods that require support by stable and equitable policies in the distribution of available resources, and given the oligopolistic and concentrating trend in the inherent resources in the process of financialization (in opposition to this guideline) and the strategic place occupied by these companies, the prospects for the system as a whole tend to evolve towards an increase in total health expenditures, with greater concentration of healthcare resources and circulation of resources in the financial accumulation sphere.

El objetivo de este artículo es describir la expresión de la financiarización en un conjunto de diez empresas y grupos económicos agentes en la comercialización de planes y seguros de salud en Brasil entre 2008 y 2016, seleccionados por su facturación y tamaño de su cartera de clientes. Las dimensiones contable/financiera y patrimonial se analizaron a partir de los balances patrimoniales y flujos de caja cotejados con indicadores microeconómicos de financiarización, así como de los registros de modificación en la composición societaria depositados en juntas comerciales. Para analizar el posicionamiento político de las empresas se recurrió a datos primarios de entrevistas semiestructuradas con representantes cualificados, así como al análisis de informes a los Accionistas y noticias de medios especializados. En resumen, el dominio financiero encuentra expresión en las empresas de planes de salud estudiadas, pero su caracterización no obedece a un patrón homogéneo universalmente reproducible, debiendo ocupar la investigación empírica un lugar de relevancia en la investigación del fenómeno. Siendo la salud y su componente asistencial definidos constitucionalmente como bienes de relevancia pública que solicitan el amparo de políticas estables y equitativas en la distribución de los recursos disponibles, y la tendencia oligopolista y concentradora de recursos inherentes al proceso de financiarización contradictoria con esa directriz, y dado el locus estratégico ocupado por esas empresas, las perspectivas proyectadas para el conjunto del sistema tienden a evolucionar hacia el aumento de los gastos totales en salud con mayor concentración de recursos asistenciales y acaparamiento de los recursos en circulación por parte de la esfera de acumulación financiera.

Humans , Health Expenditures , Delivery of Health Care , Brazil , Health Planning , Insurance, Health
Afr. j. reprod. health ; 26(6): 1-12, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1390654


Studies in the Benin Republic have identified contextual factors that determine health facility delivery among women of reproductive age. However, it is not certain if the same set of factors predicts facility delivery for women who enrolled in health insurance and those who did not. The study seeks to compare the determinants of health facility delivery for mothers under health insurance and those that are not in the Benin Republic. The study used data for 33,078 women of reproductive age, drawn from the most recent Benin demographic and health survey (2017-18). The characteristics of the women were described using simple proportions and frequency. Binary Logistic regression was used to examine determinants of health facility delivery for both groups of women. The result showed that only 0.7% of the women were under health insurance coverage. The prevalence of health facility delivery was high in the enrolled group but not in the unenrolled group (98.3% vs. 87.8%). The uniform determinants of health facility delivery across the two groups were household wealth, education, employment, land/house ownership, media exposure, a minimum of four antenatal contacts, and place of residence. To improve the coverage of health facility delivery, a multi-pronged approach should be used to improve household socioeconomic status, encourage media use among women, expand education opportunities for women, and specifically target rural women in Benin. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[6]:104-115).

Humans , Male , Comparative Study , Insurance, Health , Women , Health Management , Genitalia, Female , Health Facilities
Ghana Medical Journal ; 56(3): 185-190, )2022. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398784


Objective: The study estimated the capitation policy's effect on the under-5 mortality (U5MR) rate in hospitals in Ashanti Region. Design: We used an interrupted time series design to estimate the impact from secondary data obtained from the DHIMS-2 database. Monthly under-5 deaths and the number of live births per month were extracted and entered into Stata 15.0 for analyses. The U5MR was calculated by dividing the number of live deaths by the number of live births for each of the 60 months of the study. Setting: Health facilities of the Ashanti Region with Data in the DHIMS 2. Intervention: the level and trend of U5MR for 31 months during the Capitation Policy implementation (January 2015 to July 2017) were compared with the level and trend 29 months after the withdrawal of the capitation policy (August 2017 to December 2019). Outcome measures: changes in trend or level of U5MR after the withdrawal of capitation. Main Results: During the capitation policy, monthly U5MR averaged 10.71 +/-2.71 per 1000 live births. It declined to 0.03 deaths per 1000 live births (p=0.65). After the policy withdrawal, the immediate (increase of 0.01 per 1000live births) and the trend (decline of 0.13 deaths per 1000 live births per month) were still not statistically significant. Conclusion: We conclude that the capitation policy did not appear to have influenced under-5 mortality in the Ashanti Region. The design of future healthcare payment models should target quality improvement to reduce under-5 mortalities

Capitation Fee , Child Mortality , Policy , Insurance, Health , Ghana
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1353242


Background: To improve healthcare access and mitigate healthcare costs for its population, Nigeria established a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 1999. The NHIS remains Nigeria's leading vehicle for achieving universal health coverage; nonetheless, questions remain regarding its quality and effectiveness. Studies on patient satisfaction have served as a useful strategy to further understand the patient experience and the efficacy of health systems. Aim: To synthesise current knowledge on patient satisfaction with the NHIS. Methods: The authors performed a systematic review of primary literature from 1999 to 2020 reporting on NHIS patient satisfaction in eight databases (including PubMed, Embase, and Africa-wide Information). Results: This search returned 764 unique records of which 21 met criteria for full data extraction. The 21 qualifying studies representing 11 of the 36 Nigerian states, were published from 2011 to 2020, and found moderate overall satisfaction with the NHIS (64%). Further, when disaggregated into specific domains, NHIS enrolees were most satisfied with provider attitudes (77%) and healthcare environments (70%), but less satisfied with laboratories (62%), billings (62%), pharmaceutical services (56%), wait times (55%), and referrals (51%). Importantly, time trends indicate satisfaction with the NHIS is increasing ­ although to differing degrees depending on the domain. Conclusion: The beneficiaries of the NHIS are moderately satisfied with the scheme. They consider it an improvement from being uninsured, but believe that the scheme can be considerably improved. The authors present two main recommendations: (1) shorter wait times may increase patient satisfaction and can be a central focus in improving the overall scheme, and (2) more research is needed across all 36 states to comprehensively understand patient satisfaction towards NHIS in anticipation of potential scheme expansion

Patient Satisfaction , Systematic Review , Insurance, Health , Program Evaluation , Costs and Cost Analysis , Nigeria
Ibom Medical Journal ; 15(2): 148-158, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1379844


Background: Community-based health insurance (CBHI) has emerged as a more efficient and equitable approach to healthcare financing. It was designed to ensure that sufficient resources are made available for members to access effective healthcare. This study assessed the willingness to pay (WTP) for CBHI among artisans in a town in Ekiti State, South West Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among 416 artisans in a town in Ekiti State. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was designed and used for data collection on sociodemographic data and WTP for CBHIS. Data entry and analysis was done using IBM SPSS software version 25.0. Results: The mean age and standard deviation of the respondents was 29.7±10.9 years with male to female ratio of 1:1.4. Most of the respondents were willing to pay (86.3%) and willing to enroll other household members (73.6%) in the CBHI. A large percentage (44.3%) of those willing to pay were ready to pay between ₦1,000-₦5,000 (US$2.63­US$13.16) per year while 39.6% preferred frequency of payment to be annually. Positive predictors of WTP for CBHI were age groups ≥50 years and 40-49 years than <20 years (AOR:13.270, 95%CI: 1.597-110.267; AOR:142.996, 95%CI: 10.689-1913.009). Females than males (AOR:9.155, 95%CI: 3.680-22.775), tertiary level of education than no formal of education (AOR:23.420, 95%CI: 1.648-850.921), no children than ≥5 children (AOR:20.099, 95%CI: 2.705-149.364), earn ≥₦30,000 (US$78.95) than <₦30,000 (AOR:2.248, 95%CI: 1.278-6.499). often and somethings fall ill than seldom fall ill (AOR:6.505, 95%CI: 1.623-26.065; AOR:4.889, 95%CI: 1.674-14.279) Conclusion: WTP for CBHI was high among the artisans, however, there is a variation across the amount and frequency of payment. Therefore, policy that is flexible enough to allow artisans enroll and pay a premium that is affordable, at an acceptable frequency, should be formulated by the Government.

Educational Measurement , Sociodemographic Factors , Community-Based Health Insurance , Insurance , Insurance, Health
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(6): 2323-2333, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278683


Resumo À luz da análise comparada de sistemas de saúde (SS), discutimos três fenômenos estratégicos para a universalização do SUS: a) os gastos tributários em saúde; b) o financiamento estatal de planos privados de servidores públicos; c) a demanda sindical por planos privados. Dentre os tipos-ideais de SS, o SUS é universal na lei, mas híbrido na prática: beveridgeano na atenção primária à saúde (APS) e misto no cuidado especializado/hospitalar; sem ser universal na realidade (gastos públicos são só 43% dos gastos totais em saúde). Há grande subsídio estatal ao setor privado, via gastos tributários em saúde (30% do orçamento federal na saúde) e financiamento de planos privados para servidores públicos, o que gera incoerência, segmentação do sistema de saúde e iniquidades. Apesar do apoio genérico ao SUS, os movimentos sindicais vem usando planos de saúde na contratação coletiva (76% deles), reforçando o setor privado. A redução dos gastos tributários em saúde - incluindo o financiamento estatal dos planos privados de servidores - aumentaria significativamente o orçamento do SUS e facilitaria a articulação entre sanitaristas e sindicalistas, aproximando a grande força dos sindicatos da longa luta pela universalidade do SUS e da APS.

Abstract In the light of the comparative analysis of health systems, we discuss three strategic phenomena for the SUS universalization, as follows: a) health tax expenditures; b) State funding of private plans for public servants; and c) trade union's demand for private health plans. Among the ideal types of health systems, SUS is universal in law, but hybrid in practice: Beveridgian in primary health care (PHC) and mixed in specialized/hospital care; without really being universal (public spending is only 43% of total health expenditure). There is a massive state subsidy to the private sector, through health tax expenditures (30% of the federal health budget) and financing of private plans for public servants, which generates incoherence, segmentation of the health system and inequities. Despite the general support to the SUS, the union movements have been using private health plans in collective recruitment (76% of them), reinforcing the private sector. Reducing health tax expenditures - including state funding of servants' private plans - would significantly increase the SUS budget and facilitate articulation between health workers and trade unionists, bringing the high strength of unions closer to the long struggle for the universality of the SUS and PHC.

Humans , Health Expenditures , Insurance, Health , Private Sector , Labor Unions
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(6): 2083-2096, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278711


Resumo A Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) é porta de entrada e eixo estruturante do Sistema de Saúde brasileiro, o que impõe a necessidade de avaliação de sua qualidade. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os serviços públicos de Atenção Básica quanto aos atributos da APS por meio do PCATool na ótica de usuários em Fortaleza. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de junho a dezembro de 2019, com 233 usuários adultos de 19 Unidades de APS (UAPS). Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos e epidemiológicos dos usuários e sobre a estrutura das UAPS. Utilizou-se modelo multinível para analisar características de usuários e UAPS em relação ao escore de APS medido via PCATool. Participantes foram, na maioria, mulheres, de 30 a 59 anos, pardos, com Ensino Médio completo, sem seguro privado, com moradia própria do tipo casa, de famílias até 4 pessoas. "Acessibilidade" obteve o menor escore, 2,8, e "Utilização" obteve o maior escore, 8,1. O Escore Essencial da APS foi 6,0, enquanto o Escore Geral foi 5,7. Houve influência positiva (p<0,05) no Escore Geral por: equipes completas, maior número de agentes comunitários e presença de residência de Medicina de Família e Comunidade. Concluiu-se que os serviços públicos de Fortaleza avaliados possuem baixo desempenho de APS na ótica dos usuários adultos.

Abstract Primary Health Care (PHC) is the "front door" and keystone of Brazil's public health system, meaning that the evaluation of the quality of primary care services is of utmost importance. Using the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT), this study evaluated the performance of public PHC services in Fortaleza from the view of adult service users. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 233 adult service users from 19 primary care centers (PCCs) between June and December 2019, collecting data on the sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics of users and structural features of PCCs. The association between user and PCC characteristics and primary care attribute scores was measured by multilevel logistic regression. Most participants were women, aged between 30 and 59 years, brown, house owners, had completed high school, did not own health insurance, and belonged to families with at least 4 members. The lowest and highest-scoring attributes were "first contact accessibility" and "first contact utilization" (2.8 and 8.1, respectively). The overall essential and general scores were 6.0 and 5.7, respectively. Having complete health teams, more community health workers, and a family and community medicine residency program had a positive effect on the general score (p<0.05). Overall, the public services analyzed in Fortaleza received a low performance rating from the adult service users.

Humans , Female , Adult , Primary Health Care , Insurance, Health , Quality of Health Care , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community Health Workers , Health Services Accessibility , Middle Aged
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(supl.1): 2529-2541, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278834


Resumo Este artigo objetivou descrever a cobertura de plano de saúde no Brasil. Foram analisados dados das edições de 2013 e 2019 da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. A cobertura de plano de saúde médico ou odontológico foi analisada segundo características sociodemográficas, econômicas, de trabalho, situação censitária e Unidade da Federação. A cobertura de plano de saúde médico ou odontológico foi 27,9% (IC95%: 27,1-28,8) para 2013 e 28,5% (IC95%: 27,8-29,2) para 2019. Os resultados mostram que a cobertura continua concentrada nos grandes centros urbanos, nas regiões Sudeste e Sul, entre aqueles com melhor nível socioeconômico e aqueles que possuem algum vínculo de trabalho formal. Em 2019, dentre os trabalhadores formalizados, somente 30,7% relatou que o pagamento da mensalidade é feito diretamente a operadora, sendo 72,7% dentre os trabalhadores informais. Cerca de 92% dos planos de saúde médico cobrem internação e dentre as mulheres com plano de saúde, quase 20% delas não possuem cobertura para o parto. Apenas 11,7% das mulheres com idade entre 15 e 44 anos possuem cobertura para o parto através do plano de saúde. Os resultados mostram que a cobertura por plano de saúde mantém-se bastante desigual, reforçando a importância do Sistema Único de Saúde para a população brasileira.

Abstract This paper aimed to describe health insurance coverage in Brazil. Data from the 2013 and 2019 editions of the National Health Survey (PNS) were analyzed. The medical or dental health insurance coverage was analyzed according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, work status, urban/rural area, and Federation Unit. Coverage of medical or dental health insurance was 27.9% (95% CI: 27.1-28.8) for 2013 and 28.5% (95% CI: 27.8-29.2) for 2019. The results show coverage is still concentrated in large urban centers, in the Southeast and South, among those with better socioeconomic status and some formal employment. In 2019, only 30.7% of formal workers reported the monthly payment is made directly to the providers, while 72.7% of informal workers reported this information. About 92% of medical health insurance covers hospitalization, and almost 20% of women with health insurance are not covered for labor. Only 11.7% of women aged between 15 and 44 are covered for childbirth by health insurance. The results show the health insurance coverage is still quite unequal, reinforcing the Unified Health System (SUS) importance for the Brazilian population.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rural Population , Insurance, Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Health Surveys , Insurance Coverage
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(2): 192-201, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388650


INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La anemia en el embarazo persiste como un problema de salud pública y varía según características propias en cada población. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los factores sociales y demográficos asociados a la anemia en mujeres embarazadas en Perú. MÉTODO: Estudio analítico transversal de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES) de 2019. Se incluyeron las mujeres embarazadas que participaron en la encuesta poblacional. Se analizaron las características sociales y demográficas asociados a la anemia, mediante análisis bivariado y análisis de regresión logística múltiple, procesados en el software estadístico R. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron datos de 1090 mujeres embarazadas, 28,3% presento anemia. En el análisis bivariado, se evidencio asociación entre anemia y región geográfica, nivel educativo, edad y tener seguro de salud (p<0,05). En el análisis multivariado, se evidencio que la anemia se encuentra asociada al nivel educativo de primaria (OR=1,96; IC: 1,18-3,28), secundaria (OR=2,0; IC95%: 1,42-2,82), edad de 15 a 18 años (OR=2,35; IC95%: 1,33-4,14), edad mayor a 35 años (OR=1,51; IC95%: 1,06-2,16), no tener seguro de salud (OR=1,82; IC95%: 1,19-2,79). CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de anemia en mujeres embarazadas fue del 28,3%. Los factores sociales y demográficos asociados a la anemia en mujeres embarazadas fueron la edad de 15 a 18 años, edad tardía de 35 años a más, tener un bajo nivel educativo y no contar con un seguro de salud. Estos factores evidenciaron asociación con anemia en mujeres embarazadas, estando ajustados por otras características como región geográfica, quintil de riqueza y lugar de residencia. Se requieren de más estudios que permiten analizar los resultados según temporalidad en la población con independencia de otros factores asociados.

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Anemia in pregnancy persists as a public health problem and varies according to specific characteristics in each population. The purpose was to determine the social and demographic factors associated with anemia in pregnant women in Peru. METHOD: Analytical cross-sectional study of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES). The study included data on pregnant women. The social and demographic characteristics associated with anemia were analyzed using bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, processed in the R statistical software. RESULT: Data from 1 090 women were analyzed; 28.3% had anemia. Bivariate analysis showed an association between anemia and geographical region, educational level, age and health insurance (p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, anemia was associated with the educational level of primary (OR=1,96; IC: 1,18-3,28), secondary (OR=2,0; IC95%: 1,42-2,82), age from 15 to 18 years (OR=2,35; IC95%: 1,33-4,14), age over 35 years (OR=1,51; IC95%: 1,06-2,16), not having health insurance (OR=1,82; IC95%: 1,19-2,79). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women was 28.3%. The social and demographic factors associated with anemia in pregnant women were age 15-18, late age to 35, low educational level and lack of health insurance; regardless of geographical region, wealth quintile and place of residence. More studies are needed to analyze the results according to temporality in the population, independently of other associated factors.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Population Characteristics , Demography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Age Distribution , Insurance, Health
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 5-11, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-959982


@#<p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives.</strong> Within the last two decades, studies worldwide have documented catastrophic health spending and out-of-pocket expenditure in low- and middle-income countries like the Philippines. This study sought to unpack patients and their families' lived experiences in dealing with such financial challenges.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods.</strong> This paper stems from a multi-sited qualitative project in the Philippines involving FGDs that sought to elicit people's long-term health goals and the barriers they encounter in attaining good health. Focusing on the domain of health financing, we used principles of grounded theory to analyze how low and middle-income Filipinos pay for their health needs.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results.</strong> For many Filipinos, health financing often necessitates various actors' participation and entails predictable and unforeseen complications throughout the illness trajectory. We describe the lived realities of health financing through four domains: 'pagtitiis' (enduring the illness), 'pangungutang' (borrowing the money), 'pagmamakaawa'  (soliciting help from the government and non-government channels), and PhilHealth--the State-owned national insurance agency--whose (non-)role figures prominently in catastrophic expenditure.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Our paper illustrates how illness not only leads to catastrophic expenditure; expenditure-related challenges conversely account for poorer health outcomes. By exploring the health system through qualitative means, we identify specific points of intervention that resonate across LMICs (low and middle-income countries) worldwide, such as addressing predatory loan practices and 'hidden' costs; improving public health communications; expanding government insurance benefits; and bolstering health literacy to include health financial literacy in the school and community settings.</p>

Healthcare Financing , Health Policy , Health Expenditures , Insurance, Health
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 216-223, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876876


@#Objective. This research aimed to determine the in-patient expenditure of COVID-19 adult patient s and their out-of-pocket (OOP) payments at the University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital (UP-PGH) after the new PhilHealth case rate coverage was instituted last 15 April 2020. It also intended to present the preliminary data on the expenses incurred by COVID patients during the initial phase of the pandemic in the country. Methods. This study was a retrospective chart review of admitted COVID-19 patients aged 19 years old and above from 15 April to 14 August 2020 at UP-PGH that availed of PhilHealth COVID-19 case rate benefits package (C19C1-C4). Data were analyzed to extract overall expenses, out-of-pocket (OOP) charges, cost centers utilization, and other hospitalization expenditure sources. Results. Of the 691 COVID-19 patients included during the study period, 55.72% were male, mostly belonging to the 61-70 age range with a median age of 58. The average in-hospital stay was 14.20 days, and 76.99% were under charity services, with the moderate (42.84%) and mild (25.33%) pneumonia cases accounting for 68.17% of the admissions. Total hospital expenses clustered around Php51,000 to 200,000 (~USD 1,041 to 4,156), most spending between Php101,000 to 150,000 (~USD 2,078 to 3,118). The top three cost centers and expenditure sources were pharmacies, personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and laboratory. The average OOP payment for patients less than 60 years old was higher, ranging from Php 25,899 to Php 44,428.63 (USD 538 to USD 924.44) compared to patients older than 60 (Php4,005.60 to Php 32,920.20 ~ USD 83.35 to 684.98). The most OOP charges were for the age group 19-30, amounting to Php 44,428.63 (USD 924.44). Conclusion. Preliminary findings of this study gave an actual representation of the expenses of COVID-19 patients, which can guide future utilization of the national health insurance during unexpected pandemics. Early price regulation of new therapeutic interventions, diagnostic tests, and medical supplies, e.g., PPEs, disinfectants, air filters, are measures that can be implemented.

Health Expenditures , COVID-19 , Insurance, Health
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(1): e002113, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179134


Antecedentes. La continuidad del cuidado (CoC) suele describir en qué medida los pacientes ven al mismo profesional a lo largo del tiempo. Constituye un elemento necesario para garantizar la longitudinalidad en la atención, elemento clave dela atención primaria y de la medicina familiar en particular, entendido como el cuidado centrado en la persona a lo largo del tiempo, independientemente del tipo de problema consultado. Esta ha sido vinculada con una serie de beneficios para los pacientes y algunos indicadores duros de utilización de servicios de salud, por ejemplo visitas a la central de emergencias(CE), internaciones hospitalarias y mortalidad. En Argentina y América Latina no habíamos podido identificar estudios que dieran cuenta del nivel local de CoC o de su impacto en la utilización de los servicios de salud. Objetivo. Cuantificar los niveles de CoC de los afiliados de un Seguro de Salud de un Hospital Universitario Privado y describir su asociación con la utilización de servicios de salud, tales como consultas a la CE e internaciones hospitalarias. Métodos. Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de cohorte retrospectiva; realizado sobre la totalidad de afiliados que hubieran realizado al menos dos consultas programadas con un médico de atención primaria entre 2015 y 2016.Las mediciones principales consistieron dos indicadores: el índice del proveedor usual de cuidados y el índice de continuidad del cuidado (UPC y COC, respectivamente, por sus iniciales en inglés) -cuyos valores oscilan entre 0 y 1, y se interpretan como: el paciente siempre fue atendido por diferentes médicos vs siempre por el mismo médico-y el recuento de visitas a la CE e internaciones hospitalarias. Resultados. Fueron identificados 112.062 pacientes con una mediana de edad de 59 (P5-P95;4 a 87) años. Las medianas(P5-P95) de los indicadores de continuidad, UPC y COC, fueron 0,66 (0,25 a 1) y 0,33 (0,04 a 1), respectivamente. Se observó una asociación inversa y estadísticamente significativa entre los indicadores de CoC y la cantidad de visitas a la CE, evidenciada por una razón de incidencia decreciente de consultas contra quintilos crecientes de COC (tomando como referencia el quintilo más bajo de continuidad). Esta asociación no pudo demostrarse para las internaciones. Conclusiones. Los niveles de CoC alcanzados y su impacto en la utilización de servicios de salud reflejan valores semejantes a los de otros estudios publicados fuera de nuestra región y podrían aportar elementos útiles para delinear estrategias tendientes a la mejora de la calidad de la atención médica. (AU)

Background. Continuity of care (CoC) usually describes the extent to which patients see the same professional over time. It is a necessary element to ensure continuity of care, a key element of primary care and family medicine, in particular, understood as person-centred care over time, regardless of the type of problem consulted. It has been linked to a series of benefits for patients as well as to hard indicators of health services utilization (e.g. emergency room [ER] visits, hospitalizations) and mortality. In Argentina and Latin America, we have not been able to identify studies that account for the local level of CoC and its impact. Objective. To quantify the CoC levels among members of a private university hospital's health insurance scheme and to describe its association with the use of health services, such as ER visits and hospitalizations. Methods. Observational, descriptive, retrospective cohort study; conducted on the total number of members who hadmade at least two schedurivled consultations with a primary care physician between 2015 and 2016.The main outcomes were two indicators: the usual provider continuity index and the continuity of care index (UPC and COC, respectively) -both range between 0 and 1, and are interpreted as: the patient was always treated by different doctorsvs. always by the same doctor- and the number of visits to the ER and hospitalizations. Results. A total of 112,062 patients with a median age of 59 (P5-P95, 4 to 87) years were identified. The median (P5-P95) of the continuity indicators, UPC and COC, was 0.66 (0.25 to 1) and 0.33 (0.04 to 1), respectively. A significant inverse association was observed between the CoC indicators and the number of ER visits, evidenced by adecreasing incidence rate of consultations versus increasing quintiles of CoC (taking the lowest quintile of continuity as a reference). This association was not observed for hospitalizations. Conclusions. The levels of CoC reached and their impact on the use of health services reflect similar values to those of other studies published outside our region and could provide useful elements for outlining strategies aimed at improvingthe quality of medical care. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Physician-Patient Relations , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Patient-Centered Care , Family Practice , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(8): 2973-2983, Ago. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133123


Resumo O estudo descreve as coberturas de planos de saúde e compara a ocorrência de fatores de risco (FR) e proteção de Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis, na população com e sem planos de saúde nas capitais brasileiras. Foram analisados dados do inquérito telefônico Vigitel. Foi utilizado o modelo de regressão de Poisson para estimar a razão de prevalência (RP), comparando FR entre quem tem ou não plano de saúde. A cobertura de planos foi de 49,1%, mais elevada em Goiania, Vitória, Florianópolis e Belo Horizonte, entre adultos acima de 55 anos e com maior escolaridade. A população com planos de saúde apresenta prevalências mais elevadas de fatores de proteção como consumo de frutas e hortaliças (RP = 1,3 IC95% 1,2-1,3), prática de atividade física no tempo livre (RP = 1,2 IC95% 1,2-1,3), mamografia (RP = 1,2 IC95% 1,1-1,3) e Papanicolau (RP = 1,1 IC95% 1,2-1,3), e menor prevalência de FR como tabagismo (RP = 0,7 IC95% 0,6-0,8), avaliação de saúde ruim (RP = 0,8 IC95% 0,6-0,9), obesidade (RP = 0,8 IC95% 0,7-0,9), carne com gordura (RP = 0,9 IC95% 0,8-0,9) e leite com gordura (RP = 0,9 IC95% 0,8-0,9). Independentemente da escolaridade, a população que tem planos de saúde apresenta geralmente, melhores indicadores, como hábitos mais saudáveis e maior cobertura de exames preventivos.

Abstract This study describes the coverage of health insurance and compares the occurrence of risk factors (RF) and protective factors of noncommunicable diseases in the population with and without health insurancesin Brazilianstate capitals. Data from the telephone survey Vigitel was analyzed. The Poisson regression model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR), comparing RF among those who did or did not have a health insurance. Plan coverage was 49.1%, and the highest prevalences were in Goiania, Vitória, Florianópolis, and Belo Horizonte. Adults over 55 years of age and with higher education were more likely to have an insurance. The population with health insurance hada higher prevalence of protective factors, such as fruit and vegetable consumption (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.2-1.3), physical activity in their free time (PR = 1.2 (95% CI: 1.2-1.3), mammographies (RP = 1.2 IC95% 1.1-1.3) and pap smears (PR = 1.1 IC95% 1.2-1.3), and lower prevalence of RFs such as smoking (RP = 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8), poor health (RP = 0.8 CI95% 0.6-0.9), obesity (RP = 0.8 IC95% 0.7-0.9), consumption of meat with fat (RP = 0.9 IC95% 0.8-0.9) and whole milk (RP = 0.9 IC95% 0,8-0.9). Regardless of educational level, the population that has health insurancesgenerally has better indicators, such as healthier habits and greater coverage of preventive exams.

Humans , Female , Adult , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Protective Factors , Insurance, Health